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Italian Greenhouse Gas Inventory
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Legal Disclaimer
The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, or persons acting on its behalf, are not responsible
for the use that may be made of the information contained in this report.
ISPRA – Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale
(Institute for Environmental Protection and Research)
Via Vitaliano Brancati, 48 – 00144 Rome
www.isprambiente.gov.it
Extracts from this document may be reproduced on the condition that the source is acknowledged
© ISPRA, Rapporti 231/15
ISBN 978-88-448-0745-0
Cover design
Alessia Marinelli
ISPRA- Graphic Design Unit
Cover photo
“Den Aardkloot van water ontbloot, na twee zijden aante sien”, Thomas Burnet 1694
Typographic coordination
Daria Mazzella
ISPRA – Publishing Unit
Text available on ISPRA website at www.isprambiente.gov.it
Annual Report for submission under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
Authors
Daniela Romano, Chiara Arcarese, Antonella Bernetti, Antonio Caputo, Mario Contaldi, Riccardo De
Lauretis, Eleonora Di Cristofaro, Andrea Gagna, Barbara Gonella, Francesca Lena, Vanessa Leonardi,
Riccardo Liburdi, Ernesto Taurino, Marina Vitullo
PART 1: ANNUAL INVENTORY SUBMISSION
INTRODUCTION
Daniela Romano
Riccardo De Lauretis
Marina Vitullo (§1.2.2)
Chiara Arcarese (§1.2.3)
TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
Daniela Romano
ENERGY
Mario Contaldi
Riccardo De Lauretis
Ernesto Taurino
Daniela Romano (§3.5.1, §3.5.4)
Antonella Bernetti (§3.5)
Francesca Lena (§3.5.3)
Eleonora Di Cristofaro (§3.5.4)
Antonio Caputo (§3.9)
INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE
Andrea Gagna
Barbara Gonella
Ernesto Taurino
Daniela Romano (§4.5, §4.8 )
AGRICULTURE
Eleonora Di Cristofaro
LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY
Marina Vitullo
WASTE
Barbara Gonella
Ernesto Taurino
RECALCULATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS
Daniela Romano
PART II: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION REQUIRED UNDER ARTICLE 7, PARAGRAPH 1
KP-LULUCF
Marina Vitullo
INFORMATION ON ACCOUNTING OF KYOTO UNITS
Chiara Arcarese
Marina Vitullo
INFORMATION ON MINIMIZATION OF ADVERSE IMPACTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 3, PARAGRAPH
14
Antonio Caputo
Vanessa Leonardi
ANNEXES
KEY CATEGORIES AND UNCERTAINTY
Daniela Romano
Antonio Caputo
Marina Vitullo
ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR POWER GENERATION
Mario Contaldi
Riccardo De Lauretis
Ernesto Taurino
ESTIMATION OF CARBON CONTENT OF COALS USED IN INDUSTRY
Ernesto Taurino
Mario Contaldi
CO2 REFERENCE APPROACH
Ernesto Taurino
Mario Contaldi
Riccardo De Lauretis
NATIONAL EMISSION FACTORS
Antonio Caputo
Mario Contaldi
Riccardo De Lauretis
Ernesto Taurino
AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Eleonora Di Cristofaro
THE NATIONAL REGISTRY FOR FOREST CARBON SINKS
Marina Vitullo
THE NATIONAL REGISTRY
Chiara Arcarese
Riccardo Liburdi
Contact:
Riccardo De Lauretis
Telephone
+39 0650072543
Fax
+39 0650072657
E-mail [email protected]
ISPRA- Institute for Environmental Protection and Research
Environment Department
Monitoring and Prevention of Atmospheric Impacts
Air Emission Inventory Unit
Via V. Brancati, 48 00144 Rome - Italy
PREMESSA
Nell’ambito degli strumenti e delle politiche per fronteggiare i cambiamenti climatici, un ruolo fondamentale
è svolto dal monitoraggio delle emissioni dei gas-serra.
A garantire la predisposizione e l’aggiornamento annuale dell’inventario dei gas-serra secondo i formati
richiesti, in Italia, è l’ISPRA su incarico del Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare,
attraverso le indicazioni del Decreto Legislativo n. 51 del 7 marzo 2008 e, più di recente, del Decreto
Legislativo n. 30 del 13 marzo 2013, che prevedono l’istituzione di un Sistema Nazionale, National System,
relativo all’inventario delle emissioni dei gas-serra.
In più, come è previsto dalla Convenzione-quadro sui cambiamenti climatici per tutti i Paesi industrializzati,
l’ISPRA documenta in uno specifico documento, il National Inventory Report, le metodologie di stima
utilizzate, unitamente ad una spiegazione degli andamenti osservati.
Il National Inventory Report facilita i processi internazionali di verifica cui le stime ufficiali di emissione dei
gas serra sono sottoposte. In particolare, viene esaminata la rispondenza alle proprietà di trasparenza,
consistenza, comparabilità, completezza e accuratezza nella realizzazione, qualità richieste esplicitamente
dalla Convenzione suddetta. L’inventario delle emissioni è sottoposto ogni anno ad un esame (review) da
parte di un organismo nominato dal Segretariato della Convenzione che analizza tutto il materiale presentato
dal Paese e ne verifica in dettaglio le qualità su enunciate. Senza tali requisiti, l’Italia sarebbe esclusa dalla
partecipazione ai meccanismi flessibili previsti dallo stesso Protocollo, come il mercato delle quote di
emissioni, l’implementazione di progetti con i Paesi in via di sviluppo (CDM) e l’implementazione di
progetti congiunti con i Paesi a economia in transizione (JI).
Il presente documento rappresenta, inoltre, un riferimento fondamentale per la pianificazione e l’attuazione
di tutte le politiche ambientali da parte delle istituzioni centrali e periferiche. Accanto all’inventario dei gasserra, l’ISPRA realizza ogni anno l’inventario nazionale delle emissioni in atmosfera, richiesto dalla
Convenzione di Ginevra sull’inquinamento atmosferico transfrontaliero (UNECE-CLRTAP) e dalle Direttive
europee sulla limitazione delle emissioni. In più, tutto il territorio nazionale è attualmente coperto da
inventari regionali sostanzialmente coerenti con l’inventario nazionale, realizzati principalmente dalle
Agenzie Regionali e Provinciali per la Protezione dell’Ambiente.
Nonostante i progressi compiuti, l’attività di preparazione degli inventari affronta continuamente nuove sfide
legate alla necessità di considerare nuove sorgenti e nuovi inquinanti e di armonizzare gli inventari prodotti
per diverse finalità di policy (come quelli predisposti per i Piani di azione comunali richiesti dal Patto dei
Sindaci). Il contesto internazionale al quale fa riferimento la preparazione dell’inventario nazionale
costituisce una garanzia di qualità dei dati, per l’autorevolezza dei riferimenti metodologici, l’efficacia del
processo internazionale di review e la flessibilità nell’adattamento alle nuove circostanze.
CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ES.1. Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change
ES.2. Summary of national emission and removal related trends
ES.3. Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends
ES.4. Other information
16
16
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SOMMARIO (ITALIAN)
21
PART I: ANNUAL INVENTORY SUBMISSION
22
1.
23
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change
23
1.2 Description of the institutional arrangement for inventory preparation
25
1.2.1 National Inventory System
25
1.2.2 Institutional arrangement for reporting under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 of Kyoto Protocol
27
1.2.3 National Registry System
28
1.3 Brief description of the process of inventory preparation
29
1.4 Brief general description of methodologies and data sources used
31
1.5 Brief description of key categories
35
1.6 Information on the QA/QC plan including verification and treatment of confidentiality issues where
relevant
40
1.7 General uncertainty evaluation, including data on the overall uncertainty for the inventory totals 45
1.8 General assessment of the completeness
46
2
TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
2.1 Description and interpretation of emission trends for aggregate greenhouse gas emissions
2.2 Description and interpretation of emission trends by gas
2.2.1 Carbon dioxide emissions
2.2.2 Methane emissions
2.2.3 Nitrous oxide emissions
2.2.4 Fluorinated gas emissions
2.3 Description and interpretation of emission trends by source
2.3.1 Energy
2.3.2 Industrial processes and product use
2.3.3 Agriculture
2.3.4 LULUCF
2.3.5 Waste
2.4 Description and interpretation of emission trends for indirect greenhouse gases and SO2
3
ENERGY [CRF SECTOR 1]
3.1 Sector overview
3.2 Methodology description
3.3 Energy industries
3.3.1 Public Electricity and Heat Production
3.3.1.1
Source category description
3.3.1.2
Methodological issues
3.3.2 Refineries
3.3.2.1
Source category description
3.3.2.2
Methodological issues
3.3.2.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.3.2.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.3.2.5
Source-specific recalculations
3.3.2.6
Source-specific planned improvements
3.3.3 Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries
3.3.3.1
Source category description
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3.3.3.2
Methodological issues
3.3.3.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.3.3.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.3.3.5
Source-specific recalculations
3.3.3.6
Source-specific planned improvements
3.4 Manufacturing industries and construction
3.4.1 Sector overview
3.4.2 Source category description
3.4.3 Methodological issues
3.4.4 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.4.5 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.4.6 Source-specific recalculations
3.4.7 Source-specific planned improvements
3.5 Transport
3.5.1 Aviation
3.5.1.1
Source category description
3.5.1.2
Methodological issues
3.5.1.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.5.1.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.5.1.5
Source-specific recalculations
3.5.1.6
Source-specific planned improvements
3.5.2 Railways
3.5.3 Road Transport
3.5.3.1
Source category description
3.5.3.2
Methodological issues
3.5.3.2.1 Fuel-based emissions
3.5.3.2.1.a The fuel balance process
3.5.3.2.2 Traffic-based emissions
3.5.3.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.5.3.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.5.3.5
Source-specific recalculations
3.5.3.6
Source-specific planned improvements
3.5.4 Navigation
3.5.4.1
Source category description
3.5.4.2
Methodological issues
3.5.4.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.5.4.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.5.4.5
Source-specific recalculations
3.5.4.6
Source-specific planned improvements
3.5.5 Other transportation
3.5.5.1
Source category description
3.5.5.2
Methodological issues
3.5.5.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.5.5.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.5.5.5
Source-specific recalculations
3.5.5.6
Source-specific planned improvements
3.6 Other sectors
3.6.1 Sector overview
3.6.2 Source category description
3.6.3 Methodological issues
3.6.4 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.6.5 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.6.6 Source-specific recalculations
3.6.7 Source-specific planned improvements
3.7 International bunkers
3.8 Feedstock and non-energy use of fuels
3.8.1 Source category description
3.8.2 Methodological issues
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3.8.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.8.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.8.5 Source-specific recalculations
3.8.6 Source-specific planned improvements
3.9 Fugitive emissions from solid fuels, oil and natural gas
3.9.1 Source category description
3.9.2 Methodological issues
3.9.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
3.9.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
3.9.5 Source-specific recalculations
3.9.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4
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INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE [CRF SECTOR 2]
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4.1 Sector overview
4.2 Mineral Products (2A)
4.2.1 Source category description
4.2.2 Methodological issues
4.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
4.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.2.5 Source-specific recalculations
4.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.3 Chemical industry (2B)
4.3.1 Source category description
4.3.2 Methodological issues
4.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
4.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.3.5 Source-specific recalculations
4.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.4 Metal production (2C)
4.4.1 Source category description
4.4.2 Methodological issues
4.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
4.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.4.5 Source-specific recalculations
4.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.5 Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use (2D)
4.5.1 Source category description
4.5.2 Methodological issues
4.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
4.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.5.5 Source-specific recalculations
4.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.6 Electronics Industry Emissions (2E)
4.6.1 Source category description
4.6.2 Methodological issues
4.6.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
4.6.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.6.5 Source-specific recalculations
4.6.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.7 Emissions of fluorinated substitutes for ozone depleting substances (2F)
4.7.1 Source category description
4.7.2 Methodological issues
4.7.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
4.7.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.7.5 Source-specific recalculations
4.7.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.8 Other production (2G)
4.8.1 Source category description
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4.8.2 Methodological issues
4.8.3 Uncertainty and time series consistency
4.8.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
4.8.5 Source-specific recalculation
4.8.6 Source-specific planned improvements
4.9 Other production (2H)
4.9.1 Source category description
5
AGRICULTURE [CRF SECTOR 3]
5.1 Sector overview
5.1.1 Emission trends
5.1.2 Key categories
5.1.3 Activities
5.1.4 Agricultural statistics
5.2 Enteric fermentation (3A)
5.2.1 Source category description
5.2.2 Methodological issues
5.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
5.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
5.2.5 Source-specific recalculations
5.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements
5.3 Manure management (3B)
5.3.1 Source category description
5.3.2 Methodological issues
5.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
5.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
5.3.5 Source-specific recalculations
5.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements
5.4 Rice cultivation (3C)
5.4.1 Source category description
5.4.2 Methodological issues
5.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
5.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
5.4.5 Source-specific recalculations
5.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements
5.5 Agriculture soils (3D)
5.5.1 Source category description
5.5.2 Methodological issues
5.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
5.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
5.5.5 Source-specific recalculations
5.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements
5.6 Field burning of agriculture residues (3F)
5.6.1 Source category description
5.6.2 Methodological issues
5.6.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
5.6.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
5.6.5 Source-specific recalculations
5.6.6 Source-specific planned improvements
5.7 Liming (3G)
5.7.1 Source category description
5.7.2 Methodological issues
5.7.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
5.7.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
5.7.5 Source-specific recalculations
5.7.6 Source-specific planned improvements
5.8 Urea application (3H)
5.8.1 Source category description
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5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.8.6
6
Methodological issues
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Source-specific recalculations
Source-specific planned improvements
LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY [CRF SECTOR 4]
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6.1 Sector overview
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6.2 Forest Land (4A)
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6.2.1 Description
212
6.2.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
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6.2.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
214
6.2.4 Methodological issues
214
6.2.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency
223
6.2.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification
225
6.2.7 Category-specific recalculations
228
6.2.8 Category-specific planned improvements
228
6.3 Cropland (4B)
229
6.3.1 Description
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6.3.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
229
6.3.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
229
6.3.4 Methodological issues
230
6.3.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency
234
6.3.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification
235
6.3.7 Category-specific recalculations
235
6.3.8 Category-specific planned improvements
235
6.4 Grassland (4C)
236
6.4.1 Description
236
6.4.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
236
6.4.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
236
6.4.4 Methodological issues
237
6.4.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency
242
6.4.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification
242
6.4.7 Category-specific recalculations
243
6.4.8 Category-specific planned improvements
243
6.5 Wetlands (4D)
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6.5.1 Description
243
6.5.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
243
6.5.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
244
6.5.4 Methodological issues
244
6.5.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency
246
6.5.6 Category-specific recalculations
246
6.5.7 Category-specific planned improvements
246
6.6 Settlements (4E)
246
6.6.1 Description
246
6.6.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
246
6.6.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
247
6.6.4 Methodological issues
247
6.6.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency
250
6.6.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification
250
6.6.7 Category-specific recalculations
251
6.6.8 Category -specific planned improvements
251
6.7 Other Land (4F)
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6.8 Direct N2O emissions from N inputs to managed soils (4(I))
6.9 Emissions and removals from drainage and rewetting and other management of organic and mineral
soils (4(II))
252
6.10 N2O emissions from N mineralization/immobilization associated with loss/gain of soil organic
matter resulting from change of land use or management of mineral soils
252
6.10.1 Description
252
6.10.2 Methodological issues
252
6.10.3 Category-specific recalculations
253
6.11 Indirect N2O emissions from managed soils (4(IV))
253
6.12 Biomass Burning (4(V))
254
6.12.1 Description
254
6.12.2 Methodological issues
255
6.12.3 Category-specific planned improvements
257
6.12.4 Uncertainty and time series consistency
257
6.12.5 Category-specific QA/QC and verification
257
6.12.6 Category-specific recalculations
258
6.12.7 Category-specific planned improvements
258
6.13 Harvested wood products (HWP) (4G)
258
6.13.1 Description
258
6.13.2 Methodological issues
258
6.13.3 Uncertainty and time series consistency
260
6.13.4 Category-specific QA/QC and verification
260
6.13.5 Category-specific recalculations
260
6.13.6 Category-specific planned improvements
260
7
WASTE [CRF SECTOR 5]
7.1 Sector overview
7.2 Solid waste disposal on land (5A)
7.2.1 Source category description
7.2.2 Methodological issues
7.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
7.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
7.2.5 Source-specific recalculations
7.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements
7.3 Biological treatment of solid waste (5B)
7.3.1 Source category description
7.3.2 Methodological issues
7.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
7.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
7.3.5 Source-specific recalculations
7.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements
7.4 Waste incineration (5C)
7.4.1 Source category description
7.4.2 Methodological issues
7.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
7.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
7.4.5 Source-specific recalculations
7.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements
7.5 Wastewater handling (5D)
7.5.1 Source category description
7.5.2 Methodological issues
7.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
7.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
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7.5.5
7.5.6
8
Source-specific recalculations
Source-specific planned improvements
RECALCULATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS
8.1 Explanations and justifications for recalculations
8.2 Implications for emission levels
8.3 Implications for emission trends, including time series consistency
8.4 Recalculations, response to the review process and planned improvements
8.4.1 Recalculations
8.4.2 Response to the UNFCCC review process
8.4.3 Planned improvements (e.g., institutional arrangements, inventory preparation)
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PART II: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION REQUIRED UNDER ARTICLE 7, PARAGRAPH 1
306
9
KP-LULUCF
307
9.1 General information
307
9.1.1 Definition of forest and any other criteria
307
9.1.2 Elected activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol
307
9.1.3 Description of how the definitions of each activity under Article 3.3 and each elected activity
under Article 3.4 have been implemented and applied consistently over time
307
9.1.4 Description of precedence conditions and/or hierarchy among Article 3.4 activities, and how
they have been consistently applied in determining how land was classified
308
9.2 Land-related information
308
9.2.1 Spatial assessment unit used for determining the area of the units of land under Article 3.3 309
9.2.2 Methodology used to develop the land transition matrix
309
9.2.3 Maps and/or database to identify the geographical locations, and the system of identification
codes for the geographical locations
310
9.3 Activity-specific information
311
9.3.1 Methods for carbon stock change and GHG emission and removal estimates
311
9.3.1.1
Description of the methodologies and the underlying assumptions used
311
9.3.1.2
Justification when omitting any carbon pool or GHG emissions/removals from activities
under Article 3.3 and elected activities under Article 3.4
313
9.3.1.3
Information on whether or not indirect and natural GHG emissions and removals have
been factored out
317
9.3.1.4
Changes in data and methods since the previous submission (recalculations)
317
9.3.1.5
Uncertainty estimates
317
9.3.1.6
Information on other methodological issues
317
9.3.1.7
The year of the onset of an activity, if after 2008
319
9.4 Article 3.3
319
9.4.1 Information that demonstrates that activities under Article 3.3 began on or after 1 January
1990 and before 31 December 2012 and are direct human-induced
319
9.4.2 Information on how harvesting or forest disturbance that is followed by the re-establishment of
forest is distinguished from deforestation
321
9.4.3 Information on the size and geographical location of forest areas that have lost forest cover but
which are not yet classified as deforested
322
9.4.4 Information related to the natural disturbances provision under article 3.3
322
9.4.5 Information on Harvested Wood Products under article 3.3
323
9.5 Article 3.4
323
9.5.1 Information that demonstrates that activities under Article 3.4 have occurred since 1 January
1990 and are human-induced
323
9.5.2 Information relating to Forest Management
323
9.5.2.1
Conversion of natural forest to planted forest
324
9.5.2.2
Forest Management Reference Level (FMRL)
324
9.5.2.3
Technical Corrections of FMRL
324
9.5.2.4
Information related to the natural disturbances provision under article 3.4
325
9.5.2.5
Information on Harvested Wood Products under article 3.4
326
9.5.3
Information relating to Cropland Management, Grazing Land Management, Revegetation and
Wetland Drainage and Rewetting if elected, for the base year
327
9.6 Other information
328
9.6.1 Key category analysis for Article 3.3 activities and any elected activities under Article 3.4 328
9.7 Information relating to Article 6
328
10
INFORMATION ON ACCOUNTING OF KYOTO UNITS
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
Background information
Summary of information reported in the SEF tables
Discrepancies and notifications
Publicly accessible information
Calculation of the commitment period reserve (CPR)
KP-LULUCF accounting
329
329
329
330
330
330
330
11
INFORMATION ON CHANGES IN NATIONAL SYSTEM
331
12
INFORMATION ON CHANGES IN NATIONAL REGISTRY
332
12.1 Previous Review Recommendations
12.2 Changes to National Registry
13
332
332
INFORMATION ON MINIMIZATION OF ADVERSE IMPACTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH
ARTICLE 3, PARAGRAPH 14
334
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
Overview
334
European Commitment under Art 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol
335
Italian commitment under Art 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol
337
Funding, strengthening capacity and transfer of technology
341
Priority actions in implementing commitments under Article 3 paragraph 14
343
Additional information and future activities related to the commitment of Article 3.14 of the Kyoto
Protocol
345
13.7 Review process of Article 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol
345
14
REFERENCES
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 ENERGY [CRF sector 1]
14.3 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE [CRF sector 2]
14.4 AGRICULTURE [CRF sector 4]
14.5 LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY [CRF sector 5]
14.6 WASTE [CRF sector 6]
14.7 KP-LULUCF
14.8 Information on minimization of adverse impacts in accordance with Article 3, paragraph 14
14.9 ANNEX 2
14.10 ANNEX 3
14.11 ANNEX 4
14.12 ANNEX 5
14.13 ANNEX 6
14.14 ANNEX 7
ANNEX 1: KEY CATEGORIES AND UNCERTAINTY
A1.1 Introduction
A1.2 Approach 1 key category assessment
A1.3 Uncertainty assessment (IPCC Approach 1)
A1.4 Approach 2 key category assessment
A1.5 Uncertainty assessment (IPCC Approach 2)
ANNEX 2: ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR POWER GENERATION
A2.1 Source category description
A2.2 Methodological issues
A2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
A2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
347
347
349
352
358
369
374
380
381
385
385
385
386
386
387
388
388
388
394
403
410
425
425
426
428
429
A2.5 Source-specific recalculations
A2.6 Source-specific planned improvements
429
429
ANNEX 3: ESTIMATION OF CARBON CONTENT OF COALS USED IN INDUSTRY
430
ANNEX 4: CO2 REFERENCE APPROACH
434
A4.1 Introduction
434
A4.2 Comparison of the sectoral approach with the reference approach
435
A4.3 Comparison of the the sectoral approach with the reference approach and international statistics 436
ANNEX 5: NATIONAL ENERGY BALANCE, YEAR 2013
438
ANNEX 6: NATIONAL EMISSION FACTORS
457
A6.1 Natural gas
A6.2 Diesel oil, petrol and LPG
A6.3 Fuel oil
A6.4 Coal
A6.5 Other fuels
ANNEX 7: AGRICULTURE SECTOR
A7.1 Enteric fermentation (3A)
A7.2 Manure management (3B)
A7.3 Agricultural soils (3D)
457
458
460
460
462
466
466
466
471
ANNEX 8: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CONSIDERED AS PART OF THE ANNUAL
INVENTORY SUBMISSION AND THE SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION REQUIRED
UNDER ARTICLE 7, PARAGRAPH 1, OF THE KYOTO PROTOCOL OR OTHER USEFUL
REFERENCE INFORMATION
486
A8.1 Annual inventory submission
A8.2 Supplementary information under Article 7, paragraph 1
A8.2.1 KP-LULUCF
A8.2.2 Standard electronic format
A8.2.3 National registry
A8.2.4 Adverse impacts under Article 3, paragraph 14 of the Kyoto Protocol
486
496
496
497
504
505
ANNEX 9: METHODOLOGIES, DATA SOURCES AND EMISSION FACTORS
513
ANNEX 10: THE NATIONAL REGISTRY FOR FOREST CARBON SINKS
524
ANNEX 11: THE NATIONAL REGISTRY
533
ANNEX 12: OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT SUBMISSION IMPROVEMENTS
536
ANNEX 13: REPORTING UNDER EU REGULATION NO 525/2013
544
A13.1 Article 10 of the EU Regulation
A13.2 Article 12 of the EU Regulation
544
547
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ES.1. Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was ratified by Italy in the year
1994 through law no.65 of 15/01/1994.
The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in December 1997, has established emission reduction objectives for Annex B
Parties (i.e. industrialised countries and countries with economy in transition): in particular, the European
Union as a whole is committed to an 8% reduction within the period 2008-2012, in comparison with base
year levels. For Italy, the EU burden sharing agreement, set out in Annex II to Decision 2002/358/EC and in
accordance with Article 4 of the Kyoto Protocol, has established a reduction objective of 6.5% in the
commitment period, in comparison with 1990 levels.
Subsequently, on 1st June 2002, Italy ratified the Kyoto Protocol through law no.120 of 01/06/2002. The
ratification law prescribed also the preparation of a National Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions, which was adopted by the Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE) on 19th
December 2002 (deliberation n. 123 of 19/12/2002).
The Kyoto Protocol finally entered into force in February 2005.
A new global agreement has not been reached yet for the post-Kyoto period but negotiations are still on
going for the years after 2020. To fulfil the gap 2013-2020, the ‘Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol’
was adopted on 8 December 2012.
The EU and its Member States have committed to this second phase of the Kyoto Protocol and established to
reduce their collective emissions to 20% below their levels in 1990 or other chosen base years; this is also
reflected in the Doha Amendment. The target will be fulfilled jointly with Iceland.
The European Council adopted on 13 July 2015 the legislation necessary for the European Union to formally
ratify the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
In parallel with the ratification by the EU, the Member States and Iceland will be finalising their national
ratification processes. The EU, its Member States and Iceland are expected to simultaneously deposit their
respective instruments of acceptance with the UN in the coming months.
As a Party to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, Italy is committed to develop, publish and regularly
update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as formulate and implement
programmes to reduce these emissions.
In order to establish compliance with national and international commitments, the national GHG emission
inventory is compiled and communicated annually by the Institute for Environmental Protection and
Research (ISPRA) to the competent institutions, after endorsement by the Ministry for the Environment,
Land and Sea. The submission is carried out through compilation of the Common Reporting Format (CRF),
according to the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and
the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. As a whole, an annual GHG inventory
submission shall consist of a national inventory report (NIR) and the common reporting format (CRF) tables
as specified in the Guidelines on reporting and review of greenhouse gas inventories from Parties included in
Annex I to the Convention, decision 24/CP.19, in FCCC/CP/2013/10/Add.3.
Detailed information on emission figures and estimation procedures, including all the basic data needed to
carry out the final estimates, is to be provided to improve the transparency, consistency, comparability,
accuracy and completeness of the inventory provided.
The national inventory is updated annually in order to reflect revisions and improvements in the
methodology and use of the best information available. Adjustments are applied retrospectively to earlier
years, which accounts for any difference in previously published data.
This report provides an analysis of the Italian GHG emission inventory communicated to the Secretariat of
the Climate Change Convention and to the European Commission in the framework of the Greenhouse Gas
Monitoring Mechanism in the year 2015, including the update for the year 2013 and the revision of the entire
time series 1990-2012.
Concerning the reporting and accounting requirements, under the KP CP2 each Party is required to submit a
report, the initial report, to facilitate the calculation of its assigned amountand to demonstrate its capacity to
account for its emissions and assigned amount (UNFCC Decision 2/CMP.8). The ratification decision allows
a joint initial report of the EU, its Member States and Iceland, to be prepared by the European Commission,
16
and individual initial reports of each Member States and Iceland. In this report, planned to be submitted by
April 2016, the national assigned amount as well as the commitment period reserve will be described.
The selection of LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol for the commitment
period 2013-2020 will be indicated in the same document; Italy will elect cropland and grazing land
management activities.
Emission estimates comprise the seven direct greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol (carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride)
which contribute directly to climate change owing to their positive radiative forcing effect and four indirect
greenhouse gases (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, non-methane volatile organic compounds, sulphur
dioxide).
This report, the CRF files and other related documents are available on website at the address
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni.
The official inventory submissions can also be found at the UNFCCC website
http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/7383.ph
p.
The present submission is the official submission for the year 2015 under the UNFCCC and not under the
Kyoto Protocol because of the unproper functioning of the CRF Reporter (Decision 13/CP.20); however,
some of the information included may relate to the requirements under the Kyoto Protocol.
ES.2. Summary of national emission and removal related trends
Total greenhouse gas emissions, in CO2 equivalent, excluding emissions and removals from land use, land
use change and forestry, decreased by 16.1% between 1990 and 2013 (from 521 to 467 millions of CO2
equivalent tons).
The most important greenhouse gas, CO2, which accounted for 82.4% of total emissions in CO2 equivalent in
2013, showed a decrease by 17.4% between 1990 and 2013. In the energy sector, specifically, CO2 emissions
in 2012 reduced of 15.4% as compared those in 1990.
CH4 and N2O emissions were equal to 10.1% and 4.4%, respectively, of the total CO2 equivalent greenhouse
gas emissions in 2013. Both gases showed a decrease from 1990 to 2013, equal to 18.3% and 29.6% for CH4
and N2O, respectively.
Other greenhouse gases, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3, ranged from 0.01% to 2.6% of total emissions.
Table ES.1 illustrates the national trend of greenhouse gases for 1990-2013, expressed in CO2 equivalent
terms, by substance and category.
Table ES.1. Total greenhouse gas emissions and removals in CO2 equivalent [Gg CO2 eq]
GHG emissions
1990
base year
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 equivalent
CO2 including net CO2
from LULUCF
CO2 excluding net CO2
from LULUCF
CH4 including CH4 from
LULUCF
CH4 excluding CH4
from LULUCF
N2O including N2O
from LULUCF
436,204
420,729
444,257
458,089
437,299
386,425
393,426
393,585
428,785
444,944
462,278
488,078
463,696
414,810
424,993
413,379
53,966
44,686
46,692
41,440
38,566
38,464
37,547
36,208
55,640
44,342
45,850
41,102
38,141
37,947
37,233
35,722
27,130
38,670
39,765
37,863
29,841
28,311
27,264
27,059
27,435
38,499
39,561
37,754
29,686
28,126
27,129
26,889
680
1,266
1,838
1,217
5,148
1,715
7,162
1,501
7,769
1,063
8,299
1,331
8,804
1,455
NF3
444
2,907
408
NA,NO
601
493
465
436
398
373
351
Total
521,058
506,632
534,263
544,719
514,803
462,430
468,239
467,463
N2O excluding N2O
from LULUCF
HFCs
PFCs
SF6
17
1990
GHG emissions
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
530,333
551,237
574,262
540,620
490,113
499,359
486,601
base year
(excluding LULUCF)
Total
(including LULUCF)
GHG
categories
515,619
1990
base year
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 equivalent
1. Energy
2. Industrial
Processes and
Product Use
421,288
434,689
453,536
475,483
419,575
407,598
384,875
357,387
40,313
37,957
38,459
45,434
34,559
34,504
31,606
30,594
3. Agriculture
36,197
36,210
35,625
33,121
30,959
31,483
31,914
30,790
4. LULUCF
-5,440
-23,565
-18,302
-30,669
-34,206
-28,464
-20,799
-34,082
5. Waste
23,259
23,814
26,123
24,220
21,397
20,707
20,518
18,497
6. Other
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
ES.3. Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends
The energy sector is the largest contributor to national total GHG emissions with a share, in 2013, of 81.7%.
Emissions from this sector decreased by 15.2% from 1990 to 2013. Substances with decrease rates were
CO2, whose levels reduced by 15.4% from 1990 to 2013 and accounts for 96.2% of the total in the energy
sector, and CH4 which showed a reduction of 18.4% but its share out of the sectoral total is only 2.5%; N2O,
on the other hand, showed an increase of 9.8% from 1990 to 2013, accounting for 1.3%. Specifically, in
terms of total CO2 equivalent, an increase in emissions was observed in the transport sector, and in the other
sectors, about 0.2% and 9.4%, from 1990 to 2013, respectively; in 2012 these sectors, altogether, account
for 53.1% of total emissions.
For the industrial processes sector, emissions showed a decrease of 24.1% from the base year to 2013.
Specifically, by substance, CO2 emissions account for 52.6% and showed a decrease by 44.9%, CH4
decreased by 58.9%, but it accounts only for 0.2%, while N2O, whose levels share 2.5% of total industrial
emissions, decreased by 89.3%. The decrease in emissions is mostly due to a decrease in chemical industry
(due to the fully operational abatement technology in the adipic acid industry) and metal production
emissions. A considerable increase was observed in F-gases emissions (about 263.6%), whose level on total
sectoral emissions is 44.7%. It should be noted that, except for the motivations explained, the economic
recession has had a remarkable influence on the production levels of most the industries and consequent
emissions in the last three years.
For agriculture, emissions refer mainly to CH4 and N2O levels, which account for 60.6% and 37.8% of the
sectoral total, respectively; CO2, on the other hand, shares only 1.5% of the total. The decrease observed in
the total emissions (-14.9%) is mostly due to the decrease of CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (12.0%), which account for 45.0% of sectoral emissions and to the decrease of N2O from agricultural soils (16.3%), which accounts for 30.7% of sectoral emissions.
As regards land use, land-use change and forestry, from 1990 to 2013 total removals in CO2 equivalent
increase by 526.6%; CO2 accounts for almost the total emissions and removals of the sector (99.3%).
Finally, emissions from the waste sector decreased by 20.5% from 1990 to 2013, mainly due to a decrease in
the emissions from solid waste disposal on land (-23.6%), which account for 75.0% of waste emissions. The
most important greenhouse gas in this sector is CH4 which accounts for 89.2% of the sectoral emissions and
shows a decrease of 23.0% from 1990 to 2013. N2O emission levels increased by 36.0%, whereas CO2
decreased by 61.7%; these gases account for 9.7% and 1.1%, respectively.
Table ES.2 provides an overview of the CO2 equivalent emission trends by IPCC source category.
18
Table ES.2. Summary of emission trends by source category and gas in CO2 equivalent [Gg CO2 eq]
1990
Category
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
base year
Gg CO2 equivalent
1A. Energy: fuel combustion
408,393
422,559
442,725
466,109
410,763
398,915
376,316
348,905
CO2: 1. Energy Industries
138,145
141,479
152,311
160,137
133,834
131,775
127,104
107,912
84,535
84,347
82,101
78,281
60,353
60,109
55,331
48,725
101,307
111,476
121,255
127,057
118,203
117,200
104,861
102,277
76,933
76,271
78,992
92,429
91,165
82,789
82,280
81,487
CO2: 5. Other
1,070
1,495
837
1,232
651
515
334
584
CH4
1,965
2,281
2,034
1,834
1,830
1,873
1,973
3,046
N2 O
4,438
5,210
5,196
5,140
4,727
4,653
4,433
4,874
12,895
12,130
10,810
9,374
8,811
8,683
8,559
8,482
CO2
4,013
3,971
3,236
2,537
2,600
2,593
2,506
2,678
CH4
8,870
8,148
7,562
6,823
6,200
6,079
6,042
5,795
N2 O
12
12
12
13
12
11
11
10
2. Industrial processes
40,313
37,957
38,459
45,434
34,559
34,504
31,606
30,594
CO2
29,227
27,195
25,712
28,587
21,616
21,144
17,891
16,102
CH4
129
134
75
76
62
68
65
53
N2O
7,199
7,701
8,599
8,251
1,224
838
827
773
CO2: 2. Manufacturing Industries
and Construction
CO2: 3. Transport
CO2: 4. Other Sectors
1B2. Energy: fugitives from
oil & gas
HFCs
444
813
2,098
5,998
9,725
10,326
10,856
11,518
PFCs
2,907
1,450
1,388
1,940
1,520
1,661
1,499
1,705
SF6
408
664
561
547
391
438
442
417
NF3
NA,NO
NA,NO
26
33
20
28
25
26
36,197
36,210
35,625
33,121
30,959
31,483
31,914
30,790
1
1
2
14
18
24
15
14
465
512
525
507
335
351
551
450
CH4: Enteric fermentation
15,743
15,656
15,544
13,898
13,712
13,735
13,664
13,849
CH4: Manure management
3,934
3,747
3,731
3,624
3,543
3,508
3,397
3,149
CH4: Rice Cultivation
1,876
1,989
1,656
1,752
1,822
1,805
1,789
1,658
15
15
15
16
15
15
16
15
2,864
2,666
2,618
2,431
2,372
2,359
2,310
2,198
11,295
11,621
11,530
10,876
9,139
9,681
10,168
9,452
3. Agriculture
CO2: Liming
CO2: Urea application
CH4: Field Burning of Agricultural
Residues
N2O: Manure management
N2O: Agriculture soils
N2O: Field Burning of Agricultural
Residues
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4A. Land-use change and
forestry
-5,440
-23,565
-18,302
-30,669
-34,206
-28,464
-20,799
-34,082
CO2
-7,419
-24,091
-19,429
-31,142
-34,681
-29,178
-22,237
-34,318
CH4
1,673
384
947
379
358
565
1,204
199
N2 O
6. Waste
306
142
180
94
117
150
235
37
23,259
23,814
26,123
24,220
21,397
20,707
20,518
18,497
CO2
507
454
202
226
160
162
194
194
CH4
21,433
22,054
24,417
22,314
19,451
18,795
18,560
16,509
N2 O
1,319
1,307
1,504
1,680
1,785
1,750
1,764
1,794
19
1990
Category
base year
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 equivalent
Total emissions (with
LULUCF)
515,619
509,107
535,440
547,589
472,283
465,829
448,115
403,186
Total emissions (without
LULUCF)
521,058
532,672
553,742
578,258
506,489
494,292
468,913
437,268
ES.4. Other information
In Table ES.3 NOX, CO, NMVOC and SO2 emission trends from 1990 to 2013 are summarised.
All gases showed a significant reduction in 2013 as compared to 1990 levels. The highest reduction is
observed for SO2 (-91.9%), while CO and NOX emissions reduced by about 63.3% and 59.8% respectively;
NMVOC levels showed a decrease by 53.3%.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg
2,051
1,924
1,462
1,250
974
955
869
NOX
7,006
7,027
4,670
3,236
2,281
2,227
2,059
CO
1,936
1,974
1,523
1,241
941
919
861
NMVOC
1,800
1,327
754
407
215
195
175
SO2
Table ES.3. Total emissions of indirect greenhouse gases and SO2 (1990-2013) [Gg]
825
2,569
905
145
20
Sommario (Italian)
Nel documento “Italian Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2013. National Inventory Report 2015” si descrive
la comunicazione annuale italiana dell’inventario delle emissioni dei gas serra in accordo a quanto previsto
nell’ambito della Convenzione Quadro sui Cambiamenti Climatici delle Nazioni Unite (UNFCCC), del
protocollo di Kyoto. Tale comunicazione è anche trasmessa all’Unione Europea nell’ambito del Meccanismo
di Monitoraggio dei Gas Serra.
Ogni Paese che partecipa alla Convenzione, infatti, oltre a fornire annualmente l’inventario nazionale delle
emissioni dei gas serra secondo i formati richiesti, deve documentare in un report, il National Inventory
Report, la serie storica delle emissioni. La documentazione prevede una spiegazione degli andamenti
osservati, una descrizione dell’analisi delle sorgenti principali, key sources, e dell’incertezza ad esse
associata, un riferimento alle metodologie di stima e alle fonti dei dati di base e dei fattori di emissione
utilizzati per le stime, un’illustrazione del sistema di Quality Assurance/Quality Control a cui è soggetto
l’inventario e delle attività di verifica effettuate sui dati.
Il National Inventory Report facilita, inoltre, i processi internazionali di verifica cui le stime di emissione dei
gas serra sono sottoposte al fine di esaminarne la rispondenza alle proprietà di trasparenza, consistenza,
comparabilità, completezza e accuratezza nella realizzazione, qualità richieste esplicitamente dalla
Convenzione suddetta. Nel caso in cui, durante il processo di review, siano identificati eventuali errori nel
formato di trasmissione o stime non supportate da adeguata documentazione e giustificazione nella
metodologia scelta, il Paese viene invitato ad una revisione delle stime di emissione.
I dati di emissione dei gas-serra, così come i risultati dei processi di review, sono pubblicati sul sito web del
Segretariato della Convenzione sui Cambiamenti Climatici
http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/5270.ph
p.
La serie storica nazionale delle emissioni è anche disponibile sul sito web all’indirizzo:
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni.
Da un’analisi di sintesi della serie storica dei dati di emissione dal 1990 al 2013, si evidenzia che le
emissioni nazionali totali dei sei gas serra, espresse in CO2 equivalente, sono diminuite del 16.1% nel 2013
rispetto al 1990. In particolare, le emissioni complessive di CO2 sono pari all’82.4% del totale e risultano nel
2013 inferiori del 17.4% rispetto al 1990. Le emissioni di metano e di protossido di azoto sono pari a circa il
10.1% e 4.4% del totale, rispettivamente, e presentano andamenti in diminuzione sia per il metano (-18.3%)
che per il protossido di azoto (-29.6%). Gli altri gas serra, HFC, PFC, SF6 e NF3, hanno un peso complessivo
sul totale delle emissioni che varia tra lo 0.01% e il 2.6%; le emissioni degli HFC evidenziano una forte
crescita, mentre le emissioni di PFC decrescono e quelle di SF6 e NF3 mostrano un lieve incremento. Sebbene
tali variazioni non sono risultate determinanti ai fini del conseguimento degli obiettivi di riduzione delle
emissioni, la significatività del trend degli HFC potrebbe renderli sempre più importanti nei prossimi anni.
21
PART I: ANNUAL INVENTORY SUBMISSION
22
1. INTRODUCTION
Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate
change
1.1
In 1988 the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program
(UNEP) established a scientific Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to evaluate the
available scientific information on climate variations, examine the social and economical influence on
climate change and formulate suitable strategies for the prevention and the control of climate change.
The first IPCC report in 1990, although considering the high uncertainties in the evaluation of climate
change, emphasised the risk of a global warming due to an unbalance in the climate system originated by the
increase of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) caused by industrial development and use
of fossil fuels. More recently, the scientific knowledge on climate change has firmed up considerably by the
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on global warming which states that “Warming of the climate system is
unequivocal (…). There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50
years is attributable to human activities (…). Most of the observed increase in globally averaged
temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic
greenhouse gas concentrations”. Hence the need of reducing those emissions, particularly for the most
industrialised countries.
The first initiative was taken by the European Union (EU) at the end of 1990, when the EU adopted the goal
of a stabilisation of carbon dioxide emissions by the year 2000 at the level of 1990 and requested Member
States to plan and implement initiatives for environmental protection and energy efficiency. The contents of
EU statement were the base for the negotiation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCC) which was approved in New York on 9th May 1992 and signed during the summit of the
Earth in Rio the Janeiro in June 1992. Parties to the Convention are committed to develop, publish and
regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as formulate and
implement programmes addressing anthropogenic GHG emissions. Specifically, Italy ratified the convention
through law no.65 of 15/1/1994.
On 11/12/1997, Parties to the Convention adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which establishes emission reduction
objectives for Annex B Parties (i.e. industrialised countries and countries with economy in transition) in the
period 2008-2012. In particular, the European Union as a whole is committed to an 8% reduction within the
period 2008-2012, in comparison with base year levels. For Italy, the EU burden sharing agreement, set out
in Annex II to Decision 2002/358/EC and in accordance with Article 4 of the Kyoto Protocol, has established
a reduction objective of 6.5% in the commitment period, in comparison with the base 1990 levels.
Italy ratified the Kyoto Protocol on 1st June 2002 through law no.120 of 01/06/2002. The ratification law
prescribes also the preparation of a National Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emission, which was
adopted by the Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE) on 19th December 2002
(deliberation n. 123 of 19/12/2002). The Kyoto Protocol finally entered into force on 16th February 2005.
The first commitment period ended in 2012, but the first commitment period for fulfilling commitments
(true-up period) will end on 18 November 2015 and a ‘True-up Period Report’ should be filled in and
communicated by Parties to the UNFCCC Secretariat by 2 January 2016.
A new global agreement has not been reached yet for the post-Kyoto period but negotiations are still on
going for the years after 2020. To fulfil the gap 2013-2020, the ‘Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol’
was adopted on 8 December 2012. The amendment includes:
•
•
•
New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments
in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020;
A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment
period; and
Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues
pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second
commitment period.
23
During the second commitment period, Parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent
below 1990 levels in the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the composition of Parties in the
second commitment period is different from the first.
The EU and its Member States have committed to this second phase of the Kyoto Protocol and established to
reduce their collective emissions to 20% below their levels in 1990 or other chosen base years; this is also
reflected in the Doha Amendment. The target will be fulfilled jointly with Iceland.
In line with the Council’s conclusions of 9 March 2012 and the offer of the Union and its Member States to
take on an 80% target under the second commitment period, the emission levels of the Member States are
equal to the sum of the annual emission allocations for the period 2013 - 2020 determined pursuant to
Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. That amount, based on global
warming potential values from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, was determined under Annex II to Commission Decision 2013/162/EU and adjusted by
Commission Implementing Decision 2013/634/EU. The emission level for Iceland was determined in the
Agreement with Iceland.
The European Council adopted on 13 July 2015 the legislation necessary for the European Union to formally
ratify the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
The Council adopted two decisions:
• Council Decision on the ratification of the Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol establishing the
second commitment period, and
• Council Decision on the agreement between the EU, its Member States and Iceland, necessary for
the joint fulfilment of the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
In parallel with the ratification by the EU, the Member States and Iceland will be finalising their national
ratification processes. The EU, its Member States and Iceland are expected to simultaneously deposit their
respective instruments of acceptance with the UN in the coming months.
As a Party to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, Italy is committed to develop, publish and regularly
update national emission inventories as well as formulate and implement programmes to reduce these
emissions. In order to establish compliance with national and international commitments, air emission
inventories are compiled and communicated annually to the competent institutions.
Specifically, the national GHG emission inventory is communicated through compilation of the Common
Reporting Format (CRF), according to the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change and the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (IPCC,
1997; IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2003; IPCC, 2006; EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007; EMEP/EEA, 2009; EMEP/EEA,
2013).
The inventory is updated annually in order to reflect revisions and improvements in methodology and
availability of new information. Recalculations are applied retrospectively to earlier years, which account for
any difference in previously published data.
The submission also provides for detailed information on emission figures and estimation methodologies in
the annual National Inventory Report.
As follows, this report is compiled according to the guidelines on reporting as specified in the document
FCCC/CP/2013/10/Add.3, Decision 24/CP.19. An analysis of the 2013 Italian GHG emission inventory, and
a revision of the entire time series 1990-2012, communicated in the framework of the annual submission
under the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, is provided in the document. It is also the
annual submission to the European Commission in the framework of the Greenhouse Gas Monitoring
Mechanism.
Concerning the reporting and accounting requirements, under the KP CP2 each Party is required to submit a
report, the initial report, to facilitate the calculation of its assigned amountand to demonstrate its capacity to
account for its emissions and assigned amount (UNFCC Decision 2/CMP.8). The ratification decision allows
a joint initial report of the EU, its Member States and Iceland, to be prepared by the European Commission,
and individual initial reports of each Member States and Iceland. In this report, planned to be submitted by
April 2016, the national assigned amount as well as the commitment period reserve will be described.
The selection of LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol for the commitment
period 2013-2020 will be indicated in the same document; Italy will elect cropland and grazing land
management activities.
24
Emission estimates comprise the six direct greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol (carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride) plus nitrogen trifluoride
(NF3) which contribute directly to climate change owing to their positive radiative forcing effect and four
indirect greenhouse gases (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, non-methane volatile organic compounds,
sulphur dioxide).
The CRF files, the national inventory reports and other related documents are available at the address
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni. Information on accounts, legal
entities, Art.6 projects, holdings and transactions is publicly available at http://www.info-ets.isprambiente.it.
https://etsThe
new
internet
address
of
the
Italian
registry
is:
registry.webgate.ec.europa.eu/euregistry/IT/index.xhtml.
The official inventory submissions can also be found at the UNFCCC website
http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/4303.ph
p.
It has to be noted that the present report is the official submission for the year 2015 under the UNFCCC and
not under the Kyoto Protocol.
According to Decision 13/CP.20 of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, CRF Reporter version
5.0.0 was not functioning in order to enable Annex I Parties to submit their CRF tables for the year 2015. In
the same Decision, the Conference of the Parties reiterated that Annex I Parties in 2015 may submit their
CRF tables after 15/April, but no longer than the corresponding delay in the CRF Reporter availability.
"Functioning" software means that the data on the greenhouse emissions/removals are reported accurately
both in terms of reporting format tables and XML format.
CRF reporter version 5.10 still contains issues in the reporting format tables and XML format in relation to
Kyoto Protocol requirements, and it is therefore not yet functioning to allow submission of all the
information required under Kyoto Protocol.
Recalling the Conference of Parties invitation to submit as soon as practically possible, and considering that
CRF reporter 5.10 allows sufficiently accurate reporting under the UNFCCC (even if minor inconsistencies
may still exist in the reporting tables, as per the Release Note accompanying CRF Reporter 5.10), the present
report is the official submission for the year 2015 under the UNFCCC. The present report is not an official
submission under the Kyoto Protocol, even though some of the information included may relate to the
requirements under the Kyoto Protocol.
1.2
Description of the institutional arrangement for inventory preparation
1.2.1
National Inventory System
The Legislative Decree 51 of March 7th 2008 instituted the National System for the Italian Greenhouse Gas
Inventory.
Article 5.1 of the Kyoto Protocol established that Annex I Parties should have in place a National System
since the end of 2006 for estimating anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by
sinks and for reporting and archiving inventory information according to the guidelines specified in the
UNFCCC Decision 20/COP.7. This decision is updated by Decision 24/CP19, which calling the system
national inventory arrangements does not change the basic requests of functionality and operability.
In addition, the Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for
monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions (EC, 2004) required that Member States established a
national greenhouse gas inventory system since the end of 2005 at the latest and that the Commission adopts
the EC’s inventory system since 30 June 2006.
The ‘National Registry for Carbon sinks’, instituted by a Ministerial Decree on 1st April 2008, is part of the
Italian National System and includes information on units of lands subject of activities under Article 3.3 and
activities elected under Article 3.4 and related carbon stock changes. In agreement with the Ministerial
decree art.4, the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea is responsible for the management of the
National Registry for Carbon sinks. The Decree also provides that ISPRA and the State Forestry Corps are
involved by the Ministry as technical scientific support for specific activities as defined in the relevant
25
protocol. ISPRA is responsible for the preparation of emission and removals estimates for the LULUCF
sector and for KP LULUCF supplementary information under art.7.1 of the Kyoto Protocol.
The National Registry for Carbon sinks is the instrument to estimate, in accordance with the COP/MOP
decisions, the IPCC Good Practice Guidance on LULUCF and every relevant IPCC guidelines, greenhouse
gases emissions by sources and removals by sinks in forest land and related land-use changes and to account
for the net removals in order to allow the Italian Registry to issue the relevant amount of removal units
(RMUs). Detailed information on the Registry is included in Annex 10, whereas additional information on
activities under Article 3.3 and Article 3.4 is reported in paragraph 1.2.2.
The Italian National System, currently in place, is fully described in the document ‘National Greenhouse Gas
Inventory System in Italy’ (ISPRA, 2015 [a]). No changes with respect to the last year submission occurred
in the National System.
A summary picture is reported herebelow.
As indicated by art. 14 bis of the Legislative Decree, the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research
(ISPRA), former Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), is the single entity
in charge of the preparation and compilation of the national greenhouse gas emission inventory. The
Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea is responsible for the endorsement of the inventory and for the
communication to the Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
The inventory is also submitted to the European Commission in the framework of the Greenhouse Gas
Monitoring Mechanism.
The Institute prepares annually a document which describes the national system including all updated
information on institutional, legal and procedural arrangements for estimating emissions and removals of
greenhouse gases and for reporting and archiving inventory information. The reports are publicly available at
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni.
A specific unit of the Institute is responsible for the compilation of the Italian Atmospheric Emission
Inventory and the Italian Greenhouse Gas Inventory in the framework of the Convention on Climate Change
and the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The whole inventory is compiled by the
Institute; scientific and technical institutions and consultants may help in improving information both on
activity data and emission factors of some specific activities. All the measures to guarantee and improve the
transparency, consistency, comparability, accuracy and completeness of the inventory are undertaken.
ISPRA is responsible for the general administration of the inventory and all aspects related to its preparation
preparation, reporting and quality management. Activities include the collection and processing of data from
different data sources, the selection of appropriate emissions factors and estimation methods consistent with
the IPCC Guidelines, the compilation of the inventory following the QA/QC procedures, the assessment of
uncertainty, the preparation of the National Inventory Report and the reporting through the Common
Reporting Format, the response to the review process, the updating and data storage.
Different institutions are responsible for statistical basic data and data publication, primary to ISPRA for
carrying out emission estimates. These institutions are part of the National Statistical System (Sistan), which
provides national official statistics, and therefore are required to periodically update statistics; moreover, the
National Statistical System ensures the homogeneity of the methods used for official statistics data through a
coordination plan, involving the entire public administration at central, regional and local levels.
The National Statistical System is coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT); other
bodies, joining the National Statistical System, are the statistical offices of ministries, national agencies,
regions and autonomous provinces, provinces, municipalities, research institutes, chambers of commerce,
local governmental offices, some private agencies and private subjects who have specific characteristics
determined by law.
The Italian statistical system was instituted on 6th September 1989 by the Legislative Decree n. 322/89,
establishing principles and criteria for reforming public statistics. This decree addresses to all public
statistical bodies and agencies which provide official statistics both at local, national and international level
in order to assure homogeneity of the methods and comparability of the results. To this end, a national
statistical plan which defines surveys, data elaborations and project studies for a three-year period was
established to be drawn up and updated annually. The procedures to be followed with relation to the annual
fulfilment as well as the forms to be filled in for census, data elaborations and projects, and how to deal with
sensitive information were also defined.
26
The plan is deliberated by the Committee for addressing and coordinating statistical information (Comstat)
and forwarded to the Commission for the assurance of statistical information; the Commission adopts the
plan after endorsement of the Guarantor of the privacy of personal data.
Finally, the plan is approved by a Prime Ministerial Decree after consideration of the Interministerial
Committee for economic planning (Cipe). The latest Prime Ministerial Decree, which approved the threeyear plan for 2014-2016, updated for 2014 and 2015, was signed by the President of the Republic in
Septembre 2015 and is under official publication. Statistical information and results deriving from the
completion of the plan are of public domain and the system is responsible for wide circulation.
Ministries, public agencies and other bodies are obliged to provide the data and information specified in the
annual statistical plan; the same obligations regard the private entities. All the data are protected by the
principles of statistical disclosure control and can be distributed and communicated only at aggregate level
even though microdata can circulate among the subjects of the Statistical System.
Sistan activity is supervised by the Commission for Guaranteeing Statistical Information (CGIS) which is an
external and independent body. In particular, the Commission supervises: the impartiality and completeness
of statistical information, the quality of methodologies, the compliance of surveys with EU and international
directives. The Commission, established within the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, is composed of
high-profile university professors, directors of statistical or research institutes and managers of public
administrations and bodies, which do not participate at Sistan.
The main Sistan products, which are primarily necessary for the inventory compilation, are:
• National Statistical Yearbooks, Monthly Statistical Bulletins, by ISTAT (National Institute of
Statistics);
• Annual Report on the Energy and Environment, by ENEA (Agency for New Technologies, Energy
and the Environment);
• National Energy Balance (annual), Petrochemical Bulletin (quarterly publication), by MSE (Ministry
of Economic Development);
• Transport Statistics Yearbooks, by MIT (Ministry of Transportation);
• Annual Statistics on Electrical Energy in Italy, by TERNA (National Independent System Operator);
• Annual Report on Waste, by ISPRA;
• National Forestry Inventory, by MIPAAF (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies).
The national emission inventory is also a Sistan product.
Other information and data sources are used to carry out emission estimates, which are generally referred to
in Table 1.1 of the following section 1.4
1.2.2
Institutional arrangement for reporting under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 of Kyoto
Protocol
The ‘National Registry for Carbon sinks’ was instituted by a Ministerial Decree on 1st April 2008 and is part
of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory System in Italy (ISPRA, 2015 [a]). In 2009, a technical group,
formed by experts from different institutions (ISPRA, Ministry of the Environment, Land and Sea, Ministry
of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies and University of Tuscia), set up the methodological plan of the
activities necessary to implement the registry and defined the relative funding. Some of these activities (in
particular IUTI, inventory of land use, see Annex 10) have been completed, resulting in land use
classification, for all national territory, for the years 1990, 2000 and 2008. For 2012, land use and land use
changes data were assessed through the survey on a IUTI's subgrid. Verification and validation activities
have been undertaken and the resulting time series have been discussed with the institutions involved in the
data providing; details are provided in paragraph 6.1.
Italy has elected cropland management (CM) and grazing land management (GM) as additional activities
under Article 3.4. Following the Decision 2/CMP.7, the forest management (FM) has to be compulsorily
accounted as an activity under Article 3.4.
The description of the main elements of the institutional arrangement under Article 3.3 and activities elected
under Article 3.4 is detailed in Annex 10.
Italy has decided to account for Article 3.3 and 3.4 elected activities at the end of the commitment period.
27
1.2.3
National Registry System
Between March 2006 and June 2012 Italy has been operating a national registry under Article 19 of Directive
2003/87/CE establishing the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and according to Regulation No.
2216/2004 of the European Commission. Italy has had such registry system tested successfully with the EU
Commission on February the 6th 2006; the connection between the registry’s production environment and the
Community Independent Transaction Log (CITL) has been established on March the 13th 2006 and the
Registry went live on 28 March 2006.
This registry was conceived for the administration of emissions allowances allocated to operators
participating to the EU ETS and it was developed according to the UN Data Exchange Standards document.
As a consequence, the registry established under Directive 2003/87/CE could also be used as a registry for
the administration of Kyoto Protocol units.
Consequently, the Italian registry for the EU ETS could go through an initialization process and a go-live
phase with the UNFCCC in order to become part of the Kyoto system of registries. In particular, Italy
successfully performed and passed the SSL connectivity testing (Oct. 26th 2007), the VPN connectivity
testing (Oct. 15th 2007), the Interoperability test according to Annex H of the UN DES (Nov. the 9th 2007),
and submitted all required information through a complete Readiness Questionnaire.
Following this process, the Italian registry fulfilled all of its obligations regarding conformity with the UN
Data Exchange Standards and has been deemed fully compliant with the registry requirements defined in
decisions 13/CMP.1 and 5/CMP.1.
After successful completion of the go-live process on 16th October 2008, the Italian registry commenced live
operations with the International Transaction Log (ITL) and it’s been operational ever since, ensuring the
precise tracking of holdings, issuances, transfers, cancellations and retirements of allowances and Kyoto
units.
Directive 2009/29/EC adopted in 2009, provided for the centralization of the EU ETS operations into a
single European Union registry operated by the European Commission as well as for the inclusion of the
aviation sector. At the same time, and with a view to increasing efficiency in the operations of their
respective national registries, the EU Member States who are also Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (25) plus
Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway decided to operate their registries in a consolidated manner in accordance
with all relevant decisions applicable to the establishment of Party registries - in particular Decision
13/CMP.1 and decision 24/CP.8.
With a view to complying with the new requirements of Commission Regulation 920/2010 and Commission
Regulation 1193/2011, in addition to implementing the platform shared by the consolidating Parties, the
registry of EU has undergone a major re-development. The consolidated platform which implements the
national registries in a consolidated manner (including the registry of EU) is called Consolidated System of
EU registries (CSEUR) and was developed together with the new EU registry on the basis the following
modalities:
1.
Each Party retains its organization designated as its registry administrator to maintain the national
registry of that Party and remains responsible for all the obligations of Parties that are to be fulfilled
through registries;
2.
Each Kyoto unit issued by the Parties in such a consolidated system is issued by one of the
constituent Parties and continues to carry the Party of origin identifier in its unique serial number;
3.
Each Party retains its own set of national accounts as required by paragraph 21 of the Annex to
Decision 15/CMP.1. Each account within a national registry keeps a unique account number
comprising the identifier of the Party and a unique number within the Party where the account is
maintained;
4.
Kyoto transactions continue to be forwarded to and checked by the UNFCCC Independent
Transaction Log (ITL), which remains responsible for verifying the accuracy and validity of those
transactions;
5.
The transaction log and registries continue to reconcile their data with each other in order to ensure
data consistency and facilitate the automated checks of the ITL;
6.
The requirements of paragraphs 44 to 48 of the Annex to Decision 13/CMP.1 concerning making
non-confidential information accessible to the public would be fulfilled by each Party individually;
28
7.
All registries reside on a consolidated IT platform sharing the same infrastructure technologies. The
chosen architecture implements modalities to ensure that the consolidated national registries are
uniquely identifiable, protected and distinguishable from each other, notably:
• with regards to the data exchange, each national registry connects to the ITL directly and
establishes a distinct and secure communication link through a consolidated communication
channel (VPN tunnel);
• the ITL remains responsible for authenticating the national registries and takes the full and
final record of all transactions involving Kyoto units and other administrative processes such
that those actions cannot be disputed or repudiated;
• with regards to the data storage, the consolidated platform continues to guarantee that data is
kept confidential and protected against unauthorized manipulation;
• the data storage architecture also ensures that the data pertaining to a national registry are
distinguishable and uniquely identifiable from the data pertaining to other consolidated
national registries;
• in addition, each consolidated national registry keeps a distinct user access entry point (URL)
and a distinct set of authorisation and configuration rules.
Following the successful implementation of the CSEUR platform, the 28 national registries concerned were
re-certified in June 2012 and switched over to their new national registry on 20 June 2012. During the golive process, all relevant transaction and holdings data were migrated to the CSEUR platform and the
individual connections to and from the ITL were re-established for each Party.
With regards to the administration of the Registry, the Italian Government adopted Legislative Decree N. 30
of 13 March 2013 (eventually modified by Legislative Decree N. 111 of 12 July 2015) which enforces
European Directive 2009/29/EC amending Directive 2003/87/EC. According to this Decree ISPRA is
responsible for the administration of the national section of the Union Registry and the Kyoto National
Registry; the Institute performs this task under the supervision of the national Competent Authority.
The Decree 30/2013 also establishes that the economic resources for the technical and administrative support
of the Registry will be supplied to ISPRA by account holders paying a fee. The amount of such a fee still has
to be regulated by a future Decree.
ISPRA set up an operational unit (“Settore del Registro nazionale dei crediti di emissione”) for the
administration of the National Registry. In the reporting period, six persons have been working for this unit
in order to maintain the Registry:
• the Registry Administrator (chief of the unit)
• 3 Registry Managers in charge of Registry functions and operations, resolution of problems,
manual intervention, implementation in the Registry of deliberations of Competent Authority,
helpdesk
• 2 persons dedicated to documentation archiving and some administrative tasks.
A description of the Italian registry system is presented in Annex 11.
Information on accounting of Kyoto Protocol units, including a summary of information reported in the
standard electronic format (SEF) tables is provided in Chapter 10, while information on changes in the
National Registry is reported in Chapter 12.
SEF tables including all data referring to units holdings and transactions during the year 2014 can be found
in Annex 8.
1.3
Brief description of the process of inventory preparation
ISPRA has established fruitful cooperation with a number of governmental and research institutions as well
as industrial associations, which helps improving some leading categories of the inventory. Specifically,
these activities aim at the improvement of provision and collection of basic data and emission factors,
through plant-specific data, and exchange of information on scientific researches and new sources.
Moreover, when in depth investigation is needed and a high uncertainty in the estimates is present, specific
sector analyses are committed to ad hoc research teams or consultants.
29
ISPRA also coordinates with different national and regional authorities and private institutions for the crosschecking of parameters and estimates as well as with ad hoc expert panels in order to improve the
completeness and transparency of the inventory.
The main basic data needed for the preparation of the GHG inventory are energy statistics published by the
Ministry of Economic Development Activities (MSE) in the National Energy Balance (BEN), statistics on
industrial and agricultural production published by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), statistics on
transportation provided by the Ministry of Transportation (MIT), and data supplied directly by the relevant
professional associations.
Emission factors and methodologies used in the estimation process are consistent with the IPCC Guidelines
and supported by national experiences and circumstances. Final decisions are up to inventory experts, taking
into account all the information available.
For the energy and industrial sectors, emissions and backgroung data collected in the framework of the
European Emissions Trading Scheme, the National Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (Italian PRTR)
and the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) Directive have yielded considerable developments in the relevant
sectors of the inventory. In fact, these figures are used either directly in the estimation process or as
verification of emission estimates, improving national emissions factors as well as activity data. Other small
plants voluntarily communicate their emissions which are also considered individually.
In addition, final estimates are checked and verified also in view of annual environmental reports by
industries.
Emission estimates are drawn up for each sector. Final data are communicated to the UNFCCC Secretariat
filling in the CRF files.
The process of the inventory preparation takes place annually. In addition to a new year, the entire time
series from 1990 onwards is checked and revised during the annual compilation of the inventory in order to
meet the requirements of transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy of the
inventory. Measures to guarantee and improve these qualifications are undertaken and recalculations should
be considered as a contribution to the overall improvement of the inventory.
In particular, recalculations are elaborated on account of changes in the methodologies used to carry out
emission estimates, changes due to different allocation of emissions as compared to previous submissions
and changes due to error corrections. The inventory may also be expanded by including categories not
previously estimated if sufficient information on activity data and suitable emission factors have been
identified and collected.
Information on the major recalculations is provided every year in the sectoral and general chapters of the
national inventory reports; detailed explanations of recalculations are also given compiling the relevant CRF
tables.
In Figure 1.1 the most important steps to guarantee the continous improvement of the national GHG
emission inventory are outlined.
30
1. Planning
- Setting quality objectives
4. Inventory improvement
- Quality objectives meeting
-
Evaluation of
system
effectiveness of the inventory
Assessing issues to be subject to further
improvements
-
Elaboration of QA/QC plan
Defining processes and resources
Selecting methods and emission factors
Continuous improvement
3. Inventory evaluation
- Implementing QA activities
Internal audits
Independent reviews
-
Verification
Review by international review teams
(UE - UNFCCC)
2. Preparation
- Collecting activity data
-
Updating emission factors
Estimating GHG emissions and removals
Implementing QC checks
Uncertainty assessment
Assessment of key categories
Archiving inventory material
Reporting
Figure 1.1 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory: annual inventory process
All the reference material, estimates and calculation sheets, as well as the documentation on scientific papers
and the basic data needed for the inventory compilation, are stored and archived at the Institute. After each
reporting cycle, all database files, spreadsheets and electronic documents are archived as ‘read-only-files’ so
that the documentation and estimates could be traced back during the review process or the new inventory
compilation year.
Technical reports and emission figures are publicly accessible by website at the address
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni.
1.4
Brief general description of methodologies and data sources used
A detailed description of methodologies and data sources used in the preparation of the emission inventory
for each sector is outlined in the relevant chapters. In Table 1.1 a summary of the activity data and sources
used in the inventory compilation is reported.
Methodologies are consistent with the IPCC Guidelines and EMEP/EEA Guidebooks (IPCC, 1997; IPCC,
2006; IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2003; EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007; EMEP/EEA, 2009; EMEP/EEA, 2013); national
emission factors are used as well as default emission factors from international guidebooks, when national
data are not available. The development of national methodologies is supported by background documents.
In Table 1.2 a summary of the methods and emission factors used in the compilation of the Italian inventory
is reported. A more detailed table, describing methods and emission factors for the key categories of the
national inventory for 2013, is included in Annex 9.
31
Table 1.1 Main activity data and sources for the Italian Emission Inventory
SECTOR
ACTIVITY DATA
SOURCE
1 Energy
1A1 Energy Industries
Fuel use
Energy Balance - Ministry of Economic Development
Major national electricity producers
European Emissions Trading Scheme
1A2 Manufacturing Industries
and Construction
Fuel use
Energy Balance - Ministry of Economic Development
Major National Industry Corporation
European Emissions Trading Scheme
1A3 Transport
Fuel use
Number of vehicles
Aircraft landing and take-off
cycles and maritime activities
Energy Balance - Ministry of Economic Development
Statistical Yearbooks - National Statistical System
Statistical Yearbooks - Ministry of Transportation
Statistical Yearbooks - Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC)
Maritime and Airport local authorities
1A4 Residential-public-commercial sector
Fuel use
Energy Balance - Ministry of Economic Development
1B Fugitive Emissions from Fuel
Amount of fuel treated,
stored, distributed
Energy Balance - Ministry of Economic Development
Statistical Yearbooks - Ministry of Transportation
Major National Industry Corporation
2 Industrial Processes
Production data
National Statistical Yearbooks- National Institute of Statistics
International Statistical Yearbooks-UN
European Emissions Trading Scheme
European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register
Sectoral Industrial Associations
3 Solvent and Other Product Use
Amount of solvent use
National Environmental Publications - Sectoral Industrial Associations
International Statistical Yearbooks - UN
4 Agriculture
Agricultural surfaces
Production data
Number of animals
Fertiliser consumption
Agriculture Statistical Yearbooks - National Institute of Statistics
Sectoral Agriculture Associations
5 Land Use, Land Use Change
and Forestry
Forest area, biomass
increment and stock
Biomass burnt
National Forestry Service (CFS) - National and Regional Forestry Inventory
Statistical Yearbooks - National Institute of Statistics
Universities and Research Institutes
6 Waste
Amount of waste
National Waste Cadastre - Institute for Environmental Protection and
Research , National Waste Observatory
32
Table 1.2 Methods and emission factors used in the inventory preparation
SUMMARY 3 SUMMARY REPORT FOR METHODS AND EMISSION FACTORS USE
GREENHOUS E GAS S OURCE AND
CATEGORIES
CO 2
Method applied
1. Energy
A. Fuel combustion
N2O
CH4
Emission
factor
Method
applied
Emission
factor
Method
applied
HFCs
Emission
factor
Method
applied
NA,T1,T2,T3 CS,D,NA,OTH NA,T1,T2,T3 CR,CS,D,M ,NA
NA,T1,T2,T3 CR,D,M ,NA
NA,T1,T2,T3
NA,T1,T2,T3 CR,D,M ,NA
CS,NA NA,T1,T2,T3
CR,D,M ,NA
1. Energy industries
T3
CS
T3
CR,D
T3
2. M anufacturing industries
and construction
T2
CS
T2
CR,D
T2
CR,D
CS,NA NA,T1,T2,T3
CR,M ,NA
NA,T1,T2,T3
CR,M ,NA
3. Transport
NA,T1,T2,T3
T2
CS
T2
CR
T2
CR
5. Other
T2
CS
T2
CR
T2
CR
NA,T1,T2 CS,D,NA,OTH
NA,T1,T2
CR,CS,D,NA
T1,T2
D
1. Solid fuels
NA,T1
NA,OTH
NA,T1
CR,D,NA
NA
NA
2. Oil and natural gas
T1,T2
CS,D
T1,T2
CS,D
T1,T2
D
C. CO2 transport and storage
NA
NA
D,T2
CR,CS,D,PS
CS,T2
2. Industrial processes
A. M ineral industry
B. Chemical industry
C. M etal industry
D. Non-energy products from fuels
and solvent use
CR,CS,D,T1,T2 CR,CS,D,M ,PS
T2
Method
applied
Emission
factor
CS,D,PS CS,NA,T2 CS,D,NA,PS CS,NA,T2 CS,NA,PS CS,NA,T2 CS,NA,PS
D,T2
CR,PS
D,T2
CR,CS,PS
T2
D,PS
CS,NA
NA,PS
CS,NA
NA,PS
NA
NA
T1,T2
CR,CS,D,PS
D
CS,D
NA
NA
T2
PS
NA
NA
NA
NA
CR,CS,T1,T2 CR,CS,D,M ,PS
NA
NA
NA
NA
T2
CS
T2
CS
CS,T2
CS,PS
NA
NA
NA
NA
T2
CS
F. Product uses as ODS substitutes
T2
CS,D
NA
NA
G. Other product manufacture and
use
CS
CS
NA
NA
NA
NA
3. Agriculture
T1,T2
CS,D
CS,T1,T2
CS,D
A. Enteric fermentation
T1,T2
CS,D
B. M anure management
T1,T2
CS,D
T2
CS,D
T2
CS
CS,T1
CS,D
T1
CS,D
NA
NA
C. Rice cultivation
D. Agricultural soils
Unspecified mix of
S F6
Emission
factor
Method
applied
Emission
factor
NF3
Method Emission
applied
factor
NA
NA
NA,T2
CS,NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
T2
CS
NA
NA
CS,PS
E. Electronic industry
H. Other
Method
applied
CR,D
4. Other sectors
B. Fugitive emissions from fuels
PFCs
Emission
factor
(3)
NA
NA
E. Prescribed burning of savannas
F. Field burning of agricultural residues
G. Liming
H. Urea application
I. Other carbon-containing fertilizers
T1
T1
CS,D
D
T1
D
NA
NA
J. Other
4. Land use, land-use change and
forestry
NA,T1,T2,T3
CS,D,NA
NA,T1,T2
CS,D,NA
A. Forest land
NA
NA
NA,T2
CS,D,NA
NA,T2
CS,D,NA
B. Cropland
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA,T1
D,NA
C. Grassland
NA,T1
CS,D,NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
D. Wetlands
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA,T1
D,NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA,T1
CS,NA
D,T1
CR,CS,D
E. Settlements
F. Other land
G. Harvested wood products
NA,T1,T2 CS,D,NA,NO
H. Other
5. Waste
A. Solid waste disposal
D
CS
CS,D,T1,T2
CR,CS,D
NA
NA
T2
CS
D
CS
B. Biological treatment of solid waste
C. Incineration and open burning of
waste
D. Waste water treatment and discharge
CS,D
CS,D
D
D
D,T1
CR,CS,D
D,T1
CS,D
D
D
D
CR,D
E. Other
6. Other (as specified in summary 1.A)
Use the following notation keys to specify the method applied:
D (IPCC default)
T1a, T1b, T1c (IPCC Tier 1a, Tier 1b and Tier 1c, respectively)
CR (CORINAIR)
M (model)
RA (Reference Approach)
T2 (IPCC Tier 2)
CS (Country Specific)
T1 (IPCC Tier 1)
T3 (IPCC Tier 3)
OTH (Other)
If using more than one method within one source category, list all the relevant methods. Explanations regarding country-specific methods, other methods or any modifications to the default IPCC methods, as well as
Use the following notation keys to specify the emission factor used:
D (IPCC default)
CS (Country Specific)
CR (CORINAIR)
PS (Plant Specific)
OTH (Other)
M (model)
Activity data used in emission calculations and their sources are briefly described here below.
In general, for the energy sector, basic statistics for estimating emissions are fuel consumptions provided in
the Energy Balance by the Ministry of Economic Development. Additional information for electricity
production is supplied by the major national electricity producers and by the major national industry
corporation. On the other hand, basic information for road transport, maritime and aviation, such as the
number of vehicles, harbour statistics and aircraft landing and take-off cycles are published by the National
Institute of Statistics and the Ministry of Transportation in the relevant statistical yearbooks. Other data are
communicated by different category associations.
33
In the last years, a lot of information on productions, fuel consumptions, emission factors and emissions in
specific energy and industrial sub sectors is obtained from data collected by operators under the European
Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).
To implement the European Directive 2003/87 (EU, 2003), amended by Directive 2009/29/EC (EU, 2009)
establishing the EU ETS, Italy, according to Legislative Decree n. 216/2006 (Legislative Decree, 2006) and
Legislative Decree n. 51/2008 (MATTM, 2008), established the national registry and the national ETS
commitee. The criteria of data reporting are defined by Decision 2007/589/EC (EC, 2007), Monitoring and
Reporting Guidelines for GHG emissions under ETS, and adopted at national level by Deliberation of the
national ETS Committee n. 14/2010 (MATTM, 2009).
In compliance with the above mentioned legislations, independent certifications and verifications of activity
data, emission data and emission factors are required. At national level, data verification has to be carried out
by verifiers accredited by the national ETS Committee according to the ministerial decree
DEC/RAS/115/2006. The verification of data submissions ensures reliability, credibility, and
precision/accuracy of monitoring systems for data and any information relating emissions by plant.
Data from the Italian Emissions Trading Scheme database are incorporated into the national inventory
whenever the sectoral coverage is complete; in fact, ETS data not always entirely cover energy categories
whereas national statistics, such as the national energy balance and the energy production and consumption
statistics, provide the complete basic data needed for the Italian emission inventory. Nevertheless, ETS data
are entirely used to develop country-specific emission factors and check activity data levels.
For the industrial sector, the annual production data are provided by national and international statistical
yearbooks. Emission data collected through the National Pollutant Release and Transfer Register are also
used in the development of emission estimates or taken into account as a verification of emission estimates
for some specific categories. According to the Italian Decree of 23 November 2001, data (reporting period
2002-2006) included in the Italian pollutant emissions register were validated by competent authorities
within 30 June each year and communicated by ISPRA to the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea
every year and to the European Commission every three years according to EC Decision 2000/479 (two
reporting cycles: data related to 2002 and 2004 were reported respectively in 2003 and in 2006). Since 2008
the national pollutant emissions register has been replaced by the national pollutant release and transfer
register (the Italian PRTR) to comply with Regulation EC n.166/2006; data are collected annually at facility
level and sent, after validation, by competent authorities to European Commission within 31 March every
year for data referring to the previous year. These data are used for the compilation of the inventory
whenever they are complete in terms of sectoral information; in fact, industries communicate figures only if
they exceed specific thresholds; furthermore, basic data such as fuel consumption are not supplied and
production data are not always split by product but reported as an overall figure. Anyway, the Italian PRTR
is a good basis for data checks and a way to facilitate contacts with industries which, in many cases, supply,
under request, additional information as necessary for carrying out sectoral emission estimates.
In addition, final emissions are checked and verified also taking into account figures reported by industries in
their annual environmental reports.
Both for energy and industrial processes, emissions of large industrial point sources are registered
individually; communication also takes place in the framework of the European Directive on Large
Combustion Plants, based upon detailed information such as fuel consumption. Other small plants
voluntarily communicate their emissions which are also considered individually. For solvents, the amount of
solvent use is provided by environmental publications of sectoral industries and specific associations as well
as international statistics.
ISPRA directly collects data from the industrial associations under the ETS and other European directives,
Large Combustion Plant and INES/PRTR, and makes use of these data in the preparation of the national
inventory ensuring the consistency of time series.
For the other sectors, i.e. for agriculture, annual production data and number of animals are provided by the
National Institute of Statistics and other sectoral associations.
For land use, land use change and forestry, forest areas are derived from national forest inventories provided
by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies (National Forest Service); the National Forest
Service is also the provider of official statistics related to the areas subject to fires.
For waste, the main activity data are provided by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research
and the Waste Observatory.
34
In case basic data are not available, proxy variables are considered; unpublished data are used only if
supported by personal communication and confidentiality of data is respected.
As for data disclosure, the inventory team is obliged to ensure confidentiality of sensitive information by
legislation when data are communicated under specific directives or confidentiality is requested by data
providers. In the case of data collection under the ETS, P-RTR, large combustion plants and other directives,
the database of the complete information is available only to a specific group of authorised persons which
has the legal responsibility for the respect of confidentiality issues. In the other cases, each expert is
responsible for the data received, and information is kept confidential if requested by the data provider. In
any case, all data are placed on a password protected access environment at ISPRA and available only to
authorised experts of the inventory team.
All the material and documents used for the inventory estimation process are stored at the Institute for
Environmental Protection and Research. Activity data and emission factors as well as methodologies are
referenced to their data sources. A ‘reference’ database has also been developed and used to increase the
transparency of the inventory.
1.5
Brief description of key categories
A key category analysis of the Italian inventory is carried out according to the Approach 1 and Approach 2
described in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
According to the IPCC guidelines, a key category is defined as an emission category that has a significant
influence on a country’s GHG inventory in terms of the absolute level and trend in emissions and removals,
or both. Key categories are those which, when summed together in descending order of magnitude, add up to
over 95% of the total emissions or 90% of total uncertainty.
National emissions have been disaggregated into the categories proposed in the IPCC guidelines; other
categories have been added to reflect specific national circumstances. Both level and trend analysis have
been applied to the last submitted inventory; a key category analysis has also been carried out for the base
year emission levels.
For the base year, 27 sources were individuated implementing Approach 1, whereas 29 sources were carried
out by Approach 2. Including the LULUCF in the analysis, 33 categories were selected by Approach 1 and
33 by Approach 2, for a total of 43 categories jointly by the two approaches. The description of these
categories is shown in Table 1.3 and Table1.4.
35
Table 1.3 Key categories (excluding LULUCF) by the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2. Base year
Key categories (excluding the LULUCF sector)
Transport - CO2 Road transportation
L
Energy industries - CO2 liquid fuels
L
Energy industries - CO2 solid fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
liquid fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
gaseous fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid
fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2
gaseous fuels
Solid waste disposal - CH4
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid
fuels
L
Energy industries - CO2 gaseous fuels
L
Mineral industry - CO2 Cement production
Enteric Fermentation - CH4
Direct N2O Emissions from Managed soils
L
L
L
Fugitive - CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
L
Transport - CO2 Waterborne navigation
L1
Chemical industry - N2O Adipic acid production
Manure Management - CH4
Wastewater treatment and discharge - CH4
L
L
L
Metal industry - CO2 Iron and steel production
Indirect N2O Emissions from Managed soils
Mineral industry - CO2 Other processes uses of
carbonates
L1
L
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
L1
Non-Energy products from Fuels and Solvent Use - CO2
L
Chemical industry - N2O Nitric acid production
Metal industry - PFCs Aluminium production
L1
L
Chemical industry - CO2 Ammonia production
L1
Mineral industry - CO2 Lime production
Wastewater treatment and discharge - N2O
Indirect N2O Emissions from Manure Management
Manufacturing industries and construction - N2O liquid
fuels
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture
liquid fuels
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - venting and flaring
Chemical industry - PFCs Fluorochemical production
Transport - CH4 Road transportation
Manure Management - N2O
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - Other - flaring in
refineries
L1
L2
L2
L
L
L
L
L
L
L1
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
36
Table 1.4 Key categories (including LULUCF) by the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2. Base year
Key categories (including the LULUCF sector)
Transport - CO2 Road transportation
Energy industries - CO2 liquid fuels
Energy industries - CO2 solid fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture liquid
fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
gaseous fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 gaseous
fuels
Solid waste disposal - CH4
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid fuels
Forest Land remaining Forest Land - CO2
Energy industries - CO2 gaseous fuels
Mineral industry - CO2 Cement production
Enteric Fermentation - CH4
Direct N2O Emissions from Managed soils
Fugitive - CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
Land Converted to Settlements - CO2
Transport - CO2 Waterborne navigation
Grassland Remaining Grassland - CO2
Chemical industry - N2O Adipic acid production
Manure Management - CH4
Wastewater treatment and discharge - CH4
Metal industry- CO2 Iron and steel production
Land Converted to Forest Land - CO2
Indirect N2O Emissions from Managed soils
Mineral industry- CO2 Other processes uses of carbonates
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
Non-Energy products from Fuels and Solvent Use - CO2
Chemical industry- N2O Nitric acid production
Metal industry- PFCs Aluminium production
Chemical industry- CO2 Ammonia production
Mineral industry - CO2 Lime production
Rice cultivations - CH4
Manure Management - N2O
Cropland Remaining Cropland - CO2
Land Converted to Grassland - CO2
Wastewater treatment and discharge - N2O
Grassland Remaining Grassland - CH4
Land Converted to Cropland - CO2
Indirect N2O Emissions from Manure Management
Manufacturing industries and construction - N2O liquid fuels
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture
liquid fuels
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - venting and flaring
Chemical industry - PFCs Fluorochemical production
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L1
L
L
L
L
L1
L
L
L1
L1
L
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
Applying the analysis to the 2013 inventory, without the LULUCF sector, 46 key categories were totally
individuated, both at level and trend. Results are reported in Table 1.5.
37
Table 1.5 Key categories (excluding LULUCF) by the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2. Year 2013
Key categories (excluding the LULUCF sector)
Transport - CO2 Road transportation
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture gaseous fuels
Energy industries - CO2 solid fuels
Energy industries - CO2 gaseous fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 gaseous fuels
Energy industries - CO2 liquid fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture liquid fuels
Solid waste disposal - CH4
Enteric Fermentation - CH4
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid fuels
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs
Refrigeration and Air conditioning
Mineral industry - CO2 Cement production
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid fuels
Direct N2O Emissions from Managed soils
Fugitive - CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture other fossil fuels
Transport - CO2 Waterborne navigation
Manure Management - CH4
Wastewater treatment and discharge - CH4
Indirect N2O Emissions from Managed soils
Other sectors - CH4 commercial, residential, agriculture biomass
Transport - CO2 Civil Aviation
Mineral industry- CO2 Lime production
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
Rice cultivations - CH4
Chemical industry- PFCs Fluorochemical production
Wastewater treatment and discharge - N2O
Non-Energy products from Fuels and Solvent Use - CO2
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture biomass
Indirect N2O Emissions from Manure Management
Biological treatment of Solid waste - N2O
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture liquid fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - N2O liquid fuels
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs Foam
blowing agents
Transport - N2O Road transportation
Chemical industry- N2O Adipic acid production
Metal industry- PFCs Aluminium production
Chemical industry - N2O Nitric acid production
Metal industry - CO2 Iron and steel production
Mineral industry- CO2 Other processes uses of carbonates
Chemical industry- CO2 Ammonia production
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture solid fuels
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs Aerosols
Transport - CH4 Road transportation
Chemical industry - HFCs Fluorochemical production
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs Fire
protection
L, T
L,T
L,T
L, T
L, T
L, T
L, T
L, T
L,T1
L,T
L,T
L, T
L1, T
L
L, T
L1, T
L1
L
L,T2
L
L, T
L1
L1
L1
L1
L, T
L2, T2
L2, T2
L2, T
L2
L2, T2
L2
L2
L2, T2
L2
T
T
T
T
T1
T1
T1
T2
T2
T2
T2
38
If considering emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector, 48 key categories were individuated as
reported in Table 1.6.
Table 1.6 Key categories (including LULUCF) by the IPCC IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2. Year 2013
Key categories (including the LULUCF sector)
Transport - CO2 Road transportation
L, T
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture gaseous fuels
L, T
Energy industries - CO2 solid fuels
L, T
Energy industries - CO2 gaseous fuels
L, T
Forest Land remaining Forest Land - CO2
L, T
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 gaseous fuels
L, T1
Energy industries - CO2 liquid fuels
L, T
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture liquid fuels
L, T
Solid waste disposal - CH4
L
Enteric Fermentation - CH4
L, T
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid fuels
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs
Refrigeration and Air conditioning
L1, T
Mineral industry - CO2 Cement production
L, T
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid fuels
L1, T1
Land Converted to Settlements - CO2
L, T
Direct N2O Emissions from Managed soils
L
Land Converted to Forest Land - CO2
L, T
Land Converted to Grassland - CO2
L, T
Fugitive - CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture other fossil
fuels
L, T
Transport - CO2 Waterborne navigation
L1
Manure Management - CH4
L
Cropland Remaining Cropland - CO2
L, T
Wastewater treatment and discharge - CH4
L
Indirect N2O Emissions from Managed soils
L
Other sectors - CH4 commercial, residential, agriculture biomass
L, T
Transport - CO2 Civil Aviation
L1, T1
Mineral industry- CO2 Lime production
L1
Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
L1
Rice cultivations - CH4
L1
Grassland Remaining Grassland - CO2
L, T
Wastewater treatment and discharge - N2O
L2, T2
Chemical industry- PFCs Fluorochemical production
L2, T
Non-Energy products from Fuels and Solvent Use - CO2
L2
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture biomass
L2, T
Chemical industry - N2O Adipic acid production
T
Metal industry - PFCs Aluminium production
T
Chemical industry - N2O Nitric acid production
T1
Metal industry - CO2 Iron and steel production
T1
Mineral industry - CO2 Other processes uses of carbonates
T1
Chemical industry - CO2 Ammonia production
T1
L, T
L1, T1
39
Key categories (including the LULUCF sector)
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture solid fuels
T1
Grassland Remaining Grassland - CH4
T2
Biological treatment of Solid waste - N2O
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs
Foam blowing agents
T2
Harvest Wood Products - CO2
Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances - HFCs
Aerosols
T2
Land Converted to Cropland - CO2
T2
T2
T2
Key category analysis for KP-LULUCF was performed according to section 2.3.6 of the 2013 IPCC KP
Supplement (IPCC, 2014). Results are also reported in Table 9.16 of chapter 9.
CO2 emissions and removals from Afforestation/Reforestation and Deforestation activities (art. 3.3) and from
Forest management (art. 3.4) have been assessed as key categories. CO2 emissions and removals from
Cropland and Grazing land management are ale identified as key categories. Their figures have been
compared with Table 1.6, key categories for the latest reported year (2013) based on the level of emissions
including LULUCF. The respective associated UNFCCC subcategories are Land converting to forest land,
Land converted to settlements, and Forest land remaining Forest land, which are key categories at level and
trend assessment, as well as Cropland remaining cropland and Grassland remaining grassland.
The analysis of key categories is used to prioritize improvements that should be taken into account for the
next inventory submissions. First of all, it is important that emissions of key categories, being the most
significant in terms of absolute weight and/or combined uncertainty, are estimated with a high level of
accuracy. For the Italian inventory, higher tiers are mostly used for calculating emissions from these
categories as requested by the IPCC Guidleines and the use of country specific emission factors is extensive.
As reported in Table A9.1, in the Annex, there are only a few key categories which estimates do not meet
these quality objectives, in terms of the methodology and the application of default emission factors. Among
these categories, prioritization is made on account of the actual absolute weight, the expected future
relevance, the level of uncertainty and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Therefore improvements are planned for
the LULUCF sector. In addition to this evaluation, also categories estimated with higher tiers but affected by
a high level of uncertainty are considered in the prioritization plan. For istance, activities are planned for
HFC, PFC substitutes for ODS in order to improve the accuracy of the Italian inventory and reduce the
overall uncertainty.
1.6
Information on the QA/QC plan including verification and treatment of
confidentiality issues where relevant
ISPRA has elaborated an inventory QA/QC plan which describes specific QC procedures to be implemented
during the inventory development process, facilitates the overall QA procedures to be conducted, to the
extent possible, on the entire inventory and establishes quality objectives.
Particularly, an inventory QA/QC procedures manual (ISPRA, 2013) has been drawn up which describes
QA/QC procedures and verification activities to be followed during the inventory compilation and helps in
the inventory improvement. Furthermore, specific QA/QC procedures and different verification activities
implemented thoroughly the current inventory compilation, as part of the estimation process, are figured out
in the annual QA/QC plan (ISPRA, 2015 [b]). These documents are publicly available at ISPRA website
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni.
Quality control checks and quality assurance procedures together with some verification activities are
applied both to the national inventory as a whole and at sectoral level. Future planned improvements are
prepared for each sector by the relevant inventory compiler; each expert identifies areas for sectoral
improvement based on his own knowledge and in response to the UNFCCC inventory reviews and taking
into account the result of the key category assessment.
40
The quality of the inventory has improved over the years and further investigations are planned for all those
sectors relevant in terms of contribution to total CO2 equivalent emissions and with a high uncertainty.
In addition to routine general checks, source specific quality control procedures are applied on a case by case
basis focusing on key categories and on categories where significant methodological and data revision have
taken place or on new sources.
Checklists are compiled annually by the inventory experts and collected by the QA/QC coordinator. These
lists are also registred in the ‘reference’ database.
General QC procedures also include data and documentation gathering. Specifically, the inventory analyst
for a source category maintains a complete and separate project archive for that source category; the archive
includes all the materials needed to develop the inventory for that year and is kept in a transparent manner.
All the information used for the inventory compilation is traceable back to its source. The inventory is
composed by spreadsheets to calculate emission estimates; activity data and emission factors as well as
methodologies are referenced to their data sources. Particular attention is paid to the archiving and storing of
all inventory data, supporting information, inventory records as well as all the reference documents. To this
end, a major improvement which increases the transparency of the inventory has been the development of a
‘reference’ database. After each reporting cycle, all database files, spreadsheets and official submissions are
archived as ‘read-only’ mode in a master computer.
Quality assurance procedures regard some verification activities of the inventory as a whole and at sectoral
level. Feedbacks for the Italian inventory derive from communication of data to different institutions and/or
at local level. For instance, the communication of the inventory to the European Community results in a precheck of the GHG values before the submission to the UNFCCC and relevant inconsistencies may be
highlighted.
Every year, emission figures are also subjected to a process of re-examination once the inventory, the
inventory related publications and the national inventory reports are posted on website, specifically
www.isprambiente.gov.it, and from the communication of data to different institutions and/or at local level.
In some cases, sectoral major recalculations are presented and shared with the relevant stakeholders prior to
the official submission.
For the energy and industrial sectors, different meetings have been held in the last years jointly with the
industrial associations, the Ministries of the Environment and Economic Development and ISPRA in the
framework of the European Emissions Trading Scheme, specifically for assessing carbon leakage in EU
energy intensive industries and the definition of GHG emission benchmarks; also in this context, estimations
of the emission inventory for different sectors have been presented.
Generally, in the last years ISPRA has held different meetings with the industrial associations in the context
of different European legislation. ISPRA collects data from the industrial associations and industrial facilities
under the ETS and other European legislation such as Large Combustion Plant Directive and E-PRTR
Regulation. The inventory team manages all these data and makes use of them in the preparation of the
national inventory ensuring the consistency of time series among data by the comparison of the information
collected under the directives with other sources available before the first available years of data collected
(2000 and 2002, reporting years for data collected under ETS and INES/ PRTR facilities, respectively).
Emissions and activity data submitted under the ETS are mandatorily subject to verification procedures, as
requested and specified by the European Directive 2003/87/EC (art. 15 and Annex V). Also the quality of the
Italian PRTR data is guaranteed by art.9 of the Regulation 2006/166/EC and by art.3(3) of the Presidential
Decree n.157/2011.
In addition, ISPRA manages all this information in an informative system to help in highlighting the main
discrepancies among data, and improving the management of the time series consistency. The informative
system is based on identification codes to trace back individual point sources in different databases.
Other specific activities relating to improvements of the inventory and QA/QC practises in the last year
regarded the progress on the building of a unique database where information collected in the framework of
different European legislation, Large Combustion Plant, INES/PRTR and Emissions Trading, are gathered
together thus highlighting the main discrepancies in information and detecting potential errors. The actual
figures are considered in an overall approach and used in the compilation of the inventory.
41
ISPRA is also responsible for the provincial inventory at local scale; at now the provincial inventories at
local scale for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 2005 and 2010 are available.Iin fact, every 5 years, in the
framework of the Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and
Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) under the Convention on
Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLTRAP), Parties has to report their national air emissions
disaggregated on a 50*50 km grid. Specifically, ISPRA has applied a top-down approach to estimate
emissions at provincial areas based on proxy variables. The results were checked out by regional and local
environmental agencies and authorities; data are available at ISPRA web address
http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/inventaria and a report which describes detailed
methodologies to carry out estimates is published (Liburdi et al., 2004; ISPRA, 2009). Comparisons between
top-down and local inventories have been carried out during the last year and will continue in the next years;
results are shared among the ‘local inventories’ expert group leading to an improvement in methodologies
for both the inventories.
The inventory is also presented to a Technical Committee on Emissions (CTE), coordinated by the Ministry
for the Environment, Land and Sea, where all the relevant Ministries and local authorities are represented;
within this context emission figures and results are shared and discussed. Especially in the last years, there
has been an intensification of these activities in order to establish national policies and measures to meet the
2020 EU target and implement national programmes for the post Kyoto period. In this regard, and as a basis
for emission scenarios, the importance of the emission inventory is primary.
Moreover, from 2011, a report concerning the state of implementation of commitments to reduce greenhouse
gases emissions, and describing emission trend and projections, is prepared by ISMELS in consultation with
other relevant Ministers. The report is annexed to the economy and financial document (DEF) to be annually
approved by the Government.
Expert peer reviews of the national inventory also occur annually within the UNFCCC process, whose
results and suggestions can provide valuable feedback on areas where the inventory should be improved.
Specifically, in June 2007, Italy was subjected by the UNFCC Secretariat to the in-country review of the
national initial report and the GHG inventory submitted in 2006, which results and recommendations can be
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/arr/ita.pdf,
found
on
website
at
the
addresses
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/irr/ita.pdf, (UNFCCC, 2007 [a]; UNFCCC, 2007 [b]). The last in
country review occurred in October in 2013 (UNFCC, 2013). The results of the last centralised review are
reported in UNFCCC 2015 (UNFCCC, 2015). The issues raised during the process were addressed and
implemented; details are reported in Annex 12 and in relevant sections.
At European level, reviews of the European inventory are undertaken by experts from different Member
States for critical sectoral categories in the context of the European GHG Monitoring Mechanism. Moreover,
in the context of the European Effort Sharing Decision (EC, 2009) defining the 2020 emission limit of a
Member State in relation to its 2005 emissions, a technical review will be carried out to review and verify
emission data of each Member State, for the reference years 2005, 2008 and 2009, prior to determining their
annual emission allocations. The review process took place in 2012, recommendations and improvements
were implemented by Member States but results of the process are not publicly available.
An official review, apart from those by the UNFCCC, was performed by Ecofys, in 2000, in order to verify
of the effectiveness of policies and measures undertaken by Italy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the
levels established by the Kyoto Protocol. In this framework an independent review and checks on emission
levels were carried out as well as controls on the transparency and consistency of methodological approaches
(Ecofys, 2001).
In 2007, VITO, Öko-Institut and the Institute for European Environmental Policy, for DG Environment,
undertook a review on the methodologies and EU Member States best practices used for GHG projections to
indentify possible ways to improve GHG projections and ensure consistency across the EU. The results were
presented at the Workshop ‘Assessing and improving methodologies for GHG projections’ in 2008. Further
analyses were presented during the Workshop on ‘Quantification of the effects on greenhouse gas emissions
of policies and measures’.
Also, in 2012, Italy was subjected to a broad review of its environmental performance by OECD which
identified good practices and made recommendations to improve environmental policies and programmes;
the issues reviewed included policy-making environment, towards green growth, multi-level environmental
42
governance of water and climate change. Results of the analysis are reported in the relevant document
(OECD, 2013) and available on website at the address http://www.oecd.org/env/countryreviews/reviewingenvironmentalperformance.htm.
A bilateral independent review between Italy and Spain was undertaken in 2012, with a focus on the revision
of the GHG inventories of both the Parties. Two in-country visits were held in 2012; the Italian team revised
part of the energy sector of Spain, specifically the categories public power plants, petroleum refining plants,
road transport and off-road, whereas the Spanish team revised the Industrial processes and solvent and other
product use, and the LULUCF sectors of Italy. Results of these analyses are reported in a technical report.
Aim of the review was to carry out a general quality assurance analysis of the inventories in terms of the
methodologies, the EFs and the references used, as well as analysing critical cross cutting issues such as the
details of the national energy balances and comparison with international data (Eurostat and IEA), and use of
plant specific information.
In addition, an official independent review of the entire Italian greenhouse gas inventory was undertaken by
the Aether consultants in 2013. Main findings and recommendations are reported in a final document, and
regard mostly the transparency in the NIR, the improvement of QA/QC documentation and some pending
issues in the LULUCF sector. These suggestions have been considered to improve the future submissions.
The preparation of environmental reports where data are needed at different aggregation levels or refer to
different contexts, such as environmental and economic accountings, is also a check for emission trends. At
national level, for instance, emission time series are reported in the Environmental Data Yearbooks
published by ISPRA. Emission data are also published by the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea in
the Reports on the State of the Environment and the National Communications as well as in the
Demonstrable Progress Report. Moreover, figures are communicated to the National Institute of Statistics to
be published in the relevant Environmental Statistics Yearbooks as well as used in the framework of the
EUROSTAT NAMEA Project.
At European level, ISPRA also reports on indicators meeting the requirements of Article 3 (1)(j) of Decision
N° 280/2004/EC. In particular, Member States shall submit figures on specified priority indicators and
should submit information on additional priority and supplementary indicators for the period from 1990 to
the last submitted year and forecasts for some specified years. National trends of these indicators are reported
in the document ‘Carbon Dioxide Intensity Indicators’ (ISPRA, 2015 [c]).
Comparisons between national activity data and data from international databases are usually carried out in
order to find out the main differences and an explanation to them (ENEA/MAP/APAT, 2004). Emission
intensity indicators among countries (e.g. emissions per capita, industrial emissions per unit of value added,
road transport emissions per passenger car, emissions from power generation per kWh of electricity
produced, emissions from dairy cows per tonne of milk produced) can also be useful to provide a preliminary
check and verification of the order of magnitude of the emissions. This is carried out at European and
international level by considering the annual reports compiled by the EC and the UNFCCC as well as related
documentation available from international databases and outcome of relevant workshops.
Additional comparisons between emission estimates from industrial sectors and those published by the
industry itself in their Environmental reports are carried out annually in order to assess the quality and the
uncertainty of the estimates.
The quality of the inventory has also improved by the organization and participation in sector specific
workshops. Follow-up processes are also set up in the framework of the WGI under the EC Monitoring
Mechanism, which addresses to the improvement of different inventory sectors. Specifically in the last years,
two workshops were held, one related to the management of uncertainty in national inventories and problems
on the application of higher methodologies to calculate uncertainty figures, the other on how to use data from
the European emissions trading scheme in the national greenhouse gas inventories. Previous workshops
addressed methodologies to estimate emissions from the agriculture and LULUCF sectors, involving the
Joint Research Centre, from the waste sector, involving the European Topic Center on Resource and Waste
Management, as well as from international bunkers, involving the International Energy Agency and
EUROCONTROL. Presentations and documentation of the workshops are available on the website at the
address: http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/meetings/past_html.
43
Additional consistency checks of data are carried out in the context of the European Regulation No
525/2013. EU Member States shall report in textual and tabular format on data inconsistencies.
For example, according to Art. 7(1)(m)(i) of the EU Regulation, data on air pollutants estimated under the
UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and those under the UNFCCC Convention
should not exceed the difference of more than +/–5 % between the total emissions for a specific pollutant
otherwise text and a tabular format should be compiled by the Member State. As shown in chapter 2, para
2.4, these differences for Italy are far under the threshold.
Other relevant articles of the EU Regulation for data consistency are Article 10, on emissions reported under
the European ETS, Article 11 and Article 12 related to F-gases international energy data.
Specifically, Article 10 regards the consistency of reported GHG emissions under UNFCCC with data from
the EU emissions trading system in tabular and textual form by category; the detailed table for 2013 is
included in Annex 13 of the NIR.
As for Article 11, on consistency of F-gas estimates with data reported under Regulation (EC) No 842/2006
of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases, the
verification process is still on progress due to the large amount of data and the difficulty to analyze the
amount of F-gases actually used by the national operators. However, activities are already carried out on
verification of average emission factors and activity data reported at sectoral level.
Article 12 of the EU Implementing Regulation obliges Memeber States to report textual information on the
comparison between the reference approach calculated on the basis of the data included in the GHG
inventory and the reference approach calculated on the basis of the data reported pursuant to Article 4 of
Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1) and Annex B to that
Regulation (Eurostat energy data). If these differences are higher than +/– 2 %, in the total national apparent
fossil fuel consumption at aggregate level for all fossil fuel categories, a tabular format shall also be
compiled . For Italy these differences are below the determined threshold; also these data are reported in
Annex 13 for the year 2013.
A national conference on the Italian emission inventory was organized by ISPRA in October 2006.
Methodologies used to carry out national figures and results of time series from 1990 to 2004 were presented
detailing explanations for each sector. More than one hundred participants from national and local
authorities, Ministries, Industry, Universities and Research organizations attended the meeting.
In 2007, in the context of the national conference on climate change a specific session was dedicated to the
national emission inventory. In addition, a specific event was held on the results of the 2005 national GHG
inventory. In 2010, the time series of emission figures 1990-2008 were presented in a specific national Kyoto
Protocol event.
A specific procedure undertaken for improving the inventory regards the establishment of national expert
panels (in particular, in road transport, land use change and forestry and energy sectors) which involve, on a
voluntary basis, different institutions, local agencies and industrial associations cooperating for improving
activity data and emission factors accuracy. Specifically, for the LULUCF sector, following the election of
the 3.3 and 3.4 activities and on account of an in-depth analysis on the information needed to report
LULUCF under the Kyoto Protocol, a Scientific Committee, Comitato di Consultazione Scientifica del
Registro dei Serbatoi di Carbonio Forestali, constituted by the relevant national experts has been established
by the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food
and Forest Policies.
In addition to these expert panels, ISPRA participates in technical working groups within the National
Statistical System. These groups, named Circoli di qualità, coordinated by the National Institute of Statistics,
are constituted by both producers and users of statistical information with the aim of improving and
monitoring statistical information in specific sectors such as transport, industry, agriculture, forest and
fishing. As reported in previous sections, these activities improve the quality and details of basic data, as
well as enable a more organized and timely communication.
A summary of all the main QA/QC activities over the past years which ensure the continuous improvement
of the inventory is presented in the document ‘Quality Assurance/Quality Control plan for the Italian
Emission Inventory. Year 2014’ (ISPRA, 2015 [b]).
A proper archiving and reporting of the documentation related to the inventory compilation process is also
part of the national QA/QC programme.
All the material and documents used for the inventory preparation are stored at ISPRA.
Information relating to the planning, preparation, and management of inventory activities are documented
and archived. The archive is organised so that any skilled analyst could obtain relevant data sources and
44
spreadsheets, reproduce the inventory and review all decisions about assumptions and methodologies
undertaken. A master documentation catalogue is generated for each inventory year and it is possible to track
changes in data and methodologies over time. Specifically, the documentation includes:
• electronic copies of each of the draft and final inventory report, electronic copies of the draft and
final CRF tables;
• electronic copies of all the final, linked source category spreadsheets for the inventory estimates
(including all spreadsheets that feed the emission spreadsheets);
• results of the reviews and, in general, all documentation related to the corresponding inventory year
submission.
After each reporting cycle, all database files, spreadsheets and electronic documents are archived as ‘readonly’ mode.
A ‘reference’ database is also compiled every year to increase the transparency of the inventory. This
database consists of a number of records that references all documentation used during the inventory
compilation, for each sector and submission year, the link to the electronically available documents and the
place where they are stored as well as internal documentation on QA/QC procedures.
1.7
General uncertainty evaluation, including data on the overall uncertainty
for the inventory totals
The 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) define two approaches to estimating uncertainties in national
greenhouse gas inventories: Approach 1, based on the error propagation equations, and Approach 2,
corresponding to the application of Monte Carlo analysis.
For the Italian inventory, quantitative estimates of the uncertainties are calculated using Approach 1 which
application is described in Annex 1, with or without emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector.
Emission categories are disaggregated into a detailed level and uncertainties are therefore estimated for these
categories.
For the 2013 total emission figures without LULUCF, an uncertainty of 2.5% in the combined global
warming potential (GWP) total emissions is estimated, whereas for the trend between 1990 and 2013 the
analysis assesses an uncertainty by 1.9%.
Including the LULUCF sector into national figures, the uncertainty according to Approach 1 is equal to 4.5%
for the year 2012, whereas the uncertainty for the trend is estimated to be 3.7%.
There has been a revision of the uncertainty assessment following the new category specifications of the
2006 IPCC Guidelines; however, the reduction in the uncertainty levels, as compared the 2014 submission,
are mainly due to the improvements in basic data and recalculation due to the application of the new 2006
IPCC Guidelines and consequent different weights of the categories and relevant uncertainties.
The assessment of uncertainty has also been applied to the base year emission levels. The results show an
uncertainty of 2.2% in the combined GWP total emissions, excluding emissions and removals from
LULUCF, whereas it increases to 3.0% including the LULUCF sector.
Following the recommendations of UNFCCC reviews, Approach 2 was implemented in the previous two
years’ submissions to estimate uncertainty of some key categories, for 2009 emission levels. The results
show that uncertainty values are lower than those derived from the application of Approach 1. Details on the
categories for which the analysis has been implemented are reported in Annex 1. The study will be
progressively extended to other inventory categories.
Monte Carlo analysis had also been applied some years ago, following the IPCC Good Practice Guidance
(IPCC, 2000), to specific categories of the inventory. Also in that case, the results show that, applying
methods higher than the Tier 1 does not make a significant difference in figures if information on uncertainty
levels is not sufficiently detailed. Tier 2 was applied to CO2 emissions from road transport and N2O
emissions from agricultural soils; in the first case measurements were available for emission factors so a low
uncertainty was expected, in the other no information on EFs was available and a high uncertainty was
supposed. A combination of Montecarlo and Bootstrap simulation was applied to CO2 emissions, in
consideration of the specific data availability assuming a normal distribution for activity data and for the
emission factor of natural gas. The overall uncertainty of CO2 emissions for road transport resulted in 2.1%,
lower than that resulting from Approach 1 which estimated a figure of 4.2%; the reason of the difference is
in the lower uncertainty resulting from the application of bootstrap analysis to the emission factor of diesel
45
oil, all the other figures are very similar. For N2O emissions from agricultural soils, a Montecarlo analysis
was applied assuming a normal distribution for activity data and two tests one with a lognormal and the other
with a normal for emission factors; the results with the normal distribution calculated an uncertainty figure
equal to 32.4%, lower than the uncertainty by Approach 1 which was 102%; in the case of the lognormal
distribution there were problems caused by the formula specified in the IPCC guidelines which is affected by
the unit and needs further study before a throughout application. The importance of these results is that in
neither of the cases does the uncertainty estimation of the national sectors result in an underestimation.
Results and details of the study, ‘Evaluating uncertainty in the Italian GHG inventory’, were presented at a
EU workshop on Uncertainties in Greenhouse Gas Inventories, held in Finland in September 2005, and they
are also available on website at the address
http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/docs/meetings/050905_EU_GHG_Uncert_WS/meeting050905.html.
A further research on uncertainty, specifically on the comparison of different methodologies to evaluate
emissions uncertainty, had also been carried out in the past (Romano et al., 2004).
QC procedures are also undertaken on the calculations of uncertainties in order to confirm the correctness of
the estimates and that there is sufficient documentation to duplicate the analysis. The assumptions which
uncertainty estimations are based on are documented for each category. Figures used to draw up uncertainty
analysis are checked both with the relevant analyst experts and literature references and are consistent with
the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2003; IPCC, 2006).
More in details, facility level data are used to check and verify information from the industrial sector; these
data also include information from the European Emissions Trading Scheme, the Italian PRTR register
which is also collected and elaborated by the inventory team. Most of the times there is a correspondence
among activity data from different databases so that the level of uncertainty could be assumed lower than the
one fixed at 3%; the same occurs for emission factors coming from measurements at plant level, and even in
this case the uncertainty may be assumed lower than the predetermined level. Since the overall uncertainty of
the Italian inventory is relatively low due to the prevalence of the energy sector sources, which estimates
derive from accurate parameters, out of the total, it has been decided to use conservative figures; this occurs
especially for energy and industrial sectors.
The results of the uncertainty analysis, generally associated with a key category assessment by Approach 2,
are used to prioritize improvements for the next inventory submissions.
Emissions of key categories are usually estimated with a high level of accuracy in terms of the methodology
used and characterised by a low uncertainty; some exceptions may occur and categories estimated with
higher tiers may be affected by a high level of uncertainty. For instance, in the agriculture sector, direct N2O
emissions from agricultural soils and indirect N2O from nitrogen used in agriculture are affected by a high
level of uncertainty especially in the emission factors notwithstanding the advanced tiers used.
For the categories with a high uncertainty, generally, further improvements are planned whenever sectoral
studies can be carried out.
1.8
General assessment of the completeness
The inventory covers all major sources and sinks, as well as direct and indirect gases, included in the IPCC
guidelines.
Details are reported in Table 1.7 and Table 1.8. Sectoral and background tables of CRF sheets are complete
as far as details of basic information are available. For instance, multilateral operations emissions are not
estimated because no activity data are available.
Allocation of emissions is not consistent with the IPCC Guidelines only where there is no data available to
split the information. For instance, for fugitive emissions, CO2 and CH4 emissions from oil and natural gas
exploration and venting are included in those from oil production because no detailed information is
available. CH4 emissions from other leakage emissions are included in distribution emission estimates. N2O
emissions from oil and natural gas exploration and refining and storage activities are reported under category
1.B.2.C oil flaring. Further investigation will be carried out closely with industry about these figures. For
industrial processes, emissions from soda ash use are included in glass production emissions because the use
of soda is part of that specific production process.
46
Table 1.7 Source and sinks not estimated in the 2013 inventory
Sources and sinks not estimated (NE)(1)
GHG
Sector(2)
Source/sink category (2)
Explanation
Carbon 4 LULUCF
4.D.1.2 Wetlands remaining Wetlands - Flooded
land
Up to now, no information is available in order to
estimate emissions from flooded land remaining
flooded land
Carbon 4 LULUCF
4.E.2.2 Cropland converted to Settlements
Up to now there are no sufficient data for estimating C
stock changes in dead organic matter.
Carbon 4 LULUCF
4.E.2.3 Grassland converted to Settlements
Up to now there are no sufficient data for estimating C
stock changes in dead organic matter.
N2O
4 LULUCF
4.B. Indirect N2O emissions from managed soils
The emissions are considered insignificant, being
below 0.05% of the national total GHG emissions, and
minor than 500 kt CO2 eq.
CH4
1 Energy
1.C2 Multilateral Operations
Information and statistical data are not available
CO2
1 Energy
1.C2 Multilateral Operations
Information and statistical data are not available
N2O
1 Energy
1.C2 Multilateral Operations
Information and statistical data are not available
47
Table 1.8 Source and sinks reported elsewhere in the 2013 inventory
GHG
S ource/sink category
S ources and sinks reported elsewhere (IE)
Allocation as per IPCC
Allocation used by the Party
Guidelines
CO2
3.G Liming/3.G.2 Dolomite CaM g(CO3)2
CO2
1.AD Feedstocks, reductants and other nonenergy use of fuels/Liquid Fuels/Gasoline
liquid fuel/gasoline
Liquid fuel/Naphta
CO2
1.AD Feedstocks, reductants and other nonenergy use of fuels/Liquid Fuels/Liquefied
Petroleum Gases (LPG)
liquid fuel/LPG
liquid fuel/Naphta
CO2
1.AD Feedstocks, reductants and other nonenergy use of fuels/Liquid Fuels/Other Oil
liquid fuel/Other Oil
liquid fuel/Naphta
CO2
1.AD Feedstocks, reductants and other nonenergy use of fuels/Liquid Fuels/Refinery
Feedstocks liquid fuel/Refinery feedstock
liquid fuel/Naphta
CO2
1.AD Feedstocks, reductants and other nonenergy use of fuels/Liquid Fuels/Residual Fuel
Oil
liquid fuel/residual oil
liquid fuel/Naphta
CO2
2.C M etal Industry/2.C.5 Lead Production
2.C.5. Lead Production
1.A.2.b
CO2
2.C M etal Industry/2.C.6 Zinc Production
2.C.6. Zinc Production
1.A.2.b.
Explanation
CO2 emissions from 3.G.2 category are included in 3.G.1 category.
Amount applied of dolomite is included in limestone amount (3.G.1
category)
National energy balances include only the input and output
quantities from the petrochemical plants; so in the petrochemical
transformation process the output quantity could be greater than the
input quantity, in particular for light products as LPG, gasoline and
refinery gas, due to chemical reactions. Therefore it is possible to
have negative values for some products (mainly gasoline, refinery
gas, fuel oil). For this matter, for the reporting on CRF tables, these
fuels have been added to naphtha.
National energy balances include only the input and output
quantities from the petrochemical plants; so in the petrochemical
transformation process the output quantity could be greater than the
input quantity, in particular for light products as LPG, gasoline and
refinery gas, due to chemical reactions. Therefore it is possible to
have negative values for some products (mainly gasoline, refinery
gas, fuel oil). For this matter, for the reporting on CRF tables, these
fuels have been added to naphtha.
National energy balances include only the input and output
quantities from the petrochemical plants; so in the petrochemical
transformation process the output quantity could be greater than the
input quantity, in particular for light products as LPG, gasoline and
refinery gas, due to chemical reactions. Therefore it is possible to
have negative values for some products (mainly gasoline, refinery
gas, fuel oil). For this matter, for the reporting on CRF tables, these
fuels have been added to naphtha.
National energy balances include only the input and output
quantities from the petrochemical plants; so in the petrochemical
transformation process the output quantity could be greater than the
input quantity, in particular for light products as LPG, gasoline and
refinery gas, due to chemical reactions. Therefore it is possible to
have negative values for some products (mainly gasoline, refinery
gas, fuel oil). For this matter, for the reporting on CRF tables, these
fuels have been added to naphtha.
National energy balances include only the input and output
quantities from the petrochemical plants; so in the petrochemical
transformation process the output quantity could be greater than the
input quantity, in particular for light products as LPG, gasoline and
refinery gas, due to chemical reactions. Therefore it is possible to
have negative values for some products (mainly gasoline, refinery
gas, fuel oil). For this matter, for the reporting on CRF tables, these
fuels have been added to naphtha.
There is non information to distinguish between emissions from
energy and process, so emissions are allocated in 1.A.2
There is non information to distinguish between emissions from
energy and process, so emissions are allocated in 1.A.2
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.a
HFC-125
Commercial Refrigeration/HFC-125
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.f
HFC-125
Stationary Air-Conditioning/HFC-125
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.a
HFC-134a
Commercial Refrigeration/HFC-134a
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.b
HFC-134a
Domestic Refrigeration/HFC-134a
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.e
HFC-134a
M obile Air-Conditioning/HFC-134a
Emissions are included in emissions from manufacturing
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.f
HFC-134a
Stationary Air-Conditioning/HFC-134a
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.a
HFC-143a
Commercial Refrigeration/HFC-143a
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.2
Foam Blowing Agents/2.F.2.a Closed
HFC-245fa
Cells/HFC-245fa
2.F Product Uses as Substitutes for ODS/2.F.1
Refrigeration and Air conditioning/2.F.1.f
HFC-32
Stationary Air-Conditioning/HFC-32
1.B Fugitive Emissions from Fuels/1.B.2 Oil
and Natural Gas and Other Emissions from
Energy Production/1.B.2.a Oil/1.B.2.a.4
N2O
Refining / Storage
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
Emissions are included in emissions from manufacturing
Emissions from disposal of equipments are included with emissions
during the product's life and reported under emissions from stocks
1.B.2.A.4
1.B.2.D flaring in refineries No information available to distinguish the emissions.
48
2 TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
2.1
Description and interpretation of emission trends for aggregate
greenhouse gas emissions
CO2 eq. [Mt] (excluding LULUCF)
Summary data of the Italian greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1990-2013 are reported in Tables
A8.1.1- A8.1.5 of Annex 8.
The emission figures presented are those sent to the UNFCCC Secretariat and to the European Commission
in the framework of the Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism.
Total greenhouse gas emissions, in CO2 equivalent, excluding emissions and removals from LULUCF, have
decreased by 16.1% between 1990 and 2013, varying from 521 to 437 CO2 equivalent million tons (Mt).
It should be noted that the economic recession has had a remarkable influence on the production levels
affecting the energy and industrial process sectors, with a consequent notable reduction of total emissions, in
the last five years.
The most important greenhouse gas, CO2, which accounts for 82.4% of total emissions in CO2 equivalent,
shows a decrease by 17.4% between 1990 and 2013. In the energy sector, in particular, CO2 emissions in
2013 are 15.4% lower than in 1990.
CH4 and N2O emissions are equal to 10.1% and 4.4% of the total CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions,
respectively. CH4 emissions have decreased by 18.3% from 1990 to 2013, while N2O has decreased by
29.6%.
As for other greenhouse gases, HFCs account for 2.6% of total emissions, PFCs and SF6 are equal to 0.4%
and 0.1% of total emissions, respectively; the weight of NF3 is less than 0.01%. HFC emissions show a
strong increase, while PFC emissions show a decrease and SF6 emissions show a slight increase. Although at
present, variations in these gases are not relevant to reaching the emission reduction objectives, the
meaningful increasing trend of HFCs will make them even more important in next years.
Figure 2.1 illustrates the national trend of greenhouse gases for 1990-2013, expressed in CO2 equivalent
terms and by substance; total emissions do not include emissions and removals from land use, land use
change and forestry.
600
CO2
CH4
N2O
HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3
500
400
300
200
100
0
Figure 2.1 National greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2013 (without LULUCF) (Mt CO2 eq.)
The share of the different sectors, in terms of total emissions, remains nearly unvaried over the period 19902013. Specifically for the year 2013, the greatest part of the total greenhouse gas emissions is to be attributed
to the energy sector, with a percentage of 81.7%, followed by industrial processes and agriculture,
accounting for 7% of total emissions, respectively, and waste contributing with 4.2%.
Total greenhouse gas emissions and removals, including LULUCF sector, are shown in Figure 2.2
subdivided by sector.
49
Considering total GHG emissions with emissions and removals from LULUCF, the energy sector accounts,
in 2013, for 75.8% of total emissions and removals, as absolute weight, followed by, industrial processes and
agriculture (6.5%, each), LULUCF which contributes with 7.2%, and waste (3.9%).
Energy
Industrial Processes and product use
Agriculture
Waste
LULUCF
580
500
420
CO2 eq. (Mt)
340
260
180
100
20
-60
Figure 2.2 Greenhouse gas emissions and removals from 1990 to 2013 by sector (Mt CO2 eq.)
2.2
Description and interpretation of emission trends by gas
2.2.1
Carbon dioxide emissions
CO2 emissions, excluding CO2 emissions and removals from LULUCF, have decreased by 17.4% from 1990
to 2013, ranging from 436 to 360 million tons.
The most relevant emissions derive from the energy industries (29.9%) and transportation (28.4%). Nonindustrial combustion accounts for 22.8% and manufacturing and construction industries for 13.5%, while
the remaining emissions derive from industrial processes (4.5%) and other sectors (0.9%).
The trend of CO2 emissions by sector is shown in Figure 2.3.
50
Energy Industries
Manufacturing Industries and Construction
Transport
Non industrial combustion
Industrial processes and product use
Other
600
CO2 [Mt]
500
400
300
200
100
0
Figure 2.3 National CO2 emissions by sector from 1990 to 2013 (Mt)
The main driver for the reduction of CO2 emissions are energy industries and manufacturing industries and
construction; in the period 1990-2013, emissions from energy industries decreased by 21.9% while those
from manufacturing industries and construction show a decrease of 42.4%. Transport sector show an
increase of emission until 2007 and then decreased both for the economical recession and the penetration of
vehicles with low fuel consumption. Non industrial combustion emission trend is driven by the annual
climatic variation while emissions from industrial processes decreased by 44.9% mainly for the decrease of
cement production.
Figure 2.4 illustrates the performance of the following economic and energy indicators:
•
•
•
•
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at market prices as of 2010 (base year 1990=100);
Total Energy Consumption;
CO2 emissions, excluding emissions and removals from land-use change and forests;
CO2 intensity, which represents CO2 emissions per unit of total energy consumption.
CO2 emissions in the 1990s essentially mirrored energy consumption. A decoupling between the curves is
observed only in recent years, mainly as a result of the substitution of fuels with high carbon contents by
methane gas in the production of electric energy and in industry; in the last years, the increase in the use of
renewable sources has led to a notable reduction of CO2 intensity.
51
130
GDP
Total energy consumption
120
CO2 emissions
CO2 Intensity
1990=100
110
100
90
80
70
Figure 2.4 Energy-related and economic indicators and CO2 emissions
2.2.2
Methane emissions
Methane emissions (excluding LULUCF) in 2013 represent 10.1% of total greenhouse gases, equal to 44.1
Mt in CO2 equivalent, and show a decrease of 18.3% as compared to 1990 levels.
CH4 emissions, in 2013, are mainly originated from the agriculture sector which accounts for 42.4% of total
methane emissions, as well as from the waste (37.5%) and energy (20.1%) sectors.
Emissions in the agriculture sector regard mainly the enteric fermentation (74.2%) and manure management
(16.9%) categories. The sector shows a decrease of emissions equal to 13.4% as compared to 1990.
Activities typically leading to emissions in the waste-management sector are the operation of dumping sites
and the treatment of industrial waste-water. The waste sector shows a decrease in emission levels, 23%
compared to 1990; the largest emission sectoral shares are attributed to solid waste disposal on land (84%)
and waste-water handling (15.2%), which show a decrease equal to 23.6% and 21.9%, respectively.
In terms of CH4 emissions in the energy sector, the reduction (-18.4%) is the result of two contrasting
factors: on the one hand there has been a considerable reduction in emissions deriving from energy
industries, transport, fugitive emissions from fuels (caused by leakage from the extraction and distribution of
fossil fuels, due to the gradual replacement of natural-gas distribution networks), on the other hand a strong
increase in the civil sector can be observed, as a result of increased use of methane and biomass in heating
systems. Figure 2.5 shows the emission figures by sector.
2,500
Energy
Agriculture
Waste
Industrial processes and product use
2,000
CH4 [Gg]
1,500
1,000
500
0
Figure 2.5 National CH4 emissions by sector from 1990 to 2013 (Gg)
52
2.2.3
Nitrous oxide emissions
In 2013 nitrous oxide emissions (excluding LULUCF) represent 4.4% of total greenhouse gases, with a
decrease of 29.6% between 1990 and 2013, from 27.1 to 19.1 Mt CO2 equivalent.
The major source of N2O emissions is the agricultural sector (61%), in particular the use of both chemical
and organic fertilisers in agriculture, as well as the management of waste from the raising of animals.
Emissions from the agriculture sector show a decrease of 17.7% during the period 1990-2013.
Emissions in the energy sector (25.6% of the total) show an increase by 9.8% from 1990 to 2013; this growth
can be traced primarily to the increase of emissions in the civil sector, as a result of increased use of biomass
in heating systems, accounting for 12.8% of the total with an increase by 68.4%. On the other hand there has
been a reduction by 32.2% in the manufacturing and construction industries (5.2% of the total) due mainly to
the reduction in the last years of cement production.
For the industrial sector, N2O emissions show a decrease of 89.3% from 1990 to 2013. The decrease is
almost totally due to the introduction of abatement systems in the nitric and adipic acid production plants
which drastically reduced emissions from these processes. Emissions from production of nitric acid have
decreased of 94.4% from 1990 to 2013 with a notable decrease in the last years due to the introduction of the
abatment systems in the main production plant; emissions from production of adipic acid show a decrease
from 1990 to 2013 of 97.5% because of the introduction of an abatement technology. A further component
which has contributed to the reduction is the decreasing use of N2O for medical purposes.
Other emissions in the waste sector (9.4% of national N2O emissions) primarily regard the processing of
industrial and domestic waste-water treatment.
Figure 2.6 shows national emission figures by sector.
2,500
Energy
Agriculture
Waste
Industrial processes and product use
2,000
CH4 [Gg]
1,500
1,000
500
0
Figure 2.6 National N2O emissions by sector from 1990 to 2013 (Gg)
2.2.4
Fluorinated gas emissions
Italy has set 1990 as the base year for emissions of fluorinated gases, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3. Taken
altogether, the emissions of fluorinated gases represent 3.1% of total greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalent in
2013 and they show a significant increase between 1990 and 2013. This increase is the result of different
features for the different gases.
HFCs, for instance, have increased considerably from 1990 to 2013, from 0.4 to 11.5 Mt in CO2 equivalent.
The main sources of emissions are the consumption of HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-32 and HFC-143a in
refrigeration and air-conditioning devices, together with the use of HFC-134a in pharmaceutical aerosols.
Increases during this period are due both to the use of these substances as substitutes for gases that destroy
the ozone layer and to the greater use of air conditioners in automobiles.
Emissions of PFCs show a decrease of 41.3% from 1990 to 2013. The level of PFCs emissions in 2013 is
equal to 1.7 Mt in CO2 equivalent, and it is due to by product emissions in the production of halocarbons
(92.3%), and the use of the gases in the production of semiconductors (7.7%).
53
Emissions of SF6 are equal to 0.4 Mt in CO2 equivalent in 2013, with an increase of 2.2% as compared to
1990 levels. In 2013, 65.3% of SF6 emissions derive from the gas contained in electrical equipments, 24.3%
from the use of this substance in accelerators and 10.5% from the gas used in the semiconductors
manufacture. NF3 emissions account for 0.03 Mt in CO2 equivalent in 2013 and derive from the
semiconductors industry.
The National Inventory of fluorinated gases has largely improved in terms of sources and gases identified
and a strict cooperation with the relevant industry has been established. Higher methods are applied to
estimate these emissions; nevertheless, uncertainty still regards some activity data which are considered of
strategic economic importance and therefore kept confidential.
NF3
16,000
SF6
PFCs
14,000
HFCs
CO2 eq. [Gg]
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
0
Figure 2.7 National emissions of fluorinated gases by sector from 1990 to 2013 (Gg CO2 eq.)
Description and interpretation of emission trends by source
2.3
2.3.1
Energy
Emissions from the energy sector account for 81.7% of total national greenhouse gas emissions, excluding
LULUCF, in 2013.
Emissions in CO2 equivalent from the energy sector are reported in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.8.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 eq.
Total emissions
Fuel Combustion
(Sectoral Approach)
421,288
434,689
453,536
475,483
419,575
407,598
384,875
357,387
408,393
422,559
442,725
466,109
410,763
398,915
376,316
348,905
Energy Industries
138,860
142,182
152,971
160,833
134,446
132,413
127,738
108,493
86,175
85,869
83,634
79,934
61,686
61,464
56,589
49,978
103,241
114,241
123,655
128,700
119,560
118,520
106,044
103,434
78,974
78,702
81,585
95,319
94,379
85,974
85,583
86,374
1,142
1,565
880
1,323
692
545
363
626
12,895
151
12,130
78
10,810
89
9,374
83
8,811
79
8,683
85
8,559
74
8,482
53
Manufacturing
Industries and
Construction
Transport
Other Sectors
Other
Fugitive
Emissions from
Fuels
Solid Fuels
54
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 eq.
Oil and Natural Gas
12,745
12,052
10,721
9,290
8,732
8,598
8,485
8,429
Table 2.1 Total emissions from the energy sector by source (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
Total greenhouse gas emissions, in CO2 equivalent, show a decrease of about 15.2% from 1990 to 2013; in
particular, an upward trend is noted from 1990 to 2004, with an increase by 13.5%, while between 2004 and
2013 emissions have decreased by 24.8%.
CO2 emissions, accounting for 96.2% of the sectoral total, have decreased by 15.4% from 1990 to 2013; N2O
shows an increase of 9.8% but its share out of the total is only 1.3% whereas CH4 shows a decrease of 18.4%
from 1990 to 2013, accounting for 2.5% of the total emission levels.
It should be noted that from 1990 to 2013 the most significant increase, in terms of total CO2 equivalent, is
observed in the other sectors category, about 9.4%, and to a lesser extent in transport (0.2%); in 2013 these
sectors, altogether, account for 53.1% of total emissions. In the period 1990-2013, energy industries
emissions have decreased by 21.9%, accounting for 30.4% of total emissions.
Details on these figures are described in the specific chapter.
600,000
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1A5
1B
500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
Share 1990
0.3
18.7
24.5
1A 1
1A 2
3.1
Share 2013
0.1
20.5
1A 4
33.2
1A 5
1B
1B
2013
2012
1B
1 A5
1 A4
1 A3
1A 4
1A 5
14.7
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Total
1A 2
1A 3
22.2
27.6
2003
2002
1A 1
2.2
1A 3
33.0
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
0
1 A2
1 A1
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
Figure 2.8 Trend of total emissions from the energy sector (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
2.3.2
Industrial processes and product use
Emissions from the industrial processes and product use sector account for 7.0% of total national greenhouse
gas emissions, excluding LULUCF, in 2013.
Emission trends from industrial processes are reported in Table 2.2 and Figure 2.9.
Total emissions, in CO2 equivalent, show a decrease of 24.1%, from the base year to 2013. Taking into
account emissions by substance, CO2 and N2O decreased by 44.9% and 89.3%, respectively; in terms of their
weight out of the sectoral total emissions, CO2 accounts for about 52.6% and N2O for 2.5%. CH4 decreased
by 58.9% but it accounts only for 0.2%.
55
The decrease in emissions is mostly to be attributed to a decrease in the mineral and chemical industries.
Emissions from mineral production decreased by 40.7% , mostly for the reduction of cement production. The
decrease of GHG emissions in the chemical industry (-70.2%) is due to the decreasing trend of the emissions
from nitric acid and adipic acid production (the last production process sharply reduced its emissions, due to
a fully operational abatement technology).
On the other hand, a considerable increase is observed in F-gas emissions (263.6%), whose share on total
sectoral emissions is 44.7%.
Details for industrial processes and product use emissions can be found in the specific chapter.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
34,476
21,144
68
838
12,454
10,326
1,661
438
28
31,581
17,891
65
827
12,822
10,856
1,499
442
25
30,568
16,102
53
773
13,666
11,518
1,705
417
26
Gg CO2 eq.
Total emissions
CO2
CH4
N 2O
F-gases
40,313
29,227
129
7,199
3,758
444
2,907
408
NA,NO
HFCS
PFCS
SF6
NF3
37,957
27,195
134
7,701
2,928
813
1,450
664
NA,NO
38,434
25,712
75
8,599
4,073
2,098
1,388
561
26
45,401
28,587
76
8,251
8,519
5,998
1,940
547
33
34,538
21,616
62
1,224
11,656
9,725
1,520
391
20
Table 2.2 Total emissions from the industrial processes sector by gas (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
50,000
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
2012
40
60
2013
2011
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
2A
2.7
3.0
2A
2B
2C
14.7
40.2
2F
2E
2C
2D
2D
2E
2C
2E
2F
2G
2G
2B
37.6
2D
51.4
26.2
2010
5.1
20
Share 2013
Share 1990
0.0 0.0
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
0
0.7
4.2
2B
2F
4.1
10.3
2A
2G
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
80
100
>1000
Figure 2.9 Trend of total emissions from the industrial processes sector (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
56
2.3.3
Agriculture
Emissions from the agriculture sector account for 7.0% of total national greenhouse gas emissions, excluding
LULUCF. Emissions from the agriculture sector are reported in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.10.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
32,600
13,898
6,054
1,752
10,876
20
14
507
30,607
13,712
5,915
1,822
9,139
19
18
335
31,108
13,735
5,867
1,805
9,681
19
24
351
31,348
13,664
5,706
1,789
10,168
20
15
551
30,326
13,849
5,348
1,658
9,452
19
14
450
Gg CO2 eq.
Total emissions
36,197
15,743
6,798
1,876
11,295
19
1
465
Enteric Fermentation
Manure Management
Rice Cultivation
Agricultural Soils
Field Burning of Agricultural Residues
Liming
Urea application
35,697
15,656
6,413
1,989
11,621
18
1
512
35,098
15,544
6,349
1,656
11,530
18
2
525
Table 2.3 Total emissions from the agriculture sector by source (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
3D
3B
3C
2000
3A
1999
Emissions mosly refer to CH4 and N2O levels, which account for 60.6% and 37.8% of the total emissions of
the sector, respectively. CO2 accounts for the remaining 1.5% of total emissions.The decrease observed in
the total emissions (-14.9%) is mostly due to the decrease of CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (12%) and to the decrease of N2O (-16.3%) from agricultural soils, which categories account for 45% and
30.7% of the total sectoral emissions, respectively.
Detailed comments can be found in the specific chapter.
3H
3F
3G
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
1.3
5.2
0.05 Share 1990
0.004
3D
1.5
5.4
Total
3B
3H
2013
2012
3H
3C
3D
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
3G
3F
3D
3C
45.0
2006
2005
2004
2003
3A
3B
17.4
3H
3A
3F
3F
3G
2002
2001
0.06 Share 2013
0.044
3C
43.5
31.2
1998
1997
1996
3A
3B
18.8
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
0
30.7
3G
-28
-23
-18
-13
-8
-3
2
7
Figure 2.10 Trend of total emissions from the agriculture sector (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
57
2.3.4
LULUCF
Emissions from the LULUCF sector are reported in Table 2.4 and Figure 2.11.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 eq.
Total emissions
Forest land
-5,440
-23,565
-18,302
-30,669
-34,206
-28,464
-20,799
-34,082
-19,757
-33,543
-28,022
-37,370
-38,935
-34,766
-29,712
-37,109
Cropland
2,225
1,861
2,046
1,459
1,335
3,044
2,996
2,956
Grassland
4,931
-967
695
-2,612
-4,143
-3,979
-1,386
-7,119
Wetlands
NO
5
8
8
NO
NO
NO
NO
6,641
NO
8,275
NO
6,495
NO
7,316
NO
7,410
NO
7,415
NO
7,419
NO
7,425
NO
520
804
476
531
128
-178
-117
-235
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Settlements
Other land
Harvested
products
Other
wood
Table 2.4 Total emissions from the LULUCF sector by source/sink (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
Total removals, in CO2 equivalent, in the LULUCF sector, show an increase of 526.6% from the base year to
2013. CO2 accounts for 99.3% of total emissions and removals of the sector. The key driver for the rise in
removals is the increase of carbon stock changes from forest land (the area reported under forest land
remaining forest land has increased by 20.3%). The trend is remarkable influenced by the annual area burned
by fires.
Further details for LULUCF emissions and removals can be found in the specific chapter.
2,000
-8,000
-18,000
-28,000
-38,000
5A
5B
5C
5E
5G
-48,000
Share 1990
19.5
5A
5B
13.5 0.4
5C
14.5
6.5
58.0
5G
5C
5E
5E
5E
5G
Total
5A
Share 2013
5B
1.5
5C
5G
13.0
5B
5A
5.4
67.7
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
Figure 2.11 Trend of total emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
58
2.3.5
Waste
Emissions from the waste sector account for 4.2% of total national greenhouse gas emissions, excluding
LULUCF.
Emissions from the waste sector are shown in Table 2.5 and Figure 2.12.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg CO2 eq.
Total emissions
23,259
23,814 26,123
24,220
21,397
20,707
20,518
18,497
Solid waste disposal
18,158
18,940 21,478
Biological treatment of solid waste
Incineration and open burning of
waste
Waste water treatment and discharge
19,446
16,693
16,092
15,877
13,872
19
43
183
370
474
485
489
507
594
547
283
312
240
243
275
272
4,488
4,285
4,180
4,091
3,990
3,888
3,877
3,846
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Other
Table 2.5 Total emissions from the waste sector by source (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
Total emissions, in CO2 equivalent, decreased by 20.5% from 1990 to 2013. The trend is mainly driven by
the decrease in emissions from solid waste disposal (-23.6%), accounting for 75% of the total. Considering
emissions by gas, the most important greenhouse gas is CH4 which accounts for 89.2% of the total and
shows a decrease of 23% from 1990 to 2013. N2O levels have increased by 36% while CO2 decreased by
61.7%; these gases account for 9.7% and 1.1%, respectively.
Further details can be found in the specific chapter.
30,000
6A. Solid waste disposal on land
6B. Biological treatment of solid waste
6C. Waste incineration
6D. Wastewater treatment and discharge
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
Share 1990
19.30
6D
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
6A
6D
20.79
6B
6C
0.08
2002
Share 2013
6A
6B
2.55
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
0
1.47
6C
2.74
6D
6C
6B
6A
Total
78.07
74.99
60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90 2600
100
Figure 2.12 Trend of total emissions from the waste sector (1990-2013) (Gg CO2 eq.)
59
2.4
Description and interpretation of emission trends for indirect greenhouse
gases and SO2
Emission trends of NOX, CO, NMVOC and SO2 from 1990 to 2013 are presented in Table 2.6 and Figure
2.13.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg
2,051
1,924
1,462
1,250
974
955
869
825
NOX
7,006
7,027
4,670
3,236
2,281
2,227
2,059
2,569
CO
1,936
1,974
1,523
1,241
941
919
861
905
NMVOC
1,800
1,327
754
407
215
195
175
145
SO2
Table 2.6 Total emissions for indirect greenhouse gases and SO2 (1990-2013) (Gg)
All gases show a significant reduction in 2013 as compared to 1990 levels. The highest reduction is observed
for SO2 (- 91.9%), CO levels have reduced by 63.3%, while NOX and NMVOC show a decrease by 59.8%
and 53.3%, respectively. A detailed description of the trend by gas and sector as well as the main reduction
plans can be found in the Italian National Programme for the progressive reduction of the annual national
emissions of SO2, NOX, NMVOC and NH3, as requested by the Directive 2001/81/EC.
The most relevant reductions occurred as a consequence of the Directive 75/716/EC, and successive ones
related to the transport sector, and of other European Directives which established maximum levels for
sulphur content in liquid fuels and introduced emission standards for combustion installations. As a
consequence, in the combustion processes, oil with high sulphur content and coal have been substituted with
oil with low sulphur content and natural gas.
NOX
8,000
CO
7,000
NMVOC
SO2
6,000
Gg
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
0
Figure 2.13 Trend of total emissions for indirect greenhouse gases and SO2 (1990-2013) (Gg)
It should be noted that these figures differ from the national totals reported under the United Nations
Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution
(CLRTAP). Differences are to be attributed to the different accounting of emissions from the civil aviation
sector and from fires. In the national totals under CLRTAP, in fact, emissions from aviation are calculated
considering all LTO cycles, both domestic and international, excluding entirely the cruise phase. For fires, on
the other hand, national figures under the UNFCCC include emissions from fires from forest, grassland and
cropland whereas they are not considered in the national total for CLRTAP.
Emission trends of NOX, CO, NMVOC and SO2 from 1990 to 2013 communicated under UNECE CLRTAP
are presented in Table 2.7.
60
In the context of the European Regulation No 525/2013, Art. 7(1)(m)(i), EU Member States shall report on
the consistency of data on air pollutants under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air
Pollution and those under the UNFCCC Convention.
Differences in percentage terms between figures of the two Conventions are illustrated in Table 2.8.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gg
969
950
863
821
NOX
7,007
7,029
4,672
3,239
2,283
2,229
2,062
2,571
CO
1,936
1,974
1,524
1,242
942
919
862
906
NMVOC
1,800
1,327
754
407
215
194
175
145
SO2
Table 2.7 Total emissions for indirect greenhouse gases and SO2 (1990-2013) (Gg) under UNECE CLRTAP
2,047
1,920
1,456
1,244
1990
1995
2000
2005
0.20%
0.21%
0.43%
-0.01%
-0.02%
-0.01%
-0.02%
0.01%
0.02%
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.44%
0.58%
0.60%
0.61%
0.56%
-0.05%
-0.08%
-0.10%
-0.10%
-0.11%
-0.09%
-0.04%
-0.10%
-0.08%
-0.09%
-0.09%
-0.09%
0.05%
0.09%
0.17%
0.19%
0.19%
0.19%
%
NOX
CO
NMVOC
SO2
Table 2.8 Percentage differences between total emissions for indirect greenhouse gases and SO2 under the
UNFCCC and UNECE CLRTAP Conventions (1990-2013).
61
3 ENERGY [CRF sector 1]
Sector overview
3.1
For the pollutants and sources discussed in this section, emissions result from the combustion of fuel. The
pollutants estimated are: carbon dioxide (CO2), NOx as nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane
(CH4), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulphur dioxide
(SO2). The sources covered are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electricity (power plants and Industrial producers);
Refineries (Combustion);
Chemical and petrochemical industries (Combustion);
Construction industries (roof tiles, bricks);
Other industries (metal works factories, food, textiles, others);
Road Transport;
Coastal Shipping;
Railways;
Aircraft;
Domestic;
Commercial;
Public Service;
Fishing and Agriculture.
The national emission inventory is prepared using energy consumption information available from national
statistics and an estimate of the actual use of the fuels. The latter information is available at sectoral level in
many publications but the evaluation of emissions of methane and nitrous oxide is needed. Those emissions
are related to the actual physical conditions of the combustion process and to environmental conditions.
The continuous monitoring of GHG emissions in Italy is not regular especially in some sectors; hence,
information is not often available on actual emissions over a specific period from an individual emission
source. Therefore, the majority of emissions are estimated from different information such as fuel
consumption, distance travelled or some other statistical data related to emissions.
Estimates for a particular source sector are calculated by applying an emission factor to an appropriate
statistic. That is:
Total Emission = Emission Factor x Activity Statistic
Emission factors are typically derived from measurements on a number of representative sources and the
resulting factor applied to the whole country.
For some categories, emissions data are available at individual site. Hence, emissions for a specific category
can be calculated as the sum of the emissions from these point sources. That is:
Emission = Σ Point Source Emissions
However, it is necessary to carry out an estimate of the fuel consumption associated with these point sources,
so that emissions from non-point sources can be estimated from fuel consumption data without double
counting. In general, point source approach is applied to specific point sources (e.g. power stations, cement
kilns, refineries). Most non-industrial sources are estimated using emission factors.
For most of the combustion source categories, emissions are estimated from fuel consumption data reported
in the National Energy Balance (BEN) and from an emission factor appropriate to the type of combustion.
However, the industrial category covers a range of sources and types, so the inventory disaggregates this
category into a number of sub-categories, namely:
•
•
Other Industry;
Other Industry Off-road (see paragraph 3.6);
62
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Iron & Steel (Combustion, Blast Furnaces, Sinter Plant);
Petrochemical industries (Combustion);
Other combustion with contact industries: glass and tiles;
Other industries (Metal works factories, food, textiles, others);
Ammonia Feedstock (natural gas only);
Ammonia (Combustion) (natural gas only);
Cement (Combustion);
Lime Production (non-decarbonising).
Thus, the estimate from fuel consumption emission factors refers to stationary combustion in boilers and
heaters. The other categories are estimated by more complex methods discussed in the relevant sections.
However, for these processes, where emissions arise from fuel combustion for energy production, these are
reported under IPCC Table 1A. The fuel consumption of Other Industry is estimated so that the total fuel
consumption of these sources is consistent with the national energy balance.
Fugitive emissions are also estimated and reported under 1B category and the relevant information are
provided in paragraph 3.9.
From the 2015 submission the UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines require estimating a new category source,
emissions estimates from the CO2 storage and distribution category, but in Italy this activity and the relevant
emissions do not yet occur.
According to the IPCC 2006 Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), electricity generation by companies primarily for
their own use is auto-generation, and the emissions produced should be reported under the industry
concerned. However, most national energy statistics (including Italy) report emissions from electricity
generation as a separate category. The Italian inventory makes an overall calculation and then attempts to
report as far as possible according to the IPCC methodology:
•
•
•
auto-generators are reported in the relevant industrial sectors of section “1.A.2 Manufacturing
Industries and Construction”, including sector “1.A.2.g Other”;
refineries auto-generation is included in section 1.A.1.b;
iron and steel auto-generation is included in section 1.A.1.c.
These reports are based on TERNA estimates of fuel used for steam generation connected with electricity
production (TERNA, several years).
Emissions from waste incineration facilities with energy recovery are reported under category 1.A.4.a
(Combustion activity, commercial/institutional sector), for the fossil and biomass fraction of waste
incinerated in the other fuel and biomass sub categories respectively, whereas emissions from other types of
waste incineration facilities are reported under category 6.C (Waste incineration).
In fact, energy recovered by these plants is mainly used for district heating of commercial buildings. In
particular, for 2013, more than 95% of the total amount of waste incinerated is treated in plants with energy
recovery system. To estimate CO2 emissions, considering the total amount of waste incinerated in plants with
energy recovery, carbon content is calculated, as described in paragraph 7.4.2, in the waste chapter; the value
is considered constant for the whole time series. Different emission factors for municipal, industrial and oils,
hospital waste, and sewage sludge are applied, as reported in the waste chapter, Tables 7.24-7.28. Waste
amount is then converted in energy content applying an emission factor equal to 9.2 GJ/t of waste. In 2013,
the resulting average emission factor is equal to 114.7 kg CO2/GJ.
Emissions from landfill gas recovered are used for heating and power in commercial facilities and reported
under 1.A.4.a in biomass. Biogas recovered from the anaerobic digester of animal waste is used for utilities
in the agriculture sector and relative emissions are reported under 1.A.4.c in biomass.
We allocate these emissions to the 1.A.4 category because the energy produced in these plants, incinerators
or landfills, as well as energy produced by biogas collection from manure and agriculture residue, is
prevalently auto-consumed for heating and electricity of the buildings or animal recoveries, and only a few
amount of energy produced goes to the net. In consideration of the increasing of the share of waste used to
produce electricity, we plan to revise the allocation of these emissions under category 1.A.1.a.
63
Emission trends
In 2013, the energy sector accounts for 95.3% of CO2 emissions, 20.1% of CH4 and 25.6% of N2O. In terms
of CO2 equivalent, the energy sector shares 81.7% of total national greenhouse gas emissions excluding
LULUCF.
Emission trends of greenhouse gases from the energy sector are reported in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 GHG emission trends in the energy sector 1990-2013 (Mt CO2 eq.)
Total
Energy
CO2
CH4
N2O
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
421.3
434.7
453.5
475.5
419.6
407.6
384.9
357.4
406.0
10.8
4.4
419.0
10.4
5.2
438.7
9.6
5.2
461.7
8.7
5.2
406.8
8.0
4.7
395.0
8.0
4.7
372.4
8.0
4.4
343.7
8.8
4.9
Source: ISPRA elaborations
The emission trend is generally driven by the economic indicators as already shown in chapter 2.
From 2004, GHG emissions from the sector are decreasing as a result of the policies adopted at European
and national level to implement the production of energy from renewable sources. From the same year, a
further shift from petrol products to natural gas in producing energy has been observed as a consequence of
the starting of the EU greenhouse gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) in January, 1st 2005. From 2009,
a further drop of the sectoral emissions is due to the economic recession. In Table 3.2, the electricity
production distinguished by source for the whole time series is reported on the basis of data supplied by the
national grid operator (ENEL, several years; TERNA, several years). From 2010 to 2013 a further drop in
electricity generation from fossil fuels has been observed in Italy. The drop has been driven both by the
economic recession and by the increase of renewable sources for energy production. The use of natural gas
and coal is generally driven by the market; in 2011, from one side there was a minor availability (and higher
prices) of natural gas imported by pipelines from Algeria and Libya, due to the “spring revolutions”
occurring in these countries in that year, on the other side a new coal power plant, one of the biggest in Italy,
was fully operative with a production of around 12500 GWh explaining the increasing trend of electricity
production from solid fuels.
In “other fuels” are included a multitude of fuels as biomass, waste, biogas from agriculture residues and
waste and synthesis gases from heavy residual or chemical processes. The breakdown is available to the
inventory expert allowing emission estimations but it is confidential and not published by the owner of the
information, TERNA.
Table 3.2 Production of electricity by sources 1990-2013 (GWh)
Source
Hydroelectric
Thermoelectric
- solid fuels
- natural gas
- derivated gases
- oil products
- other fuels
Geothermic
Eolic and Photovoltaic
Total
1990
1995
2000
35,079
178,590
32,042
39,082
3,552
102,718
1,196
3,222
0
216,891
41,907
196,123
24,122
46,442
3,443
120,783
1,333
3,436
14
241,480
50,900
220,455
26,272
97,607
4,252
85,878
6,446
4,705
569
276,629
2005
2010
GWh
42,927
54,407
253,073
231,248
43,606
39,734
149,259
152,737
5,837
4,731
35,846
9,908
18,525
24,138
5,325
5,376
2,347
11,032
303,672
302,062
2011
2012
2013
47,757
228,507
44,726
144,539
5,442
8,474
25,326
5,654
20,652
302,570
43,854
217,561
49,141
129,058
5,000
7,023
27,340
5,592
32,269
299,276
54,672
192,987
45,104
108,876
3,426
5,418
30,163
5,659
36,486
289,803
Source: TERNA
More in general the share of the total energy consumption by primary sources in the period 1990- 2013,
reported in Table 3.3, shows an evident change from oil products to natural gas while the consumption of
solid fuels and electricity maintain their share constant.
64
Table 3.3 Total energy consumptions by primary sources 1990-2013 (%)
Sources
1990
1995
2000
renewable
solid fuels
natural gas
crude oil
primary electricity
0.7
9.6
23.7
56.2
9.8
0.9
7.9
25.7
54.9
10.5
1.1
6.9
31.4
49.5
11.1
2005
%
2.0
8.6
36.0
43.1
10.3
2010
2011
2012
2013
4.3
8.0
36.2
38.5
13.1
4.7
9.0
34.6
37.5
14.1
5.1
9.4
34.8
35.3
15.3
7.5
8.2
33.2
33.7
17.4
Source: Ministry of Economic Development
Further analysis on the electricity generation time series and CO2 emission factors are available at the
following web address: http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni/fattori-diemissione-per-la-produzione-ed-il-consumo-di-energia-elettrica-in-italia/view
Recalculations
In 2015 submission, recalculations regarded the whole sector due to the application of the IPCC 2006
Guidelines which provide new default emission and oxidation factors for all the fuels In particular in the
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) oxidation factors are supposed to be equal to 1 for all the fuels. Time series have
been reconstructed for all the fuels taking in account the default values proposed by the Guidelines and
national circumstances. In Annex 6 more detailed information is provided especially with regard to time
series of country specific CO2 emission factors.
The whole time series of road transport emissions has been recalculated because of the update of activity
data and parameters used to estimate emissions; in particular a global revision of circulation parameters has
been carried out. Recalculation affected mainly CH4 and N2O emissions for the last years. Detailed
information is reported in paragraph 3.5.3.
Waste fuel consumption for commercial heating activity data has been updated from 2010 because the
update of activity data for industrial waste.
Biomass activity data for heating has been recalculated for the whole time series according to updated heat
values.
With regard to fugitive emissions, the major update regards the application of the 2006 Guidelines; in
particular CO2 emissions from venting have been estimated and added to the inventory.
Other minor changes in activity data occurred for 2012, including the update of the number of movements
for shipping activities.
Recalculations affected the whole time series 1990-2012 for all gases. The following table shows the
percentage differences between the 2015 and 2014 submissions for the total energy sector and by gas.
Recalculation resulted for the energy sector in an increase of GHG emissions in the base year of 0.86% and
1.32% in 2012 mainly due to the update of fossil fuel emission factors for the whole time series.
Table 3.4 Emission recalculations in the energy sector 1990-2012 (%)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
%
Total Energy
0.86
0.89
0.84
0.83
0.67
0.83
0.72
0.65
0.56
0.55
0.86
0.85
0.90
0.92
0.95
0.76
0.81
0.77
1.07
1.17
1.12
0.98
1.32
CO2
0.48
0.50
0.46
0.45
0.29
0.49
0.40
0.32
0.25
0.26
0.57
0.58
0.62
0.65
0.70
0.50
0.58
0.53
0.83
0.91
0.89
0.75
1.06
CH4
0.73
0.72
0.49
0.38
0.44
0.33
-0.03
0.12
-0.40
-0.50
-0.25
-0.14
0.86
1.06
0.86
1.14
1.14
1.09
1.03
1.11
-0.02
-0.02
0.66
N2O
0.45
0.94
0.74
0.80
0.72
0.73
0.56
0.65
0.89
0.72
0.75
0.68
0.59
0.57
0.66
0.27
0.27
0.45
0.40
0.52
-0.39
-1.20
-1.12
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Key categories
Key category analysis, for the years 1990 and 2013, identified 23 categories at level or trend assessment with
Approach 1 and Approach 2 in the energy related emissions.
In the case of the energy sector in Italy, a sector by sector analysis instead of a source by source analysis will
better illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the emission data, given the interconnection between the
underlying data of most key categories.
In the following box, key categories for 2013 are listed, making reference to the section of the text where
they are quoted.
65
Key-categories identification in the energy sector with the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2 for 2013
KEY CATEGORIES
without
with
LULUCF LULUCF
1 Transport - CO2 Road transportation
2 Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
gaseous fuels
3 Energy industries - CO2 solid fuels
4 Energy industries - CO2 gaseous fuels
5 Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 gaseous
fuels
6 Energy industries - CO2 liquid fuels
7 Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
liquid fuels
8 Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid
fuels
9 Fugitive - CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
10 Other sectors - CH4 commercial, residential, agriculture
biomass
11 Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid
fuels
12 Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
other fossil fuels
13 Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture
biomass
14 Transport - CO2 Waterborne navigation
15 Transport - CO2 Civil Aviation
16 Fugitive - CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
17 Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture
liquid fuels
18 Manufacturing industries and construction - N2O liquid
fuels
19 Transport - N2O Road transportation
20 Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture
solid fuels
21 Transport - CH4 Road transportation
Relevant
paragraphs
Notes
L,T
L,T
3.5.3
Tables 3.21-3.29
L,T
L,T
3.6
Tables 3.32-3.35
L,T
L,T
L,T
L,T
3.3
3.3
Tables 3.6-3.9
Tables 3.6-3.9
L,T
L,T1
3.4
Tables 3.10-3.13
L,T
L,T
3.3
Tables 3.6-3.9
L,T
L,T
3.9
Tables 3.32-3.35
L,T
L1,T
3.4
Tables 3.10-3.13
L,T
L,T
3.9
Tables 3.40-3.46
L,T
L,T
3.6
Tables 3.32-3.35
L1,T
L1,T1
3.4
Tables 3.10-3.13
L1,T
L1,T1
3.6
Tables 3.32-3.35
L2,T
L2,T
3.6
Tables 3.32-3.35
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1,T1
L1
3.5.4
3.5.1
3.9
Table 3.30
Tables 3.15-3.19
Tables 3.40-3.46
L2
3.6
Tables 3.32-3.35
L2
3.4
Tables 3.10-3.13
L2
3.5.3
Tables 3.21-3.29
3.6
Tables 3.32-3.35
3.5.3
Tables 3.21-3.29
T1
T2
T1
With reference to the box, fourteen key categories (n. 2-8, 10-13, 17-18, and 20) are linked to stationary
combustion and to the same set of energy data: the energy sector CRF Table 1.A.1, the industrial sector,
Table 1.A.2 and the civil sector Tables 1.A.4a and 1.A.4b.
Ten out of fourteen key categories refer to CO2 emissions, two categories refer to CH4 and N2O emissions
from the use of biomass in the residential sector, the other two categories refer to N2O emissions from liquid
fuels in manufacturing and other sectors.
All these sectors refer to the national energy balance (MSE, several years [a]) for the basic energy data and
the distribution among various subsectors, even if more accurate data for the electricity production sector can
be found in TERNA publications (TERNA, several years). Evolution of energy consumptions/emissions is
linked to the activity data of each sector; see paragraph 3.3, 3.4 and 3.6 and Annex 2 for the detailed analysis
of those sectors.
Electricity production is the most “dynamic” sector and the energy emissions trend, for CO2, N2O and CH4,
is mainly driven by the thermoelectric production, see Tables A2.1 and A2.4 for more details.
In the following table emissions in CO2 equivalent for stationary combustion key category at level
assessment are summarized.
From 1990 to 2013, an increase in use of natural gas instead of fuel oil and gas oil in stationary combustion
plants is observed; it results in a decrease of CO2 emissions from combustion of liquid fuels and an increase
of emissions from gaseous fuels used in the different sectors.
The increase of CH4 emissions from other sector reflects the increase of the use of biomass for residential
heating.
66
Table 3.5 Stationary combustion, GHG emissions in 1990 and 2013
Energy industries - CO2 liquid fuels
Energy industries - CO2 solid fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture liquid fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture gaseous fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 gaseous fuels
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid fuels
Energy industries - CO2 gaseous fuels
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture other fossil fuels
Other sectors - CH4 commercial, residential, agriculture biomass
1990
2013
81,031
40,408
39,062
36,419
34,446
32,088
17,794
16,562
526
436
20,916
45,430
15,779
61,575
10,581
30,098
7,875
41,396
4,121
2,335
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Another group of key categories (n. 1, 14, 15, 19 and 21) referred to the transport sector, with basic total
energy consumption reported in the national energy balance and then subdivided in the different subsectors
with activity data taken from various statistical sources; see paragraph 3.5, transport, for an accurate analysis
of these key sources. This sector also shows a remarkable increase in emissions in the ninety years, in
particular CO2 from air transport and road transport, as can be seen in Table 3.19 and Table 3.29,
respectively. In the last years CO2 emissions from road transport started to decrease as a consequence of the
economical crisis and the reduction of the average fuel consumption per kilometre of the new vehicles. The
trend of N2O and CH4 emissions is linked to technological changes occurred in the period.
Finally, the last two key categories (n.9, 16) refer to oil and gas operations. For this sector basic overall
production data are reported in the national balance but emissions are calculated with more accurate data
published or delivered to ISPRA by the relevant operators, see paragraph 3.9.
Most of the categories described are also key categories for the years 1990 and 2013 taking into account
LULUCF emissions and removals.
The last two categories, CO2 fugitive emissions from venting and flaring and flaring in refineries, in the oil
and natural gas sector, are key categories only for 1990 at level assessment taking in account the uncertainty.
3.2
Methodology description
Emissions are calculated by the equation:
E(p,s,f) = A(s,f) × e(p,s,f)
where
E(p,s,f) = Emission of pollutant p from source s from fuel f
(kg)
A(s,f) = Consumption of fuel f by source s
(TJ-t)
e(p,s,f) = Emission factor of pollutant p from source s from fuel f (kg/TJ-kg/t)
The fuels covered are listed in Table A2.2 in Annex 2, though not all fuels occur in all sources. Sector
specific tables specify the emission factors used.
Emission factors are expressed in terms of kg pollutant/ TJ based on the net calorific value of the fuel.
The carbon factors used are based on national sources and are appropriate for Italy. Most of the emission
factors have been crosschecked with the results of specific studies that evaluate the carbon content of the
imported/produced fossil fuels at national level. A comparison of the current national factors with the IPCC
ones has been carried out; the results suggest quite limited variations in liquid fuels and some differences in
natural gas, explained by basic hydrocarbon composition, and in solid fuels.
Monitoring of the carbon content of the fuels nationally used is an ongoing activity at ISPRA. The principle
is to analyse regularly the chemical composition of the used fuel or relevant activity statistics, to estimate the
67
carbon content and the emission factor. National emission factors are reported in Table 3.12 and Table 3.21.
The specific procedure followed for each primary fuel (natural gas, oil, coal) is reported in Annex 6.
In response to the review process of the Initial report of the Kyoto Protocol, N2O and CH4 stationary
combustion emission factors were revised, in the 2006 submission, for the whole time series taking into
account default IPCC (IPCC, 1997; IPCC, 2000) and CORINAIR emission factors (EMEP/CORINAIR,
2007).
The emission factors should apply for all years provided there is no change in the carbon content of fuel over
time. There are exceptions to this rule:
• transportation fuels have shown a significant variation around the year 2000 due to the reformulation
of gasoline and diesel to comply with the EU directive, see Table 3.21;
• the most important imported fuels, natural gas, fuel oil and coal show variations of carbon content
from year to year, due to changes in the origin of imported fuel supply; a methodology has been set
up to evaluate annually the carbon content of the average fuel used in Italy, see Annex 6 for details:
• derived gases produced in refineries, as petcoke, refinery gas and synthesis gas from heavy residual
fuel, in iron and steel integrated plants, as coke oven gas, blast furnaces gas and oxygen converter
gas, and in chemical and petrochemical plants have been calculated from 2005 on the basis of the
analysis of information collected by the plants in the framework of EU ETS, see Annex 6 for details.
The activity statistics used to calculate emissions are fuel consumptions provided annually by the Ministry of
Economic Development (MSE) in the National Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]), by TERNA
(TERNA, several years) for the power sector and some additional data sources to characterise the
technologies used at sectoral level, quoted in the relevant sections.
Activity data collected in the framework of the EU ETS scheme do not cover the overall energy sector,
whereas the official statistics available at national level, such as the National Energy Balance (BEN) and the
energy production and consumption statistics supplied by TERNA, provide the complete basic data needed
for the emission inventory.
Italian energy statistics are mainly based on the National Energy Balance. The report is reliable, by
international standards, and it may be useful to summarize its main features:
• it is a balance, every year professional people carry out the exercise balancing final consumption
data with import-export information;
• the balance is made on the energy value of energy carriers, taking into account transformations that
may occur in the energy industries (refineries, coke plants, electricity production);
• data are collected regularly by the Ministry of Economic Development, on a monthly basis, from
industrial subjects;
• oil products, natural gas and electricity used by industry, civil or transport sectors are taxed with
excise duties linked to the physical quantities of the energy carriers; excise duties are differentiated
in products and final consumption sectors (i.e. diesel oil for industrial use pays duties lower than for
transportation use and higher than for electricity production; even bunker fuels have a specific
registration paper that state that they are sold without excise duties);
• concerning energy consumption information, this scheme produces highly reliable data: BEN is
based on registered quantities of energy consumption and not on estimates; uncertainties may be
present in the effective final destination of the product but total quantities are reliable;
• coal is an exception to this rule, it is not subject to excise duties; consumption information is
estimated; anyway, it is nearly all imported and a limited number of operators use it and the Ministry
of Economic Development monitors all of them on a monthly basis.
The energy balances of fuels used in Italy, published by the Ministry of Economic Development (MSE,
several years [a]), compare total supply based on production, exports, imports, stock changes and known
losses with the total demand; the difference between total supply and demand is reported as 'statistical
difference'. In Annex 5, 2013 data are reported, while the full time series is available on website:
http://dgerm.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/dgerm/ben.asp.
68
Additionally to fossil fuel, the National Energy Balance reports commercial wood and straw combustion
estimates for energy use, biodiesel and biogas. The estimate of GHG emissions are based on these data and
on other estimates (ENEA, several years) for non commercial wood use. Carbon dioxide emissions from
biomass combustion are not included in the national total as suggested in the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006)
but emissions of other GHGs and other pollutants are included. CORINAIR methodology (EMEP/EEA,
2013) includes emissions from the combustion of wood in the industrial and domestic sectors as well as the
combustion of biomass in agriculture.
The inventory includes also emissions from the combustion of lubricants based on data collected from waste
oil recyclers and quoted in the BEN; from 2002 onwards, this estimate is included in the column “Refinery
feedstock”, row “Productions”, see Annex 5, Table A5.1- National energy balance, year 2013, Primary fuels.
From 2001 onwards, it has been necessary to use also these quantities to calculate emissions in the reference
approach, so as to minimize differences with sectoral approach. From 2001, the energy balances prepared by
MSE include those quantities in the input while estimating final consumption; this procedure summarizes a
complex stock change reporting by operators.
3.3
Energy industries
A detailed description of the methodology used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from electricity
production under 1.A.1.a, 1.A.1.b and 1.A.1.c is reported in Annex 2. Basic data, methodology and emission
factors used to estimate emissions are derived from the same sources. In the following sub-paragraphs
additional information on the specific categories are supplied.
In this category, gaseous fuels refer to natural gas while solid fuels mainly to coal used to produce energy
and derived gases used in the integrated iron and steel plants; liquid fuels include residual oil fuel
consumption used for energy production in power plants and different fuels used in refineries. The CO2
implied emission factor trend for the sector is driven by the liquid fuel consumption in the petroleum refining
industry (around 89% of the total of liquid) where many fuels, with very different emission factors, are used,
such as refinery gas, that have an average emission factor value around to 57.4 t/TJ, and petroleum coke with
an average emission factor close to 94 t/TJ. In the last years, due also to the economical crisis, a slight
reduction in the consumption of synthesis gas from heavy residual fuels (in 2013 the average emission
factors t CO2/TJ values are about 80.8 and 98.0 for heavy residual fuels and synthesis gas respectively) is
observed, resulting in the interannual variations. Emission factors time series for these fuels are reported in
Annex 6.
3.3.1 Public Electricity and Heat Production
3.3.1.1 Source category description
This paragraph refers to the main electricity producers that produce electricity for the national grid. From
1998 onwards, the expansion of the industrial cogeneration of electricity and the split of the national
monopoly have transformed many industrial producers into “independent producers”, regularly supplying the
national grid. These producers account in 2013 for 94.5% of all electricity produced with combustion
processes in Italy (TERNA, several years).
No data on consumption/emissions from heat production is reported in this section. In Italy, only limited data
do exist about producers working for district heating grids; most of the cogenerated heat is produced and
used on the same site by industrial operators. Therefore data on heat production is not reported here but in
Table1.A(a)s2 for industry and Table1.A(a)s4 for district heating. In TERNA yearly publication, heat
cogenerated while producing electricity is reported separately. Unfortunately, no details are reported on the
final use of cogenerated heat, so it can be used in the inventory preparation just to cross check the total fuel
amount with other sources as EU ETS or the consumption of fuels in the industry reported in BEN.
Under biomass wood and charcoal consumption and relevant emissions are reported until 2007; CO2
emission factor is shown in Table 3.12 while CH4 and N2O emission factors are equal to 30 g/GJ and 4 g/GJ
respectively. From 2008 also bioliquid fuel is used and included under biomass (CH4 and N2O emission
factors equal to 12 g/GJ and 2 g/GJ respectively), resulting in the decrease of the average emission factor.
69
Other fuels subcategory refer mainly to fuel consumptions of other liquid, solid and gaseous fuels such as
industrial wastes, that are more than half of the total TJ of the subcategory, as plastics, rubber, and solvents,
and synthesis gas from heavy residual; the average CO2 emission factor has been calculated for the whole
time series and it is equal to 90.2 t/TJ in 2013.
CO2 implied emission factor trend of liquid fuels for this category is driven by the mix of high and low
sulphur fuel oil consumptions that is changed in the years as a consequence of the adoption of air quality
European Directives introducing air pollutants ceilings at the stacks, and the policies at national level which
established stringent ceiling for new and old plants and a timing scheduled for their implementation. The
CH4 implied emission factor is the weighted average of gasoil and residual oil emission factors equal to 1.5
g/GJ and 3 g/GJ respectively. The general decreasing trend is due to the minor use of fuel oil for energy
production, with a minimum in 2011, while the amount of gasoil, which is related to the start up of power
plants and to the gasoil used in stationary engines, has a more stable trend.
3.3.1.2 Methodological issues
The data source on fuel consumption is the annual report “Statistical data on electricity production and
power plants in Italy” (“Dati statistici sugli impianti e la produzione di energia elettrica in Italia”), edited
from 1999 by the Italian Independent System Operator (TERNA, several years). The reports refer to the total
of producers and the estimate of the part belonging to public electricity production is made by the inventory
team on the basis of detailed electricity production statistics by industrial operators. Data on total electricity
production for the year 2013 are reported in Annex 2. For the time series, see previous NIR reports. The
emission factors used are listed in Table 3.12.
Another source of information is the National Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]), which contains data
on the total electricity producing sector. The data of the National Energy Balance (BEN) are also used to
address the statistical survey of international organizations, IEA and Eurostat. Both BEN and TERNA
publications could be used for the inventory preparation, as they are part of the national statistical system and
published regularly.
A detailed analysis of both sources is reported in Annex 2; TERNA data appears to be more suitable for
inventory preparation. From year 2005 onwards a valuable source of information is given by the reports
prepared for each industrial installation subject to EU ETS scheme. These reports are prepared by
independent qualified verifiers and concern the CO2 emissions, emission factors and activity data, including
fuel used. ISPRA receives copy of the reports from the competent authority (Ministry of Environment) and
has been able to extract the information relative to electricity production. The information available is very
useful but not fully covering the electricity production sector or the public electricity production. The EU
ETS does not include all installations, only those above 20 MWe, it is made on a point source basis so the
data include electricity and heat production while the corresponding data from TERNA, concerning only the
fuel used for electricity production, are commercially sensitive, confidential and they are not available to the
inventory team. Anyway the comparison of data collected by TERNA with those submitted to the EU ETS
allows identifying possible discrepancies in the different datasets and thus providing the Ministry of
Economic Development experts with useful suggestions to improve the energy balance.
To estimate CO2 emissions, and also N2O and CH4 emissions, a rather complex calculation sheet is used
(APAT, 2003[a]). The data sheet summarizes all plants existing in Italy divided by technology, about 60
typologies, and type of fuel used; the calculation sheet is a model of the national power system. The model is
aimed at estimating the emissions of pollutants different from CO2 that are technology dependent. For each
year, a run estimates the fuel consumed by each plant type, the pollutant emissions and GHG emissions. The
model has many possible outputs, some of which are built up in order to reproduce the data available from
statistical source. The model is revised every year to mirror the changes occurred in the power plants.
Moreover, the model is also able to estimate the energy/emissions data related to the electricity produced and
used on site by the main industrial producers. These data are reported in the other energy industries, Tables
1.A.1.b and 1.A1.c, and in the industrial sector section, Tables 1.A.2. More detailed information is supplied
in Annex 2.
In Table 3.6, fuel consumptions and emissions of 1.A.1.a category are reported for the time series. Table 3.6
shows a decrease in fuel consumption and overall decrease in GHG emissions. However, an increase is
observed in CH4 and N2O emissions due to the increase in use of natural gas and biomass.
70
Table 3.6 Public electricity and heat production: Energy data (TJ) and GHG emissions, 1990-2013
1990
Fuel consumption (TJ)
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1,421,605 1,462,929 1,663,527 1,785,232 1,427,944 1,411,022 1,371,313 1,180,276
GHG (Gg)
107,557
109,858
116,060
120,682
94,117
92,751
92,110
79,075
CO2 (Gg)
107,158
109,466
115,693
120,269
93,775
92,373
91,716
78,689
CH4 (Gg)
3.7
3.9
3.8
4.0
3.3
3.7
3.7
3.7
N2O (Gg)
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
Source: ISPRA elaborations
As the main data source refers to the whole electricity production sector, the uncertainty and time-series
consistency, source-specific QA/QC and verification, recalculations and planned improvements are all
addressed in Annex 2.
3.3.2 Refineries
3.3.2.1 Source category description
This subsector covers the energy emissions from the national refineries (15 plants in 2013), including the
energy used to generate electricity for internal use and exported to the national grid by power plants that
directly use off-gases or other residues of the refineries. These power plants are generally owned by other
companies but are located inside the refinery premises or just sideway. In 2013 the power plants included in
this source category have generated 15.0% of all electricity produced with combustion processes in Italy.
The energy consumption and emissions are reported in CRF Table 1.A.1.b. Parts of refinery losses, flares,
are reported in CRF Table 1.B.2.a and c, using IPCC emission factors.
3.3.2.2 Methodological issues
The consumption data used for refineries come from BEN (MSE, several years [a]); the same data are also
reported by Unione Petrolifera, the industrial category association (UP, several years). From 2005 onwards,
also the EU ETS “verifier’s reports” cover almost the entire sector, for energy consumptions, combustion
emissions and process emissions. Other sources of information are the yearly reporting obligations for the
large combustion plants under European Directive (LCP) and the E-PRTR Regulation; both data collections
include most of refineries but not all the emission sources.
The available data in BEN specify the quantities of refinery gas, petroleum coke and other liquid fuels. They
are reported in Annex 5, Table A5.6.
For the part of the energy and related emissions due to the power plants the source is TERNA, refer to Annex
2 for further details. The quota of total energy consumption from electricity production included in source
category 1.A.1.b is estimated by the electricity production model on the basis of fuels used and plant
location.
All the fuel used in boilers and processes, the refinery “losses” and the reported losses of crude oil and other
fuels (that are mostly due to statistical discrepancies) are considered to calculate emissions. Fuel lost in the
distribution network is accounted for here and not in the individual end use sector. From 2002 particular
attention has been paid to avoid double counting of CO2 emissions checking if the refinery reports of
emissions already include losses in their energy balances. IPCC Tier 2 emission factors and national
emission factors are used as reported in Table 3.12.
From 2008, TERNA modified the detailed table of fuel consumption and related energy produced
introducing a more complete list of fuels. Aim of the change was to revise the consumption values of waste
fuels which are very important for estimating the contribution of renewable to electricity production and
consequently greenhouse gases.
In Table 3.7, a sample calculation for the year 2013 is reported, with energy and emission data.
71
Table 3.7 Refineries, CO2 emission calculation, year 2013
Consumption, TJ
CO2 emissions, Gg
REFINERIES Petroleum coke Ref. gas Liquid fuels Natural gas Petroleum coke Ref. gas
energy
furnaces
119,780
28,112
88,064
Liquid fuels Natural gas
62,199
9,810
14,468
2,644
TOTAL
5,052
3,545
1,112
312,624
22,162
Source: ISPRA elaborations
From 2005, the weighted average of CO2 emission factor reported by operators in the framework of the EU
ETS scheme is used for petroleum coke, refinery gas and synthesis gas from heavy residual fuels. The trend
of the implied emission factor is driven by the mix of the fuels used in the sector. The main fuel used are
refinery gases, fuel oil and petroleum coke, which have very different emission factors, and every year their
amount used changes resulting in a annual variation of the IEF. The increase in the last years, with respect to
the nineties, of the consumption of fuels with higher carbon content, as petroleum coke and synthesis gas
obtained from heavy residual fuels, explain the general growth of the IEF for liquid fuel reported in the CRF
for this sector.
In the following box, liquid fuel consumptions of 1.A.1.b category disaggregated by fuel are reported for the
time series.
Liquid fuel consumptions in petroleum refining (TJ), 1990-2013
Refinery gas
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
119,176.49
138,163.39
118,501.19
129,837.27
133,527.54
117,850.16
100,867.39
99,009.70
526.34
868.59
4,444.06
2,449.30
1,220.05
1,092.02
783.24
478.65
29,120.50
28,652.73
40,594.48
49,868.02
42,796.26
45,396.60
40,652.80
29,848.51
36,400.63
64,977.21
78,575.14
63,010.74
66,232.40
75,332.35
Naphta
Pet coke
Synthesis gas
-
87,501.74
101,429.68
86,684.53
76,084.42
81,913.47
88,617.83
86,463.15
44,170.82
LPG
2,025.05
1,979.02
3,253.47
2,593.24
1,794.93
1,242.64
1,058.55
1,426.74
Gasoil
2,558.92
2,071.07
7,259.21
11,317.67
879.47
1,046.00
930.52
158.15
Fuel oil
Gasoline
Total
3,426.68
4,520.79
303.34
958.13
244,335.72
277,685.28
297,440.90
338,085.26
340,706.86
318,255.99
296,988.05
250,424.92
3.3.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions from refineries is estimated to be about 4.2% in annual
emissions; a higher uncertainty, equal to 50.1%, is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions because of the
uncertainty levels attributed to the related emission factors.
Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to estimate uncertainty of CO2 emissions from stationary
combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels emissions, resulting in 5.1%, 3.3% and 5.8%, respectively.
Normal distributions have been assumed for all the parameters. A summary of the results is reported in
Annex 1
In Table 3.8 GHG emissions from the sector in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010-2013 are reported.
Table 3.8 Refineries, GHG emission time series
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
CO2 emissions, Mt
17.2
19.5
22.3
26.4
28.3
27.1
25.9
22.2
CH4 emissions, Gg
0.46
0.53
0.59
0.67
0.74
0.71
0.69
0.57
N2O emissions, Gg
0.49
0.56
0.60
0.68
0.70
0.65
0.61
0.52
Refinery, total, Mt CO2 eq
17.3
19.7
22.4
26.6
28.5
27.3
26.1
22.3
Source: ISPRA elaborations
72
An upward trend in emission levels is observed from 1990 to 2010 explained by the increasing quantities of
crude oil processed and the complexity of process used to produce more environmentally friendly
transportation fuels. Liquid fuel consumptions have reached a plateau in 2010 and they are now in a
downward trend that is expected to continue, due to the reduced quantities of crude oil processed and
electricity produced and to the gradual substitution with natural gas fuel consumption.
3.3.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions have been reported by national energy balance and the national grid
administrator. Data collected under other reporting obligations that include refineries (EU ETS, LCP and EPRTR databases) have been used to cross-check the energy balance data, fuels used and emission factors.
Differences and problems have been analysed in details and solved together with Ministry of Economic
Development experts, who are in charge of preparing the National Energy Balance.
3.3.2.5 Source-specific recalculations
In 2015 submission, recalculations occurred for this category due to the application of the IPCC 2006
Guidelines and the relevant updated emission factor time series (see Annex 6 for further details) resulting in
a slight increase of emissions from this category.
3.3.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned for the next submission.
3.3.3 Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries
3.3.3.1 Source category description
In Italy, all the iron and steel plants are integrated, therefore there is no separated reporting for the different
part of the process. A few coke and “manufactured gas” producing plants were operating in the early nineties
and they have been reported here. Only one small manufactured gas producing plant is still in operation from
2002.
In this section, emissions from power plants, which use coal gases, are also reported. In particular, we refer
to the electricity generated in the iron and steel plant sites (using coal gases and other fuels). In 2013 the
power plants included in this source category have generated about 3% of all electricity produced with
combustion processes in Italy.
With regard to the manufacture of other solid fuels, in Italy, charcoal was produced in the traditional way
until the sixties while now it is prevalently produced in modern furnaces (e.g with the VMR system) where
exhaust gases are collected and recycled to produce the energy for the furnace itself. This system ensures
good management of the exhausts and the temperature, so that any waste of energy is prevented and
emissions are kept to a minimum.
So CH4 emissions from the production of charcoal are not accounted for also considering that the emission
factor available in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines, in Table 1-14 vol.3 (IPCC, 1997), refers to production
processes in developing countries not applicable to our country anymore. Moreover in the IPCC Good
Practice Guidance as well as in the IPCC 2006 Guidelines no guidance is supplied for charcoal production.
3.3.3.2 Methodological issues
Fuel consumption data for the sector are reported in the BEN (MSE, several years [a]). Fuels used to produce
energy are also reported with more detail as for fuel disaggregation level by TERNA (TERNA, several
years). From 2005 onwards, also the EU ETS “verifier’s reports” cover almost the entire sector, for energy
73
consumptions, combustion emissions and process emissions. Other sources of information are the yearly
reporting obligations for the large combustion plants under European Directive (LCP) and for facilities under
the E-PRTR Regulation; both reporting obligations include most of the iron and steel integrated plants and
the only coke producing plant but not all the emission sources. A carbon balance is done, as suggested by the
IPCC good practice guidance, to avoid over or under estimation from the sector. In Annex 3 further details
on carbon balances of solid fuels and derived gases used are reported.
The high-implied emission factor for solid fuels is due to the large use of derived steel gases and in particular
blast furnace gas to produce energy. These gases have been assimilated to the renewable sources and
incentives are still provided for their use.
Other fuels are used in co-combustion with coal gases to produce electricity and they are reported by
TERNA, see Annex 2. From 2008, natural gas and fuel oil consumptions reported in the CRF for this sector,
are those communicated by the operators of the plants included in the sector in the framework of the EU ETS
scheme. The consumptions of these fuels, especially for natural gas, are higher than those reported for the
previous years. Fuel consumption reported in the sector is subtracted from the total fuel consumption to
produce energy, guaranteeing that over and under estimation are avoided.
CH4 emissions from coke ovens are estimated on the basis of production data to take in account additional
volatile emissions due to the specific process. Average emission factors are calculated on the basis of
information communicated by the four plants under the EPRTR registry.
3.3.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions from integrated iron and steel plants is estimated to be about
4.2% in annual emissions; a higher uncertainty, equal to 50.1%, is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions on
account of the uncertainty levels attributed to the related emission factors.
Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to estimate uncertainty of CO2 emissions from stationary
combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels emissions, resulting in 5.1%, 3.3% and 5.8%, respectively.
Normal distributions have been assumed for all the parameters. A summary of the results is reported in
Annex 1.
In Table 3.9 GHG emissions from the sector in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010-2013 are reported.
Table 3.9 Manufacture of solid fuels, GHG emission time series
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
CO2 emissions, Mt
13.8
12.5
14.4
13.5
11.8
12.3
9.5
7.1
CH4 emissions, Gg
4.9
3.8
2.3
1.2
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.3
N2O emissions, Gg
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Total, Mt CO2 eq
14.0
12.6
14.5
13.6
11.8
12.4
9.5
7.1
Source: ISPRA elaborations
The trend of CO2 and N2O emissions is driven by the production trends combined with an increase in energy
consumption required by more energy intensive products. In 2009 a strong reduction of emissions is
observed due to the effects of the economic recession that in 2010 and 2011 has partially recovered. In 2012
and 2013 a further drop occurred for the economic crisis.
The trend of CH4 emissions is driven by the coke production trend, decreased from 6.4 Mt in 1990 to 4.5Mt
in 2000 and by the renewal of the production plants. In particular the strong reduction of CH4 emissions in
the last years is the result of the renewal of the coke production plants in Taranto, started in 2005, and the
implementation of best available technologies to reduce volatile organic compounds. In 2009, as well as in
2013, national coke production has reduced of about 40% with respect to the previous year, determining a
loss in efficiency of the production plants and an increase of emissions by product unit (IEF) for that year.
74
3.3.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions have been reported by national energy balance and the national grid
administrator. Data collected under other reporting obligations that include integrated iron and steel plants,
such as EU ETS Directive, LCP and E-PRTR databases, have been used to cross-check the energy balance
data, fuels used and emission factors. Differences and problems have been analysed in details and solved
together with Ministry of Economic Development experts, which are in charge to prepare the National
Energy Balance. In particular, in the national PRTR register the integrated plants report every year the CO2
emitted at each stage of the process, coke production, sinter production and iron and steel production, which
result from separate carbon balances calculated in each phase of the production process. Moreover, total CO2
emissions reported in the E-PRTR by the operators are equal to those reported under the EU ETS scheme.
The detailed analysis and comparison of the different data reported improved the allocation of fuel
consumption and CO2 emissions between 1.A.1.c and 1.A.2.a sectors. From the 2010 submission, in fact,
coking coal losses for transformation process and related emissions have been reallocated under 1.A.1.c
instead of 1.A.2.a.
3.3.3.5 Source-specific recalculations
In the 2015 submission, recalculations occurred for this category due to the application of the IPCC 2006
Guidelines and the relevant updated emission factor time series (see Annex 6 for further details), resulting in
an increase of CO2 emissions of about 6% for the nineties.
3.3.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned for the next submission.
3.4
Manufacturing industries and construction
3.4.1 Sector overview
Included in this category are emissions which originate from energy use in the manufacturing industries
included in category 1.A.2. Where emissions are released simultaneously from the production process and
from combustion, as in the cement, lime and glass industry, these are estimated separately and included in
category 2.A. All greenhouse gases as well as CO, NOx, NMVOC and SO2 emissions are estimated.
In 2013, energy use in industry account for 13.5% of total national CO2 emissions, 0.6% of CH4, 5.2% of
N2O. In term of CO2 equivalent, manufacturing industry share 11.4% of total national greenhouse gas
emissions.
Four key categories have been identified for this sector in 2013, for level and trend assessment, using both
the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2:
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 gaseous fuels (L, T);
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 solid fuels (L, T);
Manufacturing industries and construction - CO2 liquid fuels (L1, T);
Manufacturing industries and construction - N2O liquid fuels (L2).
All these categories, except N2O from liquid fuels, are also key category including the LULUCF estimates in
the key category assessment.
In the following Table 3.10, GHG emissions connected to the use of fossil fuels, process emissions excluded,
are reported for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010-2013. Industrial emissions show oscillations,
related to economic cycles.
75
Table 3.10 Manufacturing industry, GHG emission time series
CO2 emissions, Gg
1990
84,535
1995
84,347
2000
82,101
2005
78,281
2010
60,353
2011
60,109
2012
55,331
2013
48,725
CH4 emissions, Gg
6.82
7.02
5.72
6.28
5.51
6.90
8.14
10.29
N2O emissions, Gg
4.93
4.52
4.66
5.02
4.01
3.97
3.54
3.34
86,175
85,869
83,634
79,934
61,686
61,464
56,589
49,978
Industry, total, Gg CO2 eq
Source: ISPRA elaborations
In Table 3.11 emissions are reported by pollutant for all the subsectors included in the sector.
A general trend of reduction in emissions is observed from 1990 to 2008; some sub sectors reduced sharply
(steel, chemical), other sub sectors (pulp and paper, food) increased their emissions. In 2009 an overall
reduction of emissions for all the sectors is noted due to the effects of the economic recession. In 2010 and
2011 production levels have been restored for the iron and steel and pulp and paper sectors while the other
sectors still continue to suffer from the economical crisis. In 2013 a further drop is noted for the iron and
steel industry also due to environmental constraints of the main integrated iron and steel plant in Italy,
located in Taranto, which had to reduce its steel production level.
Table 3.11 Trend in greenhouse gas emissions from the manufacturing industry sector, 1990-2013
GAS/SUBSOURCE
CO2 (Gg)
1.A.2.a Iron and Steel
1.A.2.b Non-Ferrous Metals
1.A.2.c Chemicals
1.A.2.d Pulp, Paper and Print
1.A.2.e Food
1.A.2.f Non-metallic minerals
1.A.2.g Other
CH4 (Mg)
1.A.2.a Iron and Steel
1.A.2.b Non-Ferrous Metals
1.A.2.c Chemicals
1.A.2.d Pulp, Paper and Print
1.A.2.e Food
1.A.2.f Non-metallic minerals
1.A.2.g Other
N2O (Mg)
1.A.2.a Iron and Steel
1.A.2.b Non-Ferrous Metals
1.A.2.c Chemicals
1.A.2.d Pulp, Paper and Print
1.A.2.e Food
1.A.2.f Non-metallic minerals
1.A.2.g Other
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
17,225
748
19,263
3,077
3,857
21,225
19,141
18,010
914
17,322
4,166
5,067
18,600
20,269
13,172
1,265
12,274
4,235
6,262
24,539
20,355
13,896
1,175
10,939
4,591
6,490
24,088
17,102
14,014
1,139
7,820
4,603
4,428
17,892
10,457
16,280
1,120
7,058
4,449
4,296
17,849
9,058
17,038
1,068
6,929
4,315
3,532
14,146
8,303
10,597
1,121
8,010
4,263
3,532
13,193
8,008
3,795
13
798
77
105
1,412
619
4,226
16
677
94
127
1,276
605
3,093
27
318
91
175
1,463
556
3,304
24
340
104
410
1,624
470
2,880
21
198
85
819
1,197
308
3,254
21
175
81
1,912
1,161
291
3,315
20
170
78
3,328
967
262
2,612
22
170
83
6,272
879
256
362
13
346
64
52
2,644
1,450
370
16
285
82
53
2,285
1,427
302
25
159
81
76
2,630
1,389
330
23
152
89
91
2,986
1,350
292
21
109
82
57
2,183
1,265
335
21
96
79
78
2,102
1,257
306
20
95
77
87
1,715
1,237
237
21
94
77
144
1,533
1,236
Source: ISPRA elaborations
3.4.2 Source category description
76
The category 1.A.2 comprises seven sources: 1.A.2.a Iron and Steel, 1.A.2.b Non-Ferrous Metals, 1.A.2.c
Chemicals, 1.A.2.d Pulp, Paper and Print, 1.A.2.e Food, 1.A.2.f Non-metallic minerals, 1.A.2.g Other.
Iron and steel
The main processes involved in iron and steel production are those related to sinter and blast furnace plants,
to basic oxygen and electric furnaces and to rolling mills.
Most of emissions are connected to the integrated steel plants, while for the other plants, the main energy
source is electricity (accounted for in 1.A.1.a) and the direct use of fossil fuels is limited to heating – re
heating of steel in the intermediate part of the process.
There were four integrated steel plants in 1990 that from 2005 are reduced to two, with another plant that
still has a limited production of pig iron. Nevertheless, the steel production in integrated plants has not
changed significantly in the 1990-2008 period due to an expansion in capacity of the two operating plants.
The maximum production was around 11 Mt/y in 1990, 1995 and in 2005-2008, with lower values in other
years and the lowest of 6 Mt in 2009.
It has to be underlined that the integrated steel plants include also the cogeneration of heat and electricity
using the recovered “coal gases” from various steps of the process, including steel furnace gas, BOF gas and
coke oven gas. All emissions due to the “coal gases” used to produce electricity are included in the electricity
grid operator yearly reports and are accounted in the category 1.A.1.c. No detailed info is available for the
heat produced, so the emissions are included in source category 1.A.2.a.
With the aim to avoid double counting process-related emissions from the iron and steel subcategory are
reported in the industrial processes sector. CH4 emissions are estimated for each emitting activities according
to the classification of activities described in the EMEP/EEA guidebook and consequently allocated at the
combustion or industrial processes sector in consideration of the relevant methodological issues. More in
detail CH4 process emissions for pig iron and steel production are already allocated to the industrial
processes sector as well as fugitive CH4 emissions from coke production are reported under fugitive
emissions while CH4 emissions from the combustion of fuels are allocated to the energy sector.
Non-Ferrous Metals
In Italy, the production of primary aluminium stopped in 2013 (and was 232 Gg in 1990) while secondary
aluminium accounts for 350 Gg in 1990 and 664 Gg in 2013. These productions however use electricity as
the primary energy source so the emissions due to the direct use of fossil fuels are limited.
The sub sector comprises also the production of other non-ferrous metals, both primary and secondary
copper, lead, zinc and others; but also those productions have a limited share of emissions. Magnesium
production is not occurring.The bulk of emissions are due to foundries that prepare mechanical pieces for the
engineering industry or the market, using all kinds of alloys, including aluminium, steel and iron.
Chemicals
CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from chemical and petrochemical plants are included in this sector.
In Italy there are petrochemical plants integrated with a nearby refinery and stand alone plants that get the
inputs from the market. Main products are Ethylene, Propylene, Styrene.
In particular, ethylene and propylene are produced in petrochemical industry by steam cracking. Ethylene is
used to manufacture ethylene oxide, styrene monomer and polyethylene. Propylene is used to manufacture
polypropylene but also acetone and phenol. Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene, is produced on industrial
scale by catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene. Styrene is used in the rubber and plastic industry to
manufacture through polymerisation processes such products as polystyrene, ABS, SBR rubber, SBR latex.
Except for ethylene oxide production, which has stopped since 2002, the other productions of the above
mentioned chemicals still occur in Italy. Activity data are stable from 1990 to 2013, with limited yearly
variations.
Chemical industry includes non organic chemicals as chlorine/soda, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, ammonia. A
limited production of fertilizers is also present in Italy. From 1990 to 2013 the production has been greatly
reduced, with less than half of the 1990 production still occurring in 2013.
This source category does include some emissions from the cogeneration of electricity. Due to the
transformation of some of those plants in power plants directly connected to the grid, and so reported in
category 1.A.1.a, the percentage of the category 1.A.2.c CO2 emissions due to electricity generation has
reduced from 1990 to 2013.
Pulp, Paper and Print
77
Emissions from the manufacturing of paper are included in this source category. In Italy the manufacture of
virgin paper pulp is rather limited, with a production feeding less than 5% of the paper produced in 2013.
Most of the pulp was imported in 1990, while in 2013 half of the pulp used is produced locally from recycled
paper. The paper production is expanding and activity data (total paper produced) were 6.3 Mt in 1990 and
8.5 Mt in 2013. The printing industry represents a minor part of the source category emissions.
This source category includes also the emissions from the cogeneration of electricity. Due to the
transformation of some of those plants in power plants directly connected to the grid (and so reported in
category 1.A.1.a), the percentage of the category 1.A.2.d CO2 emissions due to electricity generation has
strongly reduced from 1990 to 2013.
Food
Emissions from the food production are included in this source category. In Italy the industrial food
production is expanding. A comprehensive activity data for this sector is not available; energy fuel
consumption was estimated to be 62 PJ in 1990 and 101 PJ in 2013. Value added at constant prices has
increased of 0.6% per years from 1990 to 2003 and of 0.1% yearly from 2004 to 2012.
This source category also includes emissions from the cogeneration of electricity. Due to the transformation
of those plants in power plants directly connected to the grid, and so reported in category 1.A.1.a, the
percentage of the category 1.A.2.e CO2 emissions due to electricity generation has reduced from 1990 to
2013.
Non-metallic minerals
This sector, which refers to construction materials, is quite significant in terms of emissions due to the
energy intensity of the processes involved. Construction materials subsector includes the production of
cement, lime, bricks, tiles and glass. It comprises thousands of small and medium size enterprises, with only
a few large operators, mainly connected to cement production. Some of the production is also exported. The
description of the process used to produce cement, lime and glass is reported in chapter 4, industrial
processes.
The fabrication of bricks is a rather standard practice in most countries and does not need additional
description; fossil source is mainly natural gas. A peculiar national circumstance is the fabrication of tiles, in
which are involved many specialised “industrial districts” where many different independent small size
enterprises are able to manufacture world level products for both quality and style, exported everywhere.
Generally speaking, the processes implemented are efficient with reference to the average European level
and use mostly natural gas as the main fossil source since the year 2000.
The activity data of industries oriented to so different markets are, of course, peculiar to each subsector and it
is difficult to identify a common trend. The productions of cement, lime and glass are the most relevant from
the emissions point of view.
This subsector is the most important of 1.A.2 category and accounts, in 2013, for 27.4% of total 1.A.2 GHG
emissions, and 3.1% of total national emissions.
Other
This sector comprises emissions from many different industrial subsectors, some of which are quite
significant in Italy in terms of both value added and export capacity.
In particular, engineering sectors (vehicles and machines manufacturing) is the main industrial sub sector in
terms of value added and revenues from export and textiles was the second subsector up to year 2000.
The remaining “other industries” include furniture and other various “made in Italy” products that produce
not negligible amounts of emissions.
This source category includes also emissions from the cogeneration of electricity. Due to the transformation
of some of those plants in power plants directly connected to the grid, and so reported in category 1.A.1.a,
the percentage of the category 1.A.2.g CO2 emissions due to electricity generation has reduced in the last
years.
3.4.3 Methodological issues
Energy consumption for this sector is reported in the BEN (see Annex 5, Tables A5.9 and A5.10). The data
comprise specification of consumption for 13 sub-sectors and more than 25 fuels. These very detailed data,
combined with industrial production data, allow for a good estimation of all the fuel used by most industrial
78
sectors, with the details required by CRF format. With reference to coal used in the integrated steel
production plants the quantities reported in BEN are not used as such but a procedure has been elaborated to
estimate the carbon emissions linked to steel production and those attributable to the coal gases recovered for
electricity generation, as already mentioned in paragraph 3.4.1. The detailed calculation procedure is
described in Annex 3. Moreover, a part of the fuel input is considered in the estimation of process emissions,
see chapter 4 for further details.
The balance of fuel (total consumption minus industrial processes consumption) is considered in the
emission estimate; CO2 emission factors used for 2013 are listed in Table 3.12. The procedure used to
estimate the national emission factors is described in Annex 6. These factors account for the fraction of
carbon oxidised equal to 1.00 for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, as suggested by the IPCC 2006 guidelines
(IPCC, 2006). For some fuels as natural gas, coal and residual oil, country specific emission factors are
available for the whole time series; so their time series takes into account different oxidation factors
according to the improving of combustion efficiency occurred in the nineties, but considering the value equal
to 1.00 from 2005. For petroleum coke, synthesis gas from heavy residual, refinery gases, iron and steel
derived gases, from 2005, and for residual gases from chemical processes, from 2007, CO2 emission factors
have been calculated based on the data reported by operators under the EU ETS scheme. See Annex 6 for
further details. For the other fuels where national information was not available default emission factors
provided by the IPCC 2006 Guidelines have been used (IPCC, 2006).
Table 3.12 Emission Factors for Power, Industry and Civil sector
Liquid fuels
Crude oil
Jet gasoline
Jet kerosene
Petroleum Coke*
Gasoil
Orimulsion
Fuel oil*
Heavy residual in refineries*
Synthesis gas from heavy residual*
Residual gases from chemical processes*
Gaseous fuels
Natural gas*
Solid fuels
Steam coal*
"sub-bituminous" coal
Lignite
Coking coal*
Coke*
Biomass
Solid Biomass*
Derived Gases
Refinery Gas*
Coke Gas*
Oxygen converter Gas*
Blast furnace*
Other fuels
Municipal solid waste*
*country specific emission factors
t CO2 / TJ
t CO2 / t
t CO2 / toe
73.300
69.300
71.500
94.037
74.100
77.000
76.405
80.756
97.951
51.661
3.101
3.070
3.153
3.160
3.186
2.118
3.142
3.145
0.832
2.634
3.067
2.899
2.992
3.934
3.100
3.222
3.197
3.379
4.098
2.161
56.989
1.953 (sm3)
2.384
94.127
96.100
101.000
94.514
111.182
2.350
1.816
1.202
2.986
3.214
3.938
4.021
4.226
3.954
4.652
(94.600)
(0.962)
(3.961)
57.368
42.861
185.522
251.428
2.653 (sm3)
0.761 (sm3)
1.073 (sm3)
0.939 (sm3)
2.400
1.793
7.762
10.520
114.735
1.056
4.801
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Other sources of information are the yearly survey performed for the E-PRTR, since 2003, and the EU ETS;
both surveys include main industrial operators, but not all emission sources. In particular from 2005 onwards
the detailed reports by operators subject to EU ETS constitute a valuable source of data, as already said
above with reference to oxidation factors and average emission factors.
79
In general, in the industrial sector, the ETS data source is used for cross checking BEN data.
Energy/emissions data from EU ETS survey of industrial sectors should be normally lower than the
corresponding BEN data because only part of the installations / sources of a certain industrial sub sector are
subject to EU ETS. In case of missing sources or lower figures in the BEN than ETS, at fuel sector level, a
verification procedure is carried out.
Since 2007 data, ISPRA verifies actual data from both sources and communicates potential discrepancies to
MSE. Thus a verification procedure is started that can eventually modify BEN data. However, we underline
that EU ETS data do not include all industrial installations and cannot be used directly to estimate sectoral
emissions for a series of reasons that will be analyzed in the following, sector by sector.
Biomass fuel consumption in the sector is driven by the use of wood in the non-metallic sub category and
biogas from agriculture residues in the food sub category. The trend of the implied emission factors are
driven in the last years by the exponential increase of the biogas fuel consumption, observed mainly in the
food processing industry, and the strong decrease of wood consumption in industry, as supplied by the
national energy balance (MSE, several years [a]).
Other fuels include residual gas from chemical processes fuel consumption, reported in the chemical sub
category. The emission factors time series is reported in Table A6.12 of Annex 6 and they have been derived
from data reported to the ETS by the plants using that fuel.
Iron and steel
For this sector, all main installations are included in EU ETS, but only from 2013 all sources of emissions
are included. In the previous years only part of the processes of integrated steel making was subject to EU
ETS, in particular the manufacturing process after the production of row steel was excluded up to 2007 and
only the lamination processes have been included from 2008.
So the EU ETS data have been of limited use for this subsector and the procedure set up starting from the
total carbon input to the steel making process, is the most comprehensive one to estimate the emissions to be
reported in 1.A.2.a, see Annex 3 for further details.
Of course, data available from EU ETS are used for cross-checking the national energy balance data, with an
aim to improve the consistency of the data set.
These plants are also reported in E-PRTR, but not all sources are included.
The low implied emission factors and annual variations in the average CO2 emission factor for solid fuel are
due to the fact that both activity data and emissions reported under this category include the results of the
carbon balance (see Annex 3 for further details). The implied emission factor for 2013 is equal to 64.8 t/TJ
and the trend is quite stable with figures around 60-65 t/TJ. CH4 implied emission factor is equal to 25.5
kg/TJ in 2013 and it is higher than the default emission factors because of the specificities of the in-process
combustion activities. The sintering process is a pre-treatment step in the production of iron in which metal
ores, coke and other materials are roasted under burners, involving the mixing of combustion products and/or
the fuel with the product or raw materials (EMEP/EEA, 2009). Apart from combustion emissions, the
heating of plant feedstock and product can lead to substantial CH4 emissions which are to be accounted for in
the combustion process.
Non-Ferrous Metals
These plants are mostly excluded from EU ETS; primary aluminium producing plants should be included
from 2013, but the only Italian plant closed in the same year. These plants are also in general not considered
in E-PRTR survey, because they do not reach the emission ceilings for mandatory reporting. In this context
emissions from the production processes are generally reported.
Chemicals
The use of EU ETS data for this subsector is rather complex because generally chemical plants are excluded
from EU ETS while petrochemical plants, which report also under the E-PRTR, are included. In this case,
the data set is used for cross checking BEN data. As mentioned in paragraph 3.4.1, also a small amount of
emissions connected to the production of electricity for the onsite use is reported in source 1.A.2.c, basic data
are taken from TERNA reports and the relative subsector amount is estimated with a model.
In this category, biomass refers to the steam wood fuel consumption as available in the BEN while other fuel
includes the consumption of residual gases from chemical processes. Relevant CO2 emission factors are
reported in Table 3.12 above. For CH4, the emission factor is equal to 3 kg/TJ, which is the value reported in
the IPCC guidelines for fuel oil; for N2O, the upper level of the EF for fuel oil specified in the 2006 IPCC
guidelines, equal to 2 kg/TJ, has been chosen.
80
Pulp, Paper and Print
Most of the operators in the paper and pulp sector are included in EU ETS, while only a few of the printing
installations are included.
From 2010 submission CH4 and N2O emissions from biomass fuel consumption in the sector, have been
added to the inventory on the basis of the biomass fuel consumption reported in the annual environmental
report by the industrial association (ASSOCARTA, several years) and to the EU ETS. Statistics on biomass
fuel consumption appears from 1998. According to the information supplied by the industrial association of
the sector, ASSOCARTA, a few plants started to use biomass from 1998. The use of biomass has an
increasing trend till 2008 while from 2009 the use of biomass sharply reduced. From 2008 information is
directly reported by the production plants in the framework of the EU ETS. For the years from 1990 to 1997
the use of biomass for energy purposes in the pulp and paper industry has been assumed not occurring.
Biomass fuel consumption includes especially black liquor but also industrial sludge and biogas from
industrial organic wastes. CO2 emission factor is equal to 112.6 t/TJ.
Food
Emissions from the food production are included in this source category. A comprehensive activity data for
this sector is not available; the subsector comprises many small and medium size enterprises, with thousands
of different products. Limited info on this sector can be found in ETS survey, the sector is not included in the
scope of ETS.
Liquid fuel refers to fuel oil and LPG fuel consumption; in the last years a drop of fuel oil has been observed
resulting in the sharp decrease of the average emission factors.
For the years up to 2002, solid fuel consumption was mainly related to the consumption of coke and small
amount of lignite. From 2012 the fuel consumption and relevant emission factors refers only to coal.
Biomass includes fuel consumption of steam wood and biogas from food industrial residual. The CH4
implied emission factor time series is driven by the mix of these fuels. In this sector emissions are
prevalently from biogas from food industrial residual, with an EF of CH4 equal to 153 kg/TJ, while in the
other manufacturing industries biomass refers to wood and similar with an EF of CH4 equal to 30 kg/TJ.
Biogas from food industrial residual has a N2O EF, equal to 3 kg/TJ, while wood and similar have an EF
equal to 4 kg/TJ.
Non-metallic minerals
This sector comprises emissions from many different industrial subsectors, some of which are subject to EU
ETS and some not. Construction material subsector is energy intensive and it is subject to EU ETS. In the
national energy database (BEN), the data for construction material are reported separately and they can be
cross cheeked with ETS survey. However, in the construction material subsector, there are many small and
medium size enterprises, so the operators subject to ETS are only a part of the total.
Biomass includes wood fuel consumption and other non conventional fuels especially used in the
construction material subsector. CH4 emission factor is equal to 27.5 kg/TJ and refers to the use of these non
conventional fuels for the cement production (EMEP/EEA, 2009).
Other
This sector comprises emissions from many different industrial subsectors, mainly not subject to EU ETS.
3.4.4 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions for this category is estimated to be about 4% in annual
emissions; a higher uncertainty is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions on account of the uncertainty levels
attributed to the related emission factors and the difference in emission factors between the industrial
subsectors, sources 1.a.2.a-g.
Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to estimate uncertainty of CO2 emissions from stationary
combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels emissions, resulting in 5.1%, 3.3% and 5.8%, respectively.
Normal distributions have been assumed for all the parameters. A summary of the results is reported in
Annex 1.
Estimates of fuel consumption for industrial use in 2013 are reported in Annex 5, Tables A5.9 and A5.10.
Time series of the industrial energy consumption data are contained in the BEN time series and in the CRFs
and are reported in the following table.
81
Table 3.13 Fuel consumptions for Manufacturing Industry sector, 1990-2013 (TJ)
1990
1.A.2 Manufacturing
Industries and Construction
a. Iron and Steel
1995
2000
2005
1,265,428 1,308,830 1,305,976 1,258,635
2010
2011
2012
2013
949,013
963,542
870,013
817,257
271,413
273,216
231,016
250,701
220,112
250,336
245,056
171,421
12,067
15,145
20,609
19,950
19,200
19,066
18,196
18,988
290,074
269,682
203,069
180,188
133,950
121,289
119,178
136,505
d. Pulp, Paper and Print
50,520
70,371
74,175
79,633
79,014
77,383
74,881
74,150
e. Food Processing, Beverages
and Tobacco
62,141
85,138
103,552
108,371
78,415
83,782
82,410
101,947
f. Non-metallic minerals
280,705
268,150
341,220
340,842
248,518
262,990
191,342
181,578
g. Other
298,508
327,127
332,335
278,950
169,804
148,697
138,950
132,668
b. Non-Ferrous Metals
c. Chemicals
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Emission levels observed from 1990 to 2005 are nearly constant with some oscillations, linked to the
economic cycles. After year 2005 the general trend is downward, with oscillations due to the economic
cycles, see Table 3.11 above. The underlining reason for the reduced emissions is the reduced industrial
output, and the increase in energy efficiency.
3.4.5 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions have been reported by national energy balance and the national grid
administrator. Data collected by other surveys that include EU-ETS and E-PRTR surveys have been used to
cross – check the energy balance data, fuels used and EFs. Differences and problems have been analysed in
details and solved together with MSE experts.
The energy data used to estimate emissions reported in table 1.A.2 have two different levels of accuracy:
• in general they are quite reliable and their uncertainty is the same of the BEN; as reported in Annex
4 the BEN survey covers 100% of import, export and production of energy; the total industrial
consumption estimate is obtained subtracting from the total the known energy quantities (obtained
by specialized surveys) used in electricity production, refineries and the civil sector.
• the energy consumption at sub sectoral level (sources 1.A.2.a-g) is estimated by MSE on the basis of
sample surveys, actual production and economic data; therefore the internal distribution on energy
consumption has not the same grade of accuracy of the total data.
3.4.6 Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations occurred for this category due to the gas application of the IPCC 2006 Guidelines and the
relevant CO2 emission and oxidation factors.
The recalculation of the 1.A.2 subsector resulted in a decrease equal to -0.9% in 1990 and increase of 3.1%
in 2012 for CO2.
3.4.7 Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned for the next submission.
82
3.5
Transport
This sector shows an increase in emissions over time, reflecting the trend observed in fuel consumption for
road transportation. The mobility demand and, particularly, the road transportation share have increased in
the period from 1990 to 2013, although since 2007 emissions from the sector begin to decrease. Emissions
show an increase of about 0.2 % from 1990 to 2013, and this results from an increase of about 25.9% from
1990 to 2007 and from a decrease of about -20.4% from 2007 to 2013, being equal to -2.5% the decrease in
last year. In particular in 2012 a drop is observed of CO2 emissions due to a sharp reduction of gasoline and
diesel fuel consumption for road transport, explained mainly by the economic crisis, contributing to the
reduction of movements of passengers and goods, and in a minor way by the penetration in the market of low
consumption vehicles.
The time series of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions, in Mt CO2 equivalent, is reported in Table 3.14; figures
comprise all the emissions reported in table 1.A.(a)s3 of the CRF.
Emission estimates are discussed below for each sub sector.
The trend of N2O emissions is related to the evolution of the technologies in the road transport sector and the
distribution between the different fuels consumption.
Methane emission trend is due to the combined effect of technological improvements that limit VOCs from
tail pipe and evaporative emissions (for cars) and the expansion of two-wheelers fleet. It has to be underlined
that in Italy there is a remarkable fleet of motorbikes and mopeds (about 10.5 million vehicles in 2013) that
use gasoline and although it has been increasing since 1990, during the last two years it shows a slight
decrease, of about -1.4%. Only a small part of this fleet complies with strict VOC emissions controls.
Table 3.14 GHG emissions for the transport sector (Mt CO2 eq.)
CO2
CH4
N2O
Total, Mt CO2 eq.
Mt
Mt
Mt
Mt
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
101.3 111.5 121.3 127.1 128.4 128.5 123.2 118.8 118.2 117.2 104.9 102.3
1.0
1.1
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
1.0
1.7
1.6
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.9
103.2 114.2 123.7 128.7 130.0 130.0 124.7 120.2 119.6 118.5 106.0 103.4
Source: ISPRA elaborations
CO2 from road vehicles is key category both in 1990 and 2013, in level and trend (Tier 1 and Tier 2) with
and without LULUCF.
CO2 from waterborne navigation is key category both in 1990 and 2013, in level (Tier 1) with and without
LULUCF.
CO2 from civil aviation is key category: in 2013, in level (Tier 1), with and without LULUCF; in trend
(Tier1) with LULUCF.
CH4 deriving from road transportation is key category in 1990 in level (Tier 2) without LULUCF and in
2013 in trend (Tier 2) without LULUCF.
N2O deriving from road transportation is key category in 2013 in level (Tier 2) without LULUCF.
3.5.1 Aviation
3.5.1.1 Source category description
The IPCC methodology requires the estimation of emissions for category 1.A.3.a.i International Aviation and
1.A.3.a.ii Domestic Aviation, including figures both for the cruise phase of the flight and the landing and
take-off cycles (LTO). Emissions from international aviation are reported as a memo item, and are not
included in national totals.
Civil aviation contributes mainly in rising CO2 emissions. CH4 and N2O emissions also occur and are
estimated in this category but their contribution is insignificant.
In 2013 total GHG emissions from this source category were about 1.9% of the national total emissions from
transport, and about 0.4% of the GHG national total (in terms of CO2 only, the share is almost the same).
83
From 1990 to 2013, GHG emissions from the sector increased by 20.2% due to the expansion of the aviation
transport mode; nevertheless the variation in the last year is equal to -10.5%. Therefore, emission
fluctuations over time are mostly dictated by the growth rates in the number of flights.
CO2 deriving from civil aviation is key category in 2013, in level (Tier 1), with and without LULUCF and in
trend (Tier1) with LULUCF.
3.5.1.2 Methodological issues
According to the IPCC Guidelines and Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 1997; IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2006) and
the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007), a national technique has been developed and
applied to estimate emissions.
The current method estimates emissions from the following assumptions and information.
Activity data comprise both fuel consumptions and aircraft movements, which are available in different level
of aggregation and derive from different sources as specified here below:
•
•
Total inland deliveries of aviation gasoline and jet fuel are provided in the national energy balance
(MSE, several years [a]), see Annex 5 Table A5.10. This figure is the best approximation of aviation
fuel consumption, for international and domestic use, but it is reported as a total and not split
between domestic and international;
Data on annual arrivals and departures of domestic and international landing and take-off cycles at
Italian airports are reported by different sources: National Institute of Statistics in the statistics
yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]), Ministry of Transport in the national transport statistics
yearbooks (MIT, several years) and the Italian civil aviation in the national aviation statistics
yearbooks (ENAC/MIT, several years).
As for emission and consumption factors, figures are derived by the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook
(EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007), both for LTO cycles and cruise phases, taking into account national specificities.
These specificities derive from the results of a national study which, taking into account detailed information
on the Italian air fleet and the origin-destination flights for the year 1999, calculated national values for both
domestic and international flights (Romano et al., 1999; ANPA, 2001; Trozzi et al., 2002 [a]) on the basis of
the default emission and consumption factors reported in the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook. National
average emissions and consumption factors were therefore estimated for LTO cycles and cruise both for
domestic and international flights from 1990 to 1999. At present, the study has been updated for the years
2005, 2006 and 2007 in order to consider most recent trends in civil aviation both in terms of modelling
between domestic and international flights and technological progress of the fleet (TECHNE, 2009). Based
on the results, national average emissions and consumption factors were updated from 2000.
Specifically, for the years referred to in the surveys, the current method estimates emissions from the number
of aircraft movements broken down by aircraft and engine type (derived from ICAO database if not
specified) at each of the principal Italian airports; information of whether the flight is international or
domestic and the relevant distance travelled has also been considered.
For those years, a Tier 3 method has been applied (IPCC, 2006). In fact, figures on the number of flights,
destination, aircraft fleet and engines has been provided by the local airport authorities, national airlines
(Alitalia, AirOne) and European Civil Aviation (EUROCONTROL), covering about 80% of the national
official statistics on aircraft movements for the relevant years. Data on ‘Times in mode’ have also been
supplied by the four principal airports and estimates for the other minor airports have been carried out on the
basis of previous sectoral studies at local level. Consumption and emission factors are those derived from the
EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). Based on sample information, estimates have
been carried out at national level for the related years considering the official statistics of the aviation sector
(ENAC/MIT, several years).
In general, to carry out national estimates of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in the Italian inventory
for LTO cycles, both domestic and international, consumptions and emissions are calculated for the complete
time series using the average consumption and emission factors multiplied by the total number of flights. The
same method is used to estimate emissions for domestic cruise; on the other hand, for international cruise,
84
consumptions are derived by difference from the total fuel consumption reported in the national energy
balance and the estimated values as described above and emissions are therefore calculated.
The fuel split between national and international fuel use in aviation is then supplied to the Ministry of the
Economical Development to be included in the official international submission of energy statistics to the
IEA in the framework of the Joint Questionnaire OECD/Eurostat/IEA compilation together with other energy
data.
Data on domestic and international aircraft movements from 1990 to 2013 are shown in Table 3.15 where
domestic flights are those entirely within Italy. Emission factors are reported in Table 3.16 and Table 3.17.
Total fuel consumptions, both domestic and international, are reported by LTO and cruise in Table 3.18.
Emissions from military aircrafts are also estimated and reported under category 1.A.5 Other.
The methodology to estimate military aviation emissions is simpler than the one described for civil aviation
since LTO data are not available in this case.
As for activity data, total consumption for military aviation is published in the petrochemical bulletin (MSE,
several years [b]) by fuel.
Emission factors are those provided in the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007).
CO2 and SO2 emission factors depend on fuel properties; as regards CO2, according to the adoption of 2006
IPCC Guidelines, emission factors have been calculated assuming that 100% of the fuel carbon is oxidized to
CO2.
Therefore, emissions are calculated by multiplying military fuel consumption data for the EMEP/CORINAIR
default emission factors shown in Table 3.17.
Table 3.15 Aircraft Movement Data (LTO cycles)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Domestic flights
186,446
199,585
319,963
311,218
329,145
331,561
311,490
281,400
International flights
139,733
184,233
303,747
363,140
387,466
393,701
389,342
379,977
Source: ISTAT, several years [a]; ENAC/MIT, several years
Table 3.16 CO2 and SO2 emission factors for Aviation (kg/t) 1990-2013
CO2a
849
839
Aviation jet fuel
Aviation gasoline
SO2
1.0
1.0
a Emission factor as kg carbon/t.
Table 3.17 Non-CO2 emission factors for Aviation (2013)
Domestic LTO
International LTO
Domestic Cruise
International Cruise
Aircraft Military a
Units
kg/LTO
kg/LTO
kg/Mg fuel
kg/Mg fuel
kg/Mg fuel
CH4
0.189
0.306
0.400
N2O
0.040
0.048
0.087
0.087
0.200
NOX
5.313
5.702
13.747
11.544
15.800
CO
6.939
8.524
1.898
1.170
126.000
NMVOC
1.698
2.758
0.471
0.418
3.600
Fuel
461.738
553.289
-
a EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007
Table 3.18 Aviation jet fuel consumptions for domestic and international flights (Gg)
Domestic LTO
International LTO
Domestic cruise
International cruise
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
121
123
387
1,215
129
162
414
1,662
198
250
642
2,327
150
195
544
2,733
152
214
575
2,820
153
218
579
2,908
144
215
544
2,779
130
210
491
2,753
Source: ISPRA elaborations
85
3.5.1.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions from aviation is estimated to be about 4% in annual emissions; a
higher uncertainty is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions on account of the uncertainty levels attributed to
the related emission factors.
Time series of domestic emissions from the aviation sector is reported in Table 3.19.
An upward trend in emission levels is observed from 1990 to 2013 which is explained by the increasing
number of LTO cycles.
Nevertheless, the propagation of more modern aircrafts in the fleet slows down the trend in the most recent
years. There has also been a decrease in the number of flights in the last years.
Table 3.19 GHG emissions from domestic aviation
CO2
CH4
N2O
Gg
Mg
Mg
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1,613
32
45
1,709
33
48
2,649
63
74
2,204
112
62
2,319
70
65
2,299
65
64
2,167
62
61
1,939
54
54
Source: ISPRA elaborations
3.5.1.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Data used for estimating emissions from the aviation sector derive from different sources: local airport
authorities, national airlines operators, EUROCONTROL and official statistics by different Ministries and
national authorities.
Specifically, the outcome of the estimation method derived from the 2009 research, applied at national and
airport level, was shared with national experts in the framework of an ad hoc working group on air emissions
instituted by the National Aviation Authority (ENAC). The group, chaired by ISPRA, meets regularly at
least once a year and includes participants from ENAC, Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea, Ministry of
Transport, national airlines and local airport authorities. The results reflect differences between airports,
aircrafts used and times in mode spent for each operation. There is also an on going collaboration and data
exchange with regional environmental agencies on this issue.
Furthermore, verification activities have being carried out regarding activity data (fuel consumptions as well
as data about flights) and emission factors on the basis of aviation fuel and emissions data by EU Member
State covering the period 2005-2013, elaborated by EUROCONTROL using a Tier 3 methodology applying
the Advanced Emissions Model (AEM). These data, quality checked by ETC/ACM, have been made
available by EUROCONTROL with the aim of reporting and quality checking of aviation emissions data
both for UNFCCC and UNECE/CLRTAP emission inventories.
3.5.1.5 Source-specific recalculations
No recalculations were performed in this last submission.
3.5.1.6 Source-specific planned improvements
Improvements for next submission are planned on the basis of the outcome of the ongoing quality assurance
and quality control activities, in view of the possibility to integrate EUROCONTROL fuel and emissions
data in the aviation emissions estimates for the Italian inventory, taking also into account the investigation of
data provided by ISTAT by aircraft type and origin destination and the possibility to built a country specific
database.
86
3.5.2 Railways
The electricity used by the railways for electric traction is supplied from the public distribution system, so
the emissions arising from its generation are reported under category 1.A.1.a Public Electricity.
Emissions from diesel trains are reported under the IPCC category 1.A.3.c Railways. Estimates are based on
the gas oil consumption for railways reported in BEN (MSE, several years [a]).
Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emissions are calculated on fuel based emission factors using fuel
consumption data from BEN. Emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOx, N2O and methane are based on the
EMEP/CORINAIR methodology (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). The emission factors shown in Table 3.20 are
aggregate factors so that all factors are reported on the common basis of fuel consumption.
Table 3.20 Emission factors for railway (kg/t)
Diesel trains
CO2
CH4
N2O
NOx
kg/t
CO
NMVOC
SO2
3,151
0.18
1.24
39.6
10.7
4.65
0.015
Source: EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007, 2006 IPCC Guidelines
GHG emissions from railways accounted in 2013 for about 0.06% of the total transport sector emissions. In
this submission the recalculation is related to the adoption of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines with particular
regard to CO2 emissions, now estimated on the basis of the full carbon content of the fuel. No specific
improvements are planned for the next submission.
3.5.3 Road Transport
3.5.3.1 Source category description
This section addresses the estimation of emissions related to category 1.A.3.b Road transportation.
In 2013, total GHG emissions from this category were about 93.4% of the total national emissions from
transport, 27.0% of the energy sector and about 22.1% of the GHG national total.
From 1990 to 2013, GHG emissions from the sector increased by 1.5%; this trend has a twofold explanation:
on one side a strong increase starting from 1990 until 2007 (27.5%), due to the increase of vehicle fleet, total
mileage and consequently fuel consumptions and on the other side, in the last years, from 2007 onwards, a
decrease in fuel consumption and emissions basically due to the economic crisis (emissions decrease of
about -20.4%).
CO2 emissions from road transport are key category, both in 1990 and in 2013, with approach 1 and
approach 2, with and without LULUCF, at level and trend assessment. N2O emissions have been identified
as key category in 2013 at level assessment with approach 2 without LULUCF, while CH4 emissions are key
category in 1990 at level assessment with approach 2 without LULUCF and in 2013 in trend with approach 2
without LULUCF.
Emissions from road transport are calculated either from a combination of total fuel consumption data and
fuel properties or from a combination of drive related emission factors and road traffic data.
Non CO2 emissions from biomass fuel consumption are included and reported: as regards biodiesel, under
diesel fuel category; as regards bioethanol, under gasoline fuel category. Biomass fuel refers prevalently to
the use of biodiesel which is mixed with diesel fuel and to the use of bioethanol by the passenger cars
subsector E85 with reference to a blend consisting of 85% bioethanol and 15% gasoline by volume.
CO2 emissions are calculated on the basis of the amount of carbon in the fuel. In the model used to calculate
emissions, the fuel consumption input, which is balanced with the fuel consumption estimated by the model,
includes both fossil and bio fuels (see Table 3.23); then CO2 emissions related to biomass are subtracted to
the total with the aim to be reported under biomass.
CH4 and N2O emissions depend on the technology of vehicles and could not be calculated without more
detailed information regarding the type and technology of vehicles and the associated biofuel consumption.
87
3.5.3.2 Methodological issues
According to the IPCC Guidelines and Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 1997; IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2006) and
the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013 (EMEP/EEA, 2013), a national
methodology has been developed and applied to estimate emissions.
The updated version 10.0 of the model COPERT 4 (EMISIA SA, 2012) has been used for the whole time
series since 2013 submission, indeed the corresponding database has been customized in order to include the
natural gas passenger cars detailed categories (distinctly for technology and for engine capacity classes <1.4l,
1.4 - 2l, >2l), to correctly reproduce the features of the Italian fleet (the current version of the software 11.2
doesn’t allow the management of the user defined categories in particular as regards the conversion of the
database).
The version 10.0, upgrading the methodology and the software compared to the previous version, considers a
new subsector classification for gasoline and diesel passenger cars, updated emission factors for diesel
passenger cars Euro 5 and 6, emissions update for mopeds, methane update for gasoline passenger cars, a
new CNG subsector for passenger cars and update of the evaporative emission model (Katsis P., Mellios G.,
Ntziachristos L., 2012). In general, the annual update of the model is based on the availability of new
measurements and studies regarding road transport emissions (for further information see:
http://www.emisia.com/copert/).
In general, in 2015 inventory submission, the update of the historical series related mainly to the adoption
of 2006 IPCC Guidelines and to a minor extent to the inclusion of new data and information in the analysis.
As regards CO2 emissions from catalytic converters using urea (reported under category 2.D.3), Italian road
transport emissions estimation about CO2 from urea based catalysts is implemented in the model used
(Copert 4 v.10.0).
In particular, for diesel passenger cars Euro VI, the consumption of urea is assumed to be equal to 2% of fuel
consumption, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) ratio being equal to 10%; for diesel heavy duty trucks
and buses, the consumption of urea is assumed to be equal to 6% of fuel consumption at Euro V level (SCR
ratio = 76.2%) and equal to 3.5% at Euro VI level (SCR ratio = 100%).
With regard to the purity (the mass fraction of urea in the urea-based additive), the default value of thirty two
and half percent has been used (IPCC 2006).
Methodologies are described in the following, distinguishing emissions calculated from fuel consumption
and traffic data.
3.5.3.2.1
Fuel-based emissions
Emissions of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide from road transport are calculated from the consumption of
gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas and the carbon or sulphur content of the fuels
consumed. Consumption data for the fuel consumed by road transport in Italy are taken from the BEN (MSE,
several years [a]), see Annex 5, Tables A5.9 and A5.10, in physical units (rows “III - Road transportation”
and “VI - Public Service”, subtracting the quantities for military use in diesel oil and off-road uses in petrol).
Emissions of CO2, expressed as kg carbon per tonne of fuel, are based on the H/C and O/C ratios of the fuel.
The increase in fuel consumption due to air conditioning use implies that extra CO2 emissions in g/km are
calculated as a function of temperature and relative humidity; nevertheless because of CO2 emissions depend
on total statistical fuel consumption, there is not impact on the CO2 officially reported but instead on other
pollutants.
Emissions of SO2 are based on the sulphur content of the fuel, on the assumption that all the sulphur in the
fuel is transformed completely into SO2. As regards heavy metals (exhaust emissions of lead have been
dropped because of the introduction of unleaded gasoline), apparent fuel metal contents are used in the
emissions calculation which are indeed values taking into account also of lubricant content and engine wear
(EMEP/EEA, 2013).
Fuel consumption data derive basically from the National Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]);
supplementary information is taken from the Oil Bulletin (MSE, several years [b]) and from the statistics
88
published by the Association of Oil Companies (UP, several years). As regards biofuels, the consumption
has increased in view of the targets to be respected by Italy and set in the framework of the European
directive 20-20-20. The trend of biodiesel is explained by the fact that this biofuel has been tested since 1994
to 1996 before entering in production since 1998. The consumption of bioethanol, related to E85 passenger
cars category, is introduced since 2008, according to data resulting in the BEN.
Values of the fuel-based emission factors for CO2 from consumption of petrol and diesel fuels are shown in
Table 3.21. These factors account for the fraction of carbon oxidised for liquid fuels equal to 1, as suggested
by the 2006 IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006). From the nineties, different directives regulating the fuel quality
in Europe have been implemented (Directive 93/12/EC, Directive 98/70/EC, Directive 2003/17/EC and
Directive 2009/30/EC), in parallel with the evolution of vehicle fleet technologies; this resulted in
remarkable differences in the characteristic of the fuels, including the content of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygenates, parameters needed to derive the CO2 emission factors.
The final report on the physic-chemical characterization of fossil fuels used in Italy, carried out by the Fuel
Experimental Station, that is an Italian Institute operating in the framework of the Department of Industry,
has been used in 2015 submission, with the aim to improve fuel quality specifications. Fuel information has
also been updated on the basis of the annual report published by ISPRA about the fuel quality in Italy. Fuel
information has been updated also as regards country specific fuel consumption factors for gasoline and
diesel passenger cars on the basis of the results published by EEA in the report “Monitoring CO2 emissions
from passenger cars and vans in 2013” (EEA, 2014).
A specific survey was also conducted to characterize the national fuel used in 2000-2001.
Regarding 1990-1999, a study has been done to evaluate the use of the default emission factors reported in
the IPCC Guidelines 1996 in consideration of the available information on national fuels. Emission factors
from the Guidelines have been considered representative for diesel and GPL while for gasoline a country
specific emission factor has been calculated taking into account the IPCC default values and the specific
energy content of the national fuels. For further details see the relevant paragraph in Annex 6.
Values for SO2 vary annually as the sulphur-content of fuels change and are calculated every year for
gasoline and gas oil and officially communicated to the European Commission in the framework of
European Directives on fuel quality (ISPRA, several years); these figures are also published by the refineries
industrial association (UP, several years). Directive 2003/17/EC introduced for 2005 new limit for S content
in the fuels, both gasoline and diesel, 50% lower than the previous ones.
Table 3.21 Fuel-Based Emission Factors for Road Transport
National emission factors
Mg CO2/TJ
Mtbe
73.121
Gasoline, 1990-'99, interpolated emission
71.034
factor
b,c
Gasoline, test data, 2000-2011
71.864
c
Gasoline, test data, 2012-2013
73.338
Mg CO2/Mg
3.121
3.141
3.140
Gas oil, 1990-'99, IPCC OECDa
Gas oil, engines, test data, 2000-2011b,c
Gas oil, engines, test data, 2012-2013c
73.274
73.892
73.648
3.127
3.169
3.151
LPG, 1990-'99, IPCCa Europe
LPG, test data, 2000-2013b,c
64.350
65.592
3.000
3.024
Natural gas (dry) 1990
Natural gas (dry) 2013
55.330
56.989
-
a Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories, Reference Manual, ch1, tables 1-36 to 1-42
b APAT, 2003 [b]
c Emission factor in kg carbon/tonne, based on Fuel Experimental Station (Innovhub, several years)
Emissions of CO2 and SO2 can be broken down by vehicle type based on estimated fuel consumption factors
and traffic data in a manner similar to the traffic-based emissions described below for other pollutants. The
actual inventory used fuel consumption factors expressed as grams of fuel per kilometre for each vehicle
type and average speed calculated from the emission functions and speed-coefficients provided by the model
89
COPERT 4 (EMISIA SA, 2012). Mileage and fuel consumptions calculated from COPERT functions are
shown in Table 3.22 for each vehicle, fuel and road type in Italy in 2013.
Table 3.22 Average fuel consumption and mileage for main vehicle category and road type, year 2013
SNAP CODE
Sub sector
Type of fuel
Mg of fuel consumed
Mileage, km_kVeh
070101
PC Hway
cng
181,435
3,318,352
070101
PC Hway
diesel
3,170,261
60,760,145
070101
PC Hway
gasoline
1,565,777
31,174,572
070101
PC Hway
lpg
500,431
7,407,092
070102
PC rur
cng
213,599
4,424,470
070102
PC rur
diesel
4,779,955
105,461,450
070102
PC rur
gasoline
2,404,614
53,861,791
070102
PC rur
lpg
454,938
9,876,123
070103
PC urb
cng
241,671
3,318,352
070103
PC urb
diesel
1,889,974
27,837,723
070103
PC urb
gasoline
2,848,321
34,535,635
070103
PC urb
lpg
583,631
7,407,092
070201
LDV Hway
diesel
1,166,148
11,443,102
070201
LDV Hway
gasoline
33,023
463,645
070202
LDV rur
diesel
1,885,887
31,468,532
070202
LDV rur
gasoline
92,917
1,275,024
070203
LDV urb
diesel
1,548,774
14,303,878
070203
LDV urb
gasoline
97,515
579,557
070301
HDV Hway
diesel
3,485,701
18,241,171
070301
HDV Hway
gasoline
49
325
070302
CNG Buses rur
cng
5,348
18,577
070302
HDV rur
diesel
2,337,675
12,163,910
070302
HDV rur
gasoline
141
975
070303
CNG Buses urb
cng
68,100
167,192
070303
HDV urb
diesel
1,275,083
4,170,774
070303
HDV urb
gasoline
63
325
070400
mopeds
gasoline
240,765
12,713,513
070501
Moto Hway
gasoline
39,897
1,087,748
070502
Moto rur
gasoline
209,539
7,614,239
070503
Moto urb
gasoline
382,376
13,052,981
Total
478,148,266
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Notes: PC, passenger cars ; LDV, light duty vehicles ; HDV, heavy duty vehicles and buses; Moto, motorcycles; Hway, highway
speed traffic; rur, rural speed traffic; urb, urban speed traffic; biodiesel included in diesel; bioethanol included in gasoline
3.5.3.2.1.a The fuel balance process
A normalisation procedure is applied to ensure that the breakdown of fuel consumption by each vehicle type
calculated on the basis of the fuel consumption factors once added up matches the BEN figures for total fuel
consumption in Italy (adjusted for off-road consumption).
In COPERT a simulation process is started up having the target to equalize calculated and statistical
consumptions, separately for fuel (gasoline including bioethanol, diesel including biodiesel, LPG and CNG)
at national level, with the aim to obtain final estimates the most accurate as possible.
90
Once all data and input parameters have been inserted and all options have been set reflecting the peculiar
situation of the Country, emissions and consumptions are calculated by the model in the detail of the vehicle
category legislation standard; then the aggregated consumption values so calculated are compared with the
input statistical national aggregated values (deriving basicly from the National Energy Balance, as described
above) and a percentage deviation is calculated.
On the basis of the obtained deviation value, a process of refinement of the estimates is performed by acting
on control variables such as speeds and mileages. These variables values are changed according to the
constraints on the national average variability ranges (identified on the basis of the official data and
information on the fleet peculiarities, described in this chapter). As a result of sequential refinements on
input data in the detail of vehicle category legislation standard, the estimation process is repeated until the
reachment of the deviation value 0.00% as minimum target, assumed as goodness of fit to the “true” BEN
statistical value.
The results of the fuel balance process for the year 2013 in Italy are shown in the following table.
Table 3.23 Fuel balance results for Italy, year 2013
Fuel
Statistical (t)
Calculated (t)
Deviation (%)
Gasoline (fossil & bio)
Diesel (fossil & bio)
LPG
CNG
7,915,000.00
21,539,451.00
1,539,000.00
710,153.00
7,914,997.81
21,539,457.75
1,539,000.32
710,152.77
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
Source: COPERT model results
3.5.3.2.2
Traffic-based emissions
Emissions of NMVOC, NOX, CO, CH4 and N2O are calculated from emission factors expressed in grams per
kilometre and road traffic statistics estimated by ISPRA on the basis of data released from: Ministry of
Transport (MIT, several years), the Automobile Club of Italy (ACI, several years), the National Association
of Cycle-Motorcycle Accessories (ANCMA, several years), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), the
National Association of concessionaries of motorways and tunnels (AISCAT).
The emission factors are based on experimental measurements of emissions from in-service vehicles of
different types driven under test cycles with different average speeds calculated from the emission functions
and speed-coefficients provided by COPERT 4 (EMISIA SA, 2012). This source provides emission
functions and coefficients relating emission factors (in g/km) to average speed for each vehicle type and
Euro emission standard derived by fitting experimental measurements to polynomial functions. These
functions were then used to calculate emission factor values for each vehicle type and Euro emission
standard at each of the average speeds of the road and area types. In addition N2O emission factors differ
according to the fuel sulphur level (EMEP/EEA, 2013).
The road traffic data used are vehicle kilometre estimates for the different vehicle types and different road
classifications in the national road network. These data have to be further broken down by composition of
each vehicle fleet in terms of the fraction of vehicles on the road powered by different fuels and in terms of
the fraction of vehicles on the road relating to the different emission regulations which applied when the
vehicle was first registered. These are related to the age profile of the vehicle fleet.
It is beyond the scope of this paper to illustrate in details the COPERT 4 methodology: in brief, the
emissions from motor vehicles fall into three different types calculated as hot exhaust emissions, cold-start
emissions, and evaporative emissions for NMVOC; in addition not exhaust emissions for PM deriving from
road vehicle tyre and brake wear are contemplated.
Hot exhaust emissions are emissions from the vehicle exhaust when the engine has warmed up to its normal
operating temperature. Emissions depend on the type of vehicle, type of fuel the engine runs on, the driving
profile of the vehicle on a journey and the emission regulations applied when the vehicle was first registered
as this defines the type of technology the vehicle is equipped with.
For a particular vehicle, the drive cycle over a journey is the key factor which determines the amount of
pollutant emitted.
91
Key parameters affecting emissions are acceleration, deceleration, steady speed and idling characteristics of
the journey, as well as other factors affecting load on the engine such as road gradient and vehicle weight.
However, studies have shown that for modelling vehicle emissions over a road network at national scale, it is
sufficient to calculate emissions from emission factors in g/km related to the average speed of the vehicle in
the drive cycle (EMISIA, 2012). Emission factors for average speeds on the road network are then combined
with the national road traffic data.
Emissions are calculated from vehicles of the following types:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gasoline passenger cars;
Diesel passenger cars;
LPG passenger cars;
CNG passenger cars;
E85 passenger cars;
Hybrid Gasoline passenger cars;
Gasoline Light Goods Vehicles (Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) <= 3.5 tonnes);
Diesel Light Goods Vehicles (Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) <= 3.5 tonnes);
Rigid-axle Heavy Goods Vehicles (GVW > 3.5 tonnes);
Articulated Heavy Goods Vehicles (GVW > 3.5 tonnes);
Diesel Buses and coaches;
CNG Buses;
Mopeds and motorcycles.
As regards CNG fuel, a detailed classification for passenger cars has been introduced for the Italian fleet for
the whole time series, reflecting the classification scheme of gasoline passenger cars (subsectors: Natural
Gas <1.4l; Natural Gas 1.4 – 2.0l; Natural Gas >2.0l). Emissions deriving from these categories have been
estimated for each subsector and legislation standard on the basis of MIT and ACI detailed fleet data and
parameters derived from the comparison between Copert CNG passenger cars aggregated subsector and the
three different engine capacity classes (<1.4l; 1.4 – 2.0l; >2.0l) of Copert gasoline cars.
Basic data derive from different sources.
Detailed data on the national fleet composition are found in the yearly report from ACI (ACI, several years),
used from 1990 to 2006, except for mopeds for which ANCMA (National Association of Cycle-Motorcycle
Accessories) data were used for the whole time series. The National Association of Cycle-Motorcycle
Accessories (ANCMA, several years) supplies useful information on mopeds fleet composition and
mileages.
Starting from 2013 submission, specific fleet composition data were provided by the MIT for all vehicle
categories from 2007 onwards. The Ministry of Transport in the national transport yearbook (MIT, several
years) reports mileages time series. Furthermore in 2015 MIT supplies information relating the distribution
of old gasoline cars over the detailed vehicles categories (PRE ECE; ECE 15/00-01; ECE 15/02; ECE 15/03;
ECE 15/04; information obtained from the registration year; data used for the updating of the time series
since 2007 to 2013).
In 2014 MIT supplied updated information relating the reallocation of not defined vehicles categories (data
used for the updating of the time series from 2007 to 2012).
MIT data have been used relating to: the passenger cars (the new categories of “E85” and “Hybrid Gasoline”
passenger cars are introduced from 2007 onwards, the detailed “Gasoline < 0.8 l” passenger cars subsector is
introduced since 2012 and “Diesel<1.4 l” subsector from 2007 onwards, in addition to the gasoline, diesel,
LPG, CNG traditional ones); the diesel and gasoline light commercial vehicles; the breakdown of the heavy
duty trucks, buses and coaches fleet according to the different weight classes and fuels (for HDT almost
exclusively diesel, a negligible share consists of gasoline HDT vehicles; diesel for coaches; diesel and CNG
for buses); the motorcycles fleet in the detail of subsector and legislation standard of both 2-stroke and 4stroke categories (this kind of information has been used for the updating since 2005).
Fleet values for mopeds in 2012 have been updated according to the revision of data published by ANCMA;
fleet values for diesel buses in 2012 have been updated according to the updating of the data on urban public
buses, published on CNIT 2012 – 2013.
92
The National Institute of Statistics carries out annually a survey on heavy goods vehicles, including annual
mileages (ISTAT, several years [b]).
The National Association of concessionaries of motorways and tunnels produces monthly statistics on
highway mileages by light and heavy vehicles (AISCAT, several years).
The National General Confederation of Transport and Logistics (CONFETRA, several years) and the
national Central Committee of road transporters (Giordano, 2007) supplied useful information and statistics
about heavy goods vehicles fleet composition and mileages.
In the following Tables 3.24, 3.25, 3.26 and 3.27 detailed data on the relevant vehicle mileages in the
circulating fleet are reported, subdivided according to the main emission regulations.
Table 3.24 Passenger Cars technological evolution: circulating fleet calculated as stock data multiplied by
effective mileage (%)
PRE ECE, pre-1973
ECE 15/00-01, 1973-1978
ECE 15/02-03, 1978-1984
ECE 15/04, 1985-1992
PC Euro 1 - 91/441/EEC, from 1/1/93
PC Euro 2 - 94/12/EEC, from 1/1/97
PC Euro 3 - 98/69/EC Stage2000, from 1/1/2001
PC Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2006
PC Euro 5 - EC 715/2007, from 1/1/2011
PC Euro 6 - EC 715/2007, from 9/1/2015
Total
a. Gasoline cars technological evolution
Conventional, pre-1993
PC Euro 1 - 91/441/EEC, from 1/1/93
PC Euro 2 - 94/12/EEC, from 1/1/97
PC Euro 3 - 98/69/EC Stage2000, from 1/1/2001
PC Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2006
PC Euro 5 - EC 715/2007, from 1/1/2011
PC Euro 6 - EC 715/2007, from 9/1/2015
Total
b. Diesel cars technological evolution
Conventional, pre-1993
PC Euro 1 - 91/441/EEC, from 1/1/93
PC Euro 2 - 94/12/EEC, from 1/1/97
PC Euro 3 - 98/69/EC Stage2000, from 1/1/2001
PC Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2006
PC Euro 5 - EC 715/2007, from 1/1/2011
PC Euro 6 - EC 715/2007, from 9/1/2015
Total
c. Lpg cars technological evolution
Conventional, pre-1993
PC Euro 1 - 91/441/EEC, from 1/1/93
PC Euro 2 - 94/12/EEC, from 1/1/97
PC Euro 3 - 98/69/EC Stage2000, from 1/1/2001
PC Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2006
PC Euro 5 - EC 715/2007, from 1/1/2011
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.05
0.11
0.32
0.53
0.001
1.00
0.03
0.04
0.15
0.57
0.22
1.00
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.28
0.28
0.38
1.00
0.01
0.004
0.01
0.10
0.19
0.32
0.27
0.09
1.00
0.002
0.003
0.01
0.04
0.06
0.22
0.20
0.43
0.04
1.00
0.002
0.003
0.008
0.03
0.04
0.19
0.19
0.43
0.10
0.0000001
1.00
0.003
0.003
0.009
0.03
0.03
0.15
0.18
0.44
0.14
0.0003
1.00
0.002
0.003
0.008
0.03
0.03
0.15
0.14
0.45
0.18
0.002
1.00
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
1.00
0.92
0.08
1.00
0.35
0.10
0.55
1.00
0.06
0.03
0.21
0.57
0.13
1.00
0.01
0.01
0.10
0.31
0.50
0.07
0.0001
1.00
0.01
0.01
0.08
0.29
0.48
0.14
0.0002
1.00
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.25
0.49
0.21
0.0007
1.00
0.01
0.00
0.04
0.23
0.46
0.26
0.002
1.00
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
1.00
0.90
0.10
1.00
0.71
0.20
0.09
1.00
0.47
0.26
0.19
0.06
0.01
1.00
0.04
0.03
0.08
0.08
0.75
0.03
1.00
0.03
0.03
0.11
0.10
0.66
0.07
1.00
0.02
0.02
0.08
0.07
0.61
0.19
0.0001
1.00
0.02
0.02
0.07
0.07
0.57
0.26
0.001
1.00
1990
1.00
-
1995
0.89
0.11
-
2000
0.54
0.24
0.22
-
2005
0.24
0.22
0.28
0.21
0.06
-
2010
0.01
0.02
0.15
0.12
0.59
0.10
2011
0.01
0.02
0.10
0.12
0.59
0.16
2012
0.01
0.01
0.08
0.12
0.54
0.23
2013
0.01
0.01
0.07
0.08
0.51
0.32
93
PC Euro 6 - EC 715/2007, from 9/1/2015
Total
d. CNG cars technological evolution
1990
1.00
1995
1.00
PC Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2006
PC Euro 5 - EC 715/2007, from 1/1/2011
PC Euro 6 - EC 715/2007, from 9/1/2015
Total
e. E85 cars technological evolution (from 2008 onwards)
2007
1.00
PC Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2006
PC Euro 5 - EC 715/2007, from 1/1/2011
PC Euro 6 - EC 715/2007, from 9/1/2015
1.00
Total
f. Hybrid Gasoline cars technological evolution (from 2007 onwards)
2000
1.00
2005
1.00
2010
1.00
2011
1.00
2012
0.00001
1.00
2013
0.0001
1.00
2008
1.00
1.00
2009
1.00
1.00
2010
0.88
0.12
1.00
2011
0.68
0.32
1.00
2012
0.54
0.46
1.00
2013
0.54
0.46
1.00
2008
1.00
1.00
2009
0.65
0.35
1.00
2010
0.54
0.46
1.00
2011
0.43
0.57
1.00
2012
0.35
0.64
0.01
1.00
2013
0.23
0.77
0.001
1.00
Source: ISPRA elaborations on ACI and MIT data
Table 3.25 Light Duty Vehicles technological evolution: circulating fleet calculated as stock data multiplied by
effective mileage (%)
1990 1995 2000 2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.35
0.17
0.15
0.31
0.01
1.00
0.08
0.11
0.30
0.26
0.25
0.004
1.00
0.07
0.08
0.23
0.23
0.30
0.10
1.00
0.07
0.08
0.22
0.22
0.29
0.13
1.00
0.05
0.06
0.22
0.20
0.31
0.16
0.0004
1.00
1990 1995 2000 2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Conventional, pre 10/1/94
1.00
LD Euro 1 - 93/59/EEC, from 10/1/94
LD Euro 2 - 96/69/EEC, from 10/1/98
LD Euro 3 - 98/69/EC Stage2000, from 1/1/2002
LD Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2007
LD Euro 5 - 2008 Standards 715/2007/EC, from 1/1/2012
LD Euro 6
Total
1.00
a. Gasoline Light Duty Vehicles technological evolution
Conventional, pre 10/1/94
LD Euro 1 - 93/59/EEC, from 10/1/94
LD Euro 2 - 96/69/EEC, from 10/1/98
LD Euro 3 - 98/69/EC Stage2000, from 1/1/2002
LD Euro 4 - 98/69/EC Stage2005, from 1/1/2007
LD Euro 5 - 2008 Standards 715/2007/EC, from 1/1/2012
LD Euro 6
Total
b. Diesel Light Duty Vehicles technological evolution
1.00
1.00
0.93
0.07
1.00
0.93
0.07
1.00
0.63
0.22
0.15
1.00
0.60
0.21
0.19
1.00
0.28
0.08
0.08
0.04
0.02
0.13
0.07
0.07
0.05
0.05
0.18
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.15
0.39
0.33
0.32
0.33
0.33
0.01
0.28
0.29
0.32
0.34
0.01
0.03
0.06
0.11
0.0000003 0.0000003 0.000007 0.00003
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Source: ISPRA elaborations on ACI and MIT data
Table 3.26 Heavy Duty Trucks and Buses technological evolution: circulating fleet calculated as stock data
multiplied by effective mileage (%)
Conventional, pre 10/1/93
HD Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I, from 10/1/93
HD Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II, from 10/1/96
HD Euro III - 2000 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2001
HD Euro IV - 2005 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2006
HD Euro V - 2008 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2009
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
-
0.90
0.10
-
0.68
0.10
0.22
-
0.40
0.06
0.27
0.27
-
0.19
0.05
0.22
0.34
0.06
0.14
0.18
0.05
0.21
0.33
0.06
0.17
0.16
0.05
0.20
0.33
0.06
0.20
0.12
0.05
0.20
0.33
0.06
0.23
94
HD Euro VI – EC 595/2009, from 12/31/2013
Total
a. Heavy Duty Trucks technological evolution
Conventional, pre 10/1/93
HD Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I, from 10/1/93
HD Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II, from 10/1/96
HD Euro III - 2000 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2001
HD Euro IV - 2005 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2006
HD Euro V - 2008 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2009
HD Euro VI – EC 595/2009, from 12/31/2013
Total
b. Diesel Buses technological evolution
Urban CNG Buses Euro I - 91/542/EEC Stage I, from
10/1/93
Urban CNG Buses Euro II - 91/542/EEC Stage II, from
10/1/96
Urban CNG Buses Euro III - 2000 Standards, 99/96/EC,
from 10/1/2001; Urban CNG Buses Euro IV - 2005
Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2006
Euro V - 2008 Standards, 99/96/EC, from 10/1/2009;
EEV (Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle; ref.
2001/27/EC and 1999/96/EC line C, optional limit
emission values)
Total
c. CNG Buses technological evolution
Source: ISPRA elaborations on ACI and MIT data
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00002
1.00
0.002
1.00
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
1.00
0.93
0.07
1.00
0.65
0.07
0.28
1.00
0.34
0.08
0.32
0.26
1.00
0.16
0.06
0.29
0.30
0.10
0.09
1.00
0.14
0.05
0.28
0.30
0.10
0.13
1.00
0.08
0.05
0.28
0.31
0.10
0.17
0.0001
1.00
0.07
0.05
0.27
0.31
0.10
0.20
0.001
1.00
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
1.00
0.11
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-
-
0.89
0.20
0.10
0.08
0.07
0.07
-
-
-
0.79
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.08
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.81
1.00
0.84
1.00
0.85
1.00
0.85
1.00
Table 3.27 Mopeds and motorcycles technological evolution: circulating fleet calculated as stock data multiplied
by effective mileage (%)
Conventional, pre 6/17/1999
Euro I, 97/24/EC, from 6/17/1999
Euro II, 2002/51/EC, 2003/77/EC, from 7/1/2004 (for
mopeds: 97/24/EC, from 6/17/2002)
Euro III, 2002/51/EC, 2003/77/EC, from 1/1/2007 (for
mopeds not defined yet)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.00
1.00
0.86
0.46
0.24
0.22
0.21
0.20
-
-
0.14
0.28
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.17
-
-
-
0.21
0.32
0.32
0.31
0.31
-
-
0.04
0.25
0.28
0.30
0.32
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
-
Total
1.00
Source:ISPRA elaborations on ACI, ANCMA and MIT data
Average emission factors are calculated for average speeds by three driving modes: urban, rural and
motorway, combined with the vehicle kilometres travelled and vehicle categories.
ISPRA estimates total annual vehicle kilometres for the road network in Italy by vehicle type, see Table
3.28, based on data from various sources:
- Ministry of Transport (MIT, several years) for rural roads and on other motorways; the latter
estimates are based on traffic counts from the rotating census and core census surveys of ANAS;
- highway industrial association for fee-motorway (AISCAT, several years);
- local authorities for built-up areas (urban).
95
Table 3.28 Evolution of fleet consistency and mileage
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
308
365
391
402
400
394
349
354
27
30
33
35
37
38
38
38
31
39
41
43
36
37
36
34
7
7
9
10
11
11
11
10
68
75
94
109
106
110
100
90
2
3
3
4
5
5
5
5
9
All passenger vehicles, total mileage (10 vehkm/y)
Car fleet (106)
9
Moto, total mileage (10 veh-km/y)
6
Moto fleet (10 )
9
Goods transport, total mileage (10 veh-km/y)
6
Truck fleet (10 ), including LDV
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Notes: The passenger vehicles include passenger cars and buses; the moto fleet includes mopeds and motorcycles; in the goods
transport light commercial vehicles and heavy duty trucks are included.
When a vehicle engine is cold, it emits at a higher rate than when it has warmed up to its designed operating
temperature. This is particularly true for gasoline engines and the effect is even more severe for cars fitted
with three-way catalysts, as the catalyst does not function properly until the catalyst is also warmed up.
Emission factors have been derived for cars and LGVs from tests performed with the engine starting cold
and warmed up. The difference between the two measurements can be regarded as an additional cold-start
penalty paid on each trip a vehicle is started with the engine (and catalyst) cold.
Evaporative emissions of gasoline fuel vapour from the tank and fuel delivery system in vehicles constitute a
significant fraction of total NMVOC and methane emissions from road transport. Nevertheless the
contribution of evaporative emissions to total NMVOC emissions decreased significantly since the
introduction of carbon canisters. Breathing losses through the tank vent and fuel permeations and leakages
are considered the most important sources of evaporative emissions. The estimation of evaporative emissions
takes into account three different mechanisms: diurnal emissions (depending on daily temperature
variations), running losses (during the vehicles use) and hot soak emissions (following the vehicles use). The
process of fuelling of vehicles is not considered here. The procedure for estimating evaporative emissions of
NMVOCs takes account of gasoline volatility, the absolute ambient temperature and temperature changes,
the characteristics of vehicles design; the driving pattern is also significant for hot soak emissions and
running losses (EMEP/EEA, 2013).
3.5.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions from road transport is estimated to be about 4% in annual
emissions; a higher uncertainty is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions because of the uncertainty levels
attributed to the related emission factors.
Montecarlo analysis has been carried out by EMISIA 1 on behalf of the Joint Research Centre (Kouridis et al.,
2010) in the framework of the study “Uncertainty estimates and guidance for road transport emission
calculations” for 2005 emissions; a summary of main results of study are reported in Annex 1. The study
shows an uncertainty assessment, at Italian level, for road transport emissions on the basis of 2005 input
parameters of the COPERT 4 model (v. 7.0).
The following Table 3.29 summarizes the time series of GHG emissions in CO2 equivalent from road
transport, highlighting the evolution of this source, characterized by an upward trend in CO2 emission levels
from 1990 to 2007, which is explained by the increasing of the fleet, total mileages, and fuel consumptions
and by a decreasing trend from 2007 onwards, due, on one side, to the economical crisis, and on another
side, to the propagation of the number of vehicles with low fuel consumption per kilometre. In 2013, with
respect to 2007, a reduction in total mileages, fuel consumptions (gasoline and diesel) and consequently CO2
emissions has been noted.
CH4 and N2O emission trends are consequence of the penetration of new technologies according to the main
emission regulations. Specifically CH4 and more in general VOC emissions have reduced along the time
1
EMISIA: www.emisia.com
96
series due to the introduction of VOC abatement devices on vehicles, in agreement with the legislation
emission limits, and the rate of penetration of the new vehicles into the national fleet.
The time series of both N2O emissions and implied emission factors are prevalently driven by the fleet
composition and the penetration rate of the new vehicles/technologies. Moreover, in the COPERT4 model,
N2O emission factors depend also on the sulphur content of the fuel. In particular, significant drops of
emissions and implied emission factors are observed in 1999-2000 and in 2004-2005 which are explained by
the different fuel specifications in those years due to the application of the relevant European Directives on
fuel quality. The sulphur content (%wt) in gasoline was 0.04 and 0.007 respectively in 1999 and 2000 and
0.0055 and 0.0025 respectively in 2004 and 2005 and changed from 0.0226 in 2004 to 0.0038 in 2005 for
diesel oil.
Table 3.29 GHG emissions from road transport (Gg CO2 equivalent)
1990
1995
2000
2005
CO2
CH4
N2O
Total
Gg
Gg CO2 eq
Gg CO2 eq
Gg CO2 eq
93,379
943
845
95,167
103,541
1051
1,564
106,156
111,470
780
1,458
113,707
118,207
476
1,022
119,705
2010
2011
2012
2013
109,347
269
959
110,576
109,178
256
954
110,388
97,622
232
864
98,718
95,514
220
854
96,588
Source: ISPRA elaborations
3.5.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Data used for estimating emissions from the road transport sector derive from different sources, including
official statistics providers and industrial associations.
A specific procedure undertaken for improving the inventory in the sector regards the establishment of a
national expert panel in road transport which involves, on a voluntary basis, different institutions, local
agencies and industrial associations cooperating for improving activity data and emission factors accuracy.
In this group, emission estimates are presented annually, and new methodologies are shared and discussed.
Reports
and
data
of
the
meetings
can
be
found
at
the
following
address:
http://groupware.sinanet.isprambiente.it/expert_panel/library. In addition, road transport emission factors are
shared and publicly available on the website http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/fetransp.
Besides, time series resulting from the recalculation due to the application of COPERT 4 have been
discussed with national experts in the framework of an ad hoc working group on air emissions inventories.
The group is chaired by ISPRA and includes participants from the local authorities responsible for the
preparation of local inventories, sectoral experts, the Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea, and air quality
model experts. Recalculations are comparable with those resulting from application of the new model at
local level. Top-down and bottom-up approaches have been compared with the aim to identify the major
problems and future possible improvements in the methodology to be addressed.
3.5.3.5 Source-specific recalculations
In 2015 submission the historical series has been revised according to 2006 IPCC Guidelines, indeed the
emission factors now assume full oxidation of the fuel.
Moreover the annual update of the emissions time series from road transport implies a periodic review
process according to new data and information availability.
As regards input fleet data: the distribution of old gasoline cars over the detailed vehicles categories from
2007 onwards has been revised according to additional information on cars registration supplied by Ministry
of Transport; fleet values for mopeds in 2012 have been updated according to the revision of data published
by ANCMA; fleet values for diesel buses in 2012 have been updated according to the updating of the data on
urban public buses, published on CNIT 2012 – 2013.
97
In general a global revision of circulation parameters historical series has been carried out, subject to the fuel
balancing process aimed at minimizing the deviation between statistical and calculated fuel consumption
values. In particular, according to data published on the CNIT 2012 – 2013 and on the AISCAT quarterly
statistics, mileages series have been revised in particular for mopeds and motorcycles and for buses.
Moreover a revision of speed values has been carried out on the basis of the traffic laws, with resulting
changes in reductions for heavy duty trucks in highway and for mopeds in rural areas.
The final report on the physic-chemical characterization of fossil fuels used in Italy, carried out by the
Fuel Experimental Station, has been used in 2015 submission, with the aim to improve fuel quality
specifications. Fuel information has also been updated on the basis of the annual report published by ISPRA
about the fuel quality in Italy.
Fuel information has been updated also as regards country specific fuel consumption factors for gasoline
and diesel passenger cars on the basis of the results published by EEA in the report “Monitoring CO2
emissions from passenger cars and vans in 2013”.
Differences between the 2015 and previous submission in the total road transport GHG emissions, account
for 0.1% in 1990 and 0.6% in 2012. In 1990 carbon dioxide values decrease of -0.01% and in 2012 show a
difference of +0.6%. As regards methane discrepancies vary from 0.01% in 1990 to -1.7% in 2012;
emissions of nitrous oxide show decreases of -0.0002% in 1990 and -2.4% in 2012.
3.5.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements
Improvements for the next submission will be connected to the possible new availability of data and
information regarding activity data, calculation factors and parameters, new developments of the
methodology and the update of the software.
3.5.4 Navigation
3.5.4.1 Source category description
This source category includes all emissions from fuels delivered to water-borne navigation.
Mainly CO2 emissions derive from this category, whereas CH4 and N2O emissions are less important.
Emissions from navigation constituted 4.0% of the total GHG in the transport sector in 2013 and about 0.9%
of the national total (considering CO2 only, the share of emissions from navigation out of the total is almost
the same). GHG emissions decreased by 25.1% from 1990 to 2013, because of the reduction in fuel
consumed in harbour and navigation activities although the increase in the number of movements.
Navigation is a key category with respect to CO2 emissions in level with Tier1 both for 1990 and 2013.
3.5.4.2 Methodological issues
Emissions of the Italian inventory from the navigation sector are carried out according to the IPCC
Guidelines and Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 1997; IPCC, 2000; IPCC 2006) and the EMEP/CORINAIR
Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). In particular, a national methodology has been developed following
the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook which provides details to estimate emissions from domestic navigation,
specifying recreational craft, ocean-going ships by cruise and harbour activities; emissions from international
navigation are also estimated and included as memo item but not included in national totals
(EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). Inland, coastal and deep-sea fishing are estimated and reported under 1.A.4.c.
The methodology developed to estimate emissions is based on the following assumptions and information.
Activity data comprise both fuel consumptions and ship movements, which are available in different level of
aggregation and derive from different sources as specified here below:
98
•
•
•
Total deliveries of fuel oil, gas oil and marine diesel oil to marine transport are given in national
energy balance (MSE, several years [a]) but the split between domestic and international is not
provided;
Naval fuel consumption for inland waterways, ferries connecting mainland to islands and leisure
boats, is also reported in the national energy balance as it is the fuel for shipping (MSE, several years
[a]);
Data on annual arrivals and departures of domestic and international shipping calling at Italian
harbours are reported by the National Institute of Statistics in the statistics yearbooks (ISTAT,
several years [a]) and Ministry of Transport in the national transport statistics yearbooks (MIT,
several years).
As for emission and consumption factors, figures are derived by the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook
(EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007), both for recreational and harbour activities and national cruise, taking into
account national specificities. These specificities derive from the results of a national study which, taking
into account detailed information on the Italian marine fleet and the origin-destination movement matrix for
the year 1997, calculated national values (ANPA, 2001; Trozzi et al., 2002 [b])) on the basis of the default
emission and consumption factors reported in the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook.
National average emissions and consumption factors were therefore estimated for harbour and cruise
activities both for domestic and international shipping from 1990 to 1999. In 2009 submission, as in the case
of aviation, the study was updated for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006 in order to consider most recent trends
in the maritime sector both in terms of modelling between domestic and international consumptions and
improvements of operational activities in harbour (TECHNE, 2009). On the basis of the results, national
average emissions and consumption factors were updated from 2000.
Specifically, for the years referred to in the surveys, the current method estimates emissions from the number
of ships movements broken down by ship type at each of the principal Italian ports, considering the
information of whether the ship movement is international or domestic, the average tonnage and the relevant
distance travelled.
For those years, in fact, figures on the number of arrivals, destination, and fleet composition have been
provided by the local port authorities and by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT, 2009), covering
about 90% of the official national statistics on ship movements for the relevant years. Consumption and
emission factors are those derived from the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007) and
refer to the specified Tier 3 ship movement methodology that takes into account origin-destination ship
movements matrices as well as technical information on the ships, as engine size, gross tonnage of ships and
operational times in harbours. On the basis of sample information, estimates have been carried out at national
level for the relevant years considering the official statistics of the maritime sector.
In general, to carry out national estimates of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in the Italian inventory
for harbour and domestic cruise activities, consumptions and emissions are calculated for the complete time
series using the average consumption and emission factors multiplied by the total number of movements. On
the other hand, for international cruise, consumptions are derived by difference from the total fuel
consumption reported in the national energy balance and the estimated values as described above and
emissions are therefore calculated.
The fuel split between national and international fuel use in maritime transportation is then supplied to the
Ministry of the Economical Development to be included in the official international submission of energy
statistics to the IEA in the framework of the Joint Questionnaire OECD/Eurostat/IEA compilation together
with other energy data. A discrepancy with the international bunkers reported to the IEA still remains,
especially for the nineties, because the time series of the energy statistics to the IEA are not updated.
3.5.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions from maritime is estimated to be about 4% in annual emissions;
a higher uncertainty is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions on account of the uncertainty levels attributed
to the related emission factors.
99
Estimates of fuel consumption for domestic use, in the national harbours or for travel within two Italian
destinations, and bunker fuels used for international travels are reported in Table 3.30. Time series of
domestic GHG emissions for waterborne navigation are also shown in the same table.
An upward trend in emission levels is observed from 1990 to 2000, explained by the increasing number of
ship movements. Nevertheless, the operational improvements in harbour activities and a reduction in ship
domestic movements inverted the tendency in the last years.
Table 3.30 Marine fuel consumptions in domestic navigation and international bunkers (Gg) and GHG emissions
from domestic navigation (Gg CO2 eq.)
Gasoline for recreational craft (Gg)
Diesel oil for inland waterways (Gg)
Fuels used in domestic cruise navigation (Gg)
Fuel in harbours (dom+int ships) (Gg)
Fuel in international Bunkers (Gg)
1990
182
20
778
748
1,398
1995
210
23
706
693
1,286
2000
213
20
811
818
1,333
2005
199
25
740
759
2,203
2010
169
18
725
744
2,219
2011
149
22
678
696
2,288
2012
99
25
611
627
1,995
2013
99
30
575
590
1,576
CO2 (Gg)
CH4 (Gg CO2 eq.)
N2O (Gg CO2 eq.)
5,466
35
38
5,160
38
35
5,899
38
41
5,455
34
38
5,245
28
37
4,892
25
35
4,320
19
31
4,104
18
30
Total (Gg CO2 eq.)
5,539
5,232
5,979
5,527
5,311
4,952
4,370
4,152
Source: ISPRA elaborations
3.5.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions are reconstructed starting from information on ship movements and fleet
composition coming from different sources. Data collected in the framework of the national study from the
local port authorities, carried out in 2009 (TECHNE, 2009), were compared with the official statistics
supplied by ISTAT, which are collected from maritime operators with a yearly survey and communicated at
international level to EUROSTAT. Differences and problems were analysed in details and solved together
with ISTAT experts. Different sources of data are usually used and compared during the compilation of the
annual inventory.
Besides, time series resulting from the recalculation have been presented to the national experts in the
framework of an ad hoc working group on air emissions inventories. The group is chaired by ISPRA and
includes participants from the local authorities responsible for the preparation of local inventories, sectoral
experts, the Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea, and air quality model experts. Top-down and bottom-up
approaches have been compared with the aim to identify the potential problems and future improvements to
be addressed. There is also an ongoing collaboration and data exchange with regional environmental
agencies on this issue.
3.5.4.5 Source-specific recalculations
In 2015 submission, the adoption of 2006 IPCC Guidelines implies the assumption of the full oxidation of
the fuel, moreover a verification of activity data from different sources was undertaken. The update of the
number of ship movements for 2012 resulted in an update of fuel consumption for both domestic and
international navigation.
The recalculations affected CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions and accounted for variations of +0.9% and -11.6%
of GHG emissions respectively in 1990 and 2012, with respect to the previous submission.
3.5.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements
100
Further improvements will regard a verification of activity data on ship movements and emission estimates
with regional environmental agencies, especially with those more affected by maritime pollution.
3.5.5 Other transportation
3.5.5.1 Source category description
This source category includes all emissions from fuels delivered to the transportation by pipelines and
storage of natural gas.
Mainly CO2 emissions derive from this category, as well as the other relevant pollutants typical of a
combustion process, such as SOX, NOX, CO and PM. Also CH4 and N2O emissions are estimated and
included in the inventory.
This category is not a key category.
3.5.5.2 Methodological issues
Emissions from pipeline compressors are carried out according to the IPCC Guidelines and are estimated on
the basis of natural gas fuel consumption used for the compressors and the relevant emission factors. The
amount of fuel consumption is estimated on the basis of data supplied for the whole time series by the
national operators of natural gas distribution (SNAM, several years; STOGIT, several years) and refers to the
fuel consumption for the gas storage and transportation; this consumption is part of the fuel consumption
reported in the national energy balance in the consumption and losses sheet (MSE, several years [a]).
Emission factors are those reported in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook for gas turbines (EMEP/CORINAIR,
2007), except for CO2 for natural gas which is the country specific value used for the whole energy sector
reported in Table 3.12. Emissions communicated by the national operators in their environmental reports are
also taken into account to estimate air pollutants.
3.5.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty is estimated to be about 4% in annual emissions; a higher uncertainty is calculated
for CH4 and N2O emissions on account of the uncertainty levels attributed to the related emission factors.
Fluctuations and time series are driven both by the general trend of total natural gas fuel consumed (and
transported) and by the annual fluctuation of the storage activities, which are driven by the price fluctuation
of the natural gas.
Natural gas fuel consumption for pipeline compressors increased from 7,359 TJ in 1990 to 11,584 TJ in 2013
with a peak of 19,098 TJ in 2010. GHG emissions follow the same trend of fuel consumption.
Table 3.31 Pipelines transport consumptions (Tj) and GHG emissions (Gg CO2 eq.)
Pipeline transport
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
Consumption (TJ)
7,359
11,556
15,367
15,937
19,098
12,148
CO2 (Gg CO2 eq.)
CH4 (Gg CO2 eq.)
N2O (Gg CO2 eq.)
Total (Gg CO2 eq.)
407
0.5
7
414
640
1
10
652
852
1
14
867
886
1
14
901
1,093
1
17
1,111
690
1
11
701
2012
12,436
2013
11,584
708
1
11
720
660
1
10
671
Source: ISPRA elaborations
3.5.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions are reconstructed starting from information on fuel consumptions coming
from different sources. Fuel consumptions reported by the national operators for this activity are compared
with the amount of natural gas internal consumption and losses reported in the energy balance. Starting from
101
the length of pipelines, the average energy consumptions by kilometre are calculated and used for
verification of data collected by the operators. Energy consumptions and emissions by kilometre calculated
on the basis of data supplied by the main national operator (SNAM, several years) are used to estimate the
figures for the other operators when their annual data are not available.
3.5.5.5 Source-specific recalculations
Besides the general adoption of 2006 IPCC Guidelines for 2015 submission, no specific recalculations were
performed concerning this source.
3.5.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements
No further improvements are planned.
Other sectors
3.6
3.6.1
Sector overview
In this paragraph sectoral emissions are reported, which originate from energy use in the civil sector included
in category 1.A.4. Commercial, institutional, residential, agriculture/forestry/fisheries, and emissions from
military mobile activities which are also included in category 1.A.5. All greenhouse gases as well as CO,
NOx, NMVOC and SO2 emissions are estimated.
In 2013, energy use in other sectors account for 22.8% of CO2 emissions, 5.5% of CH4, 13.1%of N2O
emissions. In term of CO2 equivalent, other sectors share 19.9% of total national greenhouse gas emissions
and 24.3% of total GHG emissions of the energy sector.
The trends of greenhouse gas emissions are summarised in Table 3.32. Emissions are reported in Gg for CO2,
and in Mg for CH4 and N2O. A general increase in emissions is observed from 1990 to 2000, due to the
increase in activity data (numbers and size of building with heating); a sharp increase can be observed in
2005 due to exceptionally cold weather conditions. CH4 and N2O emissions increase in the period is due to
the growing use of woody biomass and biogas for heating. CH4 and N2O emissions of category 1.A.4.c are
driven by the use of biomass, both wood and biogas, in the agriculture sector for heating of greenhouse and
aquaculture plants; according to the national energy balance wood biomass fuel consumption started to be
used in 2000 but strongly reduced from 2012 while biogas from agriculture residues sharp increased in the
last years.
Table 3.32 Trend in greenhouse gas emissions from the other sectors, 1990-2013
GAS/SUBSOURCE
CO2 (Gg)
1.A.4.a Commercial/
Institutional
1.A.4.b Residential
1.A.4.c Agriculture/
Forestry/ Fisheries
1.A.5 Other (Not
elsewhere specified)
CH4 (Mg)
1.A.4.a Commercial/
Institutional
1.A.4.b Residential
1.A.4.c Agriculture/
Forestry/ Fisheries
1.A.5 Other (Not
elsewhere specified)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
16,187
52,371
17,233
50,289
20,484
50,399
26,277
57,698
30,731
53,102
27,474
48,125
27,871
47,547
27,507
47,193
8,375
8,749
8,109
8,453
7,332
7,190
6,862
6,787
1,070
1,495
837
1,232
651
515
334
584
1,146
20,925
1,417
29,511
2,323
31,159
3,123
34,712
3,829
44,410
4,031
44,711
3,975
50,565
4,425
91,337
1,269
947
2,449
2,616
2,557
2,780
1,076
1,532
173
223
126
160
65
52
28
55
102
GAS/SUBSOURCE
N2O (Mg)
1.A.4.a Commercial/
Institutional
1.A.4.b Residential
1.A.4.c Agriculture/
Forestry/ Fisheries
1.A.5 Other (Not
elsewhere specified)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
427
1,944
502
2,227
698
2,300
976
2,560
1,209
2,865
1,150
2,798
1,138
3,036
1,164
4,815
2,520
2,756
2,687
2,772
2,450
2,415
2,246
2,256
225
215
135
291
131
98
92
134
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Seven key categories have been identified for this sector for 2013, for level and trend assessment, using both
the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2:
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture gaseous fuels (L, T);
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture liquid fuels (L, T);
Other sectors - CH4 commercial, residential, agriculture biomass (L, T)
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture other fossil fuels (L1, T);
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture biomass (L2, T)
Other sectors - N2O commercial, residential, agriculture liquid fuels (L2)
Other sectors - CO2 commercial, residential, agriculture solid fuels (T1).
All these categories, except N2O emissions from liquid fuels, are also key category including the LULUCF
estimates in the key category assessment.
3.6.2 Source category description
This category includes four sources: 1.A.4.a. Commercial/ Institutional, 1.A.4.b. Residential, 1.A.4.c.
Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries and 1.A.5 Other (Not elsewhere specified).
The estimation procedure follows that of the basic combustion data sheet. Emissions are estimated from the
energy consumption data and the emission factor illustrated in Table 3.12.
Emissions from off-road sources are estimated and they are reported under the relevant sectors. The
methodology of these estimates is discussed in the next paragraph 3.6.3 Others.
Commercial/ Institutional
Emissions from this sector arise from the energy used directly in the institutional, service and commercial
buildings, mainly for heating. Additionally this category includes all emissions due to the non-renewable part
of wastes used in electricity generation.
In the other fuel sub category, the amount of fossil waste burnt in incinerators with energy recovery is
reported. Biomass refers to the consumption of biomass waste, biogas recovered for energy purposes from
landfill and sludge treatments and wood and steam wood; from 2002 to 2005 minor amounts of biodiesel fuel
consumption are also included. In Table 7.12 in the waste sector chapter the amount of waste and biogas fuel
consumptions for 2013 are reported.
In 2013, this sector has a share of 6.4% of total GHG national emissions.
Residential
Emissions from this sector arise from the energy used directly in residential buildings, mainly for heating.
The sector includes emission from off-road household and gardening machinery.
Biomass refers to wood and steam wood fuel consumption; from 2002 to 2005 a small amount of biodiesel
has been used in the residential sector and it has been reported under biomass category affecting the average
emission factors.
In 2013, this sector has a share of 11.6% of total GHG national emissions.
Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries
This subsector includes all emissions due to the direct fossil fuel use in agriculture, mainly to produce
mechanical energy, the fuel use in fisheries and for the machinery used in the forestry sector.
103
Up to 1999, biomass included only biogas recovered for energy purposes from the storage of animal manure
and agriculture residuals, while from 2000 to 2011, as reported in the National Energy Balance, a huge
amount of wood has been consumed affecting implied emission factors.
In 2013, this sector has a share of 1.7% of total GHG national emissions.
Others
Emissions from military aircraft and naval vessels are reported under 1A.5.b Mobile.
The methods of estimation are discussed in paragraphs 3.5.1 and 3.5.4 for aviation and maritime
respectively.
In 2013, this sector has a share of 0.1% of total GHG national emissions.
3.6.3 Methodological issues
For this sector, energy consumptions are reported in the BEN (see Annex 5, Tables A5.9 and A5.10, in
physical units, row “DOMESTIC AND COMMERCIAL USES”, subtracting the quantities for military use
in diesel oil and off-road uses in petrol). The BEN does separate energy consumption between civil and
agriculture-fisheries, but it does not distinguish between Commercial – Institutional and Residential.
The total consumption of each fuel is therefore subdivided between commercial and residential on the basis
of the estimations reported by ENEA in its annual energy report (ENEA, several years).
Emissions from 1.A.4.b Residential and 1.A.4.c Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing are disaggregated into those
arising from stationary combustion and those from off-road vehicles and other machinery. The estimation of
emissions from off-road sources is discussed in this paragraph in the following. Emissions from fishing
vessels are estimated from fuel consumption data (MSE, several years [a]). Emission factors are shown in
Table 3.12.
In the solid fuel sub category, the following fuels are included: steam coal, coke oven coke and gas work gas.
Since eighties there has been a sharp reduction in the use of these fuels due to air quality national legislation
(in 1990 they accounted for about 1.1 % of total energy consumption of 1.A.4 category) and a further
decrease is observed between 1997 and 1998 in consequence of the banning of coal used in residential
heating in urban areas. CH4 emission factors used are those reported in the 1996 CORINAIR handbook,
vol.1, for coal, equal to 200 kg/TJ (EMEP/CORINAIR, 1996), and in the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook for
coke oven coke, equal to 15 kg/TJ which is the maximum value of emission factor for solid fuels without
specification, and gas work gas, equal to 5 kg/TJ assuming the maximum value for natural gas
(EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007).
For liquid fuel, the average emission factors are driven by the mix of fuel consumptions used in heating
boilers, prevalently LPG, but also gasoil and fuel oil which was used especially in the past.
For these fuels we use the respective CH4 emission factors: LPG 1 kg/TJ, fuel oil 3 kg/TJ and gasoil 7 kg/TJ.
Regarding natural gas, the country specific CH4 emission factor is equal to 2.5 kg/TJ.
All these emission factors have been calculated on the basis of the default and range emission factors
published in the Guidebook EMEP/CORINAIR taking into account country specific circumstances by means
of the type of boilers where these fuels are burnt. In the following box the default emission factors reported
in the Guidebook EMEP/CORINAIR are shown.
Liquid fuel CH4 default emission factor(kg/TJ) (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007)
Fuel
Default EF
Range
National EF
LPG
-
1 - 2.5
1
Gasoil
0.6
0.1 - 8
7
Fuel oil
1.6
0.1 - 10
3
Natural gas
1.2
0.3 - 4
2.5
Average implied emission factors for other fuels, which refer to fossil waste, vary on an annual basis. For
CO2 the variation occurs from 1990, as a consequence of the mix of wastes used in incinerators, such as
urban wastes, industrial, hospital, and oil wastes; for CH4 and N2O annual changes are considered from 2011
104
when information collected at plant level allowed to calculate an annual value. In 2013 CO2, CH4 and N2O
average emission factors were equal to 114.7 kg/GJ, 6.5 kg/TJ and 10.9 kg/TJ respectively.
Regarding biomass fuel consumption in the following box CO2, CH4 and N2O emission factors used in the
national inventory for the different type of fuels are reported.
Biomass CH4 and N2O emission factor for 2013 (kg/TJ)
Fuel
CH4
N2O
Wood
320
14
Biogas
153
3
Waste
7
11
Biodiesel
12
2
Others
In this paragraph, the methodology used to estimate emissions from a range of portable or mobile equipment
powered by reciprocating diesel or petrol driven engines is summarized. They include agricultural equipment
such as tractors and combined harvesters; construction equipment such as bulldozers and excavators;
domestic lawn mowers; aircraft support equipment; and industrial machines such as portable generators and
compressors. In the CORINAIR inventory, they are grouped into four main categories (EMEP/CORINAIR,
2007):
•
•
•
•
domestic house & garden
agricultural power units (includes forestry)
industrial off-road (includes construction and quarrying)
aircraft support.
Those categories are mapped to the appropriate IPCC classes: Aircraft support is mapped to Other Transport
and the other categories map to the off-road vehicle subcategories of Residential, Agriculture and
Manufacturing Industries and Construction.
Estimates are calculated using a modification of the methodology given in EMEP/CORINAIR
(EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). This involves the estimation of emissions from around seventy classes of offroad source using the following equation for each class:
Ej = Nj · Hj · Pj · Lj · Wj · (1 + Yj · aj /2) · ej
where
Ej = Emission of pollutant from class j
Nj = Population of class j
Hj = Annual usage of class j
Pj = Average power rating of class j
Lj = Load factor of class j
Yj = Lifetime of class j
Wj = Engine design factor of class j
aj = Age factor of class j
ej = Emission factor of class j
(kg/y)
(hours/year)
(kW)
(-)
(years)
(-)
(y-1)
(kg/kWh)
For gasoline engine sources, evaporative NMVOC emissions are also estimated as:
Evj = Nj · Hj · evj
where
Evj = Evaporative emission from class j
evj = Evaporative emission factor for class j
kg
kg/h
105
Population data have been revised based on a survey of machinery sales (Frustaci, 1999). Machinery lifetime
is estimated on the European averages, see EMEP/CORINAIR (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007), the annual usage
data were taken either from industry or published data (EEA, 2000). The emission factors used came mostly
from EMEP/CORINAIR and from Samaras (EEA, 2000). The load factors were taken from Samaras (EEA,
2000).
It was possible to calculate fuel consumptions for each class based on fuel consumption factors given in
EMEP/CORINAIR (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). Comparison with known fuel consumption for certain
groups of classes (e.g. agriculture and construction) suggested that the population method overestimated fuel
consumption by factors of 2-3, especially for industrial vehicles.
Estimates were derived for fuel consumptions for the years 1990-2013 for each of the main categories:
A.
B.
C.
Agricultural power units: Data on gas oil consumption were taken from ENEA (ENEA, several years).
The consumption of gasoline was estimated using the population method for 1995 without correction.
Time series is reconstructed in relation to the fuel used in agriculture.
Industrial off-road: The construction component of the gas oil consumption was calculated from the
Ministry of Production Activities data (MSE, several years [a]) on buildings and constructions. The
industrial component of gas oil was estimated from the population approach for 1995. Time series is
reconstructed in relation to the fuel use in industry.
Domestic house & garden: gasoline and diesel oil consumption were estimated from the
EMEP/CORINAIR population approach for 1995. Time series is reconstructed in relation to the fuel
use in agriculture.
Emissions from off-road sources are particularly uncertain. The revisions in the population data produced
higher fuel consumption estimates. The gasoline consumptions increased markedly but they are still only a
tiny proportion of total gasoline sales.
3.6.4 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions in “Other sectors” is estimated to be about 4% in annual
emissions; a higher uncertainty is calculated for CH4 and N2O emissions on account of the uncertainty levels
attributed to the related emission factors.
Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to estimate uncertainty of CO2 emissions from stationary
combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels emissions, resulting in 5.1%, 3.3% and 5.8%, respectively.
Normal distributions have been assumed for all the parameters. A summary of the results is reported in
Annex 1.
Estimates of fuel consumption used by other sectors in 2013 are reported in Annex 5, Tables A5.9 and
A5.10, in physical units, row “DOMESTIC AND COMMERCIAL USES”. Time series of the other sectors
energy consumption data are contained in the BEN time series and reported in Table 3.33.
Table 3.33 Trend in fuel consumption for the other sector, 1990-2013 (TJ)
1.A.4a.Commercial
Institutional
1.A.4b. Residential
1.A.4c.AgricultureF
orestry Fisheries
1.A.5 Other
1990
1995
2000
267,900
295,709
357,353
888,563
2005
TJ
2010
2011
2012
2013
532,354
490,460
490,795
486,994
911,475
929,658 1,078,510 1,022,123
945,087
954,650 1,080,630
114,964
121,138
117,029
123,208
108,464
107,864
98,889
100,740
14,830
20,800
11,587
16,935
8,995
7,110
4,594
8,061
458,142
Source: ISPRA elaborations
In the following Table 3.34, total GHG emissions connected to the use of fossil fuels and waste derived fuels
are reported for the whole time series. Total emissions from the sector are reported in Gg for CO2, and in Mg
for CH4 and N2O. An increase in emissions is observed from 1990 to 2000, due to the increase in activity
106
data (numbers and size of building with heating); a sharp increase can be observed in 2005 due to
exceptionally cold weather conditions. CH4 and N2O emissions increase in the period due to the growing use
of woody biomass for heating.
Table 3.34 Other sectors, GHG emission time series 1990-2013
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
CO2 (Gg)
78,004
77,766
79,829
93,660
91,817
83,304
82,614
82,072
CH4 (Mg)
23,513
32,097
36,057
40,612
50,860
51,574
55,644
97,349
N2O (Mg)
5,117
5,699
5,821
6,598
6,655
6,461
6,512
8,369
80,116
80,267
82,465
96,642
95,071
86,519
85,946
87,000
GHG (Gg CO2 eq)
Source: ISPRA elaborations
In Table 3.35, other sectors emissions are summarized according to main categories. From 1990 to 2013, an
increase in use of natural gas instead of fuel oil and gas oil in stationary combustion plants is observed; it
results in a decrease of CO2 emissions from combustion of liquid fuels and an increase of emissions from
gaseous fuels. CH4 and N2O emissions increase in the period due to the increasing use of woody biomass for
heating.
Table 3.35 Other sectors, GHG emissions in 1990 and 2013
1990
2013
CO2 other sectors liquid fuels
Gg
40,133
16,364
CO2 other sectors solid fuels
Gg
926
12
CO2 other sectors gaseous fuels
Gg
36,419
61,575
CO2 other sectors other fuels
Gg
526
4,121
CH4 other sectors
Mg
23,513
97,347
N2O other sectors
Mg
5,117
8,334
Source: ISPRA elaborations
3.6.5 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions are reported by national energy balance and the national grid administrator
(for the waste used to generate electricity).
The energy data used to estimate emissions reported in table 1.A.4 have different levels of accuracy:
• the overall sum of residential and institutional/service/commercial energy consumption is quite
reliable and their uncertainty is the same of the BEN; the quantities of fuels used for those economic
sector are routinely reported by main suppliers and the data are well documented.
• the energy consumption for agriculture and fisheries is also routinely reported by energy statistics
and the underlying data are quite reliable because the energy use for those sectors has special
taxation regimes and they are accounted for separately.
• The energy use for military and off roads is instead partly reported and partly estimated with models,
as described in paragraph 3.6.3 others.
3.6.6 Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations occurred for this category due to the application of the IPCC 2006 Guidelines and the
relevant CO2 emission and oxidation factors. Energy recovery from waste reported in the commercial heating
has been updated from 2011 as a consequence of the activity data update; further details are reported in the
waste chapter.
The recalculation affected only slightly emissions with differences equal to 0.6% in 2012 for CO2, -1.0 for
CH4 and -0.5 for N2O emissions with respect to the previous submission.
107
3.6.7 Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned for the next submission.
International bunkers
3.7
The methodology used to estimate the quantity of fuels used from international bunkers in aviation and
maritime navigation has been illustrated in the relevant transport paragraphs, 3.5.1 and 3.5.4.
The methodology implements the IPCC guidelines according to the available statistical data.
Feedstock and non-energy use of fuels
3.8
3.8.1
Source category description
In Table 3.36 and 3.37 detailed data on petrochemical and other non-energy use for the year 2013 are given.
The tables refer to all products produced starting from fossil fuels, solid, gas or liquid, and used for “non
energy” purposes. A national methodology is used for the reporting and estimation of avoided emissions.
3.8.2 Methodological issues
The quantities of fuels stored in products in the petrochemical plants are calculated on the basis of
information contained in a detailed yearly report, the petrochemical bulletin, by Ministry of Economic
development (MSE, several years [b]). The report elaborates results from a detailed questionnaire that all
operators in Italy fill out monthly. The data are more detailed than those normally available by international
statistics and refer to:
• input to plants;
• quantities of fuels returned to the market;
• fuels used internally for combustion;
• quantities stored in products.
National petrochemical balance includes information on petrochemical input entering the process and used
for the production of petrochemical products, and petrochemical plants output, returns to the market, losses
and internal consumption. Due to chemical reactions in the petrochemical transformation process, the output
quantity of some fuels could be greater than the input quantity; in particular it occurs for light products as
LPG, gasoline and refinery gas, and for fuel oil. Therefore for these fuels it is possible to have negative
values of the balance. For this matter, with the aim to allow the reporting on CRF tables, these fuels have
been added to naphta. The amount of fuels recovered from the petrochemical processes and returning on the
market are considered as an output, because consumed for transportation or in the industrial sectors, and no
carbon is stored.
In Table 3.36 and Table 3.37 the overall results and details by product are reported respectively.
In Table 3.36 the breakdown of total petrochemical process is reported; the percentages referring to the “net”
input are calculated on the basis of the total input subtracting the quantity of fuels as gasoil, LPG, fuel oil
and gasoline which return on the market because produced from the petrochemical processes.
In Table 3.37 the input to the petrochemical processes in petrochemical plants and the relevant losses,
internal consumption and return to the market are reported, at fuel level, allowing the calculation of the
quantity stored in products, subtracting the output (returns to the market, losses and internal consumption)
from the input (petrochemical input). Carbon stored, for all the fuels, is therefore calculated from the
amounts of fuels stored (in tonnes) multiplied by the relevant emission factors (tC/t) reported in Table 3.37.
An attempt was made to estimate the quantities stored in products according to the IPCC 1996 Guidelines,
Reference Manual, ch1, tables 1-5 (IPCC, 1997), multiplying the IPCC percentage values in tables 1-5 of the
Guidelines by the amount of fuels reported as “petrochemical input” in Table 3.37. The resulting estimate of
about 4,600 Gg of products, for the year 2013, is almost 50% bigger than the quantities reported, 3,067 Gg.
108
Non-energy products amount stored from refineries, and other manufacturers, are reported in the National
Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]) and the carbon stored is estimated with emission factors reported in
Table 3.38. For lubricants the net carbon stored results from the difference between the amount of lubricants
and the amount of recovered lubricant oils. The energy content has been calculated on the basis of the IPCC
default values. Minor differences in the overall energy content of these products occur if the calculation is
based on national parameters instead of IPCC default values.
In the CRF tables the fuel input amount is reported so that the fractions of carbon stored could be derived. As
these fractions are derived from actual measurements they do not correspond to any default values and may
vary over time.
Table 3.36 Other non-energy uses, year 2013
Breakdown of total petrochemical flow
Petrochemical Input
ALL ENERGY CARRIERS, Gg
Returns to
Internal
Quantity stored in
refinery/market consumption / losses
products
7,180
% of total input
2,692
1,422
3,067
37.5%
19.8%
42.7%
31.7%
68.3%
% of net input
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Table 3.37 Petrochemical, detailed data from MSE, year 2013 (MSE, detailed petrochemical breakdown)
FUEL TYPE
Petroch. Input
Returns to
refinery/
market
Internal
consumption
/ losses
Quantity
stored in
products
Gg
Gg
Gg
Gg
LPG
Refinery gas
Virgin naphtha
Gasoline
Kerosene
Gas oil
Fuel oil
Petroleum coke
Others (feedstock)
Losses
Natural gas
total
457
54
3,722
819
873
361
290
0
168
483
32
0
1,142
672
220
82
0
60
434
7,180
0
2,692
12
671
0
39
0
0
188
0
87
0
425
1,422
-37
-649
3,722
-362
201
141
20
0
21
0
9
3,067
% on
total
input
% on
net
input
Emission
factor
(IPCC)
tC/t
0.8146
0.7781
0.8900
0.8379
0.8606
0.8696
0.8534
0.8666
0.8462
0.8462
0.7437
43%
68%
Source: ISPRA elaborations
Table 3.38 Other non-energy uses, year 2013, MSE several years [a]
NON ENERGY FROM REFINERIES
Bitumen + tar
lubricants
recovered lubricant oils
paraffin
others (benzene, others)
Totals
Quantity
stored in
products
Gg
Energy
content
IPCC '96
TJ/Gg
3,193
1,175
102
81
641
5,192
40.19
40.19
40.19
40.19
40.19
Total energy
content
Emission
factor
PJ
Gg C / Gg
128.3
47.2
4.1
3.3
25.8
208.7
0.8841
0.8038
0.8038
0.8368
0.8368
Source: ISPRA elaborations
109
At national level, this methodology seems the most precise according to the available data. The European
Project “Non Energy use-CO2 emissions” ENV4-CT98-0776 has analysed our methodology performing a
mass balance between input fuels and output products in a sample year. The results of the project confirm the
reliability of the reported data (Patel and Tosato, 1997).
3.8.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
In Annex 4 the time series for comparison between reference and sectoral approach are reported showing
percentage differences in a limited range.
3.8.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Basic data to estimate emissions are directly provided to ISPRA by MSE. The energy data used to estimate
emissions have a high level of accuracy because they summarize the results of a 100% legally binding
monthly survey of all the concerned operators.
3.8.5 Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations have been performed for the whole time series to update emission and oxidation factors
according to the IPCC 2006 guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
3.8.6 Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned for the next submission.
Fugitive emissions from solid fuels, oil and natural gas
3.9
3.9.1
Source category description
Fugitive emissions of GHG arise during the stages of fuel production, from extraction of fossil fuels to their
final use. Emissions are mainly due to leaks or other irregular releases of gases from the production and
transformation of solid fuels, the production of oil and gas, the transmission and distribution of gas and from
oil refining.
Solid fuels category implies mainly methane emissions, while oil and natural gas categories include carbon
dioxide and nitrous oxide too.
In 2013, GHG emissions from this source category account for 2.4% out of the total emissions in the energy
sector. Trends in fugitive emissions are summarised in Table 3.46.
The results of key category analysis are shown in the following box.
Year
2013
1990
Key-category identification in the fugitive sector with the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2
IPCC category
without LULUCF
with LULUCF
CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
L, T
L, T
CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
L1
L1
CH4 Oil and natural gas - Natural gas
L
L
CO2 Oil and natural gas - Oil
L1
L1
CO2 Oil and natural gas - Venting and flaring
L2
L2
CO2 Oil and natural gas – Flaring in refineries
L2
-
Methane emissions are key categories for natural gas according to level and trend assessment with Approach
1 and Approach 2 with and without LULUCF, while CO2 emissions are key category only for the level with
Approach 1.
110
As concerns the level for the year 1990, CH4 emissions are key categories for natural gas, either including or
excluding LULUCF emissions and removals following both the Approaches. CO2 emissions are key
categories for oil only with Approach 1, while CO2 emissions are key categories for venting and flaring only
with Approach 2, as well CO2 emissions from flaring in refineries but only exluding LULUCF emissions and
removals.
Fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions reported in 1.B.1 refer to coal mining for only two mines with very low
production in the last ten years. One mine is underground and produces coal and the other one, a surface
mine, produces lignite. The underground mine stopped the extraction activities between 1994 and 1999,
whereas the surface mine stopped the activity in 2001. CH4 emissions from solid fuel transformation refer to
fugitive emission from coke production in the iron and steel industry, which is also decreasing in the last
years. N2O emissions from 1.B.1 are not occurring.
Fugitive CO2 emissions reported in 1.B.2 refer prevalently to fugitive emissions in refineries during
petroleum production processes, e.g. fluid catalytic cracking and sulphur recovery plants and flaring, but
include also emissions from the exploration, production, transport and distribution of oil and natural gas.
CH4 emissions reported in 1.B.2 refer mainly to the production of oil and natural gas and to the transmission
in pipelines and distribution of natural gas, while N2O emissions refer to flaring in the production of oil and
natural gas and in refineries and emission from exploration.
For the completeness of the related CRF tables, in particular 1.B.2, the N2O emissions in refining and storage
are reported under flaring in refineries as shown in the following Table 3.39.
Table 3.39 Completeness of N2O fugitive emissions
1.B. 2.a. Oil
iv. Refining/storage
N2O
Included in 1.B.2.d flaring in refineries
3.9.2 Methodological issues
CH4 emissions from coal mining have been estimated on the basis of activity data published on the National
Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]) and emission factors provided by the IPCC guidelines (IPCC,
2006). Mining and post mining emissions have been calculated. As concerns CO2 emissions the calculations
have been carried out considering the species profile in coal mine gas by literature data (EMEP/CORINAIR,
2007). The coal gas composition considered is 80% of CH4 and 6% of CO2 by volume (Williams, 1993).
CH4 emissions from coke production have been estimated on the basis of activity data published in the
national statistical yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]) and emission factors reported in the
EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007).
Fugitive emissions from oil refining are estimated starting from the total crude oil losses as reported in the
National Energy Balance. Emissions have been reported in the Refining/Storage category (1.B.2.a.iv); they
occur prevalently from processes in refineries.
Fugitive emissions from oil transport have been calculated according with the amount of transported oil
(MIT, several years) and emission factors published on the IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Most of the crude oil is imported in Italy by shipment and delivered at the refineries by pipelines as offshore
national production of crude oil. Table 3.40 provides the length of pipelines for oil and the amount of oil
products transported since 1990.
Table 3.40 Length of pipelines for oil transport (km) and amount of transported oil products (Gg)
Length of pipelines (km)
Amount transported (Gg)
1990
4,140
94,600
1995
4,235
102,274
2000
4,346
116,803
2005
4,328
133,024
2010
4,291
128,854
2011
2012 2013*
4,303
4,290
4,290
116,720 114,419 114,533
Source: MIT
*provisional values
111
Emissions in refineries have been estimated on the basis of activity data published in the National Energy
Balance (MSE, several years [a]) or supplied by oil and gas industry association (UP, several years) and
operators especially in the framework of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), and emission
factors published on the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Fugitive CO2 emissions in refineries are mainly due to catalytic cracking production processes, sulphur
recovery plants, flaring and emissions by other production processes including transport of crude oil and oil
products. Emissions are calculated on the basis of the total crude oil losses reported in the National Energy
Balance. These emissions are then distributed among the different processes on the basis of average emission
factors agreed and verified with the association of industrial operators (UP) and yearly updated, from 2000,
on the basis of data supplied by the plants in the framework of the European Emissions Trading Scheme. In
particular in the EU-ETS context, refineries report CO2 emissions for flaring and for processes separately.
In Table 3.41, the time series of crude oil losses published in the BEN and crude oil processed in Italian
refineries are shown.
Table 3.41 Refineries activities and losses
1990
1,004
93,711
Crude Oil losses (Mg)
Crude oil processing (Gg)
1995
937
91,014
2000
757
98,003
2005
576
106,542
2010
664
94,944
2011
658
90,705
2012
626
85,278
2013
693
76,317
Source: MSE, UP
CO2, CH4, and N2O fugitive emissions from oil and natural gas exploration have been calculated according
with the number of exploration wells (MSE, several years [c]) and emission factors published on the IPCC
Good practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000) as no emission factors for number of wells were available in 2006
IPCC guidelines. Emissions factors for drilling, testing and servicing have been used for productive wells,
while only emissions factor for drilling has been used for non productive wells.
CH4 emissions from the production of oil and natural gas as well for natural gas processing have been
calculated according with activity data published on National Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]), data
by oil and gas industry association (UP, several years), data supplied by operators, and emission factors
published on the IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006). CH4 emission factors for the whole time series have been
calculated taking into account this information also for oil venting and flaring and for gas flaring. For CO2,
the IPCC default emission factor has not been modified for each category, as no specific information is
available. N2O emissions from flaring in oil and gas production have been estimated on the basis of activity
production data and emission factors reported in the IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006). As regards the decline of
CH4 IEF for natural gas production and processing, gas companies stated that along the time there has been
an increasing awareness to reduce GHG emissions and new emergency management systems have been
implemented periodically in order to reduce emissions from venting. Moreover, with the updating of
management systems, more accurate methods to estimate vented gas have been adopted by the main gas
company at regular intervals.
In Table 3.42, the time series of national production of oil and gas are reported. Natural gas production
should further reduce in the next years.
Table 3.42 National production of oil and natural gas
Oil (Gg)
Natural gas (Mm3)
1990
4,668
17,296
1995
5,236
20,383
2000
4,586
16,766
2005
6,111
11,962
2010
5,106
8,265
2011
5,309
8,339
2012
5,396
8,511
2013
5,502
7,705
Source: MSE
CH4 and CO2 emissions from the transmission in pipelines and distribution of natural gas have been
estimated on the basis of activity data published by industry, the national authority, and information collected
annually by the Italian gas operators.
Emission estimates take into account the information on: the amount of natural gas distributed (ENI, several
years [a]; SNAM, several years); length of pipelines, distinct by low, medium and high pressure and by type,
cast iron, grey cast iron, steel or polyethylene pipelines (AEEG, several years); natural gas losses reported in
the national energy balance (MSE, several years [a]); methane emissions reported by operators in their
112
environmental reports (ENI, several years [b]; EDISON, several years; SNAM, several years). CO2
emissions have been calculated considering CO2 content in the leaked natural gas.
The average natural gas chemical composition has been calculated from the composition of natural gas
produced and imported. Main parameters of mixed natural gas, as calorific value, molecular weight, and
density, have been calculated as well. Data on chemical composition and calorific value are supplied by the
main national gas providers for domestic natural gas and for each country of origin.
Table 3.43 shows average data for national pipelines natural gas.
Table 3.43 Average composition for pipelines natural gas and main parameters
HCV (kcal/m3)
NCV (kcal/m3)
Molecular weight
Density (kg/Sm3)
1990
9,156
8,255
17.03
0.72
1995
9,193
8,290
17.19
0.73
2000
9,221
8,325
17.37
0.74
2005
9,267
8,360
17.44
0.74
2010
9,331
8,418
17.46
0.74
2011
9,287
8,376
17.26
0.73
2012
9,304
8,393
17.41
0.74
2013
9,280
8,370
17.32
0.73
CH4 (molar %)
NMVOC (molar %)
CO2 (molar %)
Other no carbon gas (molar %)
94.30
3.45
0.22
2.03
93.36
4.09
0.20
2.34
92.22
4.84
0.18
2.76
91.93
5.35
0.49
2.24
92.03
5.74
0.75
1.48
93.08
5.00
0.68
1.24
92.16
5.48
0.61
1.75
92.77
5.04
0.61
1.59
CH4 (weight %)
NMVOC (weight %)
CO2 (weight %)
Other no carbon gas (weight %)
88.83
7.33
0.57
3.27
87.14
8.62
0.51
3.74
85.16
10.00
0.47
4.37
84.53
10.73
1.23
3.51
84.52
11.27
1.89
2.30
86.52
9.79
1.73
1.95
84.89
10.81
1.54
2.76
85.94
9.99
1.54
2.53
More in details, emissions are estimated separately for the different phases: transmission in primary pipelines
and distribution in low, medium, and high pressure network, losses in pumping stations and in reducing
pressure stations (including venting and other accidental losses) with their relevant emission factors,
considering also information regarding the length of the pipelines and their type.
Emissions from low pressure distribution include also the distribution of gas at industrial plants and in
residential and commercial sector; data on gas distribution are only available at an aggregate level thus not
allowing a separate reporting.
In addition, emissions from the use of natural gas in housing are estimated and included. Emissions
calculated are compared and balanced with emissions reported by the main distribution operators.
Finally the emission estimates for the different phases are summed and reported in the most appropriate
category (transmission/distribution).
Table 3.44 provides the trend of natural gas distribution network length for each pipeline material and the
average CH4 emission factor.
Table 3.44 Length of low and medium pressure distribution network (km) and network emission factors for CH4
Material
Steel and cast iron (km)
Grey cast iron (km)
Polyethylene (km)
Total (km)
CH4 Emission Factors (kg/km)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
102,061 131,271 141,848 154,886 198,706 197,369
24,164 23,229 21,314 15,080
4,658
4,519
775
7,300 12,550 31,530 49,663 51,053
127,000 161,800 175,712 201,496 253,027 252,940
1,958
1,417
1,227
1,000
715
707
2012
199,899
4,414
52,073
256,386
676
2013
200,647
3,727
53,548
257,922
660
More details on the methodology used and on the basic information collected from operators are reported in
a technical paper carried out by ISPRA in order to assess emissions from the whole natural gas distribution
grid (Contaldi, 1999).
The study addressed natural gas leakages, pipelines material, and operating pressure with data of 1995. All
main gas operators were involved. An estimation model was set up in order to approximate the known gas
113
emissions from the main operators and total emissions for year 1995. Emission factors distinct by pressure
(low, medium and high) and material (cast iron, grey cast iron, steel or polyethylene) was applied to achieve
the goal. Emission factors from Battelle study for former West Germany was applied, cross checked with
operator’s data and modified where it is needed. The emission factors of minor operators (Other in the next
table) are “worsened” to take account for lower quality standard.
The pipelines emission factors for transmission and distribution used for 2013 emission estimates are
reported in the following box:
Material
Steel
Emission factors for transmission and distribution in pipelines in 2013 by operator
Pressure
High
Medium
Low
m3/km
600 (SNAM)
630 (Italgas/ENEL)
630 (Italgas/ENEL)
700 (Other)
743 (Other)
705.6 (Other)
Cast iron
-
630 (Italgas/ENEL)
743 (Other)
Grey cast iron
-
-
Polyethylene
-
-
630 (Italgas/ENEL)
756 (Other)
7300 (Italgas/ENEL)
8760 (Other)
900 (Italgas/ENEL)
1008 (Other)
SNAM is the main operator for national gas transmission and import-export. ITALGAS and ENEL are the
main operators for gas distribution. They publish annually environmental reports with amount of natural gas
conveyed and total leaks. Moreover SNAM provides to ISPRA chemical composition and energy content of
national gas imported and produced. In 2013 SNAM accounts for about 94% of national pipelines length and
about 99% of transported gas. ITALGAS and ENEL account for about 43% of distribution network length
and about 39% of distributed gas. There are about 230 operators distributing natural gas. AEEG is the
National Authority for Electricity and Gas. Starting from 2000 AEEG issues a yearly report with information
on pipelines and network length, operating pressure, and network type concerning pipelines material. The
estimation model calibrated on the main operators was used to estimate fugitive emissions from minor
operators. Natural gas leaks by main operators and average composition of natural gas are used to estimate
fugitive emissions. For minor operators lower quality standard and higher specific emission factors for
network material, venting, and other accidental losses were considered.
In order to take account of different sources of emissions (LNG regasification plants, compression stations,
pipeline import/transmission and distribution, venting, and other accidental losses) the total leaks
communicated by main operators and those estimated for minor operators are distributed resulting in implied
emission factors for the other sources of emissions than transmission and distribution.
In the following box the 2013 implied emission factors are reported for transmission and distribution
sources:
Implied emission factors for transmission in 2013
LNG regassification
0.80 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG imported
Pipeline compression station
0.16 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG transported
Pipeline transmission
Venting and other accidental losses
600 - 700 m3/km (as reported in the previous
table for high pressure pipelines)
0.134 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG transported (SNAM)
0.138 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG transported (other)
Implied emission factors for distribution in 2013
As reported in the previous table for medium
Pipeline distribution
and low pressure pipelines
0.196 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG distributed (Italgas)
0.186 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG distributed (Enel)
Venting and other accidental losses
0.412 Mm3 NG / Gm3 NG distributed (Other)
114
Furthermore fugitive emissions due to the use of natural gas at home are considered and estimated with an
emission factor equal to 36 kg CH4 / TJ natural gas distributed.
The estimation model used to estimate fugitive emissions is updated every year considering data published
by AEEG on pipelines and it is calibrated with annual leakage data published by main operators in their
environmental reports.
The next graph shows the CH4 emission factors time series since 1990 for natural gas transmission and
distribution:
5.0
4.5
2.0
4.0
3.5
1.5
3.0
2.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
0.5
1.0
CH4 emission factors (g/m3)
CH4 emission factors (kg/km)
2.5
0.5
0.0
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.0
CH4 (kg/km)
CH4 (g/m3)
Figure 3.1 Trend of CH4 emission factors for natural gas transmission and distribution (1990-2013)
The different trends are explained by different composition of natural gas along the time series as CH4
content and average density.
3.9.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The uncertainty in CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions is quite differentiated for sources as shown in Table 3.45.
Table 3.45 Activity data (AD) and emission factor (EF) uncertainties for CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions
CO2
Solid fuels
Oil and natural gas - Oil
Oil and natural gas – Natural gas
Oil and natural gas – Venting and flaring
Oil and natural gas – Flaring in refineries
CH4
N2O
AD
EF
AD
EF
3%
10%
3%
50%
50%
10%
50%
50%
AD
NA
3%
NA
EF
NA
50%
NA
50%
50%
Montecarlo analysis was applied last year to estimate uncertainty of CH4 emissions; the resulting figure was
17.2% for 2009. Normal distributions have been assumed for most of the parameters; at the same time,
whenever assumptions or constraints on variables were known this information has been appropriately
reflected on the choice of type and shape of distributions. A summary of the results is reported in Annex 1.
No variation could be conceived on assumptions as concern probability distributions and standard deviations.
Fugitive emissions, in CO2 equivalent, account for 2.4% out of the total emissions in the energy sector in
2013. Both CH4 and CO2 emissions show a reduction from 1990 to 2013 by 34.7% and 33.3%, respectively.
The overall decrease of CO2 fugitive emissions is driven by the reduction in crude oil losses in refineries.
The trend of CH4 and CO2 fugitive emissions from solid fuels is related to the extraction of coal and lignite
that in Italy is quite low. The decrease of CH4 fugitive emissions from oil and natural gas is due to the
115
reduction of losses for gas transportation and distribution, because of the gradual replacement of old grey
cast iron pipelines with steel and polyethylene pipelines for low and medium pressure network.
As regards the flaring activity from oil and gas production, and flaring in refineries N2O emissions, in CO2
equivalent, account for 0.11% out of fugitive emissions, with a reduction since 1990 by 19%.
Fugitive emissions since 1990 are reported in Table 3.46.
Table 3.46 Fugitive emissions from solid fuels and oil & gas (Gg CO2 eq.)
1990
CO2
Solid fuels
Oil and natural gas
CH4
Solid fuels
Oil and natural gas
N2O
Oil and natural gas
Total emissions
1995
2000
2005
Gg CO2 eq.
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.1
4,013
0.0
3,970
0.1
3,236
0.0
2,537
0.0
2,600
0.0
2,593
0.0
2,506
0.0
2,678
151
8,720
78
8,070
89
7,473
83
6,740
79
6,121
85
5,994
74
5,968
53
5,742
12
12,895
12
12,130
12
10,810
13
9,374
12
8,811
11
8,683
11
8,559
10
8,482
3.9.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Different data sources are used for fugitive emissions estimates: official statistics by Economic Development
Ministry (MSE, several years [a], [c]), by Transport of Infrastructure Ministry (MIT, several years); national
authorities (AEEG, several years; ISTAT, several years [a]), gas operators (ENI, several years [b]; EDISON,
several years; SNAM, several years), and industrial association for oil and gas (UP, several years).
Concerning CO2 fugitive emissions from refineries activities, the estimates are balanced with the amount of
crude oil losses reported in the national Energy Balance (MSE, several years [a]).
CH4 emissions from transmission and distribution of natural gas are verified considering emission factors
reported in literature and detailed information supplied by the main operators (ENI, several years [b]; Riva,
1997).
3.9.5 Source-specific recalculations
In the 2015 submission the IPCC Guidelines were used for default emission factors and methodologies.
Moreover some recalculations affected emission estimates of the sector.
Recalculations involved years 2010, 2011, and 2012 for the amount of natural gas distributed and 2012 for
the length of gas network gas distribution.
3.9.6 Source-specific planned improvements
No further improvements are planned for the next submission.
116
4 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE [CRF sector 2]
4.1
Sector overview
By-products or fugitive emissions, which originate from industrial processes, are included in this sector.
Where emissions are released simultaneously from the production process and from combustion, as in the
cement industry, these are estimated separately and included in category 1.A.2. All greenhouse gases as well
as CO, NOX, NMVOC and SO2 emissions are estimated. CO2 emissions related to NMVOC from solvent use
in paint application, degreasing and dry cleaning, chemical products manufacturing or processing and other
use, are estimated.
N2O emissions are also estimated. These emissions arise from chemical industry (2B) and from “other
product manufacture and use (2G). As for CRF sector 2G, the use of N2O occurs in medical applications,
such as anaesthesia, and in the food industry, where N2O is used as a propelling agent in aerosol cans,
specifically those for whipped cream. Emissions from the use of N2O in explosives are also included.
In 2013 industrial processes and product use account for 4.5% of CO2 emissions, 0.12% of CH4, 4.0% of
N2O, 100% of PFCs, HFCs, SF6 and NF3. In terms of CO2 equivalent, industrial processes and product use
share 7.0% of total national greenhouse gas emissions.
The trends of greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial processes sector are summarised in Table 4.1.
Emissions are reported in Gg for CO2, CH4 and N2O and in Gg of CO2 equivalent for F-gases.
An increase in HFC emissions is observed from 1990 to 2013, while CO2 emissions from chemical and metal
industry reduced sharply in the period.
Table 4.1 Trend in GHG emissions from the industrial processes and product use sector, 1990-2013 (Gg)
GAS/SUBSOURCE
CO2 (Gg)
2A. Mineral Products
2B. Chemical Industry
2C. Metal Production
2D. Non-energy products
from fuels and solvent
use
CH4 (Gg)
2B. Chemical Industry
2C. Metal Production
N2O (Gg)
2B. Chemical Industry
2G.
Other
product
manufacture and use
HFCs (Gg CO2 eq.)
2B. Chemical Industry
2C. Metal Production
2E. Electronics Industry
2F. Product Uses as
Substitutes of ODS
PFCs (Gg CO2 eq.)
2B. Chemical Industry
2C. Metal Production
2E. Electronics Industry
SF6 (Gg CO2 eq.)
2B. Chemical Industry
2C. Metal Production
2E. Electronics Industry
2G.
Other
Producte
Manufacture and Use
NF3 (Gg CO2 eq.)
2E. Electronics Industry
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
29,227
20,713
2,576
3,877
27,195
20,232
1,632
3,402
25,712
20,742
1,421
1,803
28,587
23,298
1,697
1,921
21,616
17,338
1,434
1,465
21,144
16,729
1,404
1,610
17,891
13,717
1,342
1,520
16,102
12,289
1.335
1,191
2,058
1,927
1,745
1,670
1,378
1,400
1,311
1,285
5.16
2.45
2.71
24.16
21.54
5.36
2.65
2.71
25.84
23.35
3.01
0.40
2.61
28.85
25.54
3.06
0.33
2.72
27.69
25.03
2.48
0.31
2.17
4.11
2.09
2.73
0.27
2.47
2.81
0.95
2.62
0.26
2.36
2.78
0.76
2.12
0.24
1.88
2.59
0.74
2.62
2.49
3.31
2.66
2.02
1.86
2.02
1.85
444
444
-
813
549
-
2,098
26
7
5,998
24
7
9,725
1
2
11
10,326
1
4
11
10,856
1
5
7
11,518
1
6
8
-
265
2,065
5,967
9,711
10,310
10,844
11,503
2,907
932
1,975
408
114
-
1,450
1,041
350
59
664
114
-
1,388
991
231
166
561
164
20
1,940
1,547
212
180
547
81
57
1,520
1,301
99
121
391
17
31
1,661
1,439
95
128
438
51
1,499
1,345
39
116
442
46
1,705
1,574
131
417
44
294
550
377
409
343
387
396
373
-
-
26
33
20
28
25
26
-
-
26
33
20
28
25
26
117
Fifteen key categories have been identified for this sector, for level and trend assessment, using both the
Approach 1 and Approach 2. The results for 2013 are reported in the following box.
Key-category identification in the industrial processes sector with the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2 for 2013
KEY CATEGORIES
2A
2A
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2C
2C
2D
2F
2F
2F
2F
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
N 2O
N2O
HFCs
PFCs
CO2
PFC
CO2
HFCs
HFCs
HFCs
HFCs
Emissions from cement production
Emissions from lime production
Emissions from other process uses of carbonates
Emissions from ammonia production
Emissions from adipic acid
Emissions from nitric acid production
Emissions from fluorochemical productions
Emissions from fluorochemical productions
Emissions from iron and steel production
Emissions from Aluminium production
Emissions Non-Energy products from fuels and solvent use
Emissions from substitutes for ODS- Refrigeration and air conditioning
Emissions from substitutes for ODS- Foam blowing agents
Emissions from substitutes for ODS- Aerosols
Emissions from substitutes for ODS- Fire protection
without
LULUCF
with
LULUCF
L, T
L1
T1
T1
T
T
T2
L, T
T
T
L2, T2
L, T
L2, T2
T2
T2
L, T
L1
T1
T1
T
T1
L2, T
T1
T
L2
L, T
T2
T2
-
CO2 emissions from cement, lime and other carbonate uses are included in category 2A; N2O emissions from
adipic acid, nitric acid and CO2 emissions from ammonia refer to 2B; CO2 emissions from iron and steel
production and PFC emissions from aluminium production are included in 2C; CO2 emissions from nonenergy products from fuels and solvent use are included in 2D; HFC from substitutes for ODS are included
in 2F. Methane emissions from the sector are not a key source.
Most of these categories are also key categories in the 1990 assessment.
For the industrial processes sector, emissions and backgroung data collected in the framework of the
European Emissions Trading Scheme, the National Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (Italian PRTR)
have been used either directly in the estimation process or as verification of emission estimates, improving
national emissions factors as well as activity data.
Emissions and activity data submitted under the ETS are mandatorily subject to verification procedures, as
requested and specified by the European Directive 2003/87/EC (art. 15 and Annex V). In compliance with
the above mentioned legislations, independent certifications and verifications of activity data, emission data
and emission factors are required. At national level, data verification has to be carried out by verifiers
accredited by the national ETS Committee according to the ministerial decree DEC/RAS/115/2006. The
verification of data submissions ensures reliability, credibility, and precision/accuracy of monitoring systems
for data and any information relating emissions by plant.
The Italian legislation implementing EPER Decision included a legislative decree and a Ministry decree
providing guidelines for reporting by the Italian EPER facilities. The Italian legislation implementing
Regulation (EC) 166/2006 is a Decree of the President of the Republic (DPR n.157/2011). Annexed to the
DPR is a guideline for the reporting by the Italian PRTR facilities.
Both guidelines for the reporting by the Italian EPER/PRTR facilities provide the list and description of the
information to be reported, which includes: activity data (mandatory), total releases exceeding the reporting
threshold values (mandatory); total off-site transfers of pollutant exceeding the reporting thresholds
(mandatory); total off site transfers of waste exceeding the reporting thresholds (mandatory).
Releases/transfers information to be reported by facility operators can be based (in compliance with national
and EU legislation) on measurement, calculation, estimation. In the case that operators report information
based on measurements/calculation they are requested to communicate also what methodology has been
applied to measure/calculate total releases/transfers.
As for activity data reporting under the national PRTR, no detailed requirements have been included in the
national PRTR legislation and guidelines, although some general guidance is provided and followed by
operators. The operator is expected to report the best available information concerning activity data for each
118
reporting year, basically the amount produced, manufactured or treated in the reporting year shall be
reported. It is appropriate to consider also that the largest majority of facilities in the scope of EPER/PRTR
are also in the scope of EU and national legislation concerning the permitting procedures, monitoring and
control obligation for the larger industrial facilities. The quality of information reported by the facilities
under the national EPER/PRTR is assessed by the competent authorities, the same authorities are usually
involved also in the permitting procedure of these facilities, thus cross checks of information concerning AD
and emissions is expected by the national legal framework.
The collection of facility reports under the national EPER/PRTR is a task that ISPRA has to carry out by
law. The national inventory team is in the same unit of ISPRA where the national EPER/PRTR is managed,
the inventory team has full access to the whole national dataset of the Italian EPER/PRTR without
restrictions on the type of information (AD and emissions of each reporting facilities are available for the
inventory team). Italian EPER/PRTR data (emissions and transfers of pollutants, transfers of wastes) are
publically available on the internet at the European PRTR website http://prtr.ec.europa.eu/ (in compliance
with the legislation activity data of the reporting facilities are not disclosed to the public).
Data from these databases are incorporated into the national inventory whenever the sectoral coverage is
complete; in fact, not always data entirely cover the relevant categories whereas national statistics provide
the complete basic data needed for the Italian emission inventory. Nevertheless, these data are entirely used
to develop country-specific emission factors and check activity data levels.
4.2
Mineral Products (2A)
4.2.1
Source category description
In this sector CO2 emissions from the following processes are estimated and reported: cement production,
glass production, lime production and other processes uses of carbonates. Asphalt roofing and road paving
with asphalt activities are also included in this sector but they contribute only with NMVOC emissions.
Cement
Cement production (2A1) is the main source of CO2 emissions in this sector. As already mentioned, it is a
key source both at level and trend assessment with and without LULUCF, also considering uncertainty, and
accounts for 2.0% of the total national emissions.
During the last 15 years, in Italy, changes in cement production sector have occurred, leading to a more
stable structure. The oldest plants were closed, wet processes were abandoned in favour of dry processes so
as to improve the implementation of more modern and efficient technologies. The effects of the global
recession period have led at national level to facilities closedowns and many conversions from full cycle to
grinding plants. Since 2011 Italy has become the second cement producer country in the EU 28 as a
consequence of the reduction of clinker production in the last years which has been confirmed also in 2013.
The picture of the cement sector in 2013 have 28 companies (79 plants of which: 50 full cycle and 29
grinding plants; i.e. in 2013 about 5 full cycle plants were converted to grinding plants and a grinding plant
was closed compared to 2012) operating in Italy: multinational companies and small and medium size
enterprises (operating at national or only at local level) are present in the country.
The operating plants are located as follows: 46% is in northern Italy, 16% is in the central regions of the
country and 38% is in the southern regions and in the islands. There are 79 active sintering rotary kilns
which belong to the “dry” or of “semidry” types. In 2013 the larger size cement plants (i.e. 9 facilities with
cement production capacity exceeding 600 kt/y) contributed with 29% to the national cement production.
In Italy different types of cement are produced; as for 2013 AITEC, the national cement association, has
characterised the national production as follows: 67.8% is CEM II (Portland composite cement); 13.3% is
CEM I (ordinary Portland cement); 13% is CEM IV (pozzolanic cement) and 4.8% is CEM III (blastfurnace
cement). Clinker production has been decreasing since 2007 (about 12% in 2013 compared to 2012) and
clinker demand in cement production was about 76% in 2013 (production of clinker out of production of
cement).
119
Lime
In 2013, CO2 emissions from lime production is key category at level assessment, with and without
LULUCF, following the Approach1.
CO2 emissions occur also from processes where lime is produced and account for 0.4% of the total national
emissions. Lime production can also occur, beside lime industry, in different industrial sectors such as iron
and steel making, pulp and paper production, soda ash production, sugar production; lime can also be used in
a number of processes concerning wastewater treatment, agriculture and the neutralization of acidic
emissions in the industrial flue gases. In particular the other relevant lime productions accounted for in Italy
are those occurring in the iron and steel making process and in the sugar production process.
Lime is basically produced by calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) or dolomite (calcium/magnesium
carbonate) at 900°C. The process leads to quicklime and CO2 emissions according to the following reaction:
CaCO3 + MgCO3 + heat CaO +MgO+2CO2
CO2 is released because of the process reaction itself and also because of combustion to provide energy to
the process. CaO and MgO are called quicklime. Quicklime, together with water, give another product of the
lime industry which is called calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2.
CO2 emissions estimation is related to lime production in mineral industry and it also includes the production
of lime to feed other industrial processes (e.g. iron and steel making facilities).
The number of lime producing facilities has been relevantly changing through the years: 85 operating plants
in 1990, 46 plants in 2003, 35 plants in 2010, 35 in 2012 and 34 in 2013 (figures for 2010, 2012 and 2013 are
based on the number of facilities reporting under the EU-ETS). Moreover, 46% of the plants is in the
southern regions and in the islands, 39% is in the northern regions and 15% in the central regions. The
number of operating kilns has also decreased significantly through the years (about 171 in 1990, 75 in 2003).
During the nineties, lime industry invested in technology implementation to replace the old kilns with
regenerative and high efficiency kilns, rotary kilns are no longer used. Concerning fuel consumptions, 80%
of the national lime industry uses natural gas, 20% uses coke.
Other processes uses of carbonates (limestone and dolomite use in brick and tiles; fine ceramics; paper
industry and power plants)
This category is key category in 2013 at trend assessment, with and without LULUCF, following the
Approach 1.
CO2 emissions are also related to the use of limestone and dolomite in different industrial processes, and they
account for 0.2% of the total national emissions. Limestone or dolomite can be added in different steps of the
production process to obtain the desired product features (i.e. colour, porosity). Sometimes carbonates in
limestone and dolomite may have to be calcined (“dead burned”) in order to be added to the manufacturing
process. Limestone and dolomite are also used in paper production process and in the treatment of power
plants flue gases. A steep decrease in the production processes and the relevant use of limestone can be
observed between 2007 and 2009; use of limestone has been decreasing more gradually since 2009; the
overall decrease being mainly driven by the use of limestone and dolomite in the brick and tiles sector.
Mineral (stone) wool production which occurred in Italy along the years 1993-2009 is included in emission
estimates for this category. Stone wool has not been produced in Italy since 2009.
Glass production
Glass industry in Italy can be characterised with regard to four glass product types: flat glass, container glass,
borosilicate and lead/crystal glass. Flat glass is produced in facilities mainly located in the North; container
glass is produced in facilities located all over the country; glass fibres and wool are produced in the North.
About 80 companies carry out activities related to glass industry in Italy, 30 companies carry out glass
production processes in about 54 production units.
With regard to glass chemical composition, the national glass production consists of 95% soda-lime glass,
4% borosilicate glass and 1% lead/crystal glass.
The main steps of the production process in glass industry are the following:
• raw materials storage and batch formulation;
• melting of the formulated batch at temperature ranging from 1400°C to 1600°C, in different furnaces
according to the type of glass product;
• forming into glass products at specific temperature ranges;
120
•
annealing of glass products to prevent weak glass due to stress.
The formulated batch is generally melted in continuous furnaces, whose size and features are related to the
types of glass production. In Italy 80% of the glass industry production is carried out using natural gas as
fuel, other fossil fuels consumption is limited to low sulphur content oil. Emissions are basically released by
the high temperature melting step and depend on the type of glass product, raw materials and furnaces
involved in the production process. Main pollutants are: dust, NOx, SOx, CO2; occasionally and depending on
the specific production process, heavy metals, fluorides and chlorides gases could be released. CO2
emissions are mainly related to the decarbonisation of carbonates used in the process (soda ash, limestone,
dolomite) during the melting phase, accounting for 0.1% of the total national emissions. The use of scrap
glass (recycled cullets) in the production processes has been increasing in Italy since 1998 thus contributing
to the reduction of emissions from decarbonation and from the melting phase. In the following box, values of
the rate of glass recycling from 1998 are reported.
Rate of glass recycling
GLASS PRODUCTION
Rate of glass recycling
(%)
4.2.2
1998
2000
2005
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
38.8
46.9
57.2
59.6
64.3
65.4
68.4
69.9
70.9
72.9
Methodological issues
IPCC Guidelines are used to estimate emissions from this sector (IPCC, 1997; IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2006).
Activity data are supplied by industries and/or provided in the national statistical yearbooks (ISTAT, several
years [a]). Emission factors are those provided by the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997; IPCC, 2000; IPCC,
2006), by other international Guidebooks (EMEP/EEA, 2013; USEPA, 1997), or they are derived by data
communicated at plant level.
Cement
CO2 emissions from cement production are estimated using the IPCC Tier 2 approach.
Activity data comprise data on clinker production provided by the Italian ministry of the economic
development (MISE, several years). More in details from 1990 to 2008 official statistics provided by ISTAT
have been used (ISTAT, several years [a]). Since 2009, ISTAT clinker and cement statistics have not been
provided in time for the official submission anymore so a different source of information has been used. In
particular, data on clinker and cement productions, based on a plant by plant monthly collection, are
officially provided by the Italian Ministry for the Economic Development, at national and regional level, and
available at the following website:
http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/index.php/it/per-i-media/statistiche/2009708-statistiche-produzionecementi.
These production data are cross checked with EPRTR and ETS data and with ISTAT statistics when
available. Clinker production provided by the Ministry for the Economic Development seems to be more
reliable than statistics published by ISTAT that are based on a sample survey with quite a low response and
data gaps are estimated by linear interpolation.
Emission factors are estimated on the basis of information provided by the Italian Cement Association
(AITEC, several years) and by cement facilities in the framework of the European pollutant emission register
(E-PRTR) and the European emissions trading scheme (EU-ETS). In this latter context, cement production
facilities reported fuel consumption, raw materials and emissions, split between combustion process and
decarbonising process and complying with a clinker kiln input method which is based on IPCC
methodology.
From 1990 to 2000 the resulting emission factor for cement production is equal to 532 kg CO2/t clinker,
based on the average CaO content in the clinker and taking into account the contribute of carbonates and
additives. This value was assumed as representative of the Italian clinker manufacturing process by AITEC
(AITEC, 2004) and officially reported to the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea in order to set
the national circumstances for the implementation of the European-Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) in
our country. The value was calculated by the industrial association on the basis of a tool provided by the
World Business Council for Sustainable Development, available on website at the address
121
http://www.ghgprotocol.org/files/ghgp/tools/co2_CSI_Cement_Protocol-V2.0.pdf and data from some big
Italian plants.
From 2001 to 2004, emission factors are the result of a linear interpolation of CO2 IEF for 2000 and 2005.
From 2005, emission factors are based on the data reported within the frame of the EPER/EPRTR and EUETS. Based on emissions and activity data (which includes the average CaO content in the clinker produced
and the use of carbonates and additives) reported and verified under the EU-ETS the resulting emission
factor has been fluctuating for the last ten years as shown in Figure 4.1: it resulted in a minimum equal to
518 kg CO2/t clinker in 2008, and a maximum in the period equal to 531 kg CO2/t clinker in 2007 and a
value around 525 kg CO2/t in the last years. The average emission factor varies year per year also as a
consequence of the different operating circumstances (e.g. quality of the raw materials and operating
conditions) at the Italian clinker facilities.
The information related to activity data and emissions for the clinker facilities reporting to the national ETS
system have been processed. The range of uncertainty calculated on the basis of data communicated by the
plants is around 5% in the period 2005-2013.
Figure 4.1 CO2 IEF from decarbonation in clinker production, 1990-2013
In addition to this, AITEC has been reporting the overall consumption of natural raw materials by the
national cement industry and also the replacement of natural raw material (either in the raw meal for the
clinker manufacture or in the ground mix for the different cement types) with alternative materials in the
Italian cement facilities, so:
• Specific consumption of natural raw materials has been varying for the last years;
• The rate of replacement of natural raw materials has been varying for the last years.
In 2013 approximately 6.7% of natural raw material was replaced by about 1.9 Mt non raw materials (0.97
Mt non hazardous wastes and 0.95 Mt secondary raw material) (AITEC, 2014). Most of the alternative
materials consist of already decarbonised materials. The use of decarbonised material in amounts varying
year by year in clinker kilns contributes explaining the fluctuations in the trend of the CO2 IEF from
decarbonisation.
In the following box the amounts of natural raw material consumption for the years 2009-2013 have been
reported together with the amounts of secondary raw materials and the replacement rates in the same years.
Replacement of natural raw materials by secondary raw materials at the Italian cement facilities
RAW MATERIALS DEMAND
2009
2010
2011
2012
Natural raw materials (Mt)
Secondary raw materials (Mt)
Natural raw material/ clinker (t/t)
Replacement of natural raw material (%)
(source: AITEC, 2014)
2013
43.6
43.4
40.4
34.2
29.8
1.9
1.8
1.9
2.3
1.9
1.726
1.719
1.681
1.780
1.763
4.0
4.3
4.3
6.8
6.7
122
Regarding industry data verification, the available activity data for the cement/clinker production in Italy are
consistent to the information supplied by the Italian cement industry association, to data reported under the
national PRTR and also to data collected in the frame of the national ETS. Emission data reported under the
different obligations are in accordance for all the facilities.
In the following box the number of clinker facilities reporting under EPRTR and ETS are shown together
with the corresponding number of operating facilities according to the cement association (AITEC).
Clinker facilities
Reporting to the
national PRTR (n)
Reporting under the
national ETS (n)
number of clinker
manufacturers
in
Italy (AITEC)
PRTR/AITEC (%)
ETS/AITEC (%)
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
52
53
53
54
53
50
50
51
47
52
53
54
54
52
52
51
51
48
59
59
60
60
58
58
57
56
50
88
90
88
90
91
86
88
91
94
88
90
90
90
90
90
89
91
96
In the framework of the EU-ETS 48 plants out of 50, while 47 to the EPRTR registry, reported in 2013 their
data representing more than 99% of total national clinker production. For the remaining 2 clinker facilities
which are not in the scope of ETS localization and production capacity are available. AITEC reports every
year the number of operating cement/clinker facilities in Italy and the cement production of the whole sector.
Under the EU-ETS, cement plants communicate emissions and activity data split between energy and
processes phases and specifying the amount of carbonates and additives which are constituents of the raw
meal complying with a “clinker kiln input” approach; both activity data and emissions are independently
verified and certified as requested by the EU-ETS directive. The implied CO2 emission factor is applied to
the total national clinker production.
Basically, CO2 emissions time series is related to clinker production time series. Specifically, main decreases
in the national production of cement industry, which well reflects the economical trend, can be observed for
the years 1993-1994; an increase in production can be observed from 1996 to 2001 and from 2003 to 2007,
while a significant decrease in the production is observed for 2008- 2009 and 2012-2013 due to the effects of
the international economic crisis. Practically, the same variations can be observed in CO2 emissions trend. In
order to enhance the transparency of the inventory, in Figure 4.2 clinker production and CO2 emissions time
series are shown.
Figure 4.2 Trend of clinker production and CO2 emissions 1990-2013 (Gg)
123
Lime
CO2 emissions from lime have been estimated on the basis of production activity data supplied by ISTAT up
to 2008 (ISTAT, several years [a]) and by operators in the frame of the ETS reporting obligations from 2009.
ISTAT reported till 2005 lime production data on the national Statistical Yearbook with the footnote
explaining that the figure covered 80% of the national total lime production and not including auto produced
lime in sugar mills and in the iron and steel plants.
From 2005 to 2008 lime productions has been provided to ISPRA for the emission inventory but not
published. For the inventory purpose these statistics have been used, properly adjusted as indicated by
ISTAT, adding non-marketed lime productions.
From 2009, only production indexes have been supplied by ISTAT; no other information has been published
by ISTAT till 2014 when lime productions for the last years were made available but these data seems not
consistent with the production index supplied by the same institute for the same years. For these reasons ETS
data has been used from 2009.
All the national lime production plants are part of the EU-ETS and their production data is certified while
data published by ISTAT are based, as for clinker and cement production, on a sample survey including
production and economical information with quite a low response index and data for not responding plants
are estimated by linear interpolation. We have not evidence of lime facilities not included in the ETS, with
exception of plants located at sugar mills which are included in our estimate.
CO2 emissions from lime production and use in other industrial processes (e.g. iron and steel production,
sugar mills) have been considered too. Emission factors have been estimated on the basis of detailed
information supplied by lime facilities in the framework of the European emission trading scheme and by the
national lime industrial association (CAGEMA, 2005). Specifically, the value of the emission factor from
1990-2000 has been officially supplied to the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea by the
industrial association (CAGEMA, 2005), in order to set the national circumstances for the implementation of
the European-Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS).
From 2001 to 2004, emission factors are the result of a linear interpolation of CO2 IEF for 2000 and 2005.
From 2005, information available in the frame of the ETS reporting obligation has made activity data
(including fuels and raw materials such as carbonates and additives, in compliance with a “lime kiln input”
approach) available for the Italian lime industry at facility level together with CO2 emissions data
(combustion and process emissions). Both activity data and CO2 emissions are certified and independently
verified as requested by the EU-ETS legislation.
The CO2 implied emission factor varies year by year because of the natural raw material fed to the kilns at
facility level including different CaO and MgO contents. In the following box, CaO and MgO contents for
the years 2009-2013 are reported; these figures refer only to the production plants, excluding autoproduction.
CaO and MgO oxides content for lime production (%)
LIME PRODUCTION
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CaO content (%)
96.9
96.7
96.2
93.6
94.4
MgO content (%)
3.1
3.3
3.8
6.4
5.6
Other processes uses of carbonates (Limestone and dolomite)
CO2 emissions from other process uses of carbonates are related to the use of limestone and dolomite in
bricks, tiles and ceramic production, paper production and also in the treatment of flue gases from power
plants. In Italy only limestone is used for the activities included in this category, brick and tiles, fine ceramic,
and pulp and paper production and power plant flue gases treatment, while no dolomite use is documented.
In 2013 about 76% of the total limestone has been used in the production processes of bricks and tiles, about
6.7% for the fine ceramic material, 17% in the treatment of flue gases in the power plants and about 0.2% in
the paper industry.
CO2 emissions have been estimated for the whole time series on the basis of the IPCC default value for
limestone equal to 0.44 t/t; the overall CO2 emission time series is mainly driven by the CO2 emissions from
the use of limestone in the bricks and tiles sector.
In the CRFs the total amount of limestone used in these processes is reported.
Detailed production, consumption, activity data and emission factors have been supplied in the framework of
the European emissions trading scheme and relevant data are annually provided by the Italian bricks and tiles
124
industrial association and by the Italian ceramic industrial associations (ANDIL, 2000; ANDIL, several
years; ASSOPIASTRELLE, several years; ASSOPIASTRELLE, 2004, Confindustria Ceramica, several
years). Even though the EU ETS has not been in operation for the whole time-series relevant information
concerning the use of carbonates was made available in the communications to the Italian Ministry for
Environment, Land and Sea to get the overview of the sector for the national ETS to be implemented. In the
case of the treatment of flue gases, the activity data for the whole timeseries have been updated in the present
submission.
Mineral (stone) wool production has been also taken into account and CO2 emissions estimates have been
included under this category. Mineral wool production in Italy took place in Sardinia at one facility during
the years from 1993 to 2009 where the production was considered not profitable any more and the facility
was closed down.
Glass
CO2 emissions from glass production have been estimated taking into account, from 1990 to 2004,
production data published by ISTAT on the National Statistical Yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]); from
2005 ISTAT statistics have not been available anymore and consistent figures published by the national glass
industry association have been used (Assovetro, several years). Glass wool production is included for the
whole time series.
In the following box, the complete time series of the national inventory for glass production is reported for
the different types of glass.
Glass production time series (Mg)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
816,406
879,750
1,009,367
1,183,310
921,619
961,236
884,242
729,586
2,609,826
3,094,893
3,417,851
3,716,509
3,656,425
3,714,259
3,535,707
3,593,471
Glass wool (Mg)
105,029
119,120
139,421
129,958
115,332
132,722
95,770
81,486
Other glass (Mg)
247,684
165,213
362,970
298,000
369,730
379,800
364,000
366,800
Flat glass (Mg)
Container glass (Mg)
Since 2000, information provided by operators under the national ETS has been used to develop emissions
estimation and relevant CO2 emission factors. CO2 emissions from the decarbonation, taking into account the
national circumstances concerning the use of cullets (recycled scrap glass which does not cause CO2
emissions) in the production processes, have been estimated.
In 2013, CO2 emission factor has been estimated equal to 114 t CO2/t, on the basis of information supplied,
under the European emissions trading scheme, by 50 out of 54 facilities.
4.2.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The uncertainty in CO2 emissions from cement, lime, other process uses of carbonates and glass production
is estimated to be equal to 10.4% from each activity, resulting from 3% and 10% for activity data and
emission factor, respectively. Official statistics of activity data for these categories are quite reliable when
compared to the activity data reported by facilities under different data collections, thus leading to the
considered uncertainty level for the activity data. The uncertainty level for emission factors is equal to the
maximum level reported in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000) for the cement production; this
is a conservative estimation because the range of values of the emission factors of the Italian cement plants
would lead to a lower uncertainty level.
Montecarlo analysis has been applied to estimate uncertainty of CO2 emissions from cement for 2009. The
resulting figure is equal to 10.0%. Normal distributions have been assumed for the parameters and
information deriving from the ETS has been considered in defining the shape of the distributions. A
summary of the results is reported in Annex 1.
In Tables 4.2 and 4.3, the production of mineral products and CO2 emission trend is reported.
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Table 4.2 Production of mineral products, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
1990
ACTIVITY DATA
Cement production
(decarbonizing)
Glass (decarbonising)
Lime (decarbonizing)
Limestone and dolomite use
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
25,239
5,063
2,789
3,487
24,057
5,188
2,970
3,340
19,204
4,880
2,906
2,411
16,902
4,771
2,647
2,216
(Gg)
29,786
3,779
2,583
5,765
28,778
4,259
2,873
5,275
29,816
4,930
2,760
5,127
33,122
5,328
3,447
6,071
Table 4.3 CO2 emissions from mineral products, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
CO2 EMISSIONS
Cement production (decarbonizing)
Glass (decarbonizing)
Lime (decarbonizing)
Limestone and dolomite use
1990
1995
2000
15,846
453
1,877
2,537
15,310
511
2,090
2,322
15,862
611
2,013
2,256
2005
(Gg)
17,403
768
2,456
2,671
2010
2011
2012
2013
13,276
559
1,969
1,534
12,583
584
2,092
1,470
10,071
547
2,038
1,061
8,877
546
1,892
975
Emission trends are generally related to the production level, which has been decreasing for the last years
mainly because of the economic recession.
4.2.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
CO2 emissions have been checked with the relevant industrial associations.
Both activity data and average emission factors are also compared every year with data reported in the
national EPER/E-PRTR registry and in the European emissions trading scheme (EU-ETS).
Under the EU-ETS, operators are requested to report activity data and CO2 emissions as information verified
and certified by auditors who check for consistency to the reporting criteria.
Activity data and emissions reported under EU-ETS and EPER/EPRTR are compared to the information
provided by the industrial associations. In particular, comparisons have been carried out for cement, lime,
limestone and dolomite, and glass sectors. The general outcome of this verification step shows consistency
among the information collected under different legislative framework and the information provided by the
relevant industrial associations.
4.2.5
Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations occurred as, in the current submission, CO2 emissions from clinker production has been
revised due to the update of emission factor for the years from 1990 to 2004. Recalculations in CO2
emissions from lime production have also occurred since the CO2 emission factors have been updated along
the timeseries. Also CO2 emissions estimates from the use of carbonates have been recalculated in the
current submission, in this case additional QA/QC on activity data has been performed and led to an update
of the amounts of carbonates used to treat flue gases. Recalculations of CO2 emissions for the relevant
categories in the mineral industry have been reported in the following table:
Recalculations (%) in CO2 emissions time series for the lime sector, along the timeseries
GAS/SUBSOURCE
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2.A.1 Clinker Production
-1.5%
-1.5%
-1.5%
-
-
-
-
2.A.2 Lime Production
-8.1%
-8.3%
-7.9%
0.4%
-
-
-
2.A.4 Other processes uses of carbonates
-0.1%
-0.1%
-0.1%
-0.1%
-0.7%
-0.8%
-1.1%
CO2
126
4.2.6
Source-specific planned improvements
Further investigations concerning the replacement of natural raw material in clinker manufacture and in lime
production are planned.
4.3
Chemical industry (2B)
4.3.1
Source category description
CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs and PFCs emissions from chemical productions are estimated and included in this
sector.
Adipic acid
Adipic acid production is a multistep process which starts with the oxidation of cyclohexanol using nitric
acid and Cu catalysts according to the following reaction:
C6H11OH+2HNO3HOOC(CH2)4COOH+N2O+2H2O+energy
Adipic acid is then used to produce nylon or is fed to other production processes. Together with adipic acid,
N2O is produced and CO2 is one of the by-products (Radici Chimica, 1993).
Emissions data from adipic acid production are provided and referenced by one plant, which is the only
producer in Italy (Radici Chimica, several years). Specifically for N2O, in 2013, adipic acid is a key category
at trend assessment, both with Approach 1 and Approach 2, with and without LULUCF. These emissions
account for 21% of total N2O emissions in 2005, 2.4% in 2010 and 0.6% in 2013; the notable decrease in
share is due to the fact that the technology to reduce N2O emissions has become fully operational at the
existing producing facility since 2007.
N2O emissions have relevantly decreased thanks to the implementation of a catalytic abatement system (pilot
scale plant). The use of thermally stable catalysts in the pilot plant has allowed the treatment of highly N2O
concentrated flue gas from the adipic acid production plant, reducing the volume of treated gas and the size
of the pilot plant itself. The abatement system is generally run together with the adipic acid production
process. In 2004 this system was tested for one month resulting in complete decomposition of N2O; in 2005
the catalytic process was started only at the end of the year because of technical changes in the system; in
2006 the abatement system had been operating continuously for 9 months (3 months were needed for
maintenance and technical changes) leading to the decomposition of 92% (efficiency of the abatement
system while in operation) of N2O emissions. Since 2007 the operating time has been about 11 months
(about one month was needed for maintenance operations) and the N2O emissions abatement system while in
operation has reached an efficiency exceeding 98% (Radici Chimica, several years). In 2011 further
emissions reduction was achieved thanks to technical improvements implemented in the production process
during 2010:
• the number of scheduled outages of the adipic acid production process is reduced (from about
1/month to 2/year);
• the abatement system is set to reach the operating level more quickly than in the previous years.
These two achievements allow reducing the significance of N2O peak emissions related to the start&stop
phases. Moreover an emission monitoring and recording system was implemented in compliance with
Decision 2007/589/EC (Radici Chimica, 2013).
Also CO2 emissions are estimated from this source.
Ammonia production
In 2013 CO2 emissions from ammonia production are also a key category, at trend assessment with the
Approach 1, with and without LULUCF.
In Italy only one facility had been producing ammonia since 2009 as a consequence of the resizing of the
production at national level after the crisis of the largest fertilizer producer, Enichem Agricoltura, and as a
127
consequence of the international financial crisis in the last years. Two facilities had been producing ammonia
in Italy up to 2008, in 2009 one plant stopped the production and the plant reconversion is currently under
negotiation. Ammonia is obtained after processing in ammonia converters a “synthesis gas” which contains
hydrogen and nitrogen. CO2 is also contained in the synthesis gas, but it is removed in the decarbonising step
within the ammonia production process. Part of CO2 is recovered as a by-product and part is released to
atmosphere. Recovered CO2 can either be used as input for different production processes (e.g. urea or
calcium nitrate lines; liquefaction of CO2 plant) on site or can be sold to technical gas manufacturers. The
results of the investigation concerning the recovered CO2 were accounted for in the previous submissions:
operators provided the information used to revise both the emissions and the EF time series (YARA, several
years).
Nitric acid
In early nineties seven facilities manufactured nitric acid, but since 2003 the production has been carried on
only in three plants. In 2008 another plant stopped nitric acid production and the reconversion of the plant is
currently under negotiation, so since 2009 nitric acid production has been carried out in only two plants.
Nitric acid is produced from ammonia by catalytic oxidation (with air) of NH3 to NO2 and subsequent
reaction with water. Currently the reactions involved take place in low and medium pressure processes.
In 2013, N2O emissions from nitric acid production are key source for trend assessment, without LULUCF,
and trend with Approach 1, with LULUCF, as they show a relevant decrease in emissions from 1990 due to a
reduction in production. Moreover, as far as YARA facility is concerned, the decrease in N2O emissions is
also related to the implementation of catalytic N2O decomposition in the oxidation reactors a YARA De-N2O
patented technology, based on the use of CeO2 catalyst (YARA, several years), while the improvements in
the monitoring system of N2O emissions at the other facility has been affecting N2O emissions estimation
timeseries for the very last years.
Carbon black
Three facilities have been carrying out this production which consists basically on cracking of feedstock oil
(a mixture of PAH) at 1200 – 1900 °C. Together with black carbon, tail gas is a by product of the process.
Tail gas is a mixture of CO, H2, H2O, NOx, SOx and H2S; it is generally burnt to reduce the emissions to air
and to recover energy to be used in the production process.
CO2 emissions from carbon black production have been estimated on the basis of information supplied
directly by the Italian production plants also in the framework of the EU ETS for the last years.
Ethylene, Ethylene oxide, Propylene, Styrene
Ethylene, ethylene oxide, propylene and styrene productions belong to the organic chemical processes. In
particular, ethylene is produced in petrochemical industry by steam cracking to manufacture ethylene oxide,
styrene monomer and polyethylenes. Ethylene oxide is obtained via oxidation of ethylene and it is largely
used as precursor of ethylene glycol and in the manufacture of surfactants and detergents. Propylene is
obtained by cracking of oil and it is used to manufacture polypropylene but also acetone and phenol. Styrene,
also known as vinyl benzene, is produced on industrial scale by catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene.
Styrene is used in the rubber and plastic industry to manufacture through polymerisation processes such
products as polystyrene, ABS, SBR rubber, SBR latex.
Except for ethylene oxide production, which has stopped in 2002, the other productions of the above
mentioned chemicals still occur in Italy.
As far as ethylene, ethylene oxide and propylene are concerned, Syndial Spa (ex Enichem) and Polimeri
Europa (Syndial, several years; Polimeri Europa, several years) were the main producers in Italy up to 2006.
Since 2007 Polimeri Europa has become the main producer for those products, while it has been the main
producer of styrene since 2002.
Titanium dioxide
CO2 emissions from dioxide titanium production have been estimated on the basis of information supplied
directly by the Italian maker. TiO2 is the most used white pigment especially for paint and plastic industries.
In Italy there is only one facility where this production occurs and titanium dioxide is produced through the
“sulphate process”. The “sulphate process” involves the use of sulphuric acid to concentrate the input raw
mineral in terms of titanium dioxide content, then selective precipitation and calcination allow getting the
final product.
128
Caprolactame production
Caprolactame is a monomer used in the industrial production of nylon-6. It can be obtained by catalytic
oxidation of toluene and cycloexane. The process releases N2O.
N2O emissions from caprolactame production have been estimated and reported and are related to only one
producing plant, which closed in 2003.
Calcium carbide production and use
Calcium carbide production process takes place in electric furnaces, CaO and coke are fed to the furnace and
the product is obtained according to the following reaction:
CaO+3CCaC2+CO
CARBITALIA S.p.A. is the only facility which can operate calcium carbide production in Italy
(CARBITALIA S.p.A., 2009). It produced calcium carbide up to 1995, when it stopped the production
because of the increasing price of electricity. The plant still exists and it is maintained, but since 1995 it has
just been supplying calcium carbide bought abroad. In the present submission emissions from manufacture
and use of calcium carbide have been estimated and accounted for along the whole timeseries.
Soda Ash production and use
In Italy only one facility operates soda ash production via Solvay process. Solvay process allows producing
soda ash through the conversion of sodium chloride into sodium carbonate using calcium carbonate and
ammonia. CO2 is released and calcium chloride is the waste.
Up to the second half of year 2000 in the unit for the production of peroxidates there was one sodium
carbonate line and a sodium perborate line which was then converted to sodium carbonate production. Soda
ash is also used in glass production processes.
Fluorochemical production
The sub-sector fluorochemical production consists of two sources, “By-product emissions” and “Fugitive
emissions”.
PFC emissions from fluorochemical production is a key source at level and trend assessment, both using
Approach 1 and Approach 2 without LULUCF and level, only with Approach 2, and trend assessment with
LULUCF; also HFC emissions is a key source at trend assessment, only using Approach 2 assessment and
without LULUCF.
The production of halocarbons and SF6 took place in two facilities in Italy up to 2008 (Spinetta Marengo and
Porto Marghera). Since the very beginning of 2005 the plant in Spinetta Marengo has not been producing
SF6 any longer. In the first quarter of 2008 the production plant at Porto Marghera has stopped its activity,
since then there is only one facility in Italy where HCFC22 is produced.
Within by-product emissions, HFC23 emissions are released from HCFC22 manufacture, CF4 emissions are
released from SF6 and HCFC22/TFM productions, whereas C2F6 and HFC143a emissions are released from
the production of C3F6 (and also CFC115) and HFC134a, respectively. Production of CFC115 was carried
out only in one facility and stopped in 1998. Since the very beginning of 2005 Spinetta Marengo plant has
not been producing SF6 any longer.
Production of HFC125, HFC134a, HFC227ea and SF6 lead to fugitive emissions of the same gases. In
particular, production of HFC227ea only occurred in 1999.
A focus on by-product emissions from this sector has led to revise emission estimates for the whole time
series. The share of F-gas emissions from the fluorochemical production in the national total of F-gases was
39.6 % in the base-year (1990), and 11.5% in 2013.
4.3.2
Methodological issues
Adipic acid
Italian production figures and emission estimates for adipic acid have been provided by the process operator
(Radici Chimica, several years) for the whole time series. Emissions estimates provided by the operator are
based on the IPCC default EF, so the values provided and the estimates in the Italian emissions inventory
are, basically, the result of the same methodology. More specifically, N2O emissions from adipic acid
129
production (category 2B3) have been estimated using the default IPCC emission factor equal to 0.30 kg
N2O/kg adipic acid produced, from 1990 to 2003.
Since 2004 the operator has started to study how to introduce an abatement system; although emission
estimates provided by the operator have still been based on the IPCC default emission factor (0.30 kgN2O/kg
adipic acid produced), the operating hours of the abatement system and the abatement rates have also been
included in the estimation process. The abatement system is generally run together with the adipic acid
production process. In 2004, the N2O catalytic decomposition abatement technology has been tested so that
the value of emission factor has been reduced taking into account the efficiency and the time, one month,
that the technology operated. From the end of 2005 the abatement technology is fully operational; the
average emission factor in 2006 is equal to 0.05 kg N2O/kg adipic acid produced and the abatement system
had been operating continuously for 9 months; since 2007 the average emission factor has been 0.03 kg
N2O/kg adipic acid produced and the operating time of the abatement system has been 11 months. Technical
improvements in operating the production process and the abatement system have allowed achieving
significant reduction in N2O emissions since 2009 (Radici Chimica, 2013): in 2010 the average emission
factor was 0.019 kg N2O/kg adipic acid produced while in 2011-2013 the average EF is around 0.005 kg
N2O/kg adipic acid produced with the abatement rate exceeding 98%.
Thus, both for the period 1990-2005 and from 2006 onwards the estimates are provided according to the
IPCC Good Practice Guidance (default EF has been used when no abatement system was operational;
abatement rates have been considered in estimating emission values since 2006). The operator reports also
under EPER/E-PRTR both adipic acid production and the N2O emissions related to this production; adipic
production and N2O emissions have been also reported by the operator to the national competent authority
for the ETS (the facility was included in the ETS system in 2013) together with additional information such
as abatement rates and operating times. Since 2011 the implementation of a new monitoring system has
enabled also the reporting o better quality data in terms of nitrogen and nitrous oxides emissions.
Based on information from the national PRTR and ETS, EFs are calculated for the plant, the resulting value
is checked and verified by the formula included in the following box (based on the IPCC default EFs for
adipic acid production, abatement rate and operating time of the abatement technology at the facility). In the
formula the average emission factor is calculated subtracting from the default EF (0.300 kgN2O /kg adipic
acid produced) the default EF multiplied by the abatement technology rate and by the operating time factor,
parameters and resulting EF values are indicated for the years 2005 to 2011.
The EFs submitted for the adipic acid production in the CRF and the EFs calculated for the plant in the
following box are practically the same.
N2O emission factors submitted vs calculations based on efficiency and utilization details
Parameter/Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
EFp (IPCC default)
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
A
0.925
0.9212
0.965
0.986
0.986
T
0.14
0.8825
0.93
0.91
0.91
EFs (average EF)
0.26
0.056
0.031
0.031
0.031
Values resulting according to the following formula
(1-A*T)*EFp = EFs
Where:
A= Abatement rate provided by the operator
EFp= N2O Emission Factor for Adipic Acid production (kg N2O /kg adipic acid prod)
T = operating time of the abatement system/ operating time of the adipic acid production line
EFs = N2O actually released Emission Factor submitted (kg N2O released/kg adipic acid prod)
2010
0.3
0.986
0.952
0.019
2011
0.3
0.986
0.999
0.005
CO2 emissions from this source have been estimated according to the information communicated by the
operator.
Ammonia
Ammonia production data are published in the international industrial statistical yearbooks (UN, several
years), national statistical yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]) and from 2002 they have been checked with
information reported in the national EPER/E-PRTR registry. More in detail for 1990-1999 the amount of
ammonia produced was published on the UN “Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook” (UN, several
years), while for the years 2000 and 2001 production indexes published by ISTAT were applied. Since 2002
national production of ammonia in Italy has been collected at facility level. The number of ammonia
facilities in Italy is known along the whole timeseries so it is possible to make sure that the national
130
emissions estimation from this source is consistent to the sum of emissions from the ammonia facilities.
Since 2009 only one facility has been producing ammonia in Italy and reporting data to the national PRTR.
Recovered CO2 has been investigated with the cooperation of the operators and the resulting information has
been used to revise the whole CO2 emission time series and the emission factors. The analysis has allowed
understanding that CO2 emissions recovered from ammonia production are used to produce urea and
technical gases. According to 2006 IPCC Guidelines the CO2 recovered for technical gases should be
accounted for emission and included in the estimate while that for producing urea should be reported in the
relevant consumption categories. In particular, for the years 1990-2001, CO2 emission factor has been
calculated on the basis of information reported by the production plants for 2002 and 2003 in the framework
of the national EPER/E-PRTR registry and considering also the amounts of CO2 recovered since the
beginning of the recovery operations. CO2 reported to the national EPER/E-PRTR registry has been used for
the previous years under the assumption, verified with the operator, that no change in technology at facilities
have occurred along the period (YARA, 2007). Since 2002, the average emission factors result from data
reported by the plants in the national EPER/E-PRTR and calculated taking in account the gas consumed for
the reforming process; the plant supplies the recovered CO2 detailed data allowing the proper application of
the IPCC methodology. The following box shows the time series for the average CO2 emission factor.
Ammonia production, time series for the average CO2 EF (t CO2/t ammonia production)
AMMONIA PRODUCTION
EF (t CO2/t ammonia production)
1990-2001
2002
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1.30
1.34
1.32
1.27
1.18
1.08
1.16
Natural gas is used as feedstock in the ammonia production plants and the amount of fuel used is included in
the energy balance under the no energy final consumption sector (see Annex 5), therefore double counting
does not occur.
Nitric acid
With regard to nitric acid production (2B2), production figures at national level are published in the national
statistical yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]), while at plant level they have been collected from industry
(Norsk Hydro, several years; YARA, several years; Radici Chimica, several years). The number of nitric
acid facilities in Italy is known along the whole timeseries so it is possible to make sure that the national
emissions estimation from this source is consistent to the sum of emissions from the ammonia facilities. In
1990 there were seven production plants in Italy; three of them closed between 1992 and 1995, and another
one closed in 2004, one more closedown in 2008 has left two plants still operating.
The N2O average emission factors are calculated from 1990 on the basis of the emission factors provided by
the existing production plants in the national EPER/E-PRTR registry, applied for the whole time series, and
default IPCC emission factors for low and medium pressure plants attributed to the plants, now closed,
where it was not possible to collect detailed information. Thus, N2O emissions are estimated at plant level
also considering the operating unit level, if necessary. Activity data have been collected at plant level for the
whole time series. Unit specific default IPCC EFs have been used for plants closed in the nineties because it
was not possible to collect more detailed information. For the other plants, data supplied in the framework of
the EPER/EPRTR registry have been used from 2001 onwards, while for the years 1990-2000 EFs at unit
level have been calculated as an average of 2001-2004 data provided by operators in the EPER/EPRTR
register. The implied emission factor varies year by year depending on the operating circumstances at the
production facilities, the values for the emission factor are shown in the following box for the years from
2007 onwards.
Nitric acid production, time series for the average N2O EF (kgN2O/t nitric acid production)
NITRIC ACID PRODUCTION
1990
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
EF (kg N2O/Mg nitric acid)
6.49
7.08
2.29
2.94
1.21
1.32
1.11
0.86
Relevant reductions in N2O emissions have been observed since 2008. Specifically, in 2008 the
implementation of catalyst N2O abatement technology in one of the major production plants (i.e. in one unit
of that plant) has led to a significant decrease in total N2O emissions from nitric acid production,
131
consequently a relevant reduction in the IEF can be observed too (YARA, several years): the implied
emission factor for 2008 is in fact 2.29 kg N2O/Mg nitric acid production (the abatement rate in one plant
was 82% so far); in 2010 the implied emission factor is 1.21 kg N2O/Mg nitric acid production; the relevant
decrease is due to the installation of the abatement technology in the other unit of the same producing facility
(YARA, several years) and to the technical improvements implemented in 2011 as far as monitoring of
emissions is concerned at the second nitric acid facility (Radici Chimica, 2013). Sampling circumstances at
the facility may affect the reported N2O emission values: sampling in times very close to catalyst exhaustion
generally leads to higher N2O concentration in the processes flue gases, this seems to have occurred for N2O
emissions in 2011 according to the operator (Radici Chimica, several years).
Caprolactame
N2O emissions from caprolactame have been estimated on the basis of information supplied by the only plant
present in Italy, production activity data published by ISTAT (ISTAT, several years [a]) and production and
emission data reported in the national EPER/E-PRTR registry. For the years 2002 and 2003 activity data and
emissions were reported by the operators to the national EPER register. For 1990-2001 no facility level
specific information was available for the inventory team, only the amount of caprolactame manufactured in
Italy was known. Based on the 2002 emission factor and after discussion with the technical expert at the
facility an emission factor equal to 0.3 kg N2O/Mg caprolactame production was assumed for 1990-2001.
The plant closed in 2003.
Carbon Black
CO2 and CH4 emissions from carbon black production process have been estimated on the basis of
information supplied by the Italian production plants in the framework of the national EPER/E-PRTR
registry and the European emissions trading scheme. In 1996 a change in the production technology in the
existing plants caused a reduction of CH4, NMVOC, NOx, SOx and PM10 emissions. In the present
submission update values for the emission factors for this source category have been considered for the years
2010 and 2011 due to the performance of additional QA/QC procedures. The following box include the
values of the implied emission factor for CO2 (t CO2/t carbon black production) from 2005 to 2013.
Carbon black production, time series for the average CO2 EF (t CO2/t carbon black production)
CARBON BLACK
PRODUCTION
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
EF (t CO2/t Carbon black)
2.56
2.57
2.51
2.59
2.49
2.48
2.45
2.46
2.32
Ethylene, Ethylene oxide, Propylene, Styrene
Ethylene, ethylene oxide, propylene and styrene productions belong to the organic chemical processes,
which are source of methane emissions.
For ethylene activity data have been provided by the Italian producers, specifically: for 1990-2001 by the
sectoral industrial association (Unione Petrolifera, several years) and since 2002 by the manufacturing
companies (Syndial, several years; Polimeri Europa, several years). For ethilene oxide activity data have
been provided by the manufacturing company for the whole timeseries (Enichem, several years); this
production stopped in 2001. Propylene production activity data are reported in the UN “Industrial
Commodity Statistics Yearbook” (UN, several years) for the years 1990-1994; since 1995 data have been
provided by the manufacturing companies (Enichem, several years; Syndial, several years; Polimeri Europa,
several years). Regarding Styrene, for the years 1990-1994, UN international statistics have been used (UN,
several years). From 1995 the amount of styrene is supplied every year to the inventory team by the Italian
producer at plant level (Enichem, several years; Polimeri Europa, several years).
For ethylene and propylene production, CH4 emission factor is calculated, for the whole time series, on the
basis of the EPRTR data submitted by the plants. In the framework of the E-PRTR registry, facilities
manufacturing ethylene in Italy reported activity data and emissions following the E-PRTR classification. In
particular, for these plants, CH4 emissions, for these productions, were below the reporting threshold (which
for methane is set to 100 t/year). Assuming that emissions of each plants were equal to the maximum value
(threshold), 100 t/year, the emission factor resulted in 0.085 kg/t; this value has been used along the whole
timeseries.
For Styrene CH4 emissions, no specific information concerning the years 1990-1994 was available, so the
EMEP/CORINAIR default emission factor (EMEP/EEA, 2007) has been applied (0.025 kg/t equal to 10% of
132
total VOC emissions). Based on the information included in the Environmental Reports by the Italian
producer (Enichem, several years), and confirmed by the operators, CH4 emissions did not occur from 1995.
Methane emission factor for ethylene oxide production used for the whole timeseries (1990-2001) is equal to
6.841 kg/t as supplied by the air and waste management association (APEM, 1992).
Titanium dioxide
In Italy there is only one facility where this production occurs; activity data and emission estimates has been
provided by the operator for the whole time series, which report information also to the E-PRTR registry and
to the ETS only for the boiler activity.
Calcium carbide
In this submission CO2 emissions from calcium carbide production process and use have been estimated on
the basis of the activity data provided by the sole Italian producer/retailer. Activity data relating to the
manufacture of calcium carbide are referred to the years from 1990 to 1995 when the production stopped;
activity data concerning the use of calcium carbide have been provided for the whole timeseries too. The
default IPCC CO2 emission factors (IPCC, 2006) have been used to estimate the emissions from manufacture
and use along the whole timeseries.
Soda ash
CO2 emissions from soda ash production have been estimated on account of information available about the
Solvay process (Solvay, 2003), which is the technology applied for the production of soda ash in Italy,
whereas those from soda ash use are included in glass production.
Soda ash production has been carried out at one facility in Italy; the facility is included in the scope of the
national EPER/PRTR so the information concerning activity data and emissions of this facility has been
made available for the years from 2002 up to now. For 1990-2001 the amount of soda ash produced was
published on the UN “Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook” (UN, several years).
The CO2 emission factor for those years is based on the estimation process of the GHG emissions inventory
of Spain and on the information that Solvay has made available to the Spanish inventory team for a plant
with the same technology as the Italian one. Since 2002 the emission factor is based on the data reported
yearly by the Italian operator under the national EPER/PRTR and under ETS (preliminary for years 20052009 and official from 2013).
Fluorochemical production
For both source categories ”By-product emissions” and “Fugitive emissions”, the IPCC Tier 2 method is
used, based on plant-level data. The communication is supplied annually by the only national producer, and
includes productions, emissions, import and export data for each gas (Solvay, several years). In particular,
the operator of the only producing facility has been reporting CF4 emissions to the national PRTR register for
four years since 2007. CF4 emissions represent additional by product emissions together with HFC23
emissions (those being well referenced instead). The operator supplied all the relevant information for a
better understanding of the activities taking place at the site of Spinetta Marengo and to help the inventory
team to allocate CF4 emissions from HCFC22 production properly. The industrial site of Spinetta Merengo
hosts not only Solvay but also other Companies and is in the scope of EPRTR, IPPC permitting procedure
and Seveso European Legislation. At the facility the monitoring system has 27 devices to perform gas
chromatography analysis and about 540 monitoring points at the site. The resulting monitoring data flow,
which regard other pollutants, is sent via web to the regional agency for the environmental protection (ARPA
Piemonte).
In particular the operator explained that HCFC22 production has been carried out in Spinetta Marengo since
‘50s and up to 1990 part of HCFC22 was probably also sold as a marketable product. Since 1990 practically
all the HCFC22 produced has been the input for the TFM (tetrafluoroethylene monomer) production process
(by pyrolisis of HCFC22 at 600 °C), the TFM has been then used to produce TFE (tetrafluoroethylene, C2F4)
and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), HFP (hexafluoropropylene) and the other different fluoropolymers and
fluoroelastomers. All the fluorinated flue gases from the different production lines are collected and treated
in a centralized abatement unit (thermal oxidation system), specifically designed for the Spinetta Marengo
plant, working at a temperature of 1400 °C with a residence time of the gases minor of 2 seconds. The
abatement unit is run continuously and allows reducing F-gas emissions not depending on the operating level
of the main production process. In the treated flue gases CF4 is still present (65% of CF4 released to air pass
through the abatement system untreated for thermodynamic reasons; 35% of CF4 released to air is formed
133
during the reactions occurring in the abatement unit). Estimations of CF4 emissions released to air have been
then reported to the national PRTR since 2007. The operator has provided the time series for the activity data
from 2002 to 2010 (HCFC22 and TFM), since the activity data for the years before 2002 are not retrievable
(the property of the facility has changed over the years before 2002 and the administrative systems and
softwares have also been changed many times); in order to complete the activity data time series for the
period 1990-2001 a linear increasing production level was assumed from 1990 to 2002. The ratio relating
TFM production to HCFC22 production in 2002 has been taken also over the years 2001 back to 1990 to
estimate the TFM productions. CF4 emission factor for 2007 was set constant in order to estimate the CF4
time series over the years from 1990 to 2006. CF4 emissions time series have been then included in the
estimates under the CRF category 2.B.9.a.1 (By-product emissions from production of HCFC22).
In order to provide detailed information on the methodology applied for this category, CF4 emissions
estimation from HCFC22 can be summarised as follows:
1) For the years 2007-2010 by-product CF4 emissions from HCFC22 production has been supplied by
the operator (through the national PRTR). Based on data reported to the national PRTR since 2007
and the activity data concerning HCFC production, the TFM/HCFC22 ratio along the timeseries, the
EF for by-product CF4 emission has been calculated.
2) CF4 EF (by-product emissions from HCFC22 production) for 2007 has been set as default value for
the period 1990-2006 in order to estimate by-product CF4 emissions consistently along the whole
time series.
3) Activity data for the facilities are available for the years 2002-2010, so the missing activity data were
estimated based on the HCFC22 production capacity of the facility in 1990 and 2002 HCFC22
production figure assuming a linear increasing production level whithin the years. The
TFM/HCFC22 ratio for 2002 was assumed as a default ratio to estimate TFM production
consistently from 1990 and 2002.
4) By product CF4 emissions were estimated by applying the EF derived in point 2) to the TFM
production levels along the years 1990-2002.
HFC23 is a by product of the HCFC22 production process, the HFC23/HCFC22 rate is about 3%. The
abatement system, as previously mentioned, allows for treating all the fluorinated flue gases, vented gases
originated in the processes at the facilty before being released to air. Since 1989 the abatement system has
allowed to reduce HFC23 released to air, up to 1996 HFC23 emissions had been about 30 t/y. In 1996 the
abatement system was improved with a second operating unit, since 1996 the abatement rate has been
99.99% thus reducing drastically HFC23 emissions close to zero. The operator communicated that for a
HCFC22 production of 30,000 tons, HFC23 theorical residual emissions are less than 100 kg; a monitoring
analysis has measured about 10 kg of HFC 23 in one year (Spinetta Marengo, 2011).
C2F6 and HFC143a emissions are released from the production of C3F6 (and also CFC115) and HFC134a,
respectively. Fluorochemical were produced in one plant (Porto Marghera) and progressively stopped in the
last years. More in details C3F6 (and also CFC115) production stopped in 1998 while HFC134a production
stopped in 2007. Data production and emission figures have been provided by the company (Solvay Fluor,
several years).
Production of HFC125, HFC134a, HFC227ea and SF6 lead to fugitive emissions of the same gases. In
particular, production of HFC227ea only occurred in 1999. Emissions figures have been communicated by
the operator (Solvay Fluor, several years).
4.3.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The uncertainty in N2O emissions from adipic and nitric acid and caprolactame production and in CO2
emissions from ammonia and for other chemical production is estimated by 10.4%, for each activity, as
combination of uncertainties related to activity data (3%) and emission factors (10%).
Uncertainty level for activity data is an expert judgement, taking into account the basic source of
information, while the uncertainty level for emission factors is equal to the level reported in the IPCC Good
Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000) for the adipic and nitric acid N2O emissions and for CO2 emissions from
other industrial processes.
The uncertainty in F-gas emissions from fluorocarbons production is estimated to be about 50% in annual
emissions, 5% and 50% concerning respectively activity data and emission factors.
134
In Tables 4.4 and 4.5, the production of chemical industry, including non-key sources, and emission trends
are reported. An overview of the emissions per compound from fluorochemical production is given for the
1990-2013 period.
In general, total emission trends for all the chemical productions have been affected by fluctuations in
productions along the timeseries (and by reductions in productions over the years 2007-2009, except for
adipic acid and titanium dioxide activity data), whenever abatement technologies (e.g. nitric acid since 2008)
or closures of plants cannot be regarded to as the specific causes for the decreasing emissions. In 2012 an
increase in ammonia and soda ash productions determined an increase in CO2 emissions estimates compared
to previous year.
Table 4.4 Production of chemical industry, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
ACTIVITY DATA
2B.1 - Ammonia
2B.2 - Nitric acid
2B.3 - Adipic acid
2B.4 - Caprolactame
2B.5 - Calcium carbide production
2B.6 - Titanium dioxide
2B.7 - Soda ash production and use
2B.8b - Ethylene
2B.8d - Ethylene oxide
2B.8f - Carbon black
2B.8g - Styrene
2B.8g.i - Propylene
2B.9 – HCFC 22 production.
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
(Gg)
2011
2012
2013
1,455
1,037
49
120
12
58
610
1,466
61
184
365
774
20
592
588
64
120
7
69
1,070
1,807
54
208
484
693
23
414
556
71
111
7
72
1,000
1,771
13
221
613
690
26
607
572
75
7
60
915
1,721
214
520
1,037
27
476
437
83
6
69
726
1,254
217
477
716
23
576
431
79
5
51
824
1,166
555
433
80
5
51
780
1,117
183
494
575
25
505
417
85
6
70
620
1,551
205
524
880
21
179
518
673
21
Table 4.5 CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from chemical industry, 1990 – 2013 (Gg) and HFCs, PFCs per
compound 1990 - 2013 (Gg CO2 eq.)
EMISSIONS
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1,.891.50
26.28
422.05
52.80
769.60
14.24
477.48
48.11
537.91
7.70
508.83
64.70
802.29
8.01
548.22
62.01
639.77
6.63
510.38
72.39
562.08
6.33
531.45
40.50
624.30
5.42
440.05
30.73
642.91
5.02
424.65
30.73
1.33
1.72
1.93
1.50
1.76
1.70
1.62
1.74
183.00
321.00
300.00
275.00
203.33
262.55
240.02
230.57
CH4 (Gg)
Carbon black
Ethylene
Propylene
Styrene
Ethylene oxide
1.84
0.12
0.07
0.01
0.42
2.08
0.15
0.06
0.37
0.11
0.15
0.06
0.09
0.10
0.15
0.09
-
0.10
0.13
0.07
-
0.10
0.11
0.06
-
0.10
0.10
0.06
-
0.10
0.09
0.05
-
N2O (Gg)
Nitric acid
Adipic acid
Caprolactame
6.73
14.77
0.04
4.22
19.09
0.04
4.09
21.42
0.03
5.44
19.59
-
0.51
1.58
-
0.58
0.38
-
0.48
0.28
-
0.37
0.37
-
CO2 (Gg)
Ammonia
Calcium carbide
Carbon black
Titanium dioxide
Adipic acid
Soda
ash
production and use
135
EMISSIONS
1990
HFC 23
HFC 143a
CF4
PFC C2÷C3 (C2F6)
Total F-gas by
product emissions
HFC 125
HFC 134a
HFC 227ea
SF6
Total
F-gas
fugitive emissions
Total
F-gas
emissions
from
florochemical
production
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
444.0
882.9
48.8
444.0
26.8
992.6
48.8
Gg CO2 eq.
1.3
1.3
4.5
4.9
991.5
1,547.4
-
1.0
1,300.6
-
1.1
1,438.8
-
1.0
1,345.0
-
1.2
1,574.1
-
1,376
1,512
997
1,554
1,302
1,440
1,346
1,575
114.0
35.0
42.9
114.0
3.5
17.2
-
4.2
13.9
-
-
-
-
-
114.0
191.9
20.7
18.1
-
-
-
-
1,490
1,704
1,018
1,572
1,302
1,440
1,346
1,575
HFC23 emissions from HCFC22 had been drastically reduced since 1996 due to the installation of a second
thermal oxidation system in the facility located in Spinetta Marengo (the only facility currently producing
HCFC22 in Italy). Productions and emissions from 1990 to 1995 are constant as supplied by industry; from
1996, untreated leaks have been collected and sent to the thermal oxidation system, thus allowing reduction
of emissions under 100 kg (E.F. 3.3 g of HFC23/t of HCFC22). CF4 by-product emissions in HCFC22
production process have been fully investigated, information supplied by the operator has allowed estimating
emissions for the whole time series.
This information about productions and emissions is yearly directly updated by the producer, and it is also
reported in the framework of the national PRTR register, confirming that the technology is fully operating.
PFC (C2F6) by-product emissions and SF6 fugitive emissions were constant from 1990 to 1995 (4 t/y for C2F6
emissions; 5 t/y for SF6 emissions) and from 1996 to 1998 (1 t/y for C2F6 emissions; 2 t/y for SF6 emissions)
and have eventually reduced to zero since 1999 due to the stop of the CFC115 production in one facility and
the upgrade of the thermal oxidation system mentioned above in the other facility. Besides, SF6 production
has stopped since the 1st of January 2005.
Regarding fugitive emissions, emissions of HFC125 and HFC134a have been cut in 1999 thanks to a
rationalisation in the new production facility located in Porto Marghera, whereas HFC143 released as byproducts from the production of HFC134a has been recovered and commercialised. The relevant productions
in Italy which originate these fugitive emissions stopped in the first quarter of 2008.
4.3.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Emissions from adipic acid, nitric acid, ammonia and other chemical industry production have been checked
with the relevant process operators and with data reported to the national EPER/E-PRTR registry. Emissions
and activity data for adipic acid, nitric acid and ammonia productions have also been checked against the
relevant information reported by operator to the national competent authority for the ETS, the resulting
consistency of both emissions and activity data for those sectors is the outcome of this control. Additional
QA/QC was performed on the inventory of CO2 and CH4 emissions from the production of carbon black
(Aether ltd, 2013) thus leading to the improvements of the emissions estimate in 2014 submission.
Emissions from fluorochemical production have been checked with data reported to the national EPER/EPRTR registry. CF4 emissions have been then accounted for along the whole time series for category 2B9.
136
4.3.5
Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations occurred in the estimates of CO2 emissions from the Chemical industry in the current
submission as the result of additional QA/QC operations. Detailed information per gas and sectors are
reported in the box below.
Specifically recalcutions concerning CO2 emissions are due to the following reasons:
• emission factor for ammonia production has been updated along the whole time series in accordance
with IPCC GL 2006;
• CO2 emission estimates from Calcium Carbide production and use along the whole time series have
been revised in order to account also for use of calcium carbide.
• CO2 emission factor from Titanium dioxide production has been updated for the years 2011 and
2012
Recalculations (%) in CO2 emissions time series for the Chemical industry along the timeseries.
GAS/SUBSOURCE
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
-31.6%
-31.6%
-31.6%
-31.5%
-33.3%
-35.3%
-38.3%
+100.9%
+100.9%
+100.9%
+100.9%
+100%
+100%
+100%
-
-
-
-
-
-43.3%
-41.8%
CO2
2.B.1 Ammonia Production
2.B.5 Calcium Carbide Production and use
2.B.6 Titanium dioxide
For what concern emissions from fluorocarbons production, no recalculation is occurred, except for GWP
changed values.
4.3.6
Source-specific planned improvements
A detailed balance of the natural gas reported in the Energy Balance, as no energy fuel consumption, and the
fuel used for the production processes in the petrochemical sector is planned.
4.4
Metal production (2C)
4.4.1
Source category description
The sub-sector metal production comprises four sources: iron and steel production, ferroalloys production,
aluminium production and magnesium foundries; CO2 emissions from iron and steel production and PFC
emissions from aluminium production are key sources at level (only for 1990) and at trend assessment.
In 2013, the share of CO2 emissions from metal production accounts for 0.3% of the national total CO2
emissions, and 7.4% of the total CO2 from industrial processes.
The share of CH4 emissions is, in 2013, equal to 0.11% of the national total CH4 emissions while N2O
emissions do not occur.
The share of F-gas emissions from metal production out of the national total F-gas levels was 52.6% in the
base-year and has decreased to 0.04% in the year 2013.
Iron and steel
The main processes involved in iron and steel production are those related to sinter and blast furnace plants,
to basic oxygen and electric furnaces.
The sintering process is a pre-treatment step in the production of iron where fine particles of metal ores are
agglomerated. Agglomeration of the fine particles is necessary to increase the passageway for the gases
during the blast furnace process and to improve physical features of the blast furnace burden. Coke and a
mixture of sinter, lump ore and fluxes are introduced into the blast furnace. In the furnace the iron ore is
increasingly reduced and liquid iron and slag are collected at the bottom of the furnace, from where they are
137
tapped. The combustion of coke provides both the carbon monoxide (CO) needed for the reduction of iron
oxide into iron and the additional heat needed to melt the iron and impurities.
The resulting material, pig iron (and also scrap), is transformed into steel in subsequent furnaces which may
be a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or electric arc furnace (EAF).
Oxygen steelmaking allows the oxidation of undesirable impurities contained in the metallic feedstock by
blowing pure oxygen. The main elements thus converted into oxides are carbon, silicon, manganese,
phosphorus and sulphur.
In an electric arc furnace steel is produced from polluted scrap. The scrap is mainly produced by cars
shredding and does not have a constant quality.
The iron and steel cycle is closed by rolling mills with production of long products, flat products and pipes.
In 1990, there were six integrated iron and steel plants in Italy. In 2013, there are only three of the above
mentioned plants, one of which lacks sintering facilities and another one is not equipped with a BOF.
Oxygen steel production represents about 28% of the total production and the arc furnace steel the remaining
72% (FEDERACCIAI, several years).
Currently, long products represent about 43% of steel production in Italy, flat products about 46% and pipes
the remaining 11%. In 2013 long production has been equal to 11.5 Tg with a decrease of 3% over the
previous year and still below 31% compared to 2008; flat production has been equal to 12.1 Tg with a
decrease of 17% on the previous year and a decrease of 13% compared to 2008 level. Almost the whole flat
production derives from one only integrated iron and steel plant, while in steel plants equipped with electric
ovens, almost all located in the northern regions, long products are produced (e.g. carbon steel, stainless
steels) and seamless pipes (only one plant) (FEDERACCIAI, several years).
CO2 emissions from steel production refer to carbonates used in basic oxygen furnaces and crude iron and
electrodes in electric arc furnaces. CO2 emissions from pig iron production refer to carbonates used in sinter
and pig iron production. CO2 emissions from iron and steel production due to the fuel consumption in
combustion processes are estimated and reported in the energy sector (1A2a) to avoid double counting.
CH4 emissions from steel production refer to blast furnace charging, basic oxygen furnace, electric furnaces
and rolling mills. CH4 emissions from coke production are fugitive emissions during solid fuel
transformation and have been reported under 1B1b category while CH4 emissions from the combustion of
fuels are allocated in the energy sector.
Ferroalloys
Ferroalloy is the term used to describe concentrated alloys of iron and one or more metals such as silicon,
manganese, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten. Usually alloy formation occurs in electric arc
furnaces (EAF) and CO2 emissions occur during oxidation of carbon still present in coke and because of
consumption of the graphite electrodes.
In early nineties there were 13 plants producing various kinds of ferroalloys: FeCr, FeMn, FeSi, SiMn, Simetal and other particular alloys, but since 2001 the production has been carried on only in one plant
(ISPESL, 2005). The last remaining plant in Italy produces mainly ferro-manganese and silicon-manganese
alloys.
Aluminium
From primary aluminium production CO2 and PFCs (CF4 and C2F6) are emitted. PFCs are formed during a
phenomenon known as the ‘anode effect’, when alumina levels are low.
In 1990 primary aluminium production in Italy was carried out in 5 sites where different technologies were
implemented:
• Fusina: Point Fed Prebake and Side Work Prebake (up to 1995);
• Portovesme: Point Fed Prebake and Side Work Prebake (up to 1990);
• Bolzano: Vertical Stud Soderberg;
• Fusina 2 and Porto Marghera: Side Work Prebake.
Since then the implemented technology has been upgraded from Side Work Prebake to Point Fed Prebake;
while three old plants stopped the operations in 1991 (Bolzano) and in 1992 (Fusina 2 and Porto Marghera).
Since 2000 Alcoa has replaced ENIRISORSE in operating the plants.
Up to 2010, two primary aluminium production plants, which use a prebake technology with point feeding,
characterised by low emissions, have operated. Only one plant, located in Portovesme, was operating until
2012 (99.5 kt of primary aluminium). In 1990, primary aluminium production was 232 kt. In 2013 the plant
did not produce primary aluminium.
138
Magnesium foundries
In the magnesium foundries, SF6 is used as a cover gas to prevent oxidation of molten magnesium. In Italy
there is only one plant, located in the north, which started its activity in September 1995.
Since the end of 2007, SF6 has been replaced by HFC125, due to the enforcement of fluorinated gases
regulation (EC, 2006) which, however, allows for the use of SF6 in annual amounts less than 1 Mg. HFC125
emissions also occured and, in 2010, they were equal to 605 kg. Since 2011 HFC125 has been replaced by
HFC134a (4,060 kg in 2013).
4.4.2
Methodological issues
CO2 and CH4 emissions from the sector have been estimated on the basis of activity data published in the
national statistical yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]), data reported in the framework of the national
EPER/E-PRTR registry and the European Emissions Trading Scheme, and supplied by industry
(FEDERACCIAI, several years; ALCOA, several years). Emission factors reported in the EMEP/EEA
Guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2009), in sectoral studies (APAT, 2003; CTN/ACE, 2000) or supplied directly by
industry (FEDERACCIAI, 2004; ALCOA, 2004; Italghisa, 2011) have been used.
Iron and steel
CO2 emissions from iron and steel production refer to the carbonates used in sinter plants, in blast furnaces
and in steel making plants to remove impurities; they are also related to the steel and pig iron scraps, and
graphite electrodes consumed in electric arc furnaces.
Basic information for this sector derives from different sources in the period 1990-2013.
Activity data are supplied by official statistics published in the national statistics yearbook (ISTAT, several
years [a]) and by the sectoral industrial association (FEDERACCIAI, several years).
For the integrated plants, emission and production data have been communicated by the two largest plants
for the years 1990-1995 in the framework of the CORINAIR emission inventory, distinguished by sinter,
blast furnace and BOF, and by combustion and processes emissions. From 2000, CO2 emissions and
production data have been supplied by all the plants in the framework of the ETS scheme, for the years
2000-2004 disaggregated for sinter, blast furnace and BOF plants, from 2005 specifying carbonates and fuels
consumption and related CO2 emissions. For 2002-2013 data have also been supplied by all the integrated
iron and steel plants in the framework of the European EPER/E-PRTR registry not distinguished for
combustion and processes. Qualitative information and documentation available on the plants allowed
reconstructing their history including closures or modifications of part of the plants; additional qualitative
information regarding the plants collected and checked for other environmental issues or directly asked to the
plant permitted to individuate the main driving of the emission trends for pig iron and steel productions.
Time series of carbonates used in basic oxygen furnaces have been reconstructed on the basis of the above
mentioned information resulting in no emissions in the last years. In fact carbonates have been substituted by
autoproduced lime avoiding CO2 emissions. Indeed, as regards the largest Italian producer of pig iron and
steel, lime production has increased significantly from 2000 to 2008 by about 250,000 over 410,000 tonnes
and the amount introduced in basic oxygen furnaces was, in 2004, about 490,000 tonnes (ILVA, 2006). In
2009 lime production, for the same plant, is equal to 216,000 tonnes but also steel production has sharply
decreased; in 2010 lime production is 306,930 Mg, in 2012 is equal to 386,136 Mg and 254,456 Mg in 2013.
Emissions from lime production in steel making industries are reported in 1.A.2 Manufacturing Industries
and Construction category and in 2.A Mineral production respectively for the combustion and processes
emissions.
Concerning the electric arc furnaces, additional information on the consumption of scraps, pig iron, graphite
and electrodes and their average carbon content has been supplied together with the steel production by
industry for a typical plant in 2004 (FEDERACCIAI, 2004) and checked with other sectoral study (APAT,
2003). On the basis of these figures an average emission factor has been calculated.
On account of the amount of carbonates estimated in sinter plants, average emission factor was equal in 1990
to 0.15 t CO2/t pig iron production, while in 2013 it reduced to 0.08 t CO2/t pig iron production. The
reduction is driven by the increase in the use of lime instead of carbonates in sinter and blast furnaces in the
Italian plants. Emissions are reported under pig iron because they are emitted as CO2 in the blast furnaces
producing pig iron.
139
CO2 average emission factor in basic oxygen furnaces results in 1990 equal to 0.079 t CO2/t steel production,
while from 2003 is null.
CO2 average emission factor in electric arc furnaces, equal to 0.035 t CO2/t steel production, has been
calculated on the basis of equation 3.6B of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000) taking into
account the pig iron and graphite electrodes used in the furnace and the amount of carbon stored in the final
product. The same emission factor has been used for the whole time series.
Implied emission factors for steel production reduced from 0.053 to 0.025 t CO2/t steel production, from
1990 to 2013, due to the reduction in the basic oxygen furnaces.
CO2 emissions due to the consumption of coke, coal or other reducing agents used in the iron and steel
industry have been accounted for as fuel consumption and reported in the energy sector, including fuel
consumption of derived gases; in Annex 3, the energy and carbon balance in the iron and steel sector, with
detailed explanation, is reported.
During the last in country review, Italy reported on the results of a survey which found that there is no
accurate information by which to disaggregate the emissions between energy and process. Coke is the only
irreplaceable material in the blast furnace as it has several roles:
•
•
•
•
the combustion of coke produces carbon monoxide which is responsible for the reduction of iron
ores;
the combustion of coke generates the heat needed to melt the iron ore;
coke mechanically supports the charge allowing the crossing of the reducing gas;
coke allows the process of carburation of liquid iron by lowering its melting point.
These are intrinsic properties of the coke and can not be separated one from the other, all the coke when
burning simultaneously produces energy in the form of heat and CO as a reducing agent.
As any arbitrary disaggregation would not reflect the real situation, the ERT agreed that leaving the total
emissions from the use of coke in the iron and steel industry in the energy sector is appropriate. Ultimately,
carbon plays the dual role of fuel and reductant and it is very important not to double-count the carbon from
the consumption of coke or other reducing agents if this is already accounted for as fuelconsumption in the
energy sector. For this reason a balance is made between the coal used for coke production and the quantities
of derived fuels used in various sectors. The iron and steel sector gets the resulting quantities of energy and
carbon after subtraction of what is used for electricity generation, non energy purposes and other industrial
sectors (see Annex 3).
The amount of carbon stored in steel produced in integrated plants has been considered and subtracted from
the carbon balance (see Annex 3). The amount of carbon contained in steel has been estimated on the basis
of EN standard and, from 2005, with emission trading data. Carbon stored is equal to 48,511 tonnes of CO2
in 1990 and equal to 261,266 Mg in 2013.
CH4 emissions from steel production have been estimated on the basis of emission factors derived from the
specific IPPC BREF Report (IPPC, 2001 available at http://eippcb.jrc.es), sectoral study (APAT, 2003) and
the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007) and refer to blast furnace, basic oxygen
furnace, electric furnaces and rolling mills.
Ferroalloys
CO2 emissions from ferroalloys have been estimated on the basis of activity data published in the national
statistical yearbooks (ISTAT, several years [a]) until 2001. Time series of ferroalloys activity data have been
reconstructed from 2002 on the basis of statistical information (ISTAT, 2003), personal communication
(Italghisa, 2011) and on the basis of production data communicated to E-PRTR register and to ETS from the
only plant of ferroalloys in Italy. The comparison between E-PRTR and ETS data revealed some differences:
further investigation led to a direct contact with the plant and to rectify the incorrect activity data.
The average emission factor has been calculated according to the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) taking into
consideration the different types of ferroalloys produced. The splitting up of national production in different
types of ferroalloys was obtained from U.S. Geological Survey until 2001 (USGS, several years). Since 2002
only one plant of ferroalloys is located in Italy and different types of production are reconstructed on the
basis of information listed above. This information is reported in the following box.
140
Splitting up of ferroalloys national production and IPCC 2006 emission factors
Ferroalloy
FeCr
FeMn
FeSi
SiMn
Si-Metal
Other
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.30
0.24
0.02
0.32
0.06
0.07
0.26
0.10
0.53
0.05
0.06
0.28
0.62
0.03
0.07
0.50
0.50
-
0.40
0.60
-
0.60
0.40
-
0.36
0.64
-
0.29
0.71
-
IPCC 2006 EF
kg/t
1,300
1,500
4,800
1,400
5,000
5,000
Implied emission factor for ferroalloys has been reduced from 1.90 to 1.43 t CO2/t ferroalloys production,
from 1990 to 2013 as a consequence of the sharp reduction in ferroalloys production, which is characterized
by high emission factors (ferro-silicon and silicon-metal alloys). The simultaneous reduction of total
production (from about 200 kt to 24 kt) has resulted in CO2 emissions decreasing from 395 Gg in 1990 to 35
Gg in 2013.
Primary aluminium production
PFC emissions from aluminium production have been estimated using both Tier 1 and Tier 2 - IPCC
methodologies. The Tier 1 has been used to calculate PFC emissions from 1990 to 1999, while Tier 2 has
been used since 2000; the use of different methods along the period is due to the lack of detailed data for the
years previous to 2000. Although a number of attempts have been tried over the last years by the inventory
team to retrieve the 1990-1999 historical operating data, it is not possible to retrieve the information: Alcoa
can not provide operating data for the period from 1990 to 1999 as the plants were managed by a different
company not operating anymore. Thus the decision to use both tiers, which was supported by previous
review processes, confirming the transparency, accuracy and conservativeness of this approach.
PFC emissions, specifically CF4 and C2F6, have been calculated on the basis of information provided by
national statistics (ENIRISORSE, several years; ASSOMET, several years) and the national primary
aluminium producer (ALCOA, several years), with reference to the documents drawn up by the International
Aluminium Institute (IAI, 2003; IAI 2006) and the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Tier 1 method has been used to calculate PFC emissions related to the entire period 1990-1999. The emission
factors for CF4 and C2F6 were provided by the main national producer (ALCOA, 2004) based on the IAI
document (IAI, 2003).
The Tier 1 method used by ALCOA is based on the IAI methodology, which collected anode effect data
from 1990 up to 2000, accounting also for reductions in specific emission for all technology categories
(specific factors for Point Fed Prebake cells have been considered to estimate emissions).
In 1990 at the five production sites the following technologies were implemented:
•
•
•
•
Fusina: Point Fed Prebake (16% of the cells) and Side Work Prebake (84% of the cells);
Portovesme: Point Fed Prebake (84% of the cells) and Side Work Prebake (16% of the cells);
Bolzano: Vertical Stud Soderberg (100% of the cells)
Fusina 2 and Porto Marghera: Side Work Prebake (100% of the cells).
The EFs for PFCs were then calculated by ALCOA as weighted arithmetic mean values of EFs for the
different technologies (IAI, 2003), the weights representing the implemented technologies.
In the following tables (Tables 4.6, 4.7) the emission factors and the default parameters used are reported;
site specific values are confidential but they have been supplied to the inventory team and taken into account
in the estimation process.
Table 4.6 Historical default Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) emission values by reduction technology type (IAI, 2003)
Point Fed Prebake
Side Work Prebake
Vertical Stud Søderberg
1990 - 1993
0.3
1.4
0.6
Technology specific emissions (kg CF4 / t Al)
1994 - 1997
1998 – 1999
0.1
0.08
1.4
1.4
0.5
0.4
141
Table 4.7 Multiplier factor for calculation of Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) by technology type (IAI, 2003)
Technology multiplier factor
Center Work Prebake
Point Fed Prebake
Side Work Prebake
Vertical Stud Søderberg
0.17
0.17
0.24
0.06
PFC emissions for the period from the year 2000 are estimated by the IPCC Tier 2 method, based on default
technology specific slope factors and facility specific anode effect minutes. Site-specific values (CF4 and
C2F6 emissions) and default coefficients (slope coefficients for CF4 and C2F6) were provided by the main
national producer (ALCOA, several years). Moreover, from 2005 certificated emission values and
parameters, including anode effects, have been communicated under EU-ETS (ALCOA, 2010).
In Table 4.8 slope coefficients used for CF4 and C2F6 are reported. ALCOA uses these values suggested by
International Aluminium Institute (IAI, 2006), in accordance to the coefficients reported in the IPCC 2006
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Table 4.8 CF4 and C2F6 Slope Coefficients (IAI, 2006)
Type of Cell
Center Work Prebake
CF4
C2F6
Slope Factor (kg PFC/tAl/AE-minutes/cell day)
0.143
0.0173
Anode Effects (minutes/cell day)
Primary Aluminium Plant
2000
0.96
2005
0.87
2006
0.74
2007
1.00
2008
0.55
2009
0.81
2010
0.60
2011
0.53
2012
0.31
CO2 emissions from aluminium production have been also estimated on the basis of activity data provided by
industrial association (ENIRISORSE, several years; ASSOMET, several years) and default emission factor
reported by industry (ALCOA, 2004) and by the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) which refer to the prebaked
anode process.
Emission factor has been assumed equal to 1.55 t CO2/t primary aluminum production for the years 19902001, on the basis of data provided by the producer for 2002; this value is also consistent with the emission
factors contained in the IPCC Guidelines and in the Aluminium Sector Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Since 2002
the emission factor has been calculated on account of information from the relevant plant supplied to the
national EPER/EPRTR registry (emissions and productions). Therefore, thanks to the availability of this
additional information, CO2 emission estimations have been carried out by the operator since 2002 according
to the criteria defined by the International Aluminium Institute (IAI) and are given by the following three
components:
● Electrolysis Emissions from Prebake Anode
● Pitch Volatile Matter Oxidation from Pitch Coking
● Bake Furnace Packing Material
This detailed information is not available for previous years (1990-2001) so the Tier 2 approach can not be
extended to those years and Tier 1 has to be used. Although a number of attempts have been tried for the last
years by the inventory team to retrieve the same information related to 1990-2001, those data cannot be
retrieved. Therefore the Tier1+Tier2 approach allows ensuring the quality of the estimates and also the
consistency of the CO2 emissions time series depending on the quality of the available information.
In the following tables (Tables 4.9, 4.10) the emission factors and the default parameters used are reported;
site specific values are confidential but they have been supplied to the inventory team.
142
Table 4.9 Coefficients used for estimation of CO2 from aluminium production process with the Tier 2
methodology by plant
Baked Anode Properties
Ash
Weight %
ssv
ssv
Sulphur
Weight %
ssv*
DV = 1.6
Portovesme
Fusina
Impurities
Weight %
DV** = 0.4
DV = 0.4
* site specific value
** default value
Table 4.10 Coefficients used for estimation of CO2 from aluminium production process with the Tier 2
methodology by plant
Pitch content
in green
anodes
Weight %
ssv*
ssv
Portovesme
Fusina
Hydrogen
content in
pitch
Weight %
ssv
DV = 4.45
Recovered
tar
Packing coke
consumption
kg/t BAP
DV** = 0
DV = 0
t Pcc/ t BAP
DV = 0.05
DV = 0.05
Sulphur
content of
packing coke
Weight %
DV = 3
DV = 3
Ash content
of packing
coke
Weight %
DV = 5
DV = 5
* site specific value
** default value
Magnesium Production
For SF6 used in magnesium foundries, according to the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), emissions are
estimated from consumption data made available by the company (Magnesium products of Italy, several
years), assuming that all SF6 used is emitted. In 2007, SF6 has been used partially, replaced in November by
HFC125, due to the enforcement of fluorinated gases regulation (EC, 2006). This regulation allows for the
use of SF6 in annual amounts less than 850 kg starting from 1 January 2008; for this reason SF6 was still
reported together with HFC 125 emissions for the years 2008, 2009 while for 2010 only HFC125 was
reported. Since 2011 HFC134a has replaced HFC125.
4.4.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in PFC emissions from primary aluminium production is estimated to be about
20% in annual emissions, 3% and 20% concerning respectively activity data and emission factors; the
uncertainty for HFC emissions from magnesium foundries is estimated to be about 3%, 20% for both activity
data and emission factors. The uncertainty in CO2 emissions from the sector is estimated to be 10.4%, for
each activity, while for CH4 emissions about 50%.
In Table 4.11 emission trends of CO2, CH4 and F-gases from metal production are reported. The decreasing
of CO2 emissions from iron and steel sector is driven by the use of lime instead of limestone and dolomite to
remove impurities in pig iron and steel while CO2 emissions from aluminium and ferroalloys are driven by
the production levels.
In Table 4.12 the emission trend of F-gases per compound from metal production is given. PFC emissions
from aluminium production decreased because of the closure of three old plants in 1991 and 1992 and the
update of technology for the two plants still operating. The decreasing of SF6 consumption in the magnesium
foundry from 2003 is due to the abandonment of recycling plant and the optimisation of mixing parameters.
Table 4.11 CO2, CH4 and F-gas emissions from metal production, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
EMISSIONS
CO2 (Gg)
Iron and steel
Aluminium production
Ferroalloys
CH4 (Gg)
Pig iron
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
3,124
359
395
2,897
276
230
1,280
295
229
1,533
299
89
1,139
250
77
1,297
240
74
1,291
159
70
1,157
35
2.13
2.10
2.02
2.06
1.54
1.77
1.70
1.25
143
EMISSIONS
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Steel
PFC (Gg CO2 eq.)
Aluminium production
SF6 (Gg)
Magnesium foundries
HFC125 - (Gg)
Magnesium foundries
HFC134a - (Gg)
Magnesium foundries
0.58
0.60
0.60
0.67
0.63
0.70
0.67
0.63
1,975
350
231
212
99
95
39
-
-
-
0.0072
0.0035
0.0007
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0030
0.0032
0.0041
Table 4.12 F-gas emissions per compound from metal production in Gg CO2 equivalent, 1990 – 2013
COMPOUND
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
CF4 (PFC-14)
C2F6 (PFC-16)
Total PFC emissions from aluminium production
SF6 emissions from magnesium foundries
HFC-125 emissions from magnesium foundries
HFC-134a emissions from magnesium foundries
1,465.8
509.4
1,975.1
-
268.1
81.8
349.9
-
192.4
38.4
230.8
164.2
-
176.8
35.3
212.1
80.8
-
82.7
16.5
99.2
16.7
2.1
-
79.0
15.8
94.8
4.3
32.2
6.4
38.6
4.6
5.8
Total F-gas emissions from metal production
1,975.1
349.9
395.0
292.9
118.0
99.1
43.2
5.8
Gg CO2 eq.
In response to the 2010 review process (UNFCCC, 2010) a more robust Tier 1 comparison has been
evaluated in order to strengthen the conservativeness of combined Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches.
In particular, as suggested by previous review processes, several comparisons were analyzed, using Tier 1
and Tier 2 approach, and under Tier 1 approach using different emission factors available from the following
references (IAI, 2003; IAI, 2006; IPCC 2000):
1. 2003 International Aluminium Institute document, supplied by ALCOA to calculate emissions from
1990 to 1999 and actually used by the Party;
2. the updated 2006 International Aluminium Institute document, which agree with new 2006 IPCC
Guidelines;
3. 2000 IPCC Good Practice Guidance.
In Tables 4.13 and 4.14 CF4 and C2F6 default emission factors (Tier 1) and slope coefficient data (Tier 2) by
technology are reported, distinguished for different reference sources.
Table 4.13 Default CF4 and C2F6 Emission Factors
CF4 (kg/t)
Plant
IAI 2003
IAI 2006
Technology
CWPB
0.4
0.4
PFPB
0.3*
SWPB
1.4
1.6
VSS
0.6
0.8
HSS
0.7
0.4
*This value refer to period 1990 – 1993 (see Table 4.6)
GPG
2000
0.31
1.7
0.61
0.6
C2F6 (kg/t)
GL 2006
IAI 2003
IAI 2006
0.4
1.6
0.8
0.4
0.17
0.17*
0.24
0.06
0.09
0.04
0.4
0.04
0.03
GPG
2000
0.04
0.17
0.061
0.06
GL 2006
0.04
0.4
0.04
0.03
144
Table 4.14 Default CF4 and C2F6 Slope Coefficients
CF4 (kg PFC / t Al / AE minutes/cell day)
Plant
Technology
CWPB
PFPB
SWPB
VSS
HSS
IAI 2003
IAI 2006
0.14
0.29
0.067
0.18
0.143
0.272
0.092
0.099
GPG
2000
0.14
0.29
0.068
0.18
C2F6 (kg PFC / t Al / AE minutes/cell day)
GL 2006
IAI 2003
IAI 2006
0.143
0.272
0.092
0.099
0.018
0.029
0.003
0.018
0.0173
0.0685
0.0049
0.0084
GPG
2000
0.018
0.029
0.003
0.018
GL 2006
0.0173
0.0685
0.0049
0.0084
Worthy of remark is that, lacking specific plant data, IAI 2003 is the only document including emission
factors for Point Fed Prebake technology, which is the technology implemented at the only remaining
production site since 1990. Moreover, as reported in this document, IAI proposed lowest accuracy default
method departs from the IPCC default method. In the IPCC default method a single specific emission value
is specified for each of four reduction technology categories: Center Work Prebake, Side Work Prebake,
Vertical Stud Søderberg and Horizontal Stud Søderberg. The IPCC expert working panel mostly based these
default factors on 1990 average IAI anode effect data and the average technology specific slope factors. IAI
survey data collected since the publication of the original IPCC default values shows substantial reductions
over the period 1990 to 2000 in specific emissions in all technology categories. In addition it has been shown
that among the overall category of Center Work Prebake cells, the more modern Point Fed Prebake cells
have made progress at a faster rate than for the older bar broken Center Work Prebake cells. Thus the
original category has been broken into two separate types.
This is one of the most important reasons that convinced Italy to use IAI 2003 default emission factors over
the period 1990-1999, as indicated also by ALCOA, instead of IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) default
emission factors. As reported in a recent publication supplied by ECOFYS (ECOFYS, 2009), currently all
new aluminium plants are designed according to Point Fed Prebake technology and the first improvement in
the primary aluminium industry advancement is to replace current technologies with PFPB. Other
technologies, Vertical Stud Søderberg, Center Work Prebake and Side Work Prebake are expected to be
gradually replaced by PFPB. Only 20% of the existing plants had not yet been upgraded to PFPB in EU27.
Moreover, the mean implied emission factor value for CF4 over the period 2000-2012 is 0.12 (kg/t),
comprised between 0.3 and 0.1 kg/t indicated in IAI 2003 for PFPB technology (see Table 4.6).
Figures 4.2 and 4.3 report the comparison in CF4 emissions time series following Tier 1 and Tier 1 + Tier 2:
in each diagram the emissions time series out of different source for EFs are compared.
CF4 Emissions (only Tier 1)
250,000
200,000
150,000
kg
GL 2006 = IAI 2006
IAI 2003 (ITALY)
100,000
GPG 2000
50,000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
0
Figure 4.2 CF4 emissions (only Tier 1)
145
CF4 Emissions (only Tier 1)
250,000
200,000
150,000
kg
GL 2006 = IAI 2006
IAI 2003 (ITALY)
100,000
GPG 2000
50,000
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
0
Figure 4.3 CF4 emissions (Tier 1+Tier 2)
As for consistency, the Tier 1 + Tier 2 approach in estimating emissions is more reliable in producing the
time series because it allows to use site specific data provided by the operator from 2000 onwards (and the
use of the best available data is a good practice). Moreover, emission factor values reported in the IPCC
Good Practice Guidance or in the 2006 IAI document (mean implied emission factor is 0.12 kg/t) lead to
higher values for the emissions time series than those calculated out of emission factor values in 2003 IAI
document (0.08 kg/t supplied by ALCOA and used by the Party), which means that national estimates can be
considered conservative for the period. So for 1990 the use of EFs from IAI 2003, red line, results in CF4
emission levels lower than those estimated by using the other EF references. This comparison was already
done during the compilation of the 2006 submission and the Initial Report, which resulted in the
establishment of the assigned amount.
Tier1 (1990-1999) and Tier 2 (2000-2012) time series are also better linked using IAI 2003 EFs (see Figure
4.3) because of the minor gap from 1999 to 2000 since the mean implied emission factor value for CF4 over
the period 2000-2012 is 0.12 (kg/t), comprised between 0.3 and 0.1 kg/t indicated in IAI 2003 for PFPB
technology (see Table 4.6).
For this reason, the use of the combined Tier1+Tier2 approach, in this case, is conservative.
4.4.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Emissions from the sector are checked with the relevant process operators. In this framework, primary
aluminium production supplied by national statistics (ENIRISORSE, several years; ASSOMET, several
years) and the only national producer ALCOA (ALCOA, several years), in addition with data reported in a
site-specific study (Sotacarbo, 2004), have been checked. Moreover, emissions from magnesium foundries
are annually compared with those reported in the national EPER/E-PRTR registry while for the iron and steel
sector emissions reported in the national EPER/E-PRTR registry and for the Emissions Trading Scheme are
compared and checked. Emissions from primary aluminium production have been also checked with data
reported under EU-ETS.
4.4.5
Source-specific recalculations
No recalculation is occurred, except for GWP changed values.
146
4.4.6
Source-specific planned improvements
Reductants used and the average emission factor of CO2 from electric arc furnaces have been checked with
ETS data and the tier 2 methodology will be applied in the next submission.
Emissions from lead and zinc production have been reported in 1.A.2 because of the lack of information to
distinguish between energy and process. Since 2013, ETS data contain info about some Italian plant and
Italian experts are evaluating the possibility to estimate energy and process emissions separately.
4.5
Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use (2D)
4.5.1
Source category description
The sub-sector comprises the following sources: lubricant use, paraffin wax, and other categories which
include the use of urea, asphalt roofing and paving with asphalt and solvent use. CO2 emissions from this
category is a key source at level and trend assessment considering the uncertainty (only at level with the
LULUCF); in 1990 it was a key category at level assessment.
Lubricant use
Lubricants are mostly used in industrial and transportation applications. Lubricants are produced either at
refineries through separation from crude oil or at petrochemical facilities. Under this category emissions
originated by lubricant use in industry and white lubricants and lubricants used for insulating purposes have
been considered, CO2 and NMVOC emissions have been estimated for the whole time series. Emissions
from lubricant use in vehicles have been accounted for in the Energy Sector.
Paraffin wax
Paraffin waxes are separated from crude oil during the production of light (distillate) lubricating oils.
Paraffin waxes are categorised by oil content and the amount of refinement. About 60-70% of the total
amount of paraffin waxes produced in the EU area is used to manufacture candles. Nowdays about 95% of
candles are paraffin wax candles; 3% are stearic candles and the remaining 2% is made of beeswax. Slack
oils could enter the manufacturing process thus potentially resulting into the emissions of SOx and PAH.
Use of urea
Urea can be used in Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems to reduce NOx emissions from combustion.
SCR systems are generally applied to engines (vehicles) and also to industrial combustion (e.g. Power
Plants).
CO2 emissions originated by the use of urea in SCR systems have been estimated and reported in this subsector.
Asphalt roofing and road paving with asphalt
In Italy 14 facilities have been producing bitumen roofing membranes and about 87 facilities operate in the
production and laying of asphalt mix products for road paving. SITEB, the Italian asphalt and road
association is the relevant source of information for these two source categories. NMVOC emissions have
been estimated for these two source categories along the whole time series.
Solvent use
The use of solvents manufactured using fossil fuels as feedstocks can lead to evaporative emissions of
various NMVOC and CO2 emissions, after oxidation of NMVOC in the atmosphere.
Methodologies for estimating NMVOC emissions can be found in the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission
inventory guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2009). Also some indications on the subcategories to include in the
‘solvent use’ category are reported in the 2006 IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006), which are the following:
solvent use in paint application, degreasing and dry cleaning, manufacture and processing of chemical
products, other solvent use, such as printing industry, glues application, use of domestic products.
147
4.5.2
Methodological issues
Lubricant use
The use of lubricants in industrial engines is primarily for their lubricating properties and associated
emissions are therefore considered as non-combustion emissions to be reported in the IPPU Sector.
NMVOC and CO2 emissions are reported for this category.
CO2 emissions for the whole timeseries are calculated based on a Tier 1 approach considering the average
Lower Heating Value (LHV) of lubricants, the average ODU factor and the average carbon content of
lubricants (Equation 5.2 IPCC Guidelines 2006):
CO2 Emissions = LC •CCLubricant •ODULubricant • 44 /12
where
LC= lubricant consumption
CClubricant= carbon content
ODUlubricant= oxidation factor
44/12= mass ratio CO2/C
Statistics related to the total amount of lubricants consumed in Italy are officially provided by MISE every
year (Bollettino Petrolifero) but no details concerning different kind of lubricants are available thus allowing
us only for a Tier 1 approach; LHV, Carbon Content and ODU factors used are the default values included in
the IPCC 2006 Guidelines are taken.
Emissions from the use of lubricants in 2-stroke engines have been accounted for in the Energy Sector.
NMVOC emissions for the whole timeseries have been estimated too, based on the total lubricants
consumption and an NMVOC EF= 28 kg NMVOC/tons of lubricant (EMEP/EEA, 2013).
Paraffin wax
In Italy paraffin waxes are mostly used in the manufacture of candles, although a number of different
applications (e.g. food production and many others) could have paraffin waxes as an input. Emissions from
the use of waxes derive primarily when the waxes or derivatives of paraffins are combusted during use (e.g.,
candles). In order to estimate CO2 emissions for the whole timeseries it has been assumed that 65% of total
amount of paraffin wax is destined to the manufacture of candles on account of information provided by the
industrial association (Assocandele, 2015). Default values for carbon content of paraffin wax as weel as
ODU factor and LHV have been assumed (IPCC 2006 Guidelines) and applied to the activity data according
to a Tier 1 approach (Equation 5.4 IPCC 2006 Guidelines):
CO2 Emissions = PW •CCWax •ODUWax • 44 /12
where:
CO2 Emissions = CO2 emissions from waxes, tonne CO2
PW = total wax consumption, TJ
CCWax = carbon content of paraffin wax (default), tonne C/TJ (= kg C/GJ)
ODUWax = ODU factor for paraffin wax, fraction
44/12 = mass ratio of CO2/C
Use of urea
Emissions of CO2 originated by the use of urea in SCR systems in engines and Power plants have been
estimated and reported in this sub-sector.
Concerning vehicles, SCR systems were introduced in Italy in 2006 so CO2 emissions related to SCR
systems can be traced back in the timeseries up to 2006. The amount of urea and CO2 emitted using urea can
be estimated by COPERT.
Concerning power plants, the amount of urea used in SCR systems has been reported by operators and under
the Italian ETS together with CO2 emissions for the years 1997 up to 2013.
Asphalt roofing and road paving
NMVOC emissions from the manufacturing of asphalt roofing materials have been estimated based on the
total surface of bitumen roofing membranes (Federchimica, several years; Siteb, several years) and default
emission factors (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007; EMEP/EEA, 2009).
148
NMVOC emissions from road paving operations have been estimated based on the amount of asphalt mix
produced for each year (ISTAT, several years [a]; Siteb, several years) and the emission factors also derived
from data supplied by Siteb (EPA, 2000; Siteb, several years).
Solvent use
Emissions of NMVOC from solvent use have been estimated according to the methodology reported in the
EMEP/EEA guidebook, applying both national and international emission factors (Vetrella, 1994;
EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007, EMEP/EEA, 2013). Country specific emission factors provided by several
accredited sources have been used extensively, together with data from the national EPER/EPRTR Registry;
in particular, for paint application (Offredi, several years; FIAT, several years [b]), solvent use in dry
cleaning (ENEA/USLRMA, 1995), solvent use in textile finishing and in the tanning industries (TECHNE,
1998; Regione Toscana, 2001; Regione Campania, 2005; GIADA 2006). Basic information from industry on
percentage reduction of solvent content in paints and other products has been applied to EMEP/EEA
emission factors in order to evaluate the reduction in emissions during the considered period.
Emissions from domestic solvent use have been calculated using a detailed methodology, based on VOC
content per type of consumer product.
As regards household and car care products, information on VOC content and activity data has been supplied
by the Sectoral Association of the Italian Federation of the Chemical Industry (Assocasa, several years) and
by the Italian Association of Aerosol Producers (AIA, several years [a] and [b]). As regards cosmetics and
toiletries, basic data have been supplied by the Italian Association of Aerosol Producers too (AIA, several
years [a] and [b]) and by the national Institute of Statistics and industrial associations (ISTAT, several years
[a], [b], [c] and [d]; UNIPRO, several years); emission factors time series have been reconstructed on the
basis of the information provided by the European Commission (EC, 2002).
The conversion of NMVOC emissions into CO2 emissions has been carried out considering that carbon
content is equal to 85% as indicated by the European Environmental Agency for the CORINAIR project
(EEA, 1997).
4.5.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CO2 emissions from non energy products from fuels and solvent use is
estimated equal to 58% due to an uncertainty of 30% and 50% in activity data and emission factors,
respectively.
In 2013, CO2 derive mainly from the subcategory ‘Other’, which accounts for 90.8% of the sectoral
emissions; specifically emissions from the use of solvent share 88.3%. The second source of sectoral
emissions is the use of lubricants contributing to 8.4% of the total.
Table 4.15 shows CO2 emission trend from 1990 to 2013.
Table 4.15 Trend in CO2 emissions from the non energy products from fuels and solvent use category, 1990 –
2013 (Gg)
GAS/SUBSOURCE
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
2,058
1,927
1,745
1,670
1,378
1,400
1,311
1,285
156
176
189
169
123
119
102
109
19
20
21
14
13
9
10
10
1,883
1,731
1,535
1,488
1,242
1,272
1,199
1,166
-
-
-
-
15.86
19.96
22.64
25.47
-
-
2.38
2.35
11.57
11.45
11.30
6.46
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1,883
1,731
1,533
1,486
1,214
1,241
1,165
1,134
CO2 (Gg)
2D. Non-energy products from
fuels. Other
2D1. Lubricant use
2D2. Paraffin wax use
2D.3. Other
2D3a. Urea
(emissions abatement in engines)
2D3b. Urea
(emissions abatement in Power
Plants)
2D3c. Road paving
2D3d. Asphalt roofing
2D3e. Solvent
149
GAS/SUBSOURCE
Paint application
1990
844
1995
787
2000
704
2005
667
2010
487
2011
544
2012
508
2013
537
Degreasing and dry cleaning
177
106
82
72
63
62
60
59
Other
241
268
258
186
171
170
163
163
Chemical products
622
570
488
560
492
466
433
375
The decrease observed in emission levels from 1990 to 2013, about 37.6%, is to be attributed to the reduction
in emissions from solvent use, mainly for the reduction in paint application, application of glue and
adhesives and domestic solvent use; specifically, the reduction of emissions from paint application for
domestic use, which drop by about 36% from 1990, is due to the implementation of Italian Legislative
Decree 161/2006. Other European directives applies to the solvent use category, which represents the main
source of NMVOC emissions at national level (41.9% of the total NMVOC); for istance, the European
Directives (EC, 1999; EC, 2004) regarding NMVOC emission reduction in paint application entered into
force, in Italy, in January 2004 and in March 2006, establishing a reduction of the solvent content in
products.
4.5.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
For the solvent use category, different QA/QC and verification activities are carried out. Data production and
consumption time series for some activities (paint application in constructions and buildings, polyester
processing, polyurethane processing, pharmaceutical products, paints manufacturing, glues manufacturing,
textile finishing, leather tanning, fat edible and non edible oil extraction, application of glues and adhesives)
are checked with data acquired by the National Statistics Institute (ISTAT, several years [a], [b] and [c]), the
Sectoral Association of the Italian Federation of the Chemical Industry (AVISA, several years) and the Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, several years). For specific categories, emission
factors and emissions are also shared with the relevant industrial associations; this is particularly the case of
paint application for wood, some chemical processes and anaesthesia and aerosol cans.
In the framework of the MeditAIRaneo project, ISPRA commissioned to Techne Consulting S.r.l. a survey to
collect national information on emission factors in the solvent sector. The results, published in the report
“Rassegna dei fattori di emissione nazionali ed internazionali relativamente al settore solventi” (TECHNE,
2004), have been used to verify and validate the emission estimates. ISPRA commissioned to Techne
Consulting S.r.l. another survey to compare emission factors with the last update published in the
EMEP/EEA guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2009). The results are reported in “Fattori di emissione per l’utilizzo di
solventi” (TECHNE, 2008) and have been used to update emission factors for polyurethane and polystyrene
foam processing activities.
In addition, for paint application, data communicated from the industries in the framework of the EU
Directive 2004/42, implemented by the Italian Legislative Decree 161/2006, on the limitation of emissions of
volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain paints and varnishes and vehicle
refinishing products have been used as a verification of emission estimates. These data refer to the
composition of the total amount of paints and varnishes (water and solvent contents) in different
subcategories for interior and exterior use and the total amount of products used for vehicle refinishing and
they are available from the year 2007.
Additional verifications of the emissions from the sector occurred in 2012, on account of the bilateral
independent review between Italy and Spain and the revision of national estimates and projections in the
context of the National emission ceilings Directive for the EU Member States and the Gothenburg Protocol
of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP).
4.5.5 Source-specific recalculations
Following the 2006 IPCC category, this category is new as compared the previous submissions and
emissions from the use of paraffin, waxes and urea have been estimated. No major recalculations occurred
for the emission estimates from the use of solvent.
150
4.5.6
Source-specific planned improvements
No further improvements are planned.
Electronics Industry Emissions (2E)
4.6
4.6.1
Source category description
Fluorocarbons emissions from this sub-sector are from semiconductor manufacturing industry (2.E.1).
Actually in Italy, there are three national plants of semiconductor manufacturing, owned by two company,
ST Microelectronics and LFoundry (ex Micron Technology).
The semiconductor manufacturing companies supply yearly consumption and emission data for each plant
(ST Microelectronics, several years; Micron, several years; Numonyx, several years; LFoundry, several
years).
F-gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing are estimated using the Tier 2a methodology of the new
2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
As concern photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, actually in Italy there is no production of PV cells, but only
assembly. Before 2011, PV cells production occurred but no fluorinated compounds have been used for the
process (Lux, 2015; Solsonica, 2015).
Finally, no thin-film-transistor flat panel display (TFT-FPD) production occurs in Italy (Linde Gas, 2015).
4.6.2
Methodological issues
F-gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing are estimated using the Tier 2a methodology of the 2006
IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Companies involved in the semiconductor manufacturing provide yearly data on consumption and emissions
(ST Microelectronics, several years; Micron, several years; Numonyx, several years; LFoundry, several
years), calculated on the basis of the following equation, accepted by the World Semiconductor Council
(WSC).
Emissions for PFCi = PFCi*(1-h)[(1-Ci)(1-Ai)*GWPi + Bi*GWP(byproduct)*(1-A(byproduct)]
where:
h=
PFCi =
kgsi =
GWPi =
Ci =
EFi =
Bi =
Ai =
fraction of gasi remaining in container (heel)
purchases of gasi = kgsi
mass of gasi purchased
100 yr global warming potential of gasi
average utilization factor of gasi (average for all etch and CVD processes) =1-EFi
average emission factor of gasi (average for all etch and CVD processes)
mass of CF4 created per unit mass of PFCi transformed
fraction of PFCi destroyed by abatement = ai,j*Va
By product formation
ACF4 =
fraction of PFCi converted to CF4 and destroyed by abatement = aCF4*Va
ai,j =
average destruction efficiency of abatement toolj for gasi
aCF4 =
average destruction efficiency of abatement toolj for CF4
Va =
fraction of gasi that is fed into the abatement tools
ACF4 =
fraction of PFCi converted to CF4 and destroyed by abatement = aCF4*Va
ai,j =
average destruction efficiency of abatement toolj for gasi
aCF4 =
average destruction efficiency of abatement toolj for CF4
151
AC2F6 =
a C2F6 =
AC3F8 =
aC3F8 =
Va =
fraction of PFCi that is converted to C2F6 and destroyed by abatement = aC2F6*Va
average destruction efficiency of abatement toolj for C2F6
fraction of PFCi that is converted to C3F8 and destroyed by abatement = aC3F8*Va
average destruction efficiency of abatement toolj for C3F8
fraction of gasi that is fed into the abatement tools
Emissions are calculated for the following fluorinated gases: HFC 23, HFC 32, HFC 134a, C2F6, CF4, C3F8,
C4F8, SF6 and NF3. From 2012, according with World Semiconductor Council (WSC), data on CH2F2, C4F6,
C5F8 are gathered.
From 2000, emissions are calculated considering the contribution of abatement systems.
4.6.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in F-gas emissions for PFC, HFC, SF6 and NF3 emissions from semiconductor
manufacturing is estimated to be about 20.6% in annual emissions, 5% and 20% concerning respectively
activity data and emission factors.
In table 4.16 emissions from semiconductor manufacturing are reported.
Table 4.16 Fluorocarbon emissions from semiconductor industry, 1990 – 2013 (kt CO2 eq.)
GAS
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
HFC 23 (t)
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.4
0.5
HFC 32 (t)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
HFC 134a (t)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
CF4 (t)
0.0
3.0
9.1
11.5
9.0
9.9
10.1
12.2
C2F6 (t)
0.0
3.0
8.1
6.7
2.3
2.5
2.2
2.5
C3F8 (t)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
C4F8 (t)
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
2.6
2.3
1.4
1.0
SF6 (t)
0.0
0.0
0.9
2.5
1.3
2.2
2.0
1.9
NF3 (t)
F-Gas emissions (kt CO2
eq.)
0.0
0.0
1.5
1.9
1.2
1.6
1.4
1.5
0.0
59.0
218.1
278.2
182.0
216.6
193.4
209.5
4.6.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
This source category is covered by the general QA/QC procedures. Where information is available,
emissions from production and consumption of fluorinated gases have been checked with data reported to the
national EPER/E-PRTR registry.
4.6.5
Source-specific recalculations
No recalculation is occurred, except for GWP changed values.
4.6.6
Source-specific planned improvements
No further improvements are planned.
152
4.7
Emissions of fluorinated substitutes for ozone depleting substances (2F)
4.7.1
Source category description
The sub-sector Emissions of fluorinated substitutes for ozone depleting substances consists of the following
sub-applications:
2.F.1 – Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2.F.2 – Emissions from Foam blowing Agents
2.F.3 – Emissions from Fire Protection
2.F.4 – Emissions from Aerosols
HFC emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning is a key source at level and trend assessment, both
using Tier 1 and Tier 2.
HFC emissions from foam blowing agents is a key source, only including uncertainty, at level assessment
with and without LULUCF and at trend assessment only with LULUCF.
HFC emissions from fire protection is a key source only at trend assessment, using Tier 2 approach without
LULUCF. Finally, HFC emissions from aerosols is a key source only at trend assessment, using Tier 2
approach.
The share of F-gas emissions of fluorinated substitutes for ozone depleting substances in the national total of
F-gases is 95.1% in 2013.
4.7.2
Methodological issues
The methods used to calculate F-gas emissions of fluorinated substitutes for ozone depleting substances are
presented in the following box:
Sub-sources of F-gas emissions and calculation methods
Source category
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Sub-application
Refrigeration and
equipment (2F1)
Calculation method
air
conditioning
IPCC Tier 2a
Foam blowing (2F2)
IPCC Tier 2a
Fire extinguishers (2F3)
IPCC Tier 2a
Aerosols/metered dose inhalers (2F4)
IPCC Tier 2a
Total emissions have been calculated as the sum of manufacturing emissions, use emissions and disposal
emissions. IPCC Tier 2a implies the availability of either number of applications/equipments using the
individual gas or the amounts of the gas used in the different sectors. Based on the availability of the amount
of individual gas produced in Italy and the sectoral uses of the gas we carry out the estimation of emissions
according to IPCC Tier 2a. The estimates are based on single gas consumptions data supplied by the only
national refrigerants producer (Solvay, several years) and by industry and not on equipment consumption
estimates. The methodology applied, although is not a balance of chemical sales, uses specific emission
factors for each consumption type.
Beacause of the approach followed, and thus lack of data on quantity of each gas disposed, emissions from
disposal are included into the emissions during the product’s life for the whole time series. The assumption
implies that the F-gas charged in the equipments is emitted completely during the lifetime of the equipments.
So at decommissioning there is not F-gas charge left and no emissions or recovery do occur.
The Legislative Decree nr. 151/05 has implemented in Italy the EU Directive on Waste from Electric and
Electronic Equipments. According to this Decree when equipments are disposed of it is by law required to
recover the remaining F-gas and either reuse or destruct it, but few data are available at the moment;
although the number of authorized centres for the treatment of WEEE is known, there are many small
authorized centres which do not have to report about their activities.
153
Basic data have been supplied by industry: specifically, for the mobile air conditioning equipment the
national motor company and the agent’s union of foreign motor-cars vehicles have provided the yearly
consumptions (FIAT, several years [a]; IVECO, several years; UNRAE, several years; CNH, several years.
For the other refrigeration and air conditioning equipment the producers supply detailed table of
consumption data by gas (Solvay, several years); pharmaceutical industry has provided aerosols/metered
dose inhaler data (Sanofi Aventis, several years; Boehringer Ingelheim, several years; Chiesi Farmaceutici,
several years; GSK, several years; Lusofarmaco, several years; Menarini, several years; Istituto De Angeli,
several years). Finally, for the sub-source fire extinguishers, the European Association for Responsible Use
of HFCs in Fire Fighting was contacted (ASSURE, 2005), as well as the Consortium of fire protection
systems (Clean Gas, 2001). More in details HFC227ea consumptions for fire extinguishers along the whole
time series has been provided by Consorzio Clean Gas; consumption levels have been supplied for the years
1990-2000 together with projections of consumptions for the years 2005 and 2010. The projections indicate
a level of consumption constant since 2005 (150 tonnes). After 2010 there are no detailed consumption data
available but according to the projections and information supplied by industry the amount of gas is expected
to decrease.
In the following box, the sources of activity data and emissions factors are summarized.
Activity Data
References
Solvay
Emission Factors
References
Expert Judgement
Solvay
Expert Judgement
Solvay
Expert Judgement
HFC 134a
FIAT, IVECO,
UNRAE, CNH
IPCC
HFC 245fa
HFC 134a
Solvay
IPCC
CRF Category
Category
Substance
2.F.1.b
Domestic Refrigeration
2.F.1.a
Commercial Refrigeration
2.F.1.f
Stationary Air Conditioning
HFC 134a
HFC 23
HFC 125
HFC 134a
HFC 143a
HFC 32
HFC 125
HFC 134a
2.F.1.e
Mobile Air Conditioning
2.F.2.a
Foam blowing
2.F.4
Metered Dose Inhalers
HFC 134a
2.F.3
Fire Extinguishers
HFC 227ea
Menarini, Chiesi,
Sanofi Aventis, GSK,
Lusofarmaco, Istituto
De Angeli,
Boehringer
Clean Gas
Chiesi
ASSURE
Due to the methodology used to estimate emissions, based on the consumption of the F-gases in the different
categories, where relevant, the estimated consumption include also the amount of fluid contained in the
imported products. As an example, the amount of F-gases used in the air conditioning devices mounted on
vehicles manufactured abroad and imported in Italy is part of the information we use in the estimation
process. UNRAE, which is the Association of foreign car makers, provide us every year with the amount of
Fgases used in the imported vehicles. As for aerosols (i.e. MDI), every year the relevant operators at national
level provide us with the consumption of Fgases used in the national production process. Some of the
reporting operators manufacture the MDI at Italian facilities, while some others just market in Italy imported
MDI.
Industrial Refrigeration and Transport Refrigeration estimations are included in Commercial Refrigeration
because no detailed information is available to split consumptions and emissions in the different sectors.
Solvay, which is the only national refrigerants producer, has supplied gas consumptions data with the
indication of the relevant use sector, as reported in the following box.
Refrigerant
Final Use
Equipment typology
R 404
Refrigeration
Large Commercial Refrigeration Equipments
R 507
Refrigeration
Large Commercial Refrigeration Equipments
R 407c
Air Conditioning
Chillers
154
R 410a
Air Conditioning
Chillers
HFC 23
Refrigeration
Small Commercial Refrigeration Equipments
HFC 134a (pure)
Refrigeration
Domestic Refrigeration Equipments
Appropriate losses rates have been applied for each gas, taking into account the equipment where
refrigerants are generally used, as suggested by a pool of experts during a specific meeting held at the
Ministry of the Environment, Land and Sea (ISPRA-MATTM, 2013), in order to assess F-gas emissions
from refrigeration and air conditioning, with a focus on commercial refrigeration. These experts represent the
following national associations of refrigeration and air conditioning:
- COAER-ANIMA (Air Conditioning) - Association of Manufacturers of aerodynamic equipment and
systems under the Federation of National Associations of Mechanical and Engineering similar
(ANIMA), which is the sectoral industrial association within Confindustria (Confederation of Italian
Industry) representing companies in this sector.
- ASSOFOODTEC-ANIMA (Commercial Refrigeration) - Association of Italian manufacturers of
machinery, plant, equipment for the production, processing and preservation of food, under the
ANIMA Federation.
- AICARR – Italian Association of Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.
- CECED (Domestic Refrigeration) - It represents the manufacturers of the Domestic and Professional
Appliance sector in Italy; CECED is a member of ANIE Federation (The National Federation of
Italian Electrotechnical, Electronics and ICT Companies) and Confindustria.
For the years 1990-1999 leakage rates were supplied by industrial associations of manufacturers as the best
available country specific information for the years concerned. Industrial associations have revised the
leakage rates for the years from 2000 to take into consideration the changes in technology which have been
occurring in the manufacturing of the equipments concerned. The appropriate emission factors are reported
in the following box, distinguished in two different periods of the time series.
1990-1999
2000-2013
Leakage rate (%)
Leakage rate (%)
Manufacturing
Product life
Manufacturing
Product life
Small Commercial Refrigeration
0.5%
5.0%
0.5%
5.0%
Chillers
3.0%
5.0%
0.5%
2.0%
Large Commercial Refrigeration
3.0%
15.0%
0.5%
12.0%
Domestic Refrigeration
3.0%
0.7%
0.5%
0.7%
Equipment
Basically, since the F-gases are also expensive material in the manufacturing process it was a matter of
concern of the manufacturers to succeed in limiting losses in that stage and that was achieved by setting
higher levels in the acceptance testing procedures. According to the information supplied by the industry
year 2000 is considered a turning point for the sector market.
For what concern the other sources of emissions of substitutes for ozone depleting substances, the following
emission factors have been used, for the whole time series.
Leakage rate (%)
Mobile Air Conditioning – new vehicles
Mobile Air Conditioning – retrofit vehicles
Manufacturing
Product life
4%
10%
8%
20%
1.95%
100%
Foam
10%
4.5%
Fire Protection
0%
5%
Metered Dose Inhalers
155
Emissions estimation from MAC systems is based on gas consumption provided by the relevant national
operators. These data have been used to estimate the quantity accumulated every year. Emissions from
equipment disposal are already included into the emission during the product’s life for the whole time series.
According to the IPCC default values for MAC systems, leakage rates product life are equal to 10-20%. The
lower bounds of the ranges are usually to be used for new vehicles, the upper bound values for retrofit
vehicles. From early 2000s all the new vehicles are equipped with AC and no more vehicles needed to be
retrofitted. Emission factor for the first fill have been provided by manufacturers and are in line with the
default value in the IPCC Guidelines (4-5%).
Emissions from MDI are estimated on the basis of HFC consumptions and losses rates provided by the
relevant operators in Italy. Specifically, losses rate during manufacturing is set at 1.95% while it is assumed
that 100% of the charged is lost during the product life (in the same year).
Concerning fire extinguishers, the European association for responsible use of HFCs in fire fighting
(ASSURE), provided us with the information concerning losses rates in manufacturing of fire fighting
systems (0%) and during the average lifetime of the fire extinguishers (less than 5%). The whole gas is
considered emitted and not recovered as required by the latest European and National legislation.
The Regulation n. 842/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Coucil of 17 May 2006 on certain
fluorinated greenhouse gases (EC, 2006), has been transposed into a national decree in 2012, by the Decree
of the President of the Republic 27 January 2012, n. 43 (DPR 43/2012). In particular, the article 3(6) of the
Regulation n. 842/2006 has been transposed in the art. 16 of the national Decree, still into force, although the
mentioned regulation has been replaced by the new Regulation n. 517/2014 (EC, 2014), where is stated that
every year by the 31 May, the operator of the refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump equipment, as
well as fire protection systems, which contain more than 3 kg of fluorinated greenhouse gases, must submit
to ISPRA data on emissions referred to those applications.
ISPRA has developed a specific website, where each operator requests username and password and compiles
the Declaration.
The year 2012 has been the first year of the data collection, and actually ISPRA has started the new 2015
collection (data collected will refer to the year 2014). Data are still of course not complete, and consequently
not comparable with inventory data, but a preliminary analysis has been done, on data collected for 2013,
resulting in product life factor for the commercial appliances much far lower compare to product life factors
reported in the IPCC GPG and Guidelies, as enhanced in the following box.
National DB
2006 IPCC GL
Charge class (kg)
Total charge
(kg)
Total annual
release (kg)
Product life
factor (%)
Charge class (kg)
EF in operation (%)
3-6
2,518
54
2.14
0.2 - 6
1 - 15
6 - 50
28,863
725
2.51
0.5 - 100
1 - 10
> 50 kg
271,442
2,170
0.80
50 - 2000
10 - 35
Total
302,823
2,949
0.97
4.7.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in F-gas emissions for HFC emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning is
estimated to be about 58% in annual emissions, 30% and 50% concerning respectively activity data and
emission factors.
In Table 4.17 an overview of the emissions from the sub-sector is given for the 1990-2013 period, per
compound.
HFC emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment increased from 1994 driven by the
increase of their consumptions, especially HFC134a consumption for mobile air conditioning. HFC
emissions from ODS substitutes started in 1996 and they have been increasing since then, especially
HFC134a from foam blowing and aerosols.
156
Table 4.17 HFC emissions per sub-application from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning in tons, 1990-2013.
COMPOUND (t)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
HFC 23
0.0
0.4
2.3
5.4
8.2
8.6
8.9
9.1
HFC 125
0.0
1.5
84.5
379.2
668.5
717.3
764.1
809.2
HFC 134a
0.0
0.1
6.1
28.1
49.9
53.5
57.0
60.4
HFC 143a
Total HFC emissions from Commercial
Refrigeration
2.F.1.a - Commercial Refrigeration
0.0
1.6
96.8
435.4
768.2
824.3
878.1
930.0
0.0
3.5
189.7
848.2
1,494.9
1,603.8
1,708.1
1,808.8
HFC 134a
Total HFC emissions from Domestic
Refrigeration
2.F.1.e - Mobile Air Conditioning
0.0
0.0
31.0
60.2
91.8
98.4
105.1
111.9
0.0
0.0
31.0
60.2
91.8
98.4
105.1
111.9
HFC 134a
0.0
172.5
651.7
828.5
938.0
944.9
944.3
929.7
Total HFC emissions from MAC
0.0
172.5
651.7
828.5
938.0
944.9
944.3
929.7
HFC 32
0.0
0.0
16.8
86.7
182.1
202.7
223.9
245.8
HFC 125
0.0
0.0
17.7
91.1
190.8
212.2
234.2
256.8
HFC 134a
Total HFC emissions from Stationary Air
Conditioning
2.F.2.a - Foam blowing (closed cell)
0.0
0.0
23.1
114.4
226.8
247.3
266.6
284.8
0.0
0.0
57.5
292.3
599.6
662.3
724.7
787.4
HFC 245fa
0.0
0.0
49.4
180.1
213.8
213.3
212.0
209.8
2.F.1.a - Commercial Refrigeration
2.F.1.f - Stationary Air Conditioning
HFC 134a
0.0
0.0
0.0
140.6
229.1
247.6
266.4
285.5
Total HFC emissions from Foam Blowing
0.0
0.0
49.4
320.6
443.0
460.9
478.3
495.3
HFC 227ea
Total HFC emissions from Fire
Extinguishers
2.F.4 - Aerosol
0.0
0.0
6.8
29.3
56.6
61.3
65.7
69.9
0.0
0.0
6.8
29.3
56.6
61.3
65.7
69.9
HFC 134a
0.0
0.0
83.4
184.7
302.6
299.4
272.4
357.8
2.F.3 - Fire Extinguishers
Total HFC emissions from Aerosols
0.0
0.0
83.4
184.7
302.6
299.4
272.4
357.8
Total emissions from 2.F subsector
0.0
176.1
1,069.4
2,563.8
3,926.4
4,131.0
4,298.6
4,560.8
4.7.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
This source category is covered by the general QA/QC procedures. Refrigeration and air conditioning
category has been analyzed with experts of the national associations, in the framework of a revision of the
sector as a consequence of the review process.
Information from the reporting (EC, several years) under article 6 of the Regulation n. 842/2006 (EC, 2006)
and article 19 Regulation n. 517/2014 (EC, 2014), as well information from the National Database of the
refrigeration, air conditioning and fire protection systems, established by the article 16 of DPR 43/2012, has
been analyzed.
4.7.5
Source-specific recalculations
No recalculation is occurred, except for GWP changed values.
157
4.7.6
Source-specific planned improvements
Improvements in the refrigeration and air conditioning sub-category, including stationary fire extinguish
system, are expected from the collection of emission data as requested by the article 16 of the Decree of the
President of the Republic 27 January 2012, n. 43 which receipt the article 3(6) of the EC Fluorinated Gas
Regulation.
Further investigation is planned to evaluate disposal emissions, also checking data reported in the National
Database. A top down approach to cross check emission estimates is also in program.
4.8
Other production (2G)
4.8.1
Source category description
The sub-sector Other product manufacture and use consists of the following sub-applications:
2.G.1 – SF6 Emissions from electrical equipment
2.G.2 – SF6 used in equipment in university and research particle accelerators
2.G.3 – N2O from product uses
The share of SF6 emissions from the sector in the national total of SF6 was 72% in the base-year 1990, and
89.5% in 2013. N2O accounts for only 0.2% of the total N2O emissions.
4.8.2
Methodological issues
Electrical Equipment (SF6)
As regard SF6 emissions from electrical equipment, these have been estimated according to the IPCC Tier 2
approach. Concerning manufacturing and installation emissions, since 1995 the methodology used is largely
in accordance with the IPCC Tier 3 methodology. In 1997, the ANIE Federation has began a statistical
survey within their associated companies, in accordance with ISPRA, in order to monitorate yearly SF6 used
in electrical equipment > 1kV, and thus SF6 manufacturing emissions (ANIE, 2001). ANIE Federation is the
Confindustria member representing the electrotechnical and electronic companies operating in Italy. ANIE
has developed data sheets for their associated companies in accordance with the methodology drawn up by
CAPIEL, the Coordinating Committee for the Associations of Manufacturers of Switchgear and Controlgear
equipments in the European Union: the CAPIEL inventory methodology covers all sorts of use of SF6 in the
electrical sector, from the SF6 purchase till the end of life of the equipment and covers all aspects of the
required data (CAPIEL, 2002). It is based on a Mass Balance Methodology, as given by IPCC Tier 3b,
comparing the input and output on a yearly basis. In the following box the summary sheet used for
manufacturing inventory is reported (ANIE, several years).
SF6 inventory at manufacturing level (ANIE, reporting year 2013)
Year 2013
(Kg)
INVENTORY'S CATEGORIES
1.1 In Italy
Weight of SF6 contained in the tanks
15,063
1.2 Abroad
Weight of SF6 contained in the tanks
130,887
1. Purchased amount
TOTAL 1.
2.1.1 ENEL
2. Amount contained in
the equipment at the
terms of sale
2.1 In Italy
2.1.2 Energy
industry and
railways
2.1.3 Others
(Industry,
Tertiary, Private,
145,950
Weight of SF6 contained in the
equipments and in the tanks
19,774
Weight of SF6 contained in the
equipments and in the tanks
14,069
Weight of SF6 contained in the
equipments and in the tanks
14,278
158
ecc.)
Weight of SF6 contained in the
equipments and in the tanks
2.2 Abroad
88,251
TOTAL 2.
136,372
TOTAL 3.
1,827
3. Amount contained in the equipment returned to the
manufacturer
Weight of SF6 contained in the
equipments and in the tanks
4. a) Destroyed amount
Weight of SF6 in the equipments sent to
authorized disposal treatment
9,114
4. b) Amount returned to the manufacturer
Weight of SF6 returned to manufacturer
for authorized recycling
500
5. Annual stock changes
SF6 emissions from
manufacturing
TOTAL 4.
9,614
TOTAL 5.
-159
Balance input-output (1+3-5)-(2+4)
1,950
From 1990 to 1994 emissions have been estimated on the basis of leakage rate during manufacturing and
installation and the amount of SF6 contained in the equipments sold to the end users, because, for this period,
only data referred to point 1 and point 2 of the box, are available from ANIE. The loss rates during
manufacturing and installation of the equipments, used to estimate the SF6 emissions, are reported in the
Table 4.18. Leakage rates have been derived from ANIE Federation expert judgement.
Table 4.18 Leakage rates used to estimate SF6 emissions from manufacturing and installation from 1990 to 1994
Manufacturing
Installation
1990
0.060
0.060
1991
0.060
0.055
1992
0.060
0.050
1993
0.060
0.045
1994
0.060
0.040
In Table 4.19, SF6 emissions from manufacturing (which include installation), use and disposal are reported.
Emissons from manufacturing were about 14 tons in 1995, whereas in 2011 are only 2.13 tons, starting from
110 tons of SF6 purchased in 1995 and on the other hand 146 tons of SF6 purcahsed in 2013. Emissions trend
from manufacturing is strongly decreasing thanks to the diligence of the companies involved, which have
taken voluntary actions to reduce emissions as much as technically possible. Probable fluctuations within the
time series in manufacturing emissions are basically due to yearly variation of the stocked quantity of SF6.
Table 4.19 SF6 emissions from manufacturing, use and disposal
SF6 EMISSIONS (Mg)
Manufacuring
1990
8.470
1995
14.657
2000
5.637
2005
3.562
2010
3.185
2011
1.554
2012
2.128
2013
1.950
Use
0.460
4.886
6.469
9.592
10.302
10.865
10.704
9.917
Disposal
0.000
0.623
0.464
0.199
0.059
0.065
0.024
0.055
Total
8.930
20.165
12.571
13.353
13.546
12.484
12.856
11.922
SF6 use emissions are those from Closed Pressure Systems, including hight voltage equipment that requires
refilling with gas during its lifetime. Equipment use emissions are estimating by multiplying the quantity of
SF6 yearly accumulated by a use emission factor. The quantity of SF6 accumulated is estimated using SF6
annual sales activity data (ANIE, several years), multiplied for the factor 0.8, which take into account the
percentage of the total sales referred to Closed Pressure Systems. Moreover, equipment use emissions are the
sum of three components:
• emissions from ENEL (the former electricicy monopoly);
• emissions from electricity utilities and the national railways company;
• emissions from industries and other private operators.
Since 1994, refilling data of SF6 used in high voltage gas-insulated transmission lines have been supplied by
the main energy distribution companies (in the past included in ENEL) checked with data reported under the
159
national PRTR register (EDIPOWER, several years; EDISON, several years; ENDESA, 2004; ENDESA,
several years [a] and [b]; ENEL, several years; TERNA, several years).
The leakage rate used to estimate the SF6 use emissions is assumed equal to 0.01 from 1990 to 2009 and
0.005 from 2010, based on national expert judgment (AIET, 2007).
Finally, SF6 disposal emissions from electrical equipments are estimating by multiplying the quantity of SF6
contained in retired equipments by the fraction of SF6 left in the equipment at the end of its life, assumed to
be constant and equal to 0.15 from 1990 to 1995, and linearly decreasing until to 2010 value 0.03, as
reported in Table 4.20. Since 1995, activity data (point 3 of the Figure 4.4) are directly supplied by ANIE
(ANIE, several years), whereas from 1990 to 1994 the total amount of SF6 accumulated in the equipments is
multiplied by a disposal rate which is equal to zero in that period. Leakage disposal rate and disposal rate
derived from personal communication.
Table 4.20 Disposal rates and leakage rate at disposal used to estimate SF6 emissions from disposal, 1990-2013
Disposal rate
Leakage rate at
disposal
1990
0
1991
0
1992
0
1993
0
1994
0
1995
0
2000
0.01
2005
0.02
2010
0.03
2011
0.03
2012
0.03
2013
0.03
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.11
0.07
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
As for fluctuation in emissions within the years, Figure 4.4 is reported for a better understanding.
As regard the years from 1995 to 2000, please consider that the total SF6 emission values result by the sum
of emissions from “manufacturing”, “operating” and “retiring” and that concerning the trends of these
contributions the following facts should be pointed out:
1) emissions from manufacturing reach a peak in 1997;
2) emissions from operating reach a peak in 1997;
3) emissions from retiring reach a peak in 1997 although the relevant contributions to total SF6 emissions are
those from manufacturing and operating.
Data between 1995 an 2000 are consistent and come from the SF6 mass balance.
In Figure 4.4 the time series for SF6 purchased amounts and of the three contributions to SF6 emissions from
electrical equipments are illustrated. It could be noted that the trend of the amounts of SF6 estimated for
“manufacturing” is driven by the trend of purchased SF6.
SF6 Emissions from electrical equipments
30
25
tonnes
20
Total SF6 emissions (t)
Manufacturing emissions (t)
15
Operating emissions (t)
Retiring emissions (t)
10
SF6 Purchased (10t)
5
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
0
Figure 4.4 Time series for SF6 purchased amounts and emissions from electrical equipments
160
SF6 and PFC from other product use
SF6 Emissions from research particle accelerators have been estimated from 1990. A survey on the particle
accelerators used for research purpose has been carried on, asking directly information to the INFN, the
National Institute for Nuclear Physics: INFN is the Italian research agency dedicated to the study of the
fundamental constituents of matter and the laws that govern them.
The Institute has supplied refilling data of SF6 for three partcicle accelerators located in two laboratories,
Catania and Legnaro (INFN, 2015), for the entire time series (1990 – 2013). These particle accelerator uses
SF6 from 1984, 1981 and 1976 respectevely.
N2O from product use
N2O emissions from the use of N2O for anaesthesia, aerosol cans and explosives are estimated. Emissions of
N2O from fire extinguishers do not occur.
Emissions of N2O have been estimated taking into account information available by industrial associations.
Specifically, the manufacturers and distributors association of N2O products has supplied data on the use of
N2O for anaesthesia from 1994 (Assogastecnici, several years). For previous years, data have been estimated
by the number of surgical beds published by national statistics (ISTAT, several years [a]). It is assumed that
all N2O used will eventually be released to the atmosphere, therefore the emission factor for anaesthesia is
equal to 1 Mg N2O/Mg product use.
Moreover, the Italian Association of Aerosol Producers (AIA, several years [a] and [b]) has provided data on
the annual production of aerosol cans used for whipped cream which contain N2O as propellant. Emission
factor used is 0.025 Mg N2O/Mg product use, because the N2O content is assumed to be 2.5% on average
(Co.Da.P., 2005). The association provides also the number of aerosol cans for other uses (cosmetics,
household and cleaning products, pharmaceutical products) and the propellants (LPG and HFC 134a for
pharmaceutical products); relevant emissions are estimated in domestic solvent use category as NMVOC and
in HFC 134a emissions from aerosols/metered dose inhalers category.
For the estimation of N2O emissions from explosives, data on the annual consumption of explosives have
been obtained by a specific study on the sector (Folchi and Zordan, 2004); as stated in the document, this
figure is believed to be constant for all the time series with a variation within a range of 30%. As for the
emission factor, the estimated N2O emissions represent the theoretically maximum emittable amount; in fact,
no figures are available on the amount of N2O emissions actually emitted upon detonations and the value of
3,400 Mg N2O/Mg explosive use is provided by a German reference (Benndford, 1999) which corresponds
to the assumption of 68 g N2O per kg ammonium nitrate.
N2O emissions have been calculated multiplying activity data, total quantity of N2O used for anaesthesia,
total aerosol cans and explosives, by the related emission factors.
4.8.3
Uncertainty and time series consistency
The uncertainty in SF6 emissions from electrical equipment and particle accelerators is estimated to be about
21% in annual emissions, 5% and 20% concerning respectively activity data and emission factors.
In Table 4.21 an overview of SF6 emissions from electrical equipment and particle accelerators is given for
the 1990-2013 period.
SF6 emissions from electrical equipment increased from 1995 to 1997 and decreased in the following years;
from 2004 emissions are enough stable: they are driven by emissions from manufacturing due to the amount
of fluid filled in the new manufacturing products while emissions from stocks are slightly increasing.
Table 4.21 SF6 emissions from other product manufacture and use in tons, 1990-2013.
COMPOUND (t)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
8.9
20.2
12.6
13.4
13.5
12.5
12.9
11.9
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.6
1.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
12.9
24.1
16.5
17.9
15.1
17.0
17.4
16.4
2.G.1
SF6 emissions from electrical equipment
2.G.2.b
SF6 emissions from research particle
accelerators
Total SF6 emissions from 2G sector
161
The combined uncertainty in N2O emissions is estimated equal to 51% due to an uncertainty in activity data
of 50% and 10% in the emission factor. N2O emissions remain almost at the same levels from 1990 onwards
although, from 2000, a reduction is detected, due to a decrease in the anaesthetic use of N2O that has been
replaced by halogen gas. Table 4.22 shows the N2O emission trend from 1990 to 2013.
Table 4.22 Trend in N2O emissions from product uses, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
GAS/SUBSOURCE
2G.3
Other product
manufacture and use
N2O (Gg)
N2O from product uses (use
of N2O for anaesthesia,
aerosol cans and explosives)
4.8.4
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
2.62
2.49
3.31
2.66
2.61
2.54
2.35
2.21
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
This source category is covered by the general QA/QC procedures. Where information is available SF6 data
for refilling have been checked with data reported to the national EPER/E-PRTR registry.
For N2O emissions from anaesthesia and aerosol cans, emission factors and emissions are also shared with
the relevant industrial associations.
Other relevant uses of SF6, as listed in the IPCC Guidelines, have been investigated to study the occurrence
at national level. Some of these applications could be excluded, such as car tyres, sound proof windows and
shoes soles also due to manufacturing additional costs. With regard to the other potential sources of
emissions there is no evidence but investigations are still going on.
4.8.5
Source-specific recalculation
For what concern SF6 emissions, recalculation is due to the new sub-applications SF6 emissions from
research particle accelerators and because GWP changed values.
4.8.6
Source-specific planned improvements
A revision of the article 16 of the Decree of the President of the Republic 27 January 2012, n. 43 is expected
due to the entering in force of the new F-Gases Regulation n. 517/2014 (EC, 2014), including also electrical
equipments, which improve the control and monitoring system of the appliances.
Improvements in the SF6 emissions from electrical equipment are expected from the future collection of
emission data.
4.9
Other production (2H)
4.9.1
Source category description
Only indirect gases and SO2 emissions occur from these sources.
In this sector, non-energy emissions from pulp and paper as well as food and drink production, especially
wine and bread, are reported. CO2 from food and drink production (e.g. CO2 added to water or beverages)
can be of biogenic or non-biogenic origin but only information on CO2 emissions of non-biogenic origin
should be reported in the CRF.
According to the information provided by industrial associations, CO2 emissions do not occur, but only
NMVOC emissions originate from these activities.
CO2 emissions from food and beverages do not occur since they originated from sources of carbon that are
part of a closed cycle.
162
As regards the pulp and paper production, NOX and NMVOC emissions as well as SO2 are estimated. NOx
and SOx emissions have been referred to the paper and pulp production from acid sulphite and neutral
sulphite semichemical processes up to 2009, activity data and emissions were provided by the two Italian
production plants: in 2008 the bleached sulphite pulp production has stopped while in 2009 the neutral
sulphite semi-chemical pulp process has closed (reconversion of the plant is currently under negotiation).
NMVOC emissions are related to chipboard production and have been estimated and reported.
163
5 AGRICULTURE [CRF sector 3]
5.1
Sector overview
In this chapter information on the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Agriculture
sector, as reported under the IPCC Category 3 in the Common Reporting Format (CRF), is given. Emissions
from enteric fermentation (3A), manure management (3B), rice cultivation (3C), agriculture soils (3D), field
burning of agriculture residues (3F), liming (3G) and urea application (3H) are included in this sector.
Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are estimated and reported.
Savannas areas (3E) are not present in Italy. Emissions from other carbon-containing fertilizers (3I) and
other sources (3J) do not occur. Also F-gas emissions do not occur.
To provide update information on the characteristics of the agriculture sector in Italy, figures from the
Agricultural Census 2010 are reported. In Italy, there are 1.6 millions of agricultural holdings with a Utilized
Agricultural Area (UAA) of 12.9 million hectares, +0.9% more than Farm Structure Survey 2007 (ISTAT,
2008[a], 2012). Looking at the data from the last four censuses (see box below), the number of agricultural
holdings and the agricultural area have decreased, in particular, between 2000 and 2010, the reduction of
agricultural holdings is equal to 32% (775,390 units). At national level, the average size of the agricultural
holdings varied from 5.5 hectares in 2000 to 7.9 hectares in 2010. Census data confirm the findings of the
FSS, according to which the average size of the agricultural holdings varied from 7.4 hectares in 2005 to 7.6
hectares in 2007. However, more than 50% of agricultural holdings have an area of less than 2 hectares of
UAA. The distribution of agricultural holdings by type confirms a typical family conduction system, which
characterized the Italian agriculture. Direct conduction of holdings by farmers is around 1.5 million (95.4%
of total agricultural holdings with UAA) which hold 11 million hectares of UAA (82.8% of total) 2
(EUROSTAT, 2007[a], [b], 2012; ISTAT, 2008[a]).
Updated figures of the agriculture sector such as added value, employment, productivity are available
(INEA, 2014).
Agricultural holding characteristics from Agricultural Censuses
Agricultural holding characteristics
Number of agricultural holdings
Utilized agricultural area - hectares
Total agricultural area - hectares
Average size of the agricultural holdings
5.1.1
1982
3,133,118
15,832,613
22,397,833
5.1
1990
2,848,136
15,025,954
21,628,355
5.3
2000
2,396,274
13,181,859
18,766,895
5.5
2010
1,620,884
12,856,048
17,081,099
7.9
Emission trends
Emission trends per gas
In 2013, 7.0% of the Italian GHG emissions, excluding emissions and removals from LULUCF, (6.9% in
1990) originated from the agriculture sector, which is the second source of emissions (slightly higher than
the IPPU sector), after the energy sector which accounts for 81.7%. For the agriculture sector, the trend of
GHGs from 1990 to 2013 shows a decrease of 14.9% due to the reduction of the activity data, such as the
number of animals and cultivated surface/crop production, and the recovery of biogas (see Figure 5.1). CH4,
N2O and CO2 emissions have decreased by 13.4%, 17.7% and 0.5% respectively (see Table 5.1). In 2013, the
agriculture sector has been the first source for CH4 sharing 42% of national CH4 levels and for N2O
accounting for 61% of national N2O emissions. As for CO2, the agriculture sector represents 0.13% of
national CO2 emissions.
Table 5.1 GHG emissions and trend from 1990 to 2013 for the agriculture sector (Gg CO2 eq.)
CH4
N2O
2
1990
21,569
14,162
1995
21,406
14,291
2000
20,946
14,151
2005
19,290
13,311
2010
19,092
11,515
2011
19,064
12,044
2012
18,866
12,482
2013
18,672
11,654
Agricultural Census data are available at the link http://dati-censimentoagricoltura.istat.it/
164
CO2
Total
1990
466
36,197
1995
513
36,210
2000
527
35,625
2005
521
33,121
2010
353
30,959
45,000
2011
375
31,483
CH4
N20
2012
566
31,914
2013
464
30,790
CO2
40,000
CO2 eq. (Gg)
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1997
1998
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
0
1990
5,000
Figure 5.1 Trend of GHG emissions for the agriculture sector from 1990 to 2013
(Gg CO2 eq.)
Emission trends per sector
Total GHG emissions and trends by sub category from 1990 to 2013 are presented in Table 5.2 (expressed in
Gg. CO2 eq.). CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (3A) and N2O emissions from direct agriculture soils
(3D) are the most relevant categories. In 2013, their individual share in national GHG emissions excluding
LULUCF was 3.2% and 2.2%, respectively.
Table 5.2 Total GHG emissions from 1990 to 2013 for the agriculture sector (Gg CO2 eq.)
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
3A
15,743
15,656
15,544
14,577
14,143
14,183
13,885
13,898
13,639
14,139
14,020
14,061
13,712
13,735
13,664
13,849
GHG emissions (Gg CO2 eq.) by sub category
3B
3C
3D
3F
6,798
1,876
11,295
19
6,413
1,989
11,621
18
6,349
1,656
11,530
18
6,446
1,655
11,518
17
6,268
1,713
11,403
19
6,250
1,750
11,225
18
6,077
1,826
11,333
21
6,054
1,752
10,876
20
5,883
1,755
10,905
19
6,030
1,802
10,876
20
6,024
1,650
10,193
21
6,098
1,835
9,353
19
5,915
1,822
9,139
19
5,867
1,805
9,681
19
5,706
1,789
10,168
20
5,348
1,658
9,452
19
3G-H
466
513
527
541
566
571
586
521
551
552
516
388
353
375
566
464
TOTAL
36,197.4
36,210.3
35,624.8
34,753.1
34,112.9
33,996.7
33,728.2
33,121.2
32,751.7
33,419.2
32,425.0
31,754.2
30,959.5
31,483.1
31,914.4
30,789.7
165
5.1.2
Key categories
In 2013, CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management, indirect N2O emissions from
manure management, direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed soils, were ranked among the level
key sources with the Approach 2, including the uncertainty (L2). Including LULUCF sector in the analysis,
indirect N2O emissions from manure management are not key category. CH4 emissions from enteric
fermentation was ranked among the trend key sources with Approach 2, including the uncertainty (T2),
including the LULUCF sector in the analysis. In the following box, key and non-key categories from the
agriculture sector are shown, with a level and/or trend assessment (IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2),
excluding and including the LULUCF sector in the analysis.
Key-source identification in the agriculture sector with the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2 for 2013
3A
3B
3B
3C
3Da
3Db
3B
3F
3F
3G
3H
5.1.3
CH4
CH4
N2O
CH4
N2O
N2O
N2O
CH4
N2O
CO2
CO2
Emissions from enteric fermentation
Emissions from manure management
Indirect emissions from manure management
Rice cultivation
Direct emissions from managed soils
Indirect emissions from managed soils
Emissions from manure management
Emissions from field burning of agriculture residues
Emissions from field burning of agriculture residues
Liming
Urea application
excluding LULUCF
Key (L, T1)
Key (L)
Key (L2)
Key (L1)
Key (L)
Key (L)
Non-key
Non-key
Non-key
Non-key
Non-key
including LULUCF
Key (L, T)
Key (L)
Non-key
Key (L1)
Key (L)
Key (L)
Non-key
Non-key
Non-key
Non-key
Non-key
Activities
Emission factors used for the preparation of the national inventory reflect the characteristics of the Italian
agriculture sector. Information from national research studies is considered. Activity data are mainly
collected from the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica). Every year,
national and international references, and personal communications used for the preparation of the
agriculture inventory are kept in the National References Database.
Improvements for the Agriculture sector are described in the Italian Quality Assurance/Quality Control plan
(ISPRA, several years [a]). Moreover, an internal report describes the procedure for preparing the agriculture
UNFCCC/CLRTAP national emission inventory, and projections (Cóndor and Di Cristofaro, several years).
Results from different research projects have improved the quality of the agriculture national inventory
(MeditAIRaneo project and Convention signed between ISPRA and the Ministry for the Environment, Land
and Sea; CRPA, 2006[a], CRPA, 2006[b]). Furthermore, suggestions from the inventory review processes
have been considered (UNFCCC, 2009; UNFCCC, 2010[a]; UNFCCC, 2010[b], UNFCCC, several years;
ISPRA, several years [a]). Methodologies for the preparation of agriculture national inventory under the
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are consistent. Synergies among international conventions and
European directives while preparing the agriculture inventory are implemented (Cóndor and De Lauretis,
2007; Cóndor et al., 2008[b]; Cóndor and De Lauretis, 2009).
The national agriculture UNFCCC/CLRTAP emission inventory is used, every 5 years, to prepare a more
disaggregated inventory by region and province as requested by CLRTAP (Cóndor et al., 2008[c]). A
database with the time series for all sectors and pollutants is available (ISPRA, 2008; ISPRA, 2009; ISPRA,
several years [b]). Methodologies used for the inventory, emission scenarios and projections are similar
(MATTM, 2007; MATTM, 2009; MATTM, 2013).
5.1.4
Agricultural statistics
The Italian National Statistical System (SISTAN 3) revises every year the National Statistical Plan that covers
three years and includes, among others, the system of agricultural statistics. In this framework, the
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Quality Panel has been established under coordination of the Agriculture
3
SISTAN, Sistema Statistico Nazionale (http://www.sistan.it/)
166
service of ISTAT where those who produce and use agricultural statistics (mainly public institutions) meet
every year in order to monitor and improve national statistics. ISTAT plays a major role in the agricultural
sector collecting comprehensive data through different surveys (Greco and Martino, 2001):
• Structural surveys (Farm Structure Survey, survey on economic results of the farm, survey on the
production means);
• Conjunctural surveys 4 (survey on the area and production of the cultivation, livestock number, milk
production, slaughter, etc.);
• General Agricultural Census 5, carried out every 10 years (1990, 2000, 2010).
Detailed information on the agriculture sector is found every two years in the Farm Structure Survey, FSS 6
(ISTAT, 2008[a]; ISTAT, 2007[a]; ISTAT, 2006[a]). ISTAT has provided quality reports of the FSS 2005
and FSS 2007 (ISTAT, 2008[b]; ISTAT, 2007[d]) and a report on the assessment of the quality of the
agricultural census data (ISTAT, 2013). The main agricultural statistics used for the agriculture emission
inventory are available on-line. Detailed information is provided in the following box:
Main activity data sources used for the Agriculture emission inventory
Agricultural statistics
Livestock number
Milk production
Fertilizers
Crops production/surface
Time series
Table 5.3; 5.4; 5.7
Table 5.3
Table 5.25; 5.32
Table 5.34; Tables A.7.4-9
Web site
http://agri.istat.it/jsp/Introduzione.jsp
http://agri.istat.it/jsp/Introduzione.jsp
http://agri.istat.it/jsp/Introduzione.jsp
http://agri.istat.it/jsp/Introduzione.jsp
Differences in the some animal populations are found between FAOSTAT and national statistics. FAO
publishes figures of the x-1 year on 1st January of the x year. Each year ISPRA verifies the official statistics
directly contacting the experts responsible for each agricultural survey (number of animals, agricultural
surface/production, fertilizers, etc). Agricultural statistics reported by ISTAT are also those published in the
European statistics database 7 (EUROSTAT). Whenever outliers are identified, ISTAT and category
associations are contacted. Slight differences in the livestock number (cattle and other swine) are found
between conjunctural surveys (used for emissions estimation) and Agricultural census for the year 2010;
while for the other categories the differences are more significant 8 (ISTAT, 2012). The verification of
statistics is part of the QA/QC procedures implemented. The livestock data represents the number of animals
present on the farm at any given time of the year (conventionally 1st of June or 1st of December). Therefore
livestock figures do not represent the number of animals produced annually; for animal populations that are
alive for only part of a complete year, the annual average population is estimated on the basis of “places”
instead of the days of life and the number of cycles.
5.2
Enteric fermentation (3A)
5.2.1
Source category description
Methane is produced as a by-product of enteric fermentation, which is a digestive process where
carbohydrates are degraded by microorganisms into simple molecules.
Methane emissions from enteric fermentation are a major key category, in terms of level assessment, for
Approach 1 and Approach 2. All livestock categories have been estimated except camels and llamas, which
are not present in Italy. Methane emissions from poultry and fur animals do not occur. Emissions from
rabbits, fur-bearing animals, mules and asses, goats, buffalo, horses and poultry are estimated and included
in “Other livestock” as shown in the tables of the CRF reporter.
In 2013, CH4 emissions from this category were 553.97 Gg which represents 74.2% of CH4 emissions for the
agriculture sector (73.0% in 1990) and 31.4% for national CH4 emissions excluding LULUCF (29.2% in
4
http://agri.istat.it/
http://censagr.istat.it/; http://dati-censimentoagricoltura.istat.it/
6
Indagine sulla struttura e produzione delle aziende agricole (SPA), survey carried out every two years in agricultural farms.
7
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
8
The number of heads of conjunctural surveys of the sows, sheep, goats, mules and asses, broilers, hens categories is on average 15% higher than the
census, whereas for other poultry the difference is 30% and for horses and rabbits is more than double.
5
167
1990). Methane emissions from this source consist mainly of cattle emissions: dairy cattle (249.91 Gg) and
non-dairy cattle (189.39 Gg). These two sub-categories represented 45.1% (46.6% in 1990) and 34.2%
(37.0% in 1990), respectively, of total enteric fermentation emissions.
5.2.2
Methodological issues
Methane emissions from enteric fermentation are estimated by defining an emission factor for each livestock
category, which is multiplied by the population of the same category. Data for each livestock category are
collected from ISTAT (several years [a], [b], [c], [f], [g]; ISTAT, 1991; 2007[a], [b]). Livestock categories
provided by ISTAT are classified according to the type of production, slaughter or breeding, and the age of
animals. In the following box, livestock categories and source of information are provided. Parameters for
the livestock categories are shown in Table 5.20. In order to have a consistent time series, it was necessary to
reconstruct the number of animals for some categories. The reconstruction used information available from
other official sources such as FAO and UNAITALIA (FAO, several years; UNAITALIA, several years).
Activity data for the different livestock categories
Livestock category
Source
ISTAT
ISTAT
ISTAT
ISTAT
ISTAT/FAO(a)
ISTAT/FAO(a)
ISTAT
ISTAT/UNAITALIA (b)
ISTAT( c)
Cattle
Buffalo
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Mules and asses
Swine
Poultry
Rabbits
(a) Reconstruction of a consistent time series; (b) For 1990 data from the census and reconstruction for broilers, hens and
other poultry based on meat production (UNAITALIA, several years); (c) For 1990 data from the census and
reconstruction based on a production index (ISTAT, 2007[b]; ISTAT, several years [k])
Dairy cattle
Methane emissions from enteric fermentation for dairy cattle are estimated using a Tier 2 approach, as
suggested in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Feeding characteristics are described in a national
publication (CRPA, 2004[a]) and have been discussed in a specific working group in the framework of the
MeditAIRaneo project (CRPA, 2006[a]; CRPA, 2005). Parameters used for the calculation of the emission
factor are shown in the following box.
Parameters for the calculation of dairy cattle emission factors from enteric fermentation
Parameter
Average weight (kg)
Coefficient NEm (lactating cows)
Pasture (%)
Weight gain (kg day-1)
Milk fat content (%)
Hours of work per day
Portion of cows giving birth
Value
602.7
0.386
5
0.051
3.59-3.78
0
0.97-0.89
Milk production (kg head-1 day-1)
11.5-17.4
Digestibility of feed (%)
Methane conversion factor (%)
Energy content of methane (MJ/kg
methane)
65
6.5
Reference
CRPA, 2006[a]
NRC, 2001; IPCC, 2006
CRPA, 2006[a]; ISTAT, 2003
CRPA, 2006[a]; CRPA, 2004[b]
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [d], [e], [h]
CRPA, 2006[a]
AIA, several years
CRPA, 2006[a]; OSSLATTE/ISMEA,
2003; ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [c],
[d], [e], [f], [h]; OSSLATTE, 2001
CRPA, 2006[a]; CRPA, 2005
CRPA, 2006[a]; IPCC, 2006
55.65
IPCC, 2006
IPCC 2006(*)
600
0.386
0(**)
0
0
0.9
16.4
65
6.5
55.65
(*) Data for estimating tier 1 enteric fermentation CH4 emission factors for dairy cows (Western Europe); (**) Stall fed (feeding situation)
The coefficient for calculating net energy for maintenance (NEm) and the methane conversion factor (YM) for
cattle (lactating cows) have been updated on the basis of the default values published in the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines.
168
Milk production national statistics were analysed (Cóndor et al., 2005). Milk used for dairy production and
milk used for calf feeding contributes to total milk production. This last value was reconstructed with
national and ISTAT publications (ISTAT, several years [h]). For calculating milk production (kg head-1 d-1),
total production is divided by the number of animals and by 365 days, as suggested by the IPCC (IPCC,
2006). Therefore, lactating and non-lactating periods are included in the estimation of the CH4 dairy cattle
EF (CRPA, 2006[a]). In Table 5.3, the time series of the dairy cattle population, fat content in milk, portion
of cows giving birth and milk production are shown. Further information on parameters used for dairy cattle
estimations is reported in Annex 7.1.
In Table 5.6, the time series of the dairy cattle emission factors (EF) is presented. In 2013, the CH4 dairy
cattle EF was 134.2 kg CH4 head-1 year-1 with an average milk production of 6,357 kg head-1 year-1 (17.4 kg
head-1 day-1). IPCC Guidelines report a default EF of 117 kg CH4 head-1 year-1 with a milk production of
6,000 kg head-1 year-1 (IPCC, 2006).
Table 5.3 Parameters used for the estimation of the CH4 emission factor for dairy cattle
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Dairy cattle
(head)
2,641,755
2,079,783
2,065,000
2,077,618
1,910,948
1,913,424
1,838,330
1,842,004
1,821,370
1,838,783
1,830,711
1,878,421
1,746,140
1,754,981
1,857,004
1,862,127
Fat content in milk
(%)
3.59
3.64
3.65
3.65
3.67
3.67
3.71
3.71
3.69
3.71
3.72
3.67
3.72
3.73
3.75
3.78
Portion of cows
giving birth
0.97
0.95
0.93
0.91
0.91
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.89
0.89
Milk production yield
(kg head-1 d-1)
11.5
14.8
15.1
14.9
16.2
16.2
16.8
17.2
17.4
17.3
17.7
17.4
18.8
18.5
17.7
17.4
Non-dairy cattle
For non-dairy cattle, CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation are estimated with a Tier 2 approach (IPCC,
2006). The estimation of the EF uses country-specific data, disaggregated livestock categories (see Table
5.4), and is based on dry matter intake (kg head-1 day-1) calculated as percentage of live weight (CRPA, 2000;
INRA, 1988; NRC, 1984; NRC, 1988; Borgioli, 1981; Holter and Young, 1992; Sauvant, 1995). Dry matter
intake is converted into gross energy (MJ head-1 day-1) using 18.45 MJ/kg dry matter (IPCC, 2006). Emission
factors for each category are calculated with equation 10.21 from IPCC (IPCC, 2006). In Table 5.5,
parameters used for the estimation of non-dairy cattle EF are shown. Since the 2006 submission, average
weights were updated with information from the Nitrogen Balance Inter-regional Project (CRPA, 2006[a];
Regione Emilia Romagna, 2004). For reporting purposes, some animal categories are aggregated, such as the
non-dairy and the swine categories. The non-dairy cattle category is composed of the different sub-categories
as shown in Table 5.4. For this reason, the gross energy intake, CH4 conversion factor and EFs for this
category are calculated as a weighted average.
169
Table 5.4 Non-dairy cattle population (heads) classified by type of production and age
<1 year
for
slaughter
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
1-2 years males
others
breeding
for
slaughter
1-2 years females
breeding
for
slaughter
>2
years
males
all
>2 years females
breeding
for
slaughter
others
Total
57,654
40,198
51,000
46,000
59,582
48,873
38,385
37,971
54,022
59,961
48,075
67,781
70,411
72,430
54,694
72,514
312,649
657,856
588,000
442,525
444,408
433,388
451,606
471,733
419,083
440,845
372,051
373,865
372,089
390,017
380,708
331,311
5,110,397
5,189,304
4,988,000
4,661,270
4,599,149
4,591,279
4,466,271
4,409,921
4,295,765
4,444,051
4,348,375
4,224,396
4,086,317
4,142,544
3,885,606
3,984,545
(heads)
300,000
458,936
408,000
496,264
409,970
412,682
445,231
500,049
540,223
519,034
502,391
494,463
507,452
509,904
441,975
483,556
2,127,959
1,796,034
1,783,000
1,498,068
1,617,127
1,594,994
1,509,387
1,418,545
1,407,401
1,410,357
1,401,501
1,313,146
1,228,696
1,272,903
1,081,177
1,125,354
72,461
27,871
27,521
25,528
26,194
27,598
28,458
26,424
26,091
26,852
26,908
25,191
23,913
23,461
21,231
21,385
708,329
783,300
641,479
595,029
610,550
643,277
663,316
615,921
608,152
625,902
627,186
587,167
557,386
546,847
494,860
498,456
749,111
684,881
736,000
709,941
647,656
673,246
648,308
588,660
584,680
593,369
630,194
617,494
597,733
600,769
671,688
674,431
186,060 128,958 467,216
154,548 155,116 430,564
160,000 93,000 500,000
181,550 75,365 591,000
176,481 65,948 541,233
158,094 78,890 520,237
149,053 71,762 460,765
181,971 102,081 466,566
182,719 78,328 395,066
189,704 79,936 498,091
196,936 74,059 469,074
183,420 83,087 478,782
212,983 70,284 445,370
222,859 70,018 433,336
177,308 76,035 485,930
180,269 88,765 508,504
Table 5.5 Main parameters used for non-dairy cattle CH4 emission factor estimations
<1 year
Parameters
Average weight (kg)
Percentage weight
ingested
Dry matter intake
(kg head -1 day-1)
Gross Energy
(MJ head-1day-1)
CH4 conversion (%)
1-2 years males
1-2 years females
Others
for
for
breeding
breeding
(*)
slaughter
slaughter
>2 years
males
>2 years females
all
breeding
for
slaughter
Others
236
557
557
405
444
700
540
540
557
2.1
1.9
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.4
2.1
2.1
1.9
4.8
10.7
11.6
8.5
9.3
17.1
11.5
11.5
10.6
89.4
197.3
214.8
156.9
171.2
315.5
212.2
212.2
195.3
4
4.5
4
6
4
6
6
6
6
(*) It has been considered that calves for slaughter of <1 year do not emit CH4 emissions, as they are milk fed. Therefore, the average weight for the
category “others” of <1 year takes into account fattening male cattle, fattening heifer and heifer for replacement.
National characteristics of Italian breeding are reflected in EFs, and they are also related to the age
classification of animals and dry matter intake. In Table 5.6, Implied Emission Factors (IEF) for non-dairy
cattle are shown. In 2013, the non dairy-cattle EF was 47.5 kg CH4 head-1 year-1 as IPCC 2006 Guidelines
default EF is 57 kg CH4 head-1 year-1 (IPCC, 2006). The inter-annual decrease 2005/2006 of the IEF for nondairy cattle is related to the reduction in the number of animals for some categories and an increase in the
number of the ‘less than 1 year for the slaughter’ category (no emissions) (see Table 5.4). This last category
(calves) has not been considered when estimating methane emissions as they are milk fed. However relevant
parameters for this category, used for estimating N2O emissions from manure management, are the
following:
•
•
•
•
Average body weight: 157 kg;
Nitrogen excretion: 75.7 kg N/head/year;
Average milk period: 4-6 months;
Average weight at slaughter: less than 300 kg.
170
Buffalo
Data collected in the framework of the MeditAIRaneo project allowed for the implementation of the Tier 2
approach for the buffalo category (IPCC, 2006). Two different country-specific CH4 EFs, for cow buffalo
and other buffaloes, were developed. Detailed description of the methodology is reported in Cóndor et al.
(Cóndor et al., 2008[a]). In 2013, the cow buffalo CH4 EF was 84.9 kg CH4 head-1 year-1 and for other
buffaloes the value was 61.8 kg CH4 head-1 year-1. The CRF IEF is an average value for the two categories
(75.7 kg CH4 head-1 year-1). Parameters used for the Tier 2 approach are shown in the following boxes.
Parameters for the calculation of CH4 cow buffalo emission factors from enteric fermentation
Parameters
Average body weight (kg)
Value
630
Coefficient NEm (lactating cows)
Pasture (%)
0.386
2.90
Weight gain (kg day-1)
0.055
Milk fat content (%)
Hours of work per day
Proportion of calving cows
7.73-7.87
0
0.89-0.84
Milk production (kg head-1 day-1)
1.91-2.59
Digestibility of feed (%)
Methane conversion factor (%)
Energy content of methane
(MJ/kg methane)
65
6.5
55.65
Reference
Infascelli, 2003; Consorzio per la tutela del formaggio mozzarella di bufala
campana, 2002
IPCC, 2006
ISTAT, 2003; Zicarelli, 2001; De Rosa and Di Francia, 2006
Infascelli, 2003; Consorzio per la tutela del formaggio mozzarella di bufala
campana, 2002
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [d], [e], [h]
De Rosa and Di Francia, 2006
Barile, 2005; De Rosa and Trabalzi, 2004
OSSLATTE/ISMEA, 2003; ;OSSLATTE, 2001; ISTAT, several years [a],
[b], [c] [d], [e], [f], [h]
Infascelli, 2003; Masucci et al., 1997, 1999
CRPA, 2006[a]; IPCC, 2006
IPCC, 2006
Parameters for the calculation of other buffalo emission factors from enteric fermentation
Parameter
Average body weight (kg)
Dry matter intake (% of body weight head-1 day-1)
Dry matter intake (kg head-1 day-1)
Gross Energy (MJ head-1 day-1)
CH4 conversion (%)
CH4 emission factor (kg head-1 year-1)
Calves
(3 months-1 year)
150
3.0
4.5
82.75
6.5
26.46 (*)
Sub-adult buffaloes
(1-3 years)
405
2.5
10.1
186.58
6.5
79.54
(*) original CH4 emission factor was 35.28 kg CH4 head-1 year-1; a correction factor of 9/12 has been applied in order to consider the time
between 3 months and 1 year, therefore the final emission factor was 26.46 kg CH4 head-1 year-1.
The coefficient for calculating net energy for maintenance (NEm) and the methane conversion factor (YM) for
buffalo have been updated on the basis of the default values published in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
Rabbits
Methane emissions from rabbits have been estimated using a country-specific EF suggested by the Research
Centre on Animal Production (CRPA). Daily dry matter intake for brood-rabbits and other rabbits are 0.13
kg day-1 and 0.11 kg day-1, respectively. Besides, a value of 0.6% has been assumed as CH4 conversion rate
(CRPA, 2004[c]).
Other livestock categories
A Tier 1 approach, with IPCC default EFs, is used to estimate CH4 emissions from swine, sheep, goats,
horses, mules and asses (IPCC, 2006). In Table 5.6, EFs for all livestock categories (dairy cattle, non-dairy
cattle, buffalo, swine, sheep, goats, horses, mules and asses, and rabbits) are presented. In Table 5.7, time
series of the number of animals are shown.
171
Table 5.6 Average CH4 emission factors for enteric fermentation (kg CH4 head-1 year-1)
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Dairy
cattle
111.2
123.6
124.7
123.9
128.8
128.7
131.4
132.9
133.3
133.2
134.9
133.1
138.8
138.0
134.9
134.2
Nondairy
cattle
45.6
47.4
47.0
46.7
46.5
46.6
46.3
46.4
44.7
46.1
45.5
46.3
45.9
45.6
48.0
47.5
Buffalo
74.4
75.8
78.2
83.2
81.6
80.2
82.3
84.6
82.9
80.0
78.3
76.6
76.4
77.4
77.1
75.7
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Mules
and
asses
average CH4 EF (kg CH4 head-1 year-1)
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
8.0
5.0
18.0
10.0
Sows
Other
swine
Rabbits
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
Table 5.7 Time series of number of animals from 1990 to 2013 (heads)
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
5.2.3
Buffalo
Sheep
Goats
Horses
94,500
148,404
192,000
193,774
185,438
222,268
210,195
205,093
230,633
293,947
307,149
344,007
365,086
354,402
348,861
402,659
8,739,253
10,667,971
11,089,000
8,311,383
8,138,309
7,950,981
8,106,043
7,954,167
8,227,185
8,236,668
8,175,196
8,012,651
7,900,016
7,942,641
7,015,729
7,181,828
1,258,962
1,372,937
1,375,000
1,024,769
987,844
960,994
977,984
945,895
955,316
920,085
957,248
960,950
982,918
959,915
891,604
975,858
287,847
314,778
280,000
285,000
277,819
282,936
277,767
278,471
287,123
315,725
332,496
343,519
373,324
373,327
395,913
393,915
Mules
and asses
(heads)
83,853
37,844
33,000
33,000
28,913
28,507
28,932
30,254
31,013
34,557
36,239
40,608
46,475
50,966
59,865
63,166
Sows
Other
swine
Rabbits
Poultry
650,919
689,846
708,000
697,491
751,159
736,637
724,891
721,843
771,751
753,721
756,345
745,508
717,366
708,770
621,446
590,278
7,755,602
7,370,830
7,599,000
8,068,771
8,415,099
8,420,087
8,247,181
8,478,427
8,509,352
8,519,214
8,496,102
8,411,572
8,603,753
8,642,011
8,040,080
7,971,405
14,893,771
17,110,587
17,873,993
18,494,839
18,852,530
18,866,643
19,654,694
20,504,282
20,238,089
20,964,928
19,515,455
17,689,669
17,957,421
17,549,225
17,465,477
16,832,788
173,341,562
184,202,416
176,722,211
209,187,654
205,566,136
196,511,409
191,315,963
188,595,022
177,274,561
188,871,886
197,298,265
199,924,644
198,346,719
200,718,160
198,767,734
194,319,153
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainty related to CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation was 20% for annual emissions, resulting
from the combination of 20% of uncertainty for emission factors and 3% for activity data.
In the 2011 submission, Montecarlo analysis was also applied to estimate uncertainty of this category for
2009; an asymmetrical probability density distribution resulted from the analysis, showing uncertainties
values equal to -21.8% and 31.7%. Different distributions have been assumed for the parameters;
assumptions or constraints on variables have been appropriately reflected on the choice of type and shape of
distributions. A summary of the results is reported in Annex 1.
172
In 2013, CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation were 12% (553.97 Gg) lower than in 1990 (629.72 Gg).
Between 1990 and 2013 cattle livestock has decreased by 24.6% (from 7,752,152 to 5,846,672 heads). Dairy
cattle and non-dairy cattle have decreased by 29.5% (from 2,641,755 to 1,862,127) and 22.0% (from
5,110,397 to 3,984,545), respectively. The reduction in number of cattle is the main driving force for the
reduction in CH4 emissions, particularly as emissions per head from cattle are 10 times greater than
emissions per head of sheep or goat. In 2013, cattle contribute with 79.3% to total CH4 emissions from
enteric fermentation. In Table 5.8, emission trends from the enteric fermentation category are shown.
Emissions from swine, as reported in the CRF Reporter, are represented by ‘other swine’ and ‘sow’ (12.84
Gg).
Table 5.8 Trend of CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (Gg)
Year
Dairy
cattle
Nondairy
cattle
Buffalo
Sheep
Goats
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
293.70
257.08
257.45
257.37
246.10
246.34
241.49
244.83
242.76
244.97
246.90
249.95
242.43
242.22
250.58
249.91
233.00
246.22
234.48
217.91
213.95
214.17
206.60
204.65
192.10
205.03
197.94
195.53
187.46
188.81
186.43
189.39
7.03
11.25
15.02
16.12
15.13
17.82
17.31
17.36
19.12
23.52
24.04
26.34
27.91
27.43
26.89
30.47
69.91
85.34
88.71
66.49
65.11
63.61
64.85
63.63
65.82
65.89
65.40
64.10
63.20
63.54
56.13
57.45
6.29
6.86
6.88
5.12
4.94
4.80
4.89
4.73
4.78
4.60
4.79
4.80
4.91
4.80
4.46
4.88
Horses
Mules
and
asses
Sows
Other
swine
Rabbits
Total
0.84
0.38
0.33
0.33
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.35
0.36
0.41
0.46
0.51
0.60
0.63
0.98
1.03
1.06
1.05
1.13
1.10
1.09
1.08
1.16
1.13
1.13
1.12
1.08
1.06
0.93
0.89
11.63
11.06
11.40
12.10
12.62
12.63
12.37
12.72
12.76
12.78
12.74
12.62
12.91
12.96
12.06
11.96
1.16
1.33
1.39
1.44
1.46
1.47
1.53
1.59
1.57
1.63
1.52
1.37
1.39
1.36
1.36
1.31
629.72
626.22
621.76
583.06
565.73
567.32
555.41
555.91
545.55
565.57
560.81
562.42
548.47
549.41
546.56
553.97
(Gg)
5.2.4
5.18
5.67
5.04
5.13
5.00
5.09
5.00
5.01
5.17
5.68
5.98
6.18
6.72
6.72
7.13
7.09
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Since 2006 submission, results from the MeditAIRaneo project focusing on the assessment of critical points
of the enteric fermentation category have been incorporated (CRPA, 2006[a]; Valli et al., 2004). Information
related to the 2010 Agricultural census have been analysed and verified. Slight differences in the livestock
number (cattle and other swine) are found between conjunctural surveys (used for emissions estimation) and
Agricultural census for the year 2010; while for the other categories the differences are more significant 9
(ISTAT, 2012).
5.2.5
Source-specific recalculations
CH4 emissions have been recalculated for the following changes:
- the coefficient for calculating net energy for maintenance (NEm) and the methane conversion factor (YM) for
dairy cattle and buffalo have been updated on the basis of the default values published in the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines for the whole time series;
- the production of milk of dairy cattle has been updated since 2010 on the basis of EUROSTAT data;
- the average weight of buffalo between three months and a year has been corrected for the whole time
series;
- the number of animals for the rabbits category has been updated for 2012.
9
The number of heads of conjunctural surveys of the sows, sheep, goats, mules and asses, broilers, hens categories is on average 15% higher than the
census, whereas for other poultry the difference is 30% and for horses and rabbits is more than double.
173
Compared to the previous submission (November 2014), these changes have increased the annual average
estimates to about 7% (in particular the updating of NEm and YM), without considering changing in the GWP.
5.2.6
Source-specific planned improvements
In the framework of the collaboration between ISPRA and ISTAT (Agriculture Service) we expect to
continuously update and improve activity data. Every year agricultural statistics from other sources are also
updated (UNAITALIA, several years; AIA, several years).
5.3
Manure management (3B)
5.3.1
Source category description
In 2013, CH4 emissions from manure management were 125.98 Gg, which represents 16.9% of CH4
emissions for the agriculture sector (18.2% in 1990) and 7.1% of national CH4 emissions (7.3% in 1990).
CH4 emissions from swine were 57.74 Gg and from cattle were 52.89 Gg. These two sub-categories
represented 46% and 42%, respectively, of total CH4 manure management emissions.
N2O direct and indirect emissions, produced during the storage and treatment of manure before it is applied
to land, are reported separately. In 2013, N2O emissions from manure management were 7.38 Gg (of which
4.50 Gg are direct emissions and 2.87 Gg are indirect emissions), which represents 18.9% of total N2O
emissions for the agriculture sector (20.2% in 1990) and 11.5% of national N2O emissions (10.6% in 1990).
In 2013, direct N2O emissions from this source consist of the solid storage source (2.36 Gg), liquid system
(1.97 Gg) and other management systems such as chicken-dung drying process system (0.17 Gg). N2O
emissions of the anaerobic digesters, another management system used in the country, are zero as reported in
the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Since 2006 submission, parameters related to the estimation of CH4 and N2O emissions have been updated:
average weight, production of slurry and solid manure and the nitrogen excretion rates. The source for
updating these parameters was the Nitrogen Balance Inter-regional Project and other national studies
(references are provided in this section).
CH4 emissions from manure management are key sources at level, following Approach 1 and Approach 2.
N2O emissions from manure management are not key sources, while indirect N2O emissions from manure
management are key sources at level following Approach 2, excluding the LULUCF sector in the analysis.
5.3.2
Methodological issues
The IPCC Tier 2 approach is used for estimating methane EFs for manure management of cattle, buffalo and
swine. For estimating slurry and solid manure EFs and the specific conversion factor, a detailed methodology
(Method 1) was applied at a regional basis for cattle and buffalo categories. Then, a simplified methodology,
for estimating EF time series, was followed (Method 2). Livestock population activity data is collected from
ISTAT (see Table 5.3; Table 5.4; Table 5.7).
Methane emissions (cattle and buffalo)
Method 1: Regional basis
Methane emission estimations for manure management are drawn up on a regional basis and depend on
specific manure management practices and environmental conditions (Safley et al., 1992; Steed and
Hashimoto, 1995; Husted, 1993; Husted, 1994). The following factors are used: average regional monthly
temperatures (UCEA, 2011), amount of slurry and solid manure produced per livestock category (CRPA,
2006[a]; Regione Emilia Romagna, 2004) and management techniques for the application of slurry and solid
manure for agricultural purposes in Italy (CRPA, 1993).
For cattle and buffalo, the estimation of the EF starts with the calculation of the methane emission rate (g
CH4 m-3 day-1), which is obtained from an equation for slurry and solid manure (Husted, 1994).
Equations are presented below (CRPA, 2006[a]; CRPA, 1997[a]).
174
For slurry:
CH4 (g m-3 day-1) = e (0.68+0.12) * t (°C) (average regional monthly temperature)
Eq. 5.1
For solid manure:
CH4 (g m-3 day-1) = e (-2.3+0.1) * t (°C) (monthly storage temperature)
Eq. 5.2
The monthly storage temperature from the solid manure is estimated with the following equation (Husted,
1994):
T solid manure storage = 6,7086e 0.1014t (°C) (average regional monthly temperature)
For temperatures below 10°C emissions are considered negligible.
The volume of slurry and solid manure produced per livestock category was obtained (m3 head-1) with the
average production of slurry and solid manure per livestock category per day (m3 head-1 day-1) and the days
of storage of slurry and solid manure. The volume of slurry and solid manure is based on regional regulations
concerning the use of manure. Information about days of storage takes into account the retention time in
storage facilities and temporal dynamics of storage and application on land of slurry and manure (CRPA,
1997[a]). On the other hand, the production of solid manure and slurry were estimated assuming a
distribution of housing systems in Italy; an assessment of the abovementioned distribution has been carried
out on the basis of the 2010 Agricultural Census to validate and verify the used distribution of housing
system which has been deduced by researchers at national level (CRPA, 2006[a]; Bonazzi et al., 2005;
APAT, 2004[a]; APAT, 2004[b]).
On the basis of the methane emission rates and the volume of slurry and solid manure produced, methane
emissions were calculated.
At this point the method requires the calculation of volatile solid (VS) production, which is based on the
average production of slurry and solid manure and the factors proposed by Husted: 47 g VS/kg (slurry) and
142 g VS/kg (solid manure) (Husted, 1994; CRPA, 2006[a]).
In order to correlate CH4 emission production and volatile solid (VS) production, a specific conversion factor
was estimated as the ratio between methane emissions and VS production. Later, these specific conversion
factor are used for the simplified methodology (Method 2). The specific conversion factor values for slurry
and solid manure are 15.32 g CH4/kg VS and 4.80 g CH4/kg VS, respectively.
Method 2: National basis
A simplified methodology (Method 2) for estimating methane EFs from manure management was used for
the whole time series. Slurry and solid manure EFs (kg CH4 head-1 year-1) were calculated with Equations 5.3
and 5.4, respectively. These equations include the specific conversion factor, estimated on a regional basis.
The production of volatile solids (kg head-1day-1) was estimated with the slurry and solid manure production,
and factors proposed by Husted (Husted, 1994; CRPA, 2006[a]): 47g VS/kg (slurry) and 142 g VS/kg (solid
manure).
The daily VS excreted, estimated for slurry and solid manure, are summed and used for calculating the
methane producing potential (Bo).
In Table 5.9, EF estimations are shown.
EF slurry = 15.32 g CH4/kg VS • VS production slurry (kg VS head-1 day-1) • 365 days
Eq. 5.3
EF manure = 4.80 g CH4/kg VS • VS production solid manure (kg VS head-1 day-1) • 365 days
Eq. 5.4
Table 5.9 Methane manure management EFs for cattle and buffalo in 2013 (kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
Slurry
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
Solid manure
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
CH4 manure management EF
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
Calf
6.22
0.00
6.22
Cattle
5.31
3.65
8.96
Female cattle
2.70
4.48
7.19
Livestock category
175
Slurry
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
Solid manure
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
CH4 manure management EF
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
Other dairy cattle
4.01
6.65
10.66
Dairy cattle
5.64
9.41
15.04
Cow buffalo
4.93
10.32
15.25
Other buffaloes
3.19
3.24
6.43
Livestock category
Since 2006 submission, the average production of slurry and solid manure per livestock category per day (m3
head-1 day-1) has been updated with results from the Nitrogen Balance Inter-regional Project (Regione Emilia
Romagna, 2004). Based on the type and distribution of housing systems for the different animal categories,
and the average weight of animals, a time series of slurry and solid manure production was obtained.
In Table 5.10 the disaggregated manure management EFs for cattle and buffalo are shown. See also Table
5.13 for the average EFs of main categories (dairy, non-dairy, buffalo and swine).
Table 5.10 Methane manure management EFs for cattle and buffalo (kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
Calf
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
6.22
Cattle
8.11
8.56
8.27
8.48
8.23
8.38
8.34
8.61
8.52
8.56
8.58
8.75
8.81
8.80
9.08
8.96
Other
Female cattle dairy cattle Dairy cattle
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
6.69
10.66
15.04
6.69
10.66
15.04
6.78
10.66
15.04
7.05
10.66
15.04
6.97
10.66
15.04
6.92
10.66
15.04
6.96
10.66
15.04
6.93
10.66
15.04
6.84
10.66
15.04
7.03
10.66
15.04
6.96
10.66
15.04
7.01
10.66
15.04
7.01
10.66
15.04
6.93
10.66
15.04
7.11
10.66
15.04
7.19
10.66
15.04
Cow
buffalo
Other
buffaloes
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25
6.48
6.46
6.45
6.44
6.44
6.44
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43
A reduction of CH4 emissions has been introduced in the manure management category (3B) in order to
consider the biogas production. A national census on biogas production/technology can be found in CRPA
and CRPA/AIEL (CRPA, 2008[a]; CRPA/AIEL 2008). Biogas production data are collected every year by
the National Electric Network (TERNA, several years). Emissions of methane, from biogas at anaerobic
digesters fed with animal manure, to be deducted from the total amount of methane from manure
management, were calculated using the information and data provided by TERNA and the CRPA. For
further information on the country-specific methodology used see Annex 7.2.
Reductions of CH4 emissions related to biogas recovery are assumed for cattle and swine livestock categories
and distributed according to the methodology described in Annex 7.2 (see paragraph CH4 emissions to be
subtracted). This reduction is evident in the IEF reported in the CRF. In 2013, the CRF IEFs, for dairy cattle
and non-dairy cattle, were 13.45 kg CH4 head-1 year-1 and 6.99 kg CH4 head-1 year-1, respectively. IPCC
default EFs for cool temperature (and 13°C as average annual temperature) are 27 kg CH4 head-1year-1 and 8
kg CH4 head-1year-1, respectively (IPCC, 2006).
The IEF for non-dairy cattle and buffalo represents a weighted average. The non-dairy cattle IEF includes:
calf, cattle, female cattle and other dairy cattle. The buffalo category includes: cow buffalo and other
buffaloes categories. In the following box, EFs and IEFs are shown. Differences, as mentioned before, are
related to the amount of CH4 reductions from biogas recovery. In the following box the default EFs of the
IPCC 2006 Guidelines are also reported.
176
Livestock category
Dairy cattle
Non-dairy cattle
Buffalo
EF
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
15.04
7.81
11.71
IEF(*)
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
13.45
6.99
11.71
IPCC 2006 default EF
(kg CH4 head-1 yr-1)
27
8
5
(*) IEF as reported in the CRF submission 2015
Emissions from the biogas combustion for energy production are estimated and reported in the energy sector
in the 1.A.4.c category, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, biomass fuel.
For reporting purposes, the CH4 producing potential (Bo) is estimated with Equation 10.23 from IPCC
(IPCC, 2006). The average methane conversion factors (MCF), for each manure management system
(classified by climate), was estimated with data coming from the Agriculture Census from 1990 and 2000
and the FSS 2005 (ISTAT, 2007[a]). An assessment of the abovementioned MCFs has been carried out on
the basis of the data coming from the FSS 2007 (ISTAT, 2008[a]) and the 2010 Agriculture Census (ISTAT,
2012), resulting in very slight differences comparing to the used average methane conversion factors.
Average MCFs were not used for estimating manure management EF, but they are useful to verify the EF
accuracy. In the following box, estimated country-specific VS and Bo parameters, and IPCC default values
are shown (IPCC, 2006). Differences are mainly attributed to country-specific characteristics.
Livestock category
Dairy cattle
Non-dairy cattle
Buffalo
Swine
VS country-specific (*)
(kg dm head-1 day-1)
6.37
2.93
5.02
0.34
VS IPCC default
Bo country-specific (*)
(kg dm head-1 day-1)
(CH4 m3/kg VS)
5.10
0.18
2.60
0.17
3.90
0.13
0.26 (**)
0.57
Bo IPCC default
(CH4 m3/kg VS)
0.24
0.18
0.10
0.45
(*) IEF as reported in the CRF submission 2015; (**) weighted average with the number of heads of sows and other swine categories
Methane emissions (swine)
For the estimation of CH4 emissions for swine, a country-specific methane emission rate was experimentally
determined by the Research Centre on Animal Production (CRPA, 1996). The estimation of the EF
considers: the storage systems for slurry (tank and lagoons), type of breeding and seasonal production of
biogas.
Different parameters were considered, such as the livestock population, average weight for fattening swine
and sows, and methane emission rate. Methane emission rates used are 41 normal litre CH4/100 kg live
weight/day for fattening swine, and 47 normal litre CH4/100 kg live weight/day for sows including piglets
(CRPA, 1997[a]), based on experimental measurements on covered storage systems. Then, a reduction of 8%
is applied to these factors to take in account the proportion of animal waste allocated to uncovered storage
systems, which are the most common ones (CRPA, 1997 [a]; CRPA, 2006[b]), considering that the
uncovered systems are emitting less than the covered ones since the temperatures are lower.
The shares of covered/uncovered storage systems are equal to 4 per cent and 96 per cent (CRPA, 2006[b]),
respectively, and the CH4 emission rates used for uncovered storage systems were: 37.6 normal litre CH4/100
kg live weight/day for fattening swine and 43.1 normal litre CH4/100 kg live weight/day for sows, including
piglets.
Characteristics of swine breeding and EFs are shown in Table 5.11; the emission factors reflect the share of
covered/uncovered storage systems. In the 2006 submission, parameters such as: average weight of sows,
production of slurry (t year-1 per t live weight) and volatile solid content in the slurry (g SV/kg slurry w.b.)
were updated. The slurry production considered the different swine categories (classified by weight and
housing characteristics). Volatile solid content were determined experimentally from 598 measurements
carried out by CRPA (CRPA, 2006[a]).
In 2013, the EF from sow was 22.39 kg CH4 head-1year-1, and for the other swine category was 8.86 kg CH4
head-1 year-1 (average swine EF is 8.29 kg CH4 head-1year-1). In Table 5.13 the time series of EFs for the
swine category (sow and other swine) are shown. The CRF IEF reported is 6.74 kg CH4 head-1 year-1. IPCC
2006 Guidelines default EF is 7 kg CH4 head-1year-1 for market swine and 11 kg CH4 head-1year-1 for breeding
swine respectively, for cool temperature and 13°C as average annual temperature (IPCC, 2006). The
difference between the EF and the IEF is due to the reduction in CH4 because of biogas recovery (see Annex
7.2). For reporting purposes, the VS daily excretion and Bo is estimated and is useful to verify the EF
accuracy. The VS daily excretion was estimated for each sub-category with the following parameters: animal
177
number, production of slurry (t/y/t live weight) and the volatile solids content in the slurry (g VS/kg slurry).
Methane producing potential (Bo) used Equation 10.23 from the IPCC (IPCC, 2006).
Table 5.11 Methane manure management parameters and emission factors for swine in 2013
Breed live weight
(t)
Methane emission rate with
8% emission reduction
(Nl CH4/100 kg live weight)
Emission factor
(kg CH4 head-1
yr-1)
89
581,678
13,768
8.86
20-50 kg
50-80 kg
80-110 kg
110 kg and more
35
65
95
135
54,108
81,130
139,857
299,967
13,768
13,768
13,768
13,768
3.48
6.46
9.44
13.41
Boar
200
6,616
13,768
19.86
172.1
116,088
15,783
22.39
10
14,501
15,783
1.14
172.1
101,587
15,783
19.60
Total
8.29
Livestock category
Other swine
Sow
Piglets
Sow
Average weight
(kg)
The fundamental characteristic of Italian swine production is the high live weight of the animals slaughtered
as related to age; the optimum weight for slaughtering to obtain meat suitable for producing the typical cured
meats is between 155 and 170 kg of live weight. Such a high live weight must be reached in no less than nine
months of age. Other characteristics are the feeding situation, to obtain high quality meat, and the
concentration of Italian pig production, limited to a small area (Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Piemonte and
Veneto), representing 75% of national swine resources (Mordenti et al., 1997). These peculiarities of swine
production influence the methane EF for manure management as well as nitrogen excretion factors used for
the estimation of N2O emissions.
Other livestock categories
Methane EFs used for calculating the other livestock categories are those proposed by the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines. Since the yearly average temperature in Italy is 13 °C, EFs are characteristic of the "cold"
climatic region (IPCC, 2006). A study carried out at national level by CRPA (CRPA, 1997[a]) assessed the
specific IPCC default EFs to estimate emissions from this category, and an average figure was calculated for
each animal category considering that the manure of some animals occur in Italian provinces where average
temperatures are higher than 15° C (temperate). In Table 5.12 the distribution of animals in temperate zone is
shown. In Table A.7.2 in the Annex, percentages of animals in temperate zone based on data from the FSS
2005, provided by ISTAT, and the average temperature at provincial level are shown. In order to verify the
used animal distribution, the 2010 Agriculture Census (ISTAT, 2012) has been used to infer the percentages
of animals in temperate zone. Comparing the assessed percentage with the used distribution slight
differences have to be noted, except for other swine, other equines and hens categories (decrease of 30%,
30% and an increase by 27%, respectively); a higher deviation is resulting for the other poultry and broilers
categories.
Table 5.12 Distribution of animals in temperate zone
Animals in temperate zone based on data from
the FSS 2005 (ISTAT)
Non-dairy cattle
Dairy cattle
Buffalo
Total
4,409,921
1,842,004
205,093
N animals
552,951
140,747
83,864
% animals
12.54%
7.64%
40.89%
Based on temperature
non weighted by %
animals
N animals
% animals
285,415
55,975
121
6.47%
3.04%
0.06%
178
Animals in temperate zone based on data from
the FSS 2005 (ISTAT)
Other swine
Sows
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Mules and asses
Broilers
Layer hens
Other poultry
Rabbits
Total
% animals
N animals
8,478,427
721,843
7,954,167
945,895
278,471
30,254
97,532,025
52,692,584
38,370,412
20,504,282
208,355
21,948
2,046,930
380,826
38,047
6,040
1,560,813
3,971,390
567,236
1,378,261
2.46%
3.04%
25.73%
40.26%
13.66%
19.97%
1.60%
7.54%
1.48%
6.72%
Based on temperature
non weighted by %
animals
N animals
% animals
76,427
14,775
1,273,110
129,030
16,695
2,153
1,269,593
2,534,710
555,050
477,474
0.90%
2.05%
16.01%
13.64%
6.00%
7.12%
1.30%
4.81%
1.45%
2.33%
In Table 5.13, the average methane EFs for cattle, buffalo and swine categories are shown for the whole time
series.
For the other categories, the EFs are as follows:
• rabbits, 0.080 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• sheep, 0.21 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• goats, 0.156 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• horses, 1.63 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• mules and asses, 0.84 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• layer hens, 0.030 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• broilers, 0.020 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• other poultry, 0.090 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
• fur animals, 0.68 kg CH4 head-1 year-1
Table 5.13 Average methane EF for manure management (kg CH4 head-1 year-1)
Dairy cattle
Non-dairy cattle
Year
Buffalo
Sows
-1
Other swine
-1
(kg CH4 head year )
1990
15.04
7.46
12.22
22.14
8.54
1995
15.04
7.81
12.00
21.96
8.52
2000
15.04
7.66
11.77
21.97
8.43
2001
15.04
7.71
13.77
22.20
8.55
2002
15.04
7.65
14.09
22.27
8.21
2003
15.04
7.68
13.02
22.19
8.20
2004
15.04
7.72
12.90
22.22
8.27
2005
15.04
7.77
12.33
22.30
8.35
2006
15.04
7.66
12.01
22.16
8.35
2007
15.04
7.76
12.01
22.21
8.33
2008
15.04
7.69
11.80
22.14
8.32
2009
15.04
7.74
12.08
22.17
8.40
2010
15.04
7.74
12.34
22.34
8.36
2011
15.04
7.69
12.32
22.40
8.40
2012
15.04
7.84
11.79
22.17
8.94
179
2013
15.04
7.81
11.71
22.39
8.86
(*) These are the EFs used for estimating CH4 emissions from manure management. CH4 reductions are not included.
Nitrous oxide emissions from manure management
Direct and indirect N2O emissions, produced during the storage and treatment of manure before it is applied
to land, are reported separately, as indicated in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
Direct N2O emissions from manure management
As suggested in the IPCC (IPCC, 2006) N2O emissions were estimated with equation 10.25. Different
parameters were used for the estimation: number of livestock species, country-specific nitrogen excretion
rates per livestock category, the fraction of total annual excretion per livestock category related to a manure
management system and EFs for manure management systems (IPCC, 2006).
Liquid system, solid storage and other management systems (chicken-dung drying process system) are
considered according to their significance and major distribution in Italy. For these management systems, the
same EF is used: 0.005 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted (IPCC, 2006). The chicken-dung drying process system is
considered since 1995, since it has become increasingly common (CRPA, 2000; CRPA, 1997[b]). N2O
emissions of the anaerobic digesters, another management system used in the country, are zero as reported in
the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
When estimating emissions from manure management, the amount related to manure excreted while grazing
is subtracted and reported in ‘Agricultural soils’ under soil emissions - urine and dung deposited by grazing
animals (see Table 5.14). In the 2006 submission, different parameters such as the nitrogen excretion rates
(CRPA, 2006[a]; GU, 2006; Xiccato et al., 2005), the slurry and solid manure production, and the average
weight (CRPA, 2006[a]; GU, 2006; Regione Emilia Romagna, 2004) were updated. In Table 5.14, nitrogen
excretion rates used for the estimation of N2O are shown. The nitrogen excretion rate for swine is 12.31 kg
head-1 yr-1. This last parameter is a weighted average: sow (28.13 kg head-1 yr-1) and other swine (13.62 kg
head-1 yr-1).
Table 5.14 Average weight and nitrogen excretion rates in 2013
Average weight
(kg)
385.0
N excreted
housing
(kg N head-1 yr-1)
49.94
N excreted
grazing
(kg N head-1 yr-1)
1.43
Total
nitrogen excreted
(kg N head-1 yr-1)
Dairy cattle
602.7
110.20
5.80
116.00
Buffalo
505.5
88.24
2.64
90.88
Other swine
89.2
13.62
-
13.62
Sow
172.1
28.42
-
28.42
Sheep
47.4
1.62
14.58
16.20
Goat
46.7
1.62
14.58
16.20
Horses
550.0
20.00
30.00
50.00
Mules and asses
300.0
20.00
30.00
50.00
Poultry
1.7
0.51
-
0.51
Rabbit
1.6
1.02
-
1.02
Fur animals
1.0
4.10
-
4.10
Livestock
category
Non-dairy cattle
51.37
Since 2006 submission, with results obtained from the Nitrogen Balance Inter-regional Project, countryspecific annual nitrogen excretion rates have been incorporated. This project involved Emilia Romagna,
Lombardia, Piemonte and Veneto regions, where animal breeding is concentrated. The nitrogen balance
methodology was followed, as suggested by the IPCC. As a result, estimations of nitrogen excretion rates 10
10
Nitrogen excretion = N consumed – N retained
180
and net nitrogen arriving to the field 11 were obtained. In order to get reliable information on feed
consumption and characteristics, and composition of the feed ratio, the project considered territorial and
dimensional representativeness of Italian breeding. Final annual nitrogen excretion rates used for the
UNFCCC/CLRTAP agriculture national inventory are reported in a report from CRPA (CRPA, 2006[a]).
In Table 5.15, nitrogen excretion rates for the main livestock categories are shown for the whole time series.
For the other livestock categories nitrogen excretion is the same for the whole time series, as shown in Table
5.14.
For the dairy cattle category, the same nitrogen excretion rate is applied for the whole time series. This figure
is the result of the Nitrogen Balance Inter-regional Project. Further explanation on the efforts to improve the
modelling of nitrogen excretion is given in the following section 5.3.6. As regards non-dairy cattle, buffalo
and swine categories, the average values of nitrogen excretion rates are calculated on the basis of the weight
of the annual number of animal subcategories and fluctuate over the years. For the ‘Less than 1 year’
subcategory of the non-dairy cattle category, an average value of nitrogen excreted was calculated based on
the weight of the number of animals of the subcategories (calf, fattening male cattle, fattening heifer and
heifer for replacement). As regards the sows’ category, an average weighted nitrogen excretion rate is
calculated taking in account the nitrogen excretion from piglets (swine less than 20 kg).
Table 5.15 Nitrogen excretion rates for main livestock categories (kg N head-1 yr-1)
Year
Dairy cattle
Non-dairy cattle
Buffalo
-1
Other swine
Sows
-1
(kg N head yr )
1990
116.00
50.00
94.32
13.13
28.10
1995
116.00
49.86
92.84
13.10
27.86
2000
116.00
50.08
91.20
12.96
27.87
2001
116.00
50.69
105.42
13.14
28.17
2002
116.00
50.39
107.73
12.61
28.27
2003
116.00
50.53
100.11
12.60
28.16
2004
116.00
50.04
99.30
12.72
28.20
2005
116.00
49.76
95.28
12.84
28.30
2006
116.00
48.52
93.00
12.84
28.12
2007
116.00
49.84
93.01
12.81
28.18
2008
116.00
49.76
91.48
12.79
28.09
2009
116.00
50.19
93.44
12.92
28.13
2010
116.00
49.83
95.33
12.85
28.36
2011
116.00
49.46
95.17
12.92
28.44
2012
116.00
51.62
91.41
13.74
28.13
2013
116.00
51.37
90.88
13.62
28.42
Since 2006 submission, new average weight data have been used for UNFCCC/CLRTAP agriculture
national inventory. For verification purpose, a time series reported by ISTAT in the yearbooks (animal
weight before slaughter) was collected (CRPA, 2006[a]). For the specific case of sheep and goats, a detailed
analysis was applied with information coming from the National Association for Sheep Farming
(ASSONAPA, 2006). In order to estimate the average weight for sheep and goats, breed distribution in Italy
and consistency for each breed were considered (CRPA, 2006[a]; PROINCARNE, 2005). Slurry and solid
manure production parameters were updated in the 2006 submission. These parameters consider
characteristics from Italian breeding, for slurry and solid manure effluents, housing systems and the
distribution for the different animal categories (CRPA, 2006[a]; Bonazzi et al., 2005; APAT, 2004[a];
APAT, 2004[b]).
11
Net nitrogen to field = (N consumed – N retained) – N volatilized
181
Indirect N2O emissions from manure management
N2O emissions result from volatile nitrogen losses that occur primarily in the forms of ammonia and NOx.
Indirect emissions only from the atmospheric deposition are considered. N2O emissions from nitrogen
leaching and run-off are included in the indirect emissions from agricultural soils category.
For estimating of N2O emissions due to atmospheric deposition of NH3 and NOx the IPCC Tier 2 approach
was followed (Equation 10.26 and 10.27 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines). Parameters used are: total N
excreted by livestock (kg head-1yr-1), FRACGasMS emission factor, which is the percent of managed manure
nitrogen that volatilises as NH3 and NOx in the manure management systems (see Table 5.16) and emission
factor 0.01 kg N2O-N per kg NH3-N and NOx-N emitted (IPCC, 2006). The FRACGasMS emission factor is
equal to the ratio between the amount of NH3-N and NOx-N emissions at housing and storage system and the
total nitrogen excreted.
NH3 and NOx emissions are estimated on the basis of the methodology indicated in the EMEP/EEA
Guidebook for transboundary air pollutants. The estimation procedure for NH3 emissions of the manure
management category consists in successive subtractions from the quantification of nitrogen excreted
annually for each livestock category. This quantity can be divided in two different fluxes, depending on
whether animals are inside (housing, storage and manure application) or outside the stable (grazing). More in
detail, part of the nitrogen excreted in housing volatilizes during the settle of manure in the local farming and
it is calculated with the relevant emission factor in housing for the different livestock; this amount is
therefore subtracted from the total nitrogen excreted to derive the amount of nitrogen for storage. During
storage another fraction of nitrogen is lost (calculated with the relevant emission factor for storage), which is
then subtracted to obtain the amount of nitrogen available for the agronomic spreading. Losses occurring
during the spreading are finally calculated with the specific emission factor for spreading. For the nitrogen
excreted in the pasture losses due to volatilization calculated with the relevant emission factor for grazing by
livestock only occur at this stage. Ammonia emissions coming from housing and storage by each livestock
category are then summed and divided by the total nitrogen excreted for each year (CRPA, 2006[a]).
Table 5.16 Parameters used for the estimation of N2O indirect emissions
Year
1990
1995
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
5.3.3
Total N excreted
(kg N)
959,114,858
939,010,282
936,263,404
842,735,906
856,864,577
858,935,211
837,562,226
840,433,912
827,537,588
833,762,920
FRACGasMS
(%)
23.05
21.83
21.11
21.85
21.74
21.76
21.66
21.64
21.99
21.92
Total N volatilised as NH3
and NOx (kg N)
221,042,263
204,977,206
197,665,150
184,103,817
186,276,604
186,913,971
181,404,661
181,896,905
181,976,678
182,792,064
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainty of CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management has been estimated equal to 21%, as a
combination of 5% and 20% for activity data and emission factors, respectively. Uncertainty of indirect N2O
emissions from manure management has been estimated equal to 54%, as a combination of 20% and 50% for
activity data and emission factors, respectively.
In the 2012 submission, Montecarlo analysis was also applied to estimate uncertainty of these two categories.
The resulting figures were 22.96% and 10.19% for CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management,
respectively. Normal and lognormal distributions have been assumed for the parameters; at the same time,
whenever assumptions or constraints on variables were known this information has been appropriately
reflected on the range of distribution values. A summary of the results is reported in Annex 1.
In 2013, livestock CH4 emissions from manure management were 20% (125.98 Gg CH4) lower than in 1990
(157.38 Gg CH4). From 1990 to 2013, dairy and non-dairy cattle livestock population decreased by 30% and
182
22%, respectively, while swine increased by 2% (in particular, sows decrease by 9% and other swine
increase by 4%). The reduction of manure management emissions has mainly driven down by the number of
cattle and, in the last years, the increasing amount of biogas recovered for energy production. Cattle CH4
emissions contribute with 42% (in 1990 with 49%) to total CH4 manure management emissions and swine
with 46% (43% in 1990).
In Table 5.17, CH4 emission trends from manure management are shown. These emissions considered the
reduction of CH4 because of biogas recovery.
Table 5.17 Trend in CH4 emissions from manure management (Gg)
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Dairy
cattle
39.74
31.12
30.96
31.07
28.54
28.56
27.35
27.21
26.47
26.68
26.76
27.69
25.55
25.34
26.37
25.04
Nondairy
cattle
38.13
40.33
38.08
35.72
34.94
34.97
34.12
33.65
31.79
33.27
32.50
32.05
30.76
30.59
28.75
27.85
Buff
alo
1.15
1.78
2.26
2.67
2.61
2.89
2.71
2.53
2.77
3.53
3.62
4.15
4.51
4.37
4.11
4.72
Sows
14.41
15.02
15.48
15.34
16.53
16.14
15.82
15.63
16.18
15.79
15.88
15.92
15.23
14.82
12.39
10.71
Mules
and Poult Rabb
Sheep Goats Horses asses
ry
its
Gg
Other
swine
53.78
50.15
51.32
54.84
53.94
54.57
53.45
54.84
53.54
53.44
53.73
54.49
54.60
54.14
53.42
47.03
1.90
2.32
2.38
1.78
1.75
1.71
1.74
1.69
1.75
1.75
1.74
1.70
1.66
1.67
1.48
1.51
0.20
0.22
0.22
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.14
0.15
0.47
0.52
0.46
0.47
0.46
0.47
0.46
0.46
0.48
0.53
0.55
0.57
0.61
0.61
0.65
0.64
0.07
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
6.10
6.84
6.48
7.99
7.77
7.20
7.09
6.98
6.62
6.95
7.21
7.22
7.07
7.08
7.01
6.81
1.19
1.37
1.43
1.48
1.51
1.51
1.57
1.64
1.62
1.68
1.56
1.42
1.44
1.40
1.40
1.35
Fur
animals
0.22
0.15
0.16
0.16
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.10
0.09
0.11
0.11
0.11
Total
157.38
149.86
149.25
151.70
148.40
148.34
144.63
144.95
141.52
143.90
143.84
145.50
141.70
140.33
135.88
125.98
In Table 5.18, N2O emissions from liquid systems, solid storage and ‘other’ sources are shown.
Table 5.18 Trend in N2O emissions from manure management (Gg)
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Liquid system
Direct emissions
Solid storage
3.12
2.83
2.70
2.67
2.59
2.58
2.49
2.45
2.35
2.41
2.40
2.44
2.34
2.31
2.19
1.97
3.02
2.87
2.84
2.89
2.75
2.71
2.62
2.57
2.45
2.58
2.58
2.64
2.53
2.50
2.50
2.36
Other
(Gg)
0.00
0.02
0.14
0.19
0.21
0.22
0.22
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.25
0.24
0.25
0.20
0.17
Indirect
emissions
Total
3.47
3.22
3.11
3.15
3.04
3.01
2.92
2.89
2.83
2.94
2.93
2.94
2.85
2.86
2.86
2.87
9.61
8.95
8.79
8.90
8.58
8.53
8.26
8.16
7.87
8.16
8.15
8.26
7.96
7.92
7.75
7.38
In 2013, N2O emissions from manure management were 23% (7.38 Gg N2O) lower than in 1990 (9.61 Gg
N2O). The major contribution of direct emissions is given by the ‘solid storage system’ with 52% (in 1990
183
with 49%). In 2013, indirect N2O emissions from manure management account for 39% of total N2O
emissions from manure management and were 17% (2.87 Gg N2O) lower than in 1990 (3.47 Gg N2O).
5.3.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
In order to verify the data related to the distribution of housing systems used to estimate the production of
solid manure and slurry, an assessment of the abovementioned distribution has been carried out on the basis
of the 2010 Agricultural Census. Similarly the MCFs have been assessed on the basis of the data of the FSS
2007 (ISTAT, 2008[a]) and the 2010 Agriculture Census (ISTAT, 2012) to verify the average methane
conversion factors used in the estimation process, resulting in very slight differences. Further verification has
been carried out to evaluate the animal distribution used in the estimation process; the 2010 Agriculture
Census (ISTAT, 2012) has been used to infer the percentages of animals in temperate zone, resulting in
slight differences, except for other swine, other equines and hens categories (decrease of 30%, 30% and an
increase by 27%, respectively); an higher deviation is resulting for the other poultry and broilers categories.
For verification purposes, the FRACGasMS parameter have been also estimated as a fraction of nitrogen
recovered and stored that is emitted as N_NH3-NOx. This value is equal to 0.283, for 1990, and to 0.267 in
2013.
Furthermore, average NH3 emission factors for manure management from animal housing have been
estimated, for each animal category, on the basis of animal housing collected by the 2010 Agricultural
Census. Comparing the obtained values against the country specific parameters, used in the estimation
process, slight deviations are resulting, mainly due to the different aggregation levels.
5.3.5
Source-specific recalculations
CH4 and N2O emissions have been recalculated due to the following changes:
- for the year 2012, due to the updating of the number of animals for rabbits;
- for the whole time series, due to the revision of the average weight of buffalo between three months and a
year;
- for the whole time series, due to the uploading of the piglets category in the methodology to calculate the
manure used in anaerobic digesters.
CH4 emissions have been recalculated due to the following changes:
- for the whole time series, due to the updating of the default EF by average annual temperature for goats,
horses, mules and asses, poultry, rabbits as reported in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines;
- from the year 2000, due to the minor revision of the average EF for sheep, before the change left constant
throughout the time series and now weighted with the number of heads.
N2O emissions have been recalculated due to the following changes:
- for the whole time series, due to the updating of the default EF for direct N2O emissions;
- indirect emissions from nitrogen losses from all manure management system during the storage and
treatment of manure before it is applied to land were moved from agricultural soils and added in the manure
management category.
In the November 2014 submission, revised CH4 and N2O emission estimates have been calculated using a
country-specific methodology and MCF, that separate the manure used in anaerobic digesters from the
manure treated as slurry/solid.
Finally, the MCF for the digesters and MCF for the other manure management system from 2007 due to the
updating of the allocation of the livestock to the climate region has been revised, but these corrections did
not result in a change of emissions.
Compared to the previous submission (November 2014), these changes have decreased the annual average
estimates to about 5% and 54% for CH4 and N2O emissions respectively, without considering changing the
GWP.
184
5.3.6
Source-specific planned improvements
In Table 5.19, future improvements in agreement with the QA/QC plan are presented.
Table 5.19 Improvements for manure management category according to the QA/QC plan
Category/sub
category
Parameter
Year of
submission
2016 2017
√
Dairy cattle
N excretion
Livestock
categories
Housing
systems
√
Livestock
categories
Slurry and
solid manure
storage
facilities
√
Livestock
categories
Average
temperature
√
Activities
Further efforts on theoretical assessment of N excretion data will be done based
on N balance methodology (Gruber and Poesch, 2006).
A query on the housing systems of different livestock categories has been
introduced in the Farm and structure survey 2005. Validation of the results has
been carried out, in collaboration with the CRPA experts, taking into account
also information collected from the 2010 Agricultural Census. An evaluation of
the possible update to be introduced in the estimation process is currently
ongoing.
A query related to storage facilities for slurry and solid manure of different
livestock categories has been introduced in the Farm and structure survey 2007.
Validation of the results has to be carried out, taking into account also
information collected from the 2010 Agricultural Census and Farm and structure
survey 2013.
The average annual temperatures used in the assessment of the manure
management CH4 emission factors will be verified on the basis of the available
information (i.e. updated data from SCIA 12).
For the dairy cattle category, the suggestions by the review process (UNFCCC, 2009) have been taken into
consideration. Nitrogen excretion in Italy has been evaluated through a Nitrogen Balance Inter-regional
Project (nitrogen balance in animal farms), funded by the Regional Governments of the most livestockintensive Italian Regions. The N-balance methodology has been applied in real case farms, monitoring their
normal feeding practice, without specific diet adaptation. In the project, the most relevant dairy cattle
production systems in Italy have been considered. Contrary to what is normally found in European milk
production systems, poor correlation between the N excretion and milk production has been found. Probably
there are two reasons for explaining the absence of correlation: a) extreme heterogeneity in the protein
content of the forage and in the use of the feed; b) the non optimisation of the protein diet of less productive
cattle (De Roest and Speroni, 2005; CRPA, 2010). Further efforts on theoretical assessment of nitrogen
excretion data will be done based on nitrogen balance methodology (Gruber and Pötsch, 2006). An ad-hoc
agro-environmental indicator group coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture is working to determine gross
nitrogen balances; the revision of N coefficients will be considered accordingly.
Parameters used for this submission are shown in Table 5.20.
12
SCIA is the national system for the collection, elaboration and dissemination of climatological data, by ISPRA, in the framework
of
the
national
environmental
information
system,
in
collaboration
with
the
relevant
institutions:
http://www.scia.isprambiente.it/scia_eng.asp
185
Table 5.20 Parameters used for the different livestock categories in 2015 submission (Year 2013)
Average weight (kg)
N excretion (kg N head-1 yr-1)
602.7
116.0
205.7 (**)
24.1 (**)
for reproduction
557.0
66.8
for slaughter
557.0
66.8
for breeding
405.0
67.6
for slaughter
444.0
53.3
for reproduction
700.0
84.0
for slaughter and work
700.0
84.0
Breeding heifer
540.0
90.2
Slaughter heifer
540.0
64.8
Other dairy cattle
557.0
54.1
Cow buffalo
630.0
116.0
Other buffaloes
319.5
53.4
Weight less than 20 kg
10.0
From 20 kg weight and under 50 kg
35.0
5.3
200.0
30.5
from 50 to 80 kg
65.0
9.9
from 80 to 110 kg
95.0
14.5
from 110 kg and more
135.0
20.6
172.1
28.13 (**)
Sheep
51.1
16.2
Other sheep
20.8
16.2
Goat
53.8
16.2
Other goat
14.9
16.2
Horses
550.0
50.0
Mules and asses
300.0
50.0
Broilers
1.2
0.36
Hen
1.8
0.66
Other poultry
3.3
0.83
Female rabbits
4.0
2.5
Other rabbit
1.3
0.8
1.0
4.1
Livestock category
DAIRY CATTLE
NON- DAIRY CATTLE
Less than 1 year (*)
From 1 year - less than 2 years
Male
Female
From 2 years and more
Male
Female
BUFFALO
OTHER SWINE
From 50 kg and more
Boar
For slaughter
SOW
SHEEP
GOAT
EQUINE
POULTRY
RABBIT
FUR ANIMALS
(*) Categories included in less than 1 year are: calf, fattening male cattle, fattening heifer and heifer for replacement;
(**) values are variable for the time series.
186
5.4
Rice cultivation (3C)
5.4.1
Source category description
For the rice cultivation category, only CH4 emissions are estimated, other GHGs do not occur; N2O from
fertilisation during cultivation was estimated and reported in “Agricultural soils” under direct soil emissions
- synthetic fertilizers. Methane emissions from rice cultivation have been identified as a key source at level
assessment with Approach 1. In 2013, CH4 emissions from rice cultivation were 66.3 Gg, which represent
8.8% of CH4 emissions for the agriculture sector (8.7% in 1990) and 3.8% for national CH4 emissions (3.5%
in 1990).
In Italy, CH4 emissions from rice cultivation are estimated only for an irrigated regime, other categories
suggested by IPCC (rainfed, deep water and “other”) are not present. Methane emissions, reported in the
CRF, represent two water regimes: single aeration (10.4 Gg) and multiple aeration (55.9 Gg).
In response to UNFCCC review processes from 2004 and 2005 (UNFCCC, 2005; UNFCCC, 2004) and in
consultation with an expert in CH4 emissions and rice cultivation (Wassmann, 2005), a detailed methodology
was developed. New activity data and parameters are used for the estimation of CH4 emissions (Cóndor et
al., 2007[a]). For this purpose, an expert group on rice cultivation together with the C.R.A. – Experimental
Institute of Cereal Research – Rice Research Section of Vercelli was established. Different national experts
from the rice cultivation sector were also contacted 13.
The quality of the Italian rice emission inventory was verified with the Denitrification Decomposition model
(DNDC). Initial results have found a high correspondence between the EFs used for the Italian inventory and
those simulated with DNDC model (Leip and Bocchi, 2007).
In 2015 submission, the cultivation period (days) for some rice varieties and the daily emission factor for
continuously flooded fields without organic amendments for multiple aeration regime have been updated.
5.4.2
Methodological issues
For the estimation of CH4 emissions from rice cultivation a detailed methodology was implemented
following the IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Country-specific circumstances have been considered.
Parameters such as an adjusted integrated emission factor (kg CH4 m-2day-1), cultivation period of rice (days)
and annual harvested area (ha) cultivated under specific conditions are considered. Information of the
cultivated surface is collected 100% from rice farmers. Every year, data are collected on time by the National
Rice Institute (ENR, several years [b]). Activity data information is shown in the following box.
Parameters used for the calculation of CH4 emissions from rice cultivation
Parameters
Cultivated surface with “dry-seeded” technique (%)
Cultivated surface – national (ha)
Cultivated surface by rice varieties (ha)
Cultivation period of rice varieties (days)
Methane emission factor (kg CH4 m-2 d-1)
Crop production (t yr-1)
Yield (t ha-1)
Straw incorporation (%)
Agronomic practices (%)
Scaling factors (SFw, SFp, SFo)
Reference
ENR, several years [a]
ISTAT, several years [a],[b],[j]; ENR, several years [b]
ENR, several years [b]
ENR, 2011; ENR, 2014 [a],[b]; ENSE, 1999; ENSE, 2004; ENR, 2013
Leip et al., 2002; Schutz et al., 1989[a], [b]; Meijide et al., 2011
ISTAT, several years [a],[b],[j]
Estimations based on cultivated surface and crop production data
Expert judgement (Tinarelli, 2005; Lupotto et al., 2005)
ISTAT, 2006[b]; Tinarelli, 2005; Lupotto et al., 2005; Zavattaro et. al,
2004; Baldoni & Giardini, 1989; Tinarelli, 1973; 1986
IPCC, 2006; Yan et al., 2005
Rice cultivation practice
In Italy, rice is sown from mid-April to the end of May and harvested from mid-September to the end of
October; the only practised system is the controlled flooding system, with variations in water regimes
(Regione Emilia Romagna, 2005; Mannini, 2004; Tossato and Regis, 2002). In Table 5.21, water regimes
13
Stefano Bocchi, Crop Science Department (University of Milan); Aldo Ferrero, Department of Agronomy, Forestry and Land Management
(University of Turin); Antonino Spanu, Department of agronomic science and agriculture genetics (University of Sassari).
187
descriptions for the most common agronomic practices in Italy are presented. Water regime trends have been
estimated in collaboration with expert judgement expertise (Tinarelli, 2005; Lupotto et al., 2005) and
available statistics (ENR, several years [b]).
Normally, the aeration periods are very variable in number and time, depending on different circumstances,
as for example, the type of herbicide, which is used (Baldoni and Giardini, 1989). Another water regime
system, present in southern Italy, is the sprinkler irrigation, which exists only on experimental plots and
could contribute to the diffusion of rice cultivation in areas where water availability is a limiting factor
(Spanu et al., 2004; Spanu and Pruneddu, 1996).
Table 5.21 Water regimes in Italy and classification according to IPCC guidelines
Type of
seeding
Wetseeded
“classic”
Wetseeded
“red rice
control”
April
May
15-30 April
10 may
Flooding
and
wetseeded (*)
1ºaeration AR
First
application of
herbicides,
15 April
the soil is
Flooding
dry.
and
wetApproximatel
seeded (*)
y, on 15 may
flooding and
after
some
days seeding
1° aeration –
AC
Approx. after
10 days
2° aeration AR
15 April
DryDry-seeded
seeded
with delay
flooding
June
July
August
Fertilizer
application (1/3),
Final
soil is saturated
aeration
but not flooded.
Panicle formation
Herbicide
treatment
2º aerationAA
-
Approximatel
Herbicide
y, on 15 may
treatment
flooding
1º aerationAA
Description
Harvest
2 aeration periods during rice
cultivation, as minimum, not
including the final aeration
IPCC classification:
Intermittently flooded –
multiple aeration
Harvest
2 aeration periods during rice
cultivation, as minimum, not
including the final aeration. In
some cases, between April and
May, even 3 aeration periods
are practised.
IPCC classification:
Intermittently flooded –
multiple aeration
Harvest
1 aeration period during rice
cultivation, as minimum, not
including the final aeration.
IPCC classification:
Intermittently flooded – single
aeration
3º
final
aeration
At the end of
Fertilizer
June,
application (1/3), Final
fertilization
soil is saturated aeration
treatment
but not flooded.
Panicle formation
3ºaeration
AA
September
-October
Final
aeration
Fertilizer
application (1/3),
soil is saturated
but not flooded.
Panicle formation
2º
final
aeration
(*) the first fertilization (2/3) during the initial part of the rice cultivation, generally on July there is a second period for the fertilization (1/3),
normally there is no aeration during the second fertilization period. Aeration periods have mostly have last between 5-15 days and are classified as
follows: AC=aeration to control red rice; AR=drained, aeration in order to promote rice rooting; AA=drained, tillering aeration.
In general, rice seeds are mechanically broadcasted in flooded fields. However, in Italy for the last 15 years,
the seeds are also drilled to dry soil in rows. The rice which has been planted in dry soil is generally
managed as a dry crop until it reaches the 3-4 leaf stage. After this period, the rice is flooded and grows in
continuous submersion, as in the conventional system (Ferrero and Nguyen, 2004; Russo, 1994).
During the cultivation period, water is commonly kept at a depth of 4-8 cm, and drained away 2-3 times
during the season to improve crop rooting, to reduce algae growth and to allow application of herbicides.
Rice fields are drained at the end of August to allow harvesting, once in a year (Ferrero and Nguyen, 2004;
Baldoni and Giardini, 1989; Tinarelli, 1973; 1986).
Nitrogen is generally the most limiting plant nutrient in rice production and is subject to losses because of
the reduction processes (denitrification) and leaching. Sufficient nitrogen should be applied pre-plant or preflood to assure that rice plant needs no additional nitrogen until panicle initiation or panicle differentiation
stage. When additional nitrogen is required, it should be top-dressed at either of these plant stages or
whenever nitrogen deficiency symptoms appear. The above-mentioned applications are usually used in two
188
or three periods; the first period is always before sowing, that is on dry soil, while the others occur during the
growing season (Russo, 2001; Russo, 1993; Russo et al., 1990; Baldoni and Giardini, 1989).
In Italy, another type of fertilization practise is the incorporation of straw. The incorporation period can vary
according to weather conditions, but probably mainly incorporated approximately one month before flooding
(Russo, 1988; Russo 1976). Rice straw are often burned in the field, otherwise incorporated into the soil or
buried. For other agronomic practice, a national publication has been considered for understanding fertilizer
and crop residues management (Zavattaro et al., 2004).
Methane emission factor
An analysis on recent and past literature, for the CH4 daily EF (kg CH4 m-2 d-1) was done. Different scientific
publications related to the CH4 daily EF measurements in Italian rice fields were revised (Marik et al., 2002;
Leip et al., 2002; Dan et al., 2001; Butterbach-Bahl et al., 1997; Schutz et al., 1989[a], [b]; HolzapfelPschorn & Seiler, 1986). Other publications indirectly related with CH4 production were also considered
(Kruger et al., 2005; Weber et al., 2001; Dannenberg & Conrad, 1999; Roy et al., 1997). Butterbach-Bahl et
al. have presented interesting results associated to the difference in EFs of two cultivation periods (1990 and
1991). In these consecutive years, fields planted with rice cultivar Lido showed a level of CH4 emissions 2431% lower than fields planted with cultivar Roma. Marik et al. have published detailed information on
agronomic practices (fertilized fields) related to measurements of CH4 emission factor for years 1998 and
1999; values are similar to those presented in previous publications (Schutz et al., 1989[a], [b]; HolzapfelPschorn & Seiler, 1986). Leip et al. have published specific CH4 EF for the so called dry-seeded with delay
flooding, as shown in Table 5.22. The dry–seeded technique could bring interesting benefits in emission
reduction, since lower emission rates compared with normal agronomic practices were determined
experimentally.
The estimation of CH4 emissions for the rice cultivation category considers an irrigated regime, which
includes intermittently flooded with single aeration and multiple aeration regimes. The CH4 emission factor
is adjusted with the following parameters: daily integrated emission factor for continuously flooded fields
without organic fertilizers, scaling factor to account for the differences in water regime in the rice growing
season (SFw), scaling factor to account for the differences in water regime in the preseason status (SFp) and
scaling factor which varies for both types and amount of amendment applied (SFo). Scaling factor
parameters have been updated according to literature (Yan et al., 2005) and the IPCC 2006 Guidelines
(IPCC, 2006).
In 2014, the cultivation period (days) for some rice varieties (ENR, 2014 [a],[b]; ENSE, 1999; ENSE, 2004;
ENR, 2013) have been updated. Despite the upload of the vegetation period of some varieties, the estimate of
the average value for water regime does not change the previous values.
The Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability - Climate Change Unit, in charge of
measuring rice paddy fields in Italy, has been contacted to obtain data related to measurements carried out in
the latest years. On the basis of the documentation received, the daily emission factor for continuously
flooded fields without organic amendments for multiple aeration regime from 2009 (Meijide et al., 2011)
have been updated. The emission factor is based on experimental measurements carried out in 2009 in an
area in the Po Valley, in Northern Italy, where rice cultivation is most widespread. The value is slightly
lower than the previous one.
Assumptions of agronomic practices, and parameters used for CH4 emission estimations are shown in Table
5.21 and Table 5.22, respectively.
Total CH4 emissions for rice cultivation in 2013 were 66.33 Gg.
Table 5.22 Parameters used for estimating CH4 emissions from rice cultivation in 2013
Rice cultivation water regimes:
Intermittently flooded
Single aeration
Multiple aeration
Dry-seeded
Wet-seeded (classic)
42,470
78,097
Wet-seeded
(red rice control)
95,452
Daily EF (g CH4 m d )
0.20
0.27
0.27
SFw
0.60
0.52
0.52
SFp
0.68
0.68
0.68
SFo
2.1
2.1
2.1
Type of seeding
Surface (ha)
-2
-1
Multiple aeration
189
Rice cultivation water regimes:
Intermittently flooded
Adjusted daily EF (g CH4 m-2 d-1)
Single aeration
Multiple aeration
Multiple aeration
0.18
0.21
0.21
138
156
156
Seasonal EF (g CH4 m yr )
24.47
32.23
32.23
Methane emissions (Gg)
10.39
25.17
30.76
Days of cultivation (days)
-2
5.4.3
-1
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainty of emissions from rice cultivation has been estimated equal to 11% as a combination of 5% and
10% for activity data and emissions factor, respectively.
Lack of experimental data and knowledge about the occurrence and duration of drainage periods in Italy is
the major cause of uncertainty. Moreover, it is not easy to quantify the surface where the traditional or the
different number of aerations is practiced, which depends on the degree and the type of infestation, and the
positive or negative results of the herbicide treatment application (Spanu, 2006).
In 2013, CH4 emissions from rice cultivation were 11.6% (66.33 Gg CH4) lower than in 1990 (75.06 Gg
CH4). In Italy, the driving force of CH4 emissions from rice cultivation is the harvest area and the percentage
of single aerated surface (lower CH4 emission factor). From 1990-2013, the harvest area has increased by
0.3%, from 215,442 ha year-1 (1990) to 216,019 ha year-1 (2013). The percentage of single aerated surface
has increased from 1.0% (1990) to 19.7% (2013). In Table 5.23, CH4 emissions from rice cultivation and
harvested area are shown.
Table 5.23 Harvest area and CH4 emissions from the rice cultivation sector
Year
Harvested area
9
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
5.4.4
2
-1
CH4 emissions
(10 m yr )
(Gg)
2.15
2.39
2.20
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.30
2.24
2.29
2.33
2.24
2.38
2.48
2.47
2.35
2.16
75.06
79.56
66.26
66.19
68.52
70.00
73.03
70.09
70.20
72.08
66.01
73.39
72.89
72.22
71.57
66.33
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the sum of sub-categories. Data entries have been checked several times during
the compilation of the inventory. Several QA activities are carried out in the different phases of the inventory
process. In particular the applied methodology has been presented and discussed during several national
workshop and expert meeting, collecting findings and comments to be incorporated in the estimation
process. All the agriculture categories have been embedded in the overall QA/QC-system of the Italian GHG
inventory. In November 2014, the CH4 emission factors used for the rice cultivation category in the Italian
190
emissions inventory were presented at the 9th Expert Meeting on Data for the IPCC Emission Factor
Database (EFDB) and the values were entered into the database.
5.4.5
Source-specific recalculations
CH4 emissions have been recalculated due to:
- the uploading of the cultivation period for some rice varieties from 2004;
- the updating of the rice production for the period 2007-2012;
- the revision of the daily EF for continuously flooded fields without organic amendments for multiple
aeration regime from 2009;
- the updating of the combustion factor value for rice residues for the whole time series, as reported in the
2006 IPCC Guidelines.
5.4.6
Source-specific planned improvements
Provincial estimations on the basis of the relation between emissions and temperature would result in further
possible improvements, even if enhancement would be limited since the largest Italian rice production is in
the Po valley, where monthly temperatures of the rice paddies are similar. In 1990, Piemonte and Lombardia
regions represented 95% of the national surface area of rice cultivation, while in 2013 they represented 93%
(ENR, several years [b]; Confalonieri and Bocchi, 2005).
5.5
Agriculture soils (3D)
5.5.1
Source category description
In 2013, N2O emissions from managed soils were 31.72 Gg, representing 81.1% of N2O emissions for the
agriculture sector (79.8% in 1990) and 49.5% for national N2O emissions (41.6% in 1990). N2O emissions
from this source consist of direct emissions from managed soils (23.79 Gg) and indirect emissions from
managed soils (7.93 Gg).
Direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed soils are key sources at level assessment, both with
Approach 1 and Approach 2.
For direct emissions from managed soils the following sources are estimated: inorganic nitrogen fertilizers;
organic nitrogen fertilizers, which include animal manure applied to soils, sewage sludge applied to soils,
other organic fertilizers applied to soils (as compost and other organic amendments used as fertiliser); urine
and dung deposited by grazing animals; crop residues; cultivation of organic soils (i.e. histosols).
Mineralised nitrogen resulting from loss of soil organic C stocks in mineral soils through land-use change or
management practices (FSOM) has been assumed not occurring. It assumes that there are no changes in
agricultural practices and therefore there are neither losses nor gains of carbon. For indirect emissions from
managed soils, atmospheric deposition and nitrogen leaching and run-off are estimated. Nitrous oxide
emissions from animal production are calculated together with the manure management category on the basis
of nitrogen excretion, and reported in agricultural soils under “Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals”
(see Table 5.24).
Table 5.24 N2O emissions from managed soils (Gg)
Direct N2O emissions from managed soils
Inorganic N fertilizers
Organic N fertilizers
a. Animal manure applied to soils
b. Sewage sludge applied to soils
c. Other organic fertilizers applied to soils
Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals
Crop residues
1990
1995
2000
28.46
11.90
9.86
9.55
0.08
0.24
3.13
3.25
29.42
12.53
9.40
9.01
0.13
0.26
3.51
3.67
29.24
12.35
9.51
8.98
0.17
0.35
3.60
3.48
2005 2010
Gg
27.62 23.10
12.25 7.80
9.05
9.26
8.53
8.42
0.14
0.16
0.39
0.68
2.71
2.75
3.29
2.98
2011
2012
2013
24.40
8.11
10.25
8.45
0.17
1.62
2.76
2.98
25.59
10.74
9.43
8.43
0.20
0.80
2.57
2.54
23.79
8.59
9.55
8.46
0.15
0.94
2.64
2.70
191
Cultivation of organic soils
Indirect N2O emissions from managed soils
Atmospheric deposition
Nitrogen leaching and run-off
1990
1995
2000
0.31
9.44
2.57
6.87
0.31
9.58
2.52
7.05
0.31
9.45
2.46
6.99
2005
Gg
0.31
8.88
2.28
6.60
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.31
7.57
1.99
5.58
0.31
8.08
2.21
5.87
0.31
8.53
2.39
6.14
0.31
7.93
2.20
5.73
ISPRA is in charge of collecting, elaborating and reporting the UNFCCC/CLRTAP agriculture national
emission inventory (APAT, 2005), thus, consistency among methodologies and parameters is verified. Since
2006 submission, the UNFCCC/CLRTAP inventory has updated country-specific nitrogen excretion rates
and EFs. The nitrogen balance coming from the CLRTAP emission inventory feeds the UNFCCC inventory,
specifically for the estimation of: FRACLossMS parameter, used for calculating managed manure nitrogen
available for application to managed soils (Equation 10.34 of 2006 IPCC Guidelines), used for determine
FAM; FRACGASM and FRACGASF parameters, used for calculating indirect N2O emissions from atmospheric
deposition of nitrogen volatilised from managed soils (Equation 11.9 of 2006 IPCC Guidelines). Following
recommendations from the UNFCCC ERT, direct and indirect N2O emissions from the use of sewage sludge
in agricultural soils have been estimated (UNFCCC, 2010[b]).
5.5.2
Methodological issues
Methodologies used for estimating N2O emissions from “Agricultural soils” follow the IPCC approach (Tier
1). Emission factors suggested by the IPCC (IPCC, 2006) and by the Research Centre on Animal Production
(CRPA, 2000; CRPA, 1997[b]) are used. Activity data used for estimations are shown in the following box.
Data used for estimating agricultural soil emissions
Data
Fertilizer distributed (t/yr)
Nitrogen content (%)
N excretion rates (kg head-1 yr-1)
Cultivated surface (ha yr-1)
Annual crop production (t yr-1)
Residue/crop product ratio by crop type
Crop residue production (t dry matter ha-1yr-1)
Dry matter content by crop type
Protein content in dry matter by crop type
Livestock data
Reference
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [i]
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [i]
CRPA, 2006[a]; GU, 2006; Xiccato et al., 2005
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [j]
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [j]
CESTAAT, 1988
CRPA/CNR, 1992
CRPA/CNR, 1992
CESTAAT, 1988
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [g]
For estimating direct N2O emissions from managed soils, the IPCC approach is followed, and some
modifications were included because of country-specific peculiarities (IPCC, 2006). N2O-N emissions are
estimated from the amount of: inorganic nitrogen fertilizers (FSN); organic nitrogen fertilizers (FON), which
include animal manure applied to soils (FAM), sewage sludge applied to soils (FSEW), other organic fertilizers
applied to soils (as compost and other organic amendments used as fertiliser, FCOMP and FOOA respectively);
urine and dung deposited by grazing animals (FPRP); crop residues (FCR); cultivation of histosols (FOS). Then
default IPCC emission factors (IPCC, 2006) are applied. Afterwards, N2O-N emissions are converted to N2O
emissions, multiplying by the ratio of molecular weights (44/28). Urine and dung deposited by grazing
animals emissions are estimated according to the methodology described in section 5.3.2 for manure
management. Indirect emissions are estimated as suggested by IPCC (IPCC, 2006). As requested in a
previous review process (UNFCCC, 2005) a review of the FRACLEACH parameter was done. Italy verified
that the IPCC default is similar to the country-specific reference value reported from the main regional basin
authority - Po Valley (ADBPO, 2001; ADBPO, 1994).
Direct N2O emissions from managed soils
Applied synthetic fertilizers (FSN)
The total use of synthetic fertilizers (expressed in t N year-1) is estimated for each type of fertilizer (see Table
5.25). Data on synthetic fertilizers are from ISTAT as reported in paragraph 5.1.3, 5.1.4 and 5.5.2. N-N2O
emissions from synthetic fertilizers are obtained multiplying FSN by the emission factor, 0.01 kg N-N2O/kg N
192
(IPCC, 2006). In 2008 submission, a specification for “Other nitrogenous fertilizers” was introduced (ENEA,
2006). This improvement was introduced since 1998, because activity data is available from that year.
The time series of nitrogen content of fertilizers is shown in Table 5.32. In 2013, the total use of synthetic
fertilizers was 546,542 t N (see Table 5.25). The time series of applied synthetic fertilisers is shown in Table
5.26.
Table 5.25 Total use of synthetic fertilizer in 2013 (t N yr-1)
Fertilizers distributed
(t yr-1)
Nitrogen content (%)
Ammonium sulphate
72,105
21.63%
Nitrogen content of
synthetic fertilizers
(t N yr-1)
15,599
Calcium cyanamide
21,002
19.82%
4,164
Nitrates (*)
278,064
26.23%
72,930
Urea
614,208
45.94%
282,197
Other nitric nitrogen
83,919
31.34%
2,908
Other ammoniacal nitrogen
-
-
3,820
Other amidic nitrogen
-
-
19,572
Phosphate nitrogen
249,055
20.37%
50,726
Potassium nitrogen
102,574
23.71%
24,322
NPK nitrogen
348,245
13.81%
48,097
Organic mineral
208,871
10.63%
22,209
Type of fertilizers
Total
1,978,043
546,542
(*) includes ammonium nitrate < 27% and ammonium nitrate > 27% and calcium nitrate
Table 5.26 Trend of annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils (t N yr-1)
Year
FSN (t N)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
757,509 797,500 785,593 779,846 659,922 518,778 496,637 515,966 683,566 546,542
Applied organic N fertilisers (FON)
The amount of organic N inputs applied to soils other than by grazing animals is calculated using Equation
11.3 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. This includes applied animal manure (FAM), sewage sludge applied to soil
(FSEW) and other organic amendments (FOOA), which also includes compost applied to soils (FCOMP).
Table 5.27 Trend of applied organic N fertilisers (t N yr-1)
Year
FAM (t N)
FSEW (t N)
FOOA (t N)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
607,447 573,127 571,696 542,777 549,346 551,886 535,660 537,845 536,500 538,199
5,071
8,137 10,954 8,874
8,841 11,365 10,040 11,119 12,864 9,445
15,193 16,791 22,571 24,505 33,764 38,769 43,342 103,400 50,934 59,886
Animal manure N applied to soil (FAM)
The annual amount of animal manure N applied to soils is calculated using Equation 11.4 of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines. The amount of managed manure nitrogen available for soil application is calculated using
Equation 10.34 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The amount of manure nitrogen managed in manure
management systems is estimated as reported in paragraph 5.3.2 “Direct N2O emissions from manure
management” and country-specific nitrogen excretion rates (CRPA, 2006[a]; GU, 2006; Xiccato et al., 2005)
are used. FRACLossMS parameter of the Equation 10.34 is assumed equal to the percent of managed manure
nitrogen that volatilises as NH3 and NOx in the manure management systems (i.e. the FRACGasMS emission
factor). A description of the country-specific FRACGasMS parameter is reported in paragraph 5.3.2 ”Indirect
N2O emissions from manure management”. The amount of nitrogen from bedding is considered and default
IPCC values are used (IPCC, 2006). FRACFEED, FRACFUEL and FRACCNST parameters of the Equation 11.4
are assumed equal to zero.
193
The FAM (t N yr-1) value is estimated by summing the FAM for each livestock category; then emissions are
calculated with emission factor 0.01 kg N-N2O/kg N (IPCC, 2006). In 2013, FAM parameter was 538,199 t N.
Sewage sludge applied to soils (FSEW)
Direct and indirect N2O emissions from the application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils were calculated
using the tier 1 methodology described in the IPCC (IPCC, 2006). Direct emissions were estimated by
applying the relevant default IPCC equations, EFs and parameters (see Annex A7.3). From 1995 to 2009
activity data (amount of sewage sludge) and parameters (N content) were collected from the Ministry for the
Environment, Land and Sea, which is in charge of collecting and reporting data under the EU Sewage Sludge
Directive 86/278/EEC (MATTM, 2014). From 1990 to 1994 AD and parameters were reconstructed,
description is available in the Waste Chapter. The amount of sewage N applied was calculated using the
amount of sewage sludge (expressed in t dry matter) and the N content of sludge. Emission factor used was
0.01 kg N-N2O/kg N (IPCC, 2006).
Other organic amendments applied to soils (FOOA) (including compost N applied to soils (FCOMP))
As regards the other organic fertilisers applied to soil category, the use of other organic N fertilisers,
including compost and organic amendments, and N content are provided by ISTAT (as reported in the
paragraph 5.1.3, 5.1.4 and 5.5.2). Data are available from 1998 and for the previous years, data were
reconstructed on the basis of the trend of the data available.
Urine and dung from grazing animals (FPRP)
The annual amount of N deposited on pasture is calculated using Equation 11.5 of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines. As mentioned in section 5.3.2, when estimating N2O emissions from manure management, the
amount related to manure excreted while grazing is subtracted and reported in “Agricultural soils” under
urine and dung from grazing animals. In Table 5.14, nitrogen excretion rates (kg head-1yr-1) used for
estimations are shown. N2O emissions are estimated with the total nitrogen excreted from grazing (include
all livestock categories), number of animals, an EF for cattle (dairy, non-dairy and buffalo) of 0.02 kg N2ON/kg N excreted and an EF for sheep and other animals (goats, horses and mules and asses) of 0.01 kg N2ON/kg N excreted (IPCC, 2006).
Table 5.28 Trend of annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture (t N yr-1)
Year
1990
FPRP (t N) 178,178
1995
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
204,765
210,099
155,768
161,054
159,664
158,508
158,960
146,327
150,218
Crop residue N, including N-fixing crops and forage, returned to soils (FCR)
For the estimation of nitrogen input from crop residues, a country-specific methodology is used. The total
amount of crop residues is estimated (t dry matter yr-1) by using the following parameters: annual crop
production (t yr-1), residue/crop product ratio, percentage of the residue fixed and dry matter content by type
of crop (%), while, when cultivated surface (ha) is the available activity data, only the crop residue
production (t dry matter ha-1 yr-1) parameter is used to assess total amount of crop residues (CESTAAT,
1988; CRPA/CNR, 1992; ENEA, 1994). Data on annual crop production and cultivated surface are from
ISTAT as reported in paragraph 5.1.3, 5.1.4 and 5.5.2.
The nitrogen content of crop residues from cereals, legumes, tubers and roots, legumes forages and other
forages (t N yr-1) is estimated by multiplying the total amount of crop residue as dry matter with the
reincorporated fraction (1- FRACBURN, where FRACBURN is the fraction of crop residue that is burned rather
than left on field equal to 0.1 kg N/kg crop-N (IPCC, 1997; CRPA, 1997[b])), and the nitrogen content for
each crop type. The nitrogen content is obtained converting protein content in dry matter (CESTAAT, 1988),
dividing by factor 6.25 (100 g of protein/16 g of nitrogen). As reported in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines, the
contribution of the below-ground nitrogen to the total input of nitrogen from crop residues has been
considered. The 2006 IPCC default values of ratio of belowground residues to above-ground biomass and N
content of below-ground residues are considered (IPCC, 2006). The amount of nitrogen of crop residues
from perennial grasses is calculated by using the Equation 11.6 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The values
used for other forages are the same used for the cultivation alfalfa.
The FCR parameter is obtained by adding the nitrogen content of cultivars crop residues. In 2013, FCR
parameter was 172,045 t N (see Table 5.29). Emissions are calculated with emission factor 0.01 kg NN2O/kg N (IPCC, 2006).
194
Following the 2013 review’s finding, detailed information related to the cultivated surfaces, crops
production, residues production and parameters used for emissions estimates, for each type of crop, are
shown in the Annex 7 (Tables A.7.4-9).
Table 5.29 Trend of annual amount of N in crop residues (t N yr-1)
Year
FCR (t N)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
206,869
233,468
221,179
209,376
189,947
185,696
189,602
189,378
161,372
172,045
Area of drained/managed organic soils (FOS)
In Italy, the area of organic soils cultivated annually (histosols) is estimated to be 24,690 hectares for the
whole time series (FAOSTAT database 14). This value is multiplied by 8 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1, as suggested by
IPCC (IPCC, 2006). The data are consistent with figures used for estimation in the LULUCF sector.
Additional information may be found in the paragraph 6.3.4 Methodological issues of the LULUCF sector.
Indirect N2O emissions from managed soils
For indirect emissions from agricultural soils the following parameters are estimated:
• Atmospheric deposition
• Nitrogen leaching and run-off
For estimating of N2O emissions due to atmospheric deposition of NH3 and NOx the IPCC tier 1 approach
was followed (Equation 11.9 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines). Parameters used are: total use of synthetic
fertilizer FSN (t N yr-1), FRACGASF emission factor, total amount of organic N inputs applied to soils FON (t N
yr-1), total amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals FPRP (t N yr-1), FRACGASM emission
factor and the emission factor 0.01 kg N2O-N per kg NH3-N and NOx-N emitted (IPCC, 2006).
FRACGASF parameter is estimated for the whole time series, following the IPCC definition, where the total NNH3 and N-NOx emissions from fertilizers are divided by the total nitrogen content of fertilizers (see table
5.30). FRACGASM is the fraction of applied organic N fertiliser materials (FON) and of urine and dung N
deposited by grazing animals (FPRP) that volatilises as NH3 and NOx. FRACGASM is then composed of the
following fractions:
• Fraction of livestock N excretion that volatilizes as NH3 and NOx during spreading and grazing
animals - FracGASM indirect. This fraction is equal to the ratio between the amount of NH3-N and
NOx-N emissions and the total nitrogen excreted (see table 5.30);
• Fraction of N from other organic N fertilizers applied (sewage sludge, other organic amendments
applied to soils including compost) that volatilizes as NH3 and NOx. The volatilization factor for NNH3 and NOx-N emissions is 20% (IPCC, 2006), as reported in table 5.30.
The estimation of N2O emissions due to nitrogen leaching and run-off has followed the IPCC tier 1 approach
(Equation 11.10 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines). Parameters used are: total use of synthetic fertilizer FSN (t N
yr-1), total amount of organic N inputs applied to soils FON (t N yr-1), total amount of urine and dung N
deposited by grazing animals FPRP (t N yr-1), total amount of N in crop residues (above- and below-ground),
including N-fixing crops and from forage FCR (t N yr-1), FRACLEACH emission factor 0.3 kg N/kg nitrogen of
fertilizer or manure (see table 5.30) and the emission factor 0.0075 kg N2O-N per kg nitrogen leaching/runoff (IPCC, 2006). As mentioned before, the FRACLEACH IPCC default value was compared with the countryspecific FRACLEACH parameter (ADBPO, 2001; ADBPO, 1994). The estimate of N lost through leaching and
run-off includes the losses of N due to leaching from manure management systems and from managed soils.
14
http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/G1/GV/E
195
Table 5.30 Parameters used for the estimation of indirect N2O emissions from managed soils
Atmospheric deposition
FRACGASF
(%)
(1)
N leaching and run-off
Fraction of N
from other
FracGASM
organic N
indirect (2) (%)
fertilizers
applied (%)
FRACLEACH (4)
(kg N/kg N)
N lost
through
leaching and
run-off (t N)
(3)
Volatilized N
from
agricultural
inputs of N (t
N)
1990
0.087
0.097
0.20
163,352
0.30
583,127
1995
0.089
0.090
0.20
160,621
0.30
598,472
2000
0.089
0.085
0.20
156,515
0.30
592,968
2005
0.088
0.083
0.20
145,238
0.30
559,601
2008
0.097
0.083
0.20
143,698
0.30
524,802
2009
0.096
0.083
0.20
131,000
0.30
484,063
2010
0.094
0.083
0.20
126,750
0.30
473,155
2011
0.094
0.083
0.20
140,854
0.30
498,089
2012
0.103
0.084
0.20
152,082
0.30
520,882
2013
0.103
0.084
0.20
139,820
0.30
486,504
Note: (1) the fraction is multiplied by FSN (see Table 5.26); (2) the fraction is multiplied by total N excreted (see Table 5.16); (3) the fraction is
multiplied by FSEW and FOOA (see Table 5.27); (4) the fraction is multiplied by FSN, FSEW, FOOA, total N excreted and by FCR (see Table 5.29).
5.5.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainty for N2O direct and indirect emissions from managed soils has been estimated to be 54%, as
combination of 20% and 50% for activity data and emission factor, respectively.
In the 2012 submission, Montecarlo analysis was also applied to estimate uncertainty of the two key
categories Direct N2O emissions from agricultural soils and Indirect N2O emissions from nitrogen used in
agriculture. The resulting figures were 21.34% and 21.67% for Direct and Indirect N2O emissions,
respectively. Normal and lognormal distributions have been assumed for the parameters; at the same time,
whenever assumptions or constraints on variables were known this information has been appropriately
reflected on the range of distribution values. A summary of the results is reported in Annex 1.
In Table 5.31, time series of N2O emissions from managed soils are reported.
Table 5.31 Nitrous oxide emission trends from managed soils (Gg)
Year
Direct emissions
from managed
soils
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
28.46
29.42
29.24
29.18
28.90
28.42
28.75
27.62
27.66
27.54
25.76
23.62
23.10
24.40
25.59
23.79
Indirect emissions
from managed
soils
Gg
9.44
9.58
9.45
9.47
9.36
9.24
9.28
8.88
8.94
8.95
8.44
7.76
7.57
8.08
8.53
7.93
Total
37.90
39.00
38.69
38.65
38.26
37.67
38.03
36.50
36.60
36.50
34.21
31.39
30.67
32.49
34.12
31.72
196
In 2013, N2O emissions from managed soils were 16.3% (31.72 Gg N2O) lower than in 1990 (37.90 Gg
N2O). Major contributions were given by direct emissions (23.79 Gg), that come mainly (72%) from
inorganic N fertilizers (8.59 Gg) and animal manure applied to soils (8.46 Gg) (see Table 5.24). Indirect
emissions (7.93 Gg) are mainly (55%) due to N2O emissions from nitrogen leaching and run-off from
inorganic N fertilizers (2.42 Gg) and animal manure applied to soils (1.93 Gg) (see Table 5.24). N2O
emissions from leaching and run-off are related to the nitrogen content in fertilizers and animal wastes,
therefore, emissions are mainly linked to the use of N fertilizers and the animal number trends. Between
1996 and 1997 there was a high increase in the use of nitrogen fertilizers in Italy, thus, emissions could be
identified as outlier. Between 2007/2008 (-14%) and 2008/2009 (-21%) N fertiliser distribution has
decreased. In 2010 the same trend was observed. According to the Italian Fertilizer Association (AIF) the use
of fertilisers is determined by their cost and particularly by the price of agricultural products. In the last
years, prices have decreased and, as a result, farmers need to save costs, consequently, less fertilisers is being
used (Perelli, 2007; De Corso 2008).
5.5.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Synthetic fertilizers and nitrogen content are compared with the international FAO agriculture database
statistics (FAO, several years). In Table 5.32, national and FAO time series of total nitrogen applied are
reported. Differences between national data and FAO database are related to the difference in data
elaboration (ISTAT, 2004) and could be attributed to different factors. First, national data are more
disaggregated by substance than FAO data and the national nitrogen content is considered for each
substance, while FAO utilises default values. Besides, differences could also derive from different products
classification. A join meeting, held in July 2011 with the FAO experts in charge of the fertiliser database,
ISPRA verified that there are two FAO databases for fertilisers. In Table 5.32 the two databases are
presented. Differences between FAO data and national statistics will be overcome as soon as the same
classification is used.
Table 5.32 Total annual N content in fertilizer applied from 1990 to 2013
Year
National data
(t N)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
757,509
837,402
884,121
945,290
875,536
797,500
756,057
856,945
772,227
788,243
785,593
808,964
819,352
824,649
841,363
779,846
785,265
765,490
659,922
518,778
496,637
515,966
683,566
546,542
FAO database
(Nitrous fertilizer
consumption, Mt)
878,960
906,720
910,000
917,900
879,200
875,000
876,000
855,000
845,000
868,000
828,000
773,161
785,314
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
Not available
FAO new database
(Nitrous fertilizer
consumption, Mt)
845,003
846,812
866,469
800,697
798,807
812,480
670,261
514,480
498,605
516,543
685,137
600,000(*)
(*) Provisional official data
197
In 2015, data on crop residues and, in particular, on the relationship between crop residues and product were
compared with studies and research provided by the Agricultural Research Council (CRA) 15. However, these
studies were conducted in different countries from Italy, so despite the differences, the values used in the
inventory, based on national studies, have not been changed.
By comparison with the experts of the CRA, however, it showed that in the estimation of N2O emissions
from crop residues the total amount of residues has been considered, without deducting the fraction removed
for purposes such as feed, bedding and construction. Therefore, the data were corrected using the fixed
residues/removable residues ratio for each crop considered (ENEA, 1994), which is the same information
used to estimate the emissions from category 3F (see paragraph 5.6.2).
5.5.5
Source-specific recalculations
N2O emissions have been recalculated for the whole time series due to the following changes as reported in
2006 IPCC Guidelines:
- nitrogen input from N-fixing crops (FBN) category has been eliminated;
- N additions to soils (e.g., compost, other organic N, N from bedding materials in manure applied to soil)
have been added;
- other forages including perennial grasses in the FCR N input to soil have been added;
- below-ground N in crop residues and from other forages including perennial grasses have been added;
- amounts of FSN and FON are no longer adjusted for the amounts of NH3 and NOx volatilisation after
application to soil;
- indirect N2O emissions from organic N applied as fertilizer (e.g., compost and other organic N) and from N
in crop residues have been added;
- default EFs for direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed soils have been updated;
- indirect emissions from nitrogen losses from all manure management system during the storage and
treatment of manure before it is applied to land were moved in the manure management category;
- the average weight of buffalo between three months and a year has been corrected for the whole time
series;
- the reincorporated fraction to the soil of rice residues has been updated and is now consistent with the data
of the rice category (3C) and stubble burning category (3F);
- the residue/crop product ratio has been corrected to consider only the residue fixed.
Compared to the previous submission (November 2014), these changes have decreased the annual average
estimates to about 33%, without considering changes in the GWP.
5.5.6
Source-specific planned improvements
In Table 5.33, planned improvements for this category are presented.
Table 5.33 Improvements for the agricultural soils category
Category/sub
Parameter
category
Activity data
Land
spreading
Year of
submission
2016
√
Activities
Figures on land spreading collected in the framework of the 2010 Agricultural
Census and Farm and structure survey 2013 will be considered for the next
annual submission.
A specific research on land spreading practices, (CRPA, 2009) will be analysed; its results will be validated
and considered for future submissions.
15
CRA is a national research organization which operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture, with general scientific competence
within the fields of agriculture, agro-industry, food, fishery and forestry.
198
5.6
Field burning of agriculture residues (3F)
5.6.1
Source category description
Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from field burning agriculture residues have not been identified as a
key source. In 2013, CH4 emissions from this source were 0.60 Gg, representing 0.08% of emissions for the
agriculture sector. N2O emissions were 0.013 Gg, representing 0.03% of emissions for the agriculture sector.
5.6.2
Methodological issues
IPCC methodology is used for estimating emissions from field burning of agriculture residues. Different
IPCC parameters are considered, such as amount of residues produced, amount of dry residues, total biomass
burned, and total carbon and nitrogen released (see the following box).
Data used for estimating field burning of agriculture residues emission
Data
Annual crop production
Removable residues/product ratio
Fixed residues/removable residues ratio
Fraction of dry matter in residues
Fraction of the field where “fixed” residues are burned
Fraction of residues oxidized during burning
Fraction of carbon from the dry matter of residues
Raw protein content from residues (dry matter fraction)
IPCC default emission rates (CH4, N2O)
Reference
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [j]
CESTAAT, 1988
ENEA, 1994
IPCC, 1997; CRPA/CNR, 1992; CESTAAT, 1988; Borgioli, 1981
ANPA-ONR, 2001; CESTAAT, 1988; IPCC, 1997
IPCC, 2006
IPCC, 1997
CESTAAT, 1988; Borgioli, 1981
IPCC, 1997
Activity data (annual crop production of cereals) used for estimating burning of agriculture residues are
reported in the Table 5.34.
The same methodology is used to estimate emissions from burning of agriculture residues. Emissions from
fixed residues and stubble, burnt on open fields, are reported in this category (3F) while emissions from
removable residues burnt off-site, are reported under the waste sector (waste incineration - 5C category).
Table 5.34 Time series of activity data (t) used for 3F estimations
Agricultural production
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Wheat
Barley
Maize
Oats
Rye
Rice
Sorghum
20,800
19,780
10,292
8,588
9,631
6,941
7,851
7,876
8,590
8,954
10,756
12,204
13,926
14,381
16,083
14,306
1,290,700
1,320,851
1,245,555
1,272,952
1,378,796
1,448,212
1,525,509
1,444,818
1,449,973
1,539,487
1,336,793
1,671,824
1,574,320
1,560,128
1,601,478
1,426,789
114,200
214,802
215,200
213,992
215,072
158,217
215,394
184,915
221,392
193,243
224,557
243,398
275,572
299,862
157,808
316,919
(t)
8,108,500
7,946,081
7,427,660
6,413,329
7,547,763
6,229,454
8,638,721
7,717,129
7,181,720
7,170,181
8,859,410
6,534,748
6,849,858
6,641,807
7,654,248
7,277,492
1,702,500
1,387,069
1,261,560
1,125,720
1,190,326
1,020,838
1,156,620
1,214,054
1,297,395
1,225,282
1,236,711
1,049,200
944,257
950,934
940,234
873,213
5,863,900
8,454,164
10,139,639
10,556,185
10,554,423
8,702,289
11,368,007
10,427,930
9,626,373
9,809,265
9,722,910
8,142,974
8,495,946
9,752,373
7,888,668
7,899,617
298,400
301,322
317,926
310,087
328,759
306,425
337,694
429,153
394,866
361,148
356,094
314,421
288,880
297,079
292,357
246,916
199
The methodology for estimating emissions refers to fixed residues burnt. The same steps are followed to
calculate emissions from removable residues burnt reported in 5C. Parameters taken into consideration are
the following:
a) Amount of “fixed” residues (t), estimated with annual crop production, removable residues/product ratio,
and “fixed” residue/removable residues ratio.
b) Amount of dry residues in “fixed” residue (t dry matter), calculated with amount of fixed residues and
fraction of dry matter.
c) Amount of “fixed” dry residues oxidized (t dry matter), assessed with amount of dry residues in the
“fixed” residues, fraction of the field where “fixed” residues are burned, and fraction of residues
oxidized during burning.
d) Amount of carbon from stubble burning release in air (t C), calculated with the amount of “fixed” dry
residue oxidized and the fraction of carbon from the dry matter of residues.
e) C-CH4 from stubble burning (t C-CH4), calculated with the amount of carbon from stubble burning
release in air and default emissions rate for C-CH4, equal to 0.005 (IPCC, 1997).
In 2013, final CH4 emissions from on field burning of agriculture residues (0.60 Gg CH4) have been
estimated multiplying the C-CH4 value (0.453 Gg C-CH4) by the ratio of molecular weights (16/12).
In Table 5.35, parameters used for estimating of CH4 emissions from on field burning of agriculture residues
are shown.
Table 5.35 Parameters used for the estimation of CH4 emissions from agriculture residues in 2013
Crop
Wheat
Rye
Barley
Oats
Rice
Maize
Sorghum
Total
Amount of dry
Annual
Amount of
residue in the Amount of “fixed” dry Amount of carbon C-CH4 from
“fixed” burnable
crop
from stubble burning stubble burning
“fixed” residues
residues oxidized
residues
production
(t 1000 dry
(t 1000 C)
(t C-CH4)
(t 1000 dry matter)
(t 1000)
(t 1000)
matter)
7,277
1,255
1,071
104
46
228
14
3
2
0.21
0.07
0.35
873
175
150
15
5
25
247
43
37
4
1
7
1,427
239
179
108
36
178
7,900
790
329
0
0
0
317
111
92
9
3
15
18,055
2,616
1,860
240
91
453
For estimating N2O emissions, the same amount of “fixed” dry residue oxidized described above were used;
further parameters are:
a) Amount of nitrogen from stubble burning release in air (t N), calculated with the amount of “fixed” dry
residue oxidized and the fraction of nitrogen from the dry matter of residues. The fraction of nitrogen
has been calculated considering raw protein content from residues (dry matter fraction) divided by
6.25.
b) N-N2O from stubble burning (t N-N2O), calculated with the amount of nitrogen from stubble burning
release in air and the default emissions rate for N- N2O, equal to 0.007 (IPCC, 1997).
In 2013, final N2O emissions from on field burning of agriculture residues (0.013 Gg N2O) are estimated by
multiplying the N-N2O value (0.008 Gg N) by the ratio of molecular weights (44/28).
In Table 5.36 the parameters for the estimation of N2O emissions from field burning of agriculture residues
are shown.
200
Table 5.36 Parameters used for the estimation of nitrous oxide from agriculture residues in 2013
Crop
Wheat
Rye
Barley
Oats
Rice
Maize
Sorghum
Total
5.6.3
Raw protein
Amount of “fixed”
Fraction of
Amount of
content from
nitrogen from nitrogen from
dry residues
residues
the dry matter stubble burning
oxidized
(dry matter
of residues
(t 1000 dry matter)
(t 1000 N)
fraction)
104
0.030
0.005
0.450
0.21
0.036
0.006
0.001
15
0.037
0.006
0.080
4
0.040
0.006
0.021
108
0.041
0.007
0.564
0
0.007
0.000
9
0.037
0.006
0.049
240
1.166
N-N2O from stubble
burning
(t N-N2O)
3.2
0.01
0.6
0.1
4.0
0.0
0.3
8.2
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainties for CH4 and N2O emissions from field burning of agriculture residues are estimated to be 58%
as a result of 30% and 50% for activity data and emission factor, respectively.
In 2013, CH4 emissions from field burning of agriculture residues were 0.60 Gg emissions of CH4 and 0.013
Gg emissions of N2O emissions (see Table 5.37). Variation in emissions trend is related to cereal production
trends.
Table 5.37 CH4 and N2O emission trends from field burning of agriculture residues (Gg)
Year
1990
1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
5.6.4
CH4 (Gg)
0.601
0.593
0.591
0.548
0.616
0.561
0.685
0.636
0.619
0.628
0.667
0.618
0.612
0.604
0.643
0.604
N2O (Gg)
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.013
0.012
0.014
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.013
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
In response to the review process (UNFCCC, 2007) and in order to verify the national assumption, which
considered that 10% of the cultivated surface (cereals) is burned in Italy, a specific elaboration of data has
been carried out by ISTAT, in the framework of FSS in 2003. The information, provided by ISTAT, related
to the regional practises of field burning (cereals) has confirmed the abovementioned assumption (ISTAT,
2007[c]).
5.6.5
Source-specific recalculations
CH4 and N2O emissions have been recalculated due to the updating of the combustion factor value for rice
residues for the whole time series, as reported in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
201
Compared to the previous submission (November 2014), these changes have decreased the annual average
estimates to about 4% and 5% for CH4 and N2O emissions respectively, without considering changes in the
GWP.
5.6.6
Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned.
5.7
Liming (3G)
5.7.1
Source category description
CO2 emissions from application of carbonate containing lime and dolomite to agricultural soils have been
estimated. CO2 emissions from agricultural dolomite application have been included in CO2 emissions from
limestone application, as national statistics on amount of lime applied don't allow to disaggregate the two
components (limestone and dolomite). In 2013, CO2 emissions from liming were 13.6 Gg, which represents
2.9% of CO2 emissions of the agriculture sector (0.3% in 1990) and 0.0038% of national CO2 emissions
(0.0003% in 1990). CO2 emissions from liming have not been identified as a key source.
5.7.2
Methodological issues
Tier 1 approach, assuming that the total amount of carbonate containing lime is applied annually to soil, has
been followed; an overall emission factor of 0.12 t C (t limestone or dolomite)-1 has been used to estimate
CO2 emissions, without differentiating between variable compositions of lime material. The 2006 IPCC GL
equation 11.12 has been used to estimate CO2 emissions, without disaggregation between calcic limestone
and dolomite, as national statistics report an aggregate annual amount of lime (ISTAT, several years [i]).
Data on agricultural lime application have been estimated for the period 1990-1997, since these data haven’t
been made available for that period. Data were estimated on the basis of the ratio of the amount of limestone
or dolomite applied for the year 1998 and the area planted to crops, woody and permanent forage.
5.7.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainty for CO2 emissions from additions of carbonate limes to soils has been estimated to be 22%, as
combination of 10% and 20% for activity data and emission factor, respectively.
In 2013, CO2 emissions from liming (13.6 Gg CO2) were ten times higher than in 1990 (1.3 Gg CO2).
In Table 5.38 activity data, emission factor and CO2 emission trend from liming are shown.
Table 5.38 CO2 emissions from lime application
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Amount of limestone or
dolomite (Mg)
EF (t C (t limestone
or dolomite)-1)
C emissions
(Gg)
CO2 emissions
(Gg)
2,969
2,984
2,999
3,014
3,029
3,045
3,033
3,037
3,012
4,407
4,050
4,644
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.356
0.358
0.360
0.362
0.364
0.365
0.364
0.364
0.361
0.529
0.486
0.557
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.9
1.8
2.0
202
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
5.7.4
Amount of limestone or
dolomite (Mg)
EF (t C (t limestone
or dolomite)-1)
C emissions
(Gg)
CO2 emissions
(Gg)
13,848
13,663
22,335
31,451
25,799
34,307
40,448
38,114
40,115
55,675
34,792
30,934
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
1.662
1.640
2.680
3.774
3.096
4.117
4.854
4.574
4.814
6.681
4.175
3.712
6.1
6.0
9.8
13.8
11.4
15.1
17.8
16.8
17.7
24.5
15.3
13.6
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the estimation of emissions.
5.7.5
Source-specific recalculations
Activity data have been updated for 2010-2012 and data have been estimated for the period 1990-1997, since
these data haven’t been made available for that period.
5.7.6
Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned.
5.8
Urea application (3H)
5.8.1
Source category description
CO2 emissions from application of urea to agricultural soils have been estimated. In 2013, CO2 emissions
from urea application were 450.4 Gg, which represents 97.1% of CO2 emissions of the agriculture sector
(99.7% in 1990) and 0.12% of national CO2 emissions (0.11% in 1990). CO2 emissions from urea application
have not been identified as a key source.
5.8.2
Methodological issues
Tier 1 approach, assuming that the total amount of urea is applied annually to soil, has been followed; an
overall emission factor of 0.20 t C (t urea)-1 has been used to estimate CO2 emissions. The 2006 IPCC GL
equation 11.13 has been used to estimate CO2 emissions. The source of the activity data are national statistics
(ISTAT, several years [i]).
5.8.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
Uncertainty for CO2 emissions from urea application to soils has been estimated to be 22%, as combination
of 10% and 20% for activity data and emission factor, respectively.
In 2013, CO2 emissions from urea application were 3.1% (450.4 Gg CO2) lower than in 1990 (464.8 Gg
CO2).
203
In Table 6.37 activity data, emission factor and CO2 emission trend from urea application are shown.
Table 5.39 CO2 emissions from urea application
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
5.8.4
Amount of urea
(Mg)
EF (t C (tonnes of
urea)-1)
C emissions
(Gg)
CO2 emissions
(Gg)
633,873
708,148
731,357
848,043
802,345
698,251
598,943
716,463
717,711
751,223
716,412
735,310
763,930
770,412
785,515
691,255
735,487
732,213
679,390
506,694
456,951
478,306
751,235
614,208
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
127
142
146
170
160
140
120
143
144
150
143
147
153
154
157
138
147
146
136
101
91
96
150
123
465
519
536
622
588
512
439
525
526
551
525
539
560
565
576
507
539
537
498
372
335
351
551
450
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the estimation of emissions. Activity data are the same used in the agriculture
soils (3D) category.
5.8.5
Source-specific recalculations
No specific recalculations are observed.
5.8.6
Source-specific planned improvements
No specific improvements are planned.
204
6 Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry [CRF sector 4]
6.1
Sector overview
CO2 emissions and removals occur as a result of changes in land-use and forestry. The sector is responsible
for 34.1Mt of CO2 eq. removals from the atmosphere in 2013.
The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006 IPCC Guidelines) have been
entirely applied for all the categories of this sector as detailed data were available from national statistics and
from research at national and regional level; for category 4A (Forest Land) estimates were supplied by a
growth model, applied to national forestry inventory data, with country specific emission factors.
CO2 emissions from forest fires have been considered in the calculation of the net carbon stocks reported in
4A.
Greenhouse gas removals and emissions in the main categories of the LULUCF sector in 2013 are shown in
Figure 6.1.
removals
63,000
emissions
43,000
Gg CO2 eq.
23,000
3,000
-17,000
-37,000
-57,000
-77,000
-97,000
Forest Land
Cropland
Grassland
Settlements
HWP
Figure 6.1 Greenhouse gas removals and emissions in LULUCF sector in 2013 [Gg CO2 eq.]
In Table 6.1 emissions and removals time series is reported.
205
Table 6.1 Trend in greenhouse gas emissions from the LULUCF sector in the period 1990-2013
GHG Gas Source and
Sink Categories
CO2
A. Forest Land
B. Cropland
C. Grassland
D. Wetlands
E. Settlements
F. Other Land
G. HWP
H. Other
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
-7,419
-20,749
2,172
3,997
6,641
-24,091
-33,747
1,785
-1,213
5
8,275
-19,429
-28,571
2,014
149
8
6,495
-31,142
-37,577
1,429
-2,848
8
7,316
-31,463
-37,228
1,219
-3,536
8
7,326
-9,878
-21,871
1,253
2,627
8
7,330
-27,518
-33,809
1,221
-3,083
8
7,370
-29,774
-36,363
1,312
-2,451
-34,681
-39,058
1,305
-4,465
-29,178
-34,994
3,018
-4,440
-22,237
-30,343
2,973
-2,169
-34,318
-37,239
2,934
-7,203
7,407
-
7,415
-
7,410
7,419
7,425
520
804
-
749
775
-
476
531
775
320
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1,673.40
384.29
946.56
379.19
306.33
1,813.06
485.11
A. Forest Land
B. Cropland
C. Grassland
D. Wetlands
E. Settlements
F. Other Land
G. HWP
H. Other
988.89
5.43
679.08
203.66
1.56
179.06
545.97
3.16
397.43
206.06
1.46
171.67
156.85
1.32
148.16
1,019.74
6.23
787.10
-
-
-
-
-
-
N2O
305.61
141.90
180.12
93.63
A. Forest Land
B. Cropland
C. Grassland
D. Wetlands
E. Settlements
F. Other Land
G. HWP
H. Other
LULUCF
(Gg CO2 equivalent)
3.70
47.50
254.40
0.76
74.05
67.08
2.05
29.18
148.89
-
-
-
-5,440
-23,565
CH4
-
-
-
128
-178
-117
-235
-
-
-
-
597.54
357.85
564.53
1,203.83
198.60
200.46
2.02
282.63
240.92
2.19
354.43
121.89
1.17
234.80
226.64
2.46
335.43
628.94
4.63
570.26
129.90
7.68
61.02
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
84.59
329.02
135.39
162.50
116.86
149.84
234.53
37.42
0.77
28.55
64.31
0.59
28.49
55.51
3.82
30.33
294.87
0.75
28.76
105.88
0.90
28.82
132.78
0.46
28.44
87.96
0.85
23.32
125.66
2.36
18.53
213.64
0.49
14.08
22.86
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-18,302
-30,669
-31,072
-7,736
-26,898
-29,014
-34,206
-28,464
-20,799
-34,082
206
CO2 emissions and removals in LULUCF sector, in the period 1990-2013, are shown in Figure 6.2.
removals
120,000
emissions
Gg CO2
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
Figure 6.2 CO2 removals and emissions in LULUCF sector in the period 1990-2013 [Gg CO2]
The outcome of the key category analysis for 2013, according to level and/or trend assessment (IPCC
Approach 1 and Approach 2), is listed in Table 6.2. CO2 emissions and removals from forest land remaining
forest land, land converted to forest land, cropland remaining cropland, grassland remaining grassland, land
converted to grassland and land converted to settlements have been identified as key categories, both in level
and in trend assessment. CO2 emissions and removals from land converted to cropland and from HWP have
resulted key categories with Approach 2 concerning trend assessment. CH4 emissions and removals from
grassland remaining grassland have been identified as a key category with Approach 2 concerning trend
assessment
Table 6.2 Key categories identification in the LULUCF sector
4.A.1
gas
categories
2013
CO2
Forest land remaining forest land
key (L, T)
4.A.2
CO2
Land converted to forest land
key (L, T)
4.B.1
CO2
Cropland remaining cropland
key (L, T)
4.B.2
CO2
Land converted to cropland
key (T2)
4.C.1
CO2
Grassland remaining Grassland
key (L, T)
4.C.1
CH4
Grassland remaining Grassland
key (T2)
4.C.2
CO2
Land converted to Grassland
key (L, T)
4.E.2
CO2
Land converted to Settlements
key (L, T)
4.G
CO2
HWP
key (T2)
4(V).A1
CH4
Forest land remaining forest land
Non-key
4(V).A1
N2O
Forest land remaining forest land
Non-key
4.B.2
CH4, N2O
Land converted to cropland
Non-key
207
4.C.1
N2O
Grassland remaining Grassland
Non-key
4.D
CO2
Wetlands
Non-key
4.E.1
CO2
Settlements remaining Settlements
Non-key
An updated methodology to assess land uses and land use changes has been used, on the basis of the IUTI 16
data, related to 1990, 2000 and 2008. An additional assessment of land use and land use changes has been
carried out in 2012, through the survey in the framework of the III NFI, on an IUTI's subgrid (i.e. 301.300
points, covering the entire country). Time series related to the areas to be included into the different IPCC
categories have been assembled using IUTI data, and the data assessed by the national forest inventories
(1985, 2005, 2012) (i.e. National Forest Service, Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies
(MIPAAF), Forest Monitoring and Planning Research Unit (CRA-MPF)).
Due to the technical characteristics of the IUTI assessment (i.e. classification of orthophotos for 1990, 2000,
2008 and 2012), it was technically impossible to have a clear distinction among some subcategories in
cropland and grassland categories (i.e. annual pastures versus grazing land). Therefore it has been decided to
aggregate the cropland and grassland categories, as detected by IUTI, and then disaggregate them into the
different subcategories, using as proxies the national statistics (ISTAT, [b], [c]) related to annual crops and
perennial woody crops. Annual figures for areas in transition between different land uses have been derived
by a hierarchy of basic assumptions (informed by expert judgement) of known patterns of land-use changes
in Italy as well as the need for the total national area to remain constant. A task force has been established
among national experts and, in this context, an expert judgment has been made on the basis of known
patterns of land-use changes in Italy, also considering local studies and research on land uses transitions.
More in details the following assumptions have been used: growth in forest land area as detected by the
National Forest Inventories is used as the basis. The rule then assumes that new forest land area can only
come from grassland; new cropland area can only come from grassland area, as new grassland area can only
come from cropland area. Concerning settlements, initial land use may be forest land, cropland, grassland or
other land (see Table 7.27, 7.29); in addition a conservative approach was applied, assuming that the total
deforested area is converted into settlements. Land transition to wetlands is from cropland and grassland
categories. These rules have been set up also on the basis of the relevant normative (i.e. concerning
deforestation activities, in Italy land use changes from forest to other land use categories are allowed in very
limited circumstances (railways, highways constructions or other public utility projects), as stated in art. 4.2
of the Law Decree n. 227 of 2001; land use changes due to wildfires are not allowed by national legislation
(Law Decree 21 November 2000, n. 353, art.10.1)).
On the basis of the land uses classification, the land use matrices, for each year of the period 1990–2013,
have been assembled for the categories forest land, croplands, grasslands, wetlands and settlements.
In order to determine the lands converted to other land uses categories in 20 years, land use change matrices
have also been prepared, taking into account the area in conversion over a period of 20 years.
Italy uses the IPCC default land use transition period of 20 years, in the estimation process of carbon stock
changes in mineral soils related to land use changes. In particular the 20-years transition period has been
applied to estimate carbon stock changes from the following land use changes:
LULUCF
• Land converted to Forest land
• Land converted to Cropland
• Land converted to Grassland
16
Detailed information on IUTI is reported in Annex 10
208
• Land converted to Settlements
• Land converted to Wetlands
KP-LULUCF
• Art. 3.3 - Afforestation/Reforestation
• Art. 3.3 – Deforestation
The relevant equations of 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, chapter 2, eq. 2.15, 2.16, 2.24, 2.25) have been
applied; once a land has converted to a land use category, the annual changes in carbon stocks in mineral
soils have been reported for 20 years subsequent the conversion. For the Land converted to Settlements and
Art. 3.3 – Deforestation, the 20-years transition period has been applied to determine the area in conversion,
while the related CO2 emissions are assumed to happening in the year following the conversion, taking into
account the nature of final land use category (Settlements) and assuming that soils organic matter content of
previous land use category is lost in the conversion year. Soil Organic Content (SOC) reference value, for
Settlements category, has been assumed to be zero.
In the following Table 6.3, the land use matrices for each year of the period 1990–2013 are reported.
Table 6.3 Land use change matrices for the years 1990-2013
510,060.52
722.23
1,730.03
25,152.92
-
-
7,511,844
8,971,338
10,865,666
510,061
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Total 1990
7,589,803
8,890,926
10,840,513
510,061
total 1990
Settlements
Other Land
20 years matrix
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
10,840,513
510,061
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
1,616,404.98
Wetlands
1990
1991
16,769.60
10,840,513.00
10,857,283
722.23
473.63
510,060.52
510,534
26,702.53
1,644,010.17
180.42
1,671,615
Wetlands
Settlements
658,107.57
658,108
1992
Forest
Forest
1991
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 1992
Grassland
7,667,041.05
78,682.04
Cropland
8,645,670.26
7,745,723
8,645,670
Forest
Grassland
-
1992
Grassland
7,745,000.85
78,682.04
8,523,042.47
-
-
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 1993
-
-
10,874,052.20
-
7,823,683
8,523,042
10,890,822
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
1993
Grassland
7,822,960.65
78,682.04
8,400,414.67
16,769.60
722.23
-
7,745,723
Forest
26,702.53
-
8,645,670
Grassland
-
10,874,052
-
511,007.78
-
1,699,220.54
180.42
657,746.72
511,008
1,699,221
657,927
511,481
1,726,826
657,747
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
10,890,821.80
Cropland
-
-
Wetland
-
-
-
7,901,643
8,400,415
10,907,591
Settlements
Other Land
total 1994
total 1993
473.63
511,481.40
511,955
20 years matrix
Other Land
1994
Forest
10,857,283
510,534
1,671,615
658,108
30,133,601
657,566.30
657,566
511,481
1,726,826
657,747
30,133,601
Settlements
Other Land
total 1972
-
14,444.67
-
6,946,690
473.63
510,060.52
510,534
59,346.69
168,953.85
1,428,689.73
180.42
1,671,615
9,398,066
11,191,807
510,061
1,428,690
658,107.57 658,288
658,108
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
total 1973
-
14,444.67
-
6,977,674
-
9,372,861
164,155.05
1,434,210.76
360.84
1,699,221
11,180,507
510,061
1,434,211
657,927.14 658,288
657,927
30,133,601
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
1993
6,994,212.43
829,470.46
-
-
8,217,553.72
186,458.76
305,488.74
10,704,363.04
Cropland
total 1974
1,420.88
-
14,444.67
-
7,008,657
112,751.75
-
9,347,656
-
11,169,208
159,356.25
510,060.52
-
1,439,731.80
541.26
657,746.72
510,061
1,439,732
658,288
511,481
1,726,826
657,747
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
1994
7,025,195.97
876,446.72
-
-
8,101,426.52
203,228.36
298,988.15
10,704,363.04
Cropland
-
Wetland
-
-
-
7,901,643
8,400,415
10,907,591
Settlements
Other Land
Total 1994
30,133,601
510,060.52
511,008
Grassland
10,890,822
658,288
10,704,363.04
10,874,052
Forest
-
658,288
1,644,010
311,989.34
8,645,670
10,890,822
Grassland
1,423,169
7,745,723
8,523,042
8,523,042
658,287.99
86,049.22
7,823,683
7,823,683
6,915,706
9,423,271
11,203,106
510,061
947.25
-
-
0.00
total 1971
-
169,689.16
-
-
1,423,168.69
-
Other Land
8,333,680.92
-
722.23
-
-
-
26,702.53
1,726,825.72
180.42
1,754,431
-
Cropland
Forest
-
6,963,228.88
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 1993
20 years matrix
14,444.67
32,644.16
173,752.66
-
1992
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 1992
657,927.14
657,927
total 1992
-
Cropland
782,494.20
Settlements
Cropland
Grassland
Grassland
Wetlands
473.63
Forest
8,768,298
1,671,615.35
180.42
1,699,221
16,769.60
152,919.56
10,704,363.04
10,857,283
-
510,534.15
511,008
-
8,449,808.12
318,489.93
8,768,298
Forest
10,857,282.60
10,874,052
-
20 years matrix
-
735,517.94
7,667,763
7,667,763
26,702.53
-
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 1991
6,932,245.34
-
473.63
-
8,890,926
10,840,513
510,061
1,644,010
658,288
30,133,601
Other Land
1993
Forest
Forest
Settlements
1991
722.23
16,769.60
Cropland
7,589,803
total 1991
-
510,060.52
-
8,890,926
8,768,298.05
8,768,298
136,149.96
10,704,363.04
-
Settlements
7,589,803
78,682.04
7,667,763
8,565,935.32
324,990.52
-
Other Land
-
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 1991
Wetlands
6,901,261.80
688,541.68
-
658,288
-
-
Cropland
30,133,601
-
-
-
Grassland
658,288
-
-
-
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
1990
Forest
1,644,010
-
-
7,589,081.25
20 years matrix
1,616,405
-
Other Land
Forest
total 1989
658,287.99
Settlements
total 1990
Other Land
1972
10,840,513.00
-
Settlements
1973
8,890,925.84
-
Wetlands
1974
7,511,121.44
78,682.04
-
Cropland
1975
1989
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Grassland
1971
1990
Forest
total 1975
1,894.51
510,060.52
511,955
7,039,641
14,444.67
-
139,454.28
-
9,322,450
154,557.44
-
11,157,909
1,445,252.84
721.69
1,754,431
657,566.30
657,566
510,061
1,445,253
658,288
30,133,601
209
1995
-
511,955
-
1,754,431
Wetland
-
-
-
Settlements
-
-
-
Other Land
total 1995
-
-
-
-
7,979,602
8,277,787
10,924,361
512,429
1,782,036
657,386
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
-
1,754,430.91
180.42
657,385.88
1995
1996
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
7,978,880.26
78,682.04
-
Settlements
-
Other Land
8,199,104.85
60,321.83
-
10,836,863.01
-
-
-
473.63
512,428.66
-
722.23
26,702.53
1,782,036.09
180.42
513,376
1,837,246
657,025
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
8,134,799.86
78,682.04
-
8,162,384.44
60,321.83
-
657,025.04
10,661,867.04
-
473.63
513,375.91
-
722.23
26,702.53
1,837,246.46
180.42
656,844.62
total 1998
8,213,482
8,222,706
10,661,867
513,850
1,864,852
656,845
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
1996
1997
1998
1998
1999
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 1999
8,212,759.66
78,682.04
-
8,144,024.24
60,321.83
-
10,574,369.05
-
473.63
513,849.54
-
722.23
26,702.53
1,864,851.65
180.42
656,664.20
8,291,442
8,204,346
10,574,369
514,323
1,892,457
656,664
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2000
8,290,719.46
78,682.04
8,369,401
473.63
514,323.16
514,797
722.23
26,702.53
1,892,456.83
180.42
1,920,062
Wetlands
Settlements
1999
2000
656,483.77
656,484
2001
2000
2001
78,682.04
8,525,321
8,123,104.74
94,482.95
8,217,588
10,243,552.84
10,243,553
20 years matrix
8,057,562
8,259,427
10,836,863
512,902
1,809,641
657,205
Total 1997
total 1997
20 years matrix
8,135,522
8,241,066
10,749,365
513,376
1,837,246
657,025
26,702.53
1,947,667.20
180.42
1,975,272
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
30,133,601
Total 1998
total 1998
20 years matrix
8,213,482
8,222,706
10,661,867
513,850
1,864,852
656,845
30,133,601
8,291,442
8,204,346
10,574,369
514,323
1,892,457
656,664
30,133,601
656,303.35
656,303
8,369,401
8,185,986
10,486,871
514,797
1,920,062
656,484
30,133,601
total 2001
473.63
515,270.41
515,744
Settlements
Other Land
7,906,617.29
352,809.39
-
192,767.97
10,644,095.04
-
2,368.13
473.63
510,060.52
total 1977
14,444.67
161,358.00
176,461.17
-
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 1999
20 years matrix
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2000
20 years matrix
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2001
20 years matrix
Other Land
656,122.93
656,123
8,447,361
8,201,787
10,365,212
515,270
1,947,667
656,303
30,133,601
-
7,082,778
9,252,340
11,173,839
510,061
-
1,456,295
657,205.46
658,288
1,809,641
657,205
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
2,368.13
947.25
510,060.52
-
14,444.67
156,559.20
203,163.70
1,461,815.95
1997
Other Land
30,133,601
total 2000
722.23
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
2002
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2002
total 1996
total 1999
-
Wetlands
7,068,333.22
989,229.07
-
1996
165,537.98
10,583,827.05
-
-
-
Cropland
Cropland
10,749,365
-
Grassland
7,827,935.25
413,131.22
-
-
8,446,639.07
Forest
Grassland
8,241,066
Forest
30,133,601
Forest
-
Settlements
658,288
657,386
7,080,486.93
1,055,035.16
-
-
8,135,522
Wetlands
657,385.88
1,782,036
512,902
total 1996
Cropland
512,429
10,836,863
Other Land
Grassland
-
8,259,427
722.23
26,702.53
1,809,641.28
510,061
1,450,774
10,924,361
8,057,562
Settlements
-
-
1,082.53
Total 1996
7,070,624
9,297,245
11,146,609
8,277,787
1,456,294.91
30,133,601
-
-
-
473.63
512,902.28
-
Forest
902.11
Other Land
7,979,602
-
Wetlands
722.23
26,702.53
1,920,062.02
180.42
1,947,667
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
1,450,773.88
-
657,205.46
1997
473.63
514,796.79
515,270
20 years matrix
-
-
Cropland
10,365,211.95
10,365,212
Other Land
Total 1995
510,060.52
-
Grassland
8,107,303.83
94,482.95
8,201,787
-
14,444.67
166,156.81
149,758.64
-
Forest
8,368,679.27
78,682.04
8,447,361
-
Settlements
-
8,056,840.06
78,682.04
-
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2001
-
2,368.13
-
-
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
total 1976
Wetlands
Other Land
657,205
Grassland
219,997.96
10,704,363.04
Settlements
1,809,641
Forest
7,985,299.32
292,487.56
657,386
512,902
10,486,871.06
10,486,871
7,056,179.51
923,422.98
-
1,782,036
10,836,863
8,125,664.03
60,321.83
8,185,986
Cropland
-
8,259,427
180.42
Grassland
7,979,602
8,277,787
10,924,361
512,429
-
Other Land
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
1995
Forest
-
8,057,562
10,749,365.02
-
657,566
30,133,601
total 1995
total 1996
8,180,744.64
60,321.83
-
7,901,643
8,400,415
10,907,591
1976
-
-
1977
511,955.03
722.23
26,702.53
-
1978
473.63
-
20 years matrix
Other Land
1979
16,769.60
10,907,591.40
Settlements
1980
8,277,786.88
-
total 1994
Wetlands
1981
7,900,920.45
78,682.04
-
Cropland
1982
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Grassland
1983
1994
Forest
total 1978
1,262.95
-
7,094,932
9,207,436
11,201,069
510,061
1,461,816
-
-
-
-
657,025.04
658,288
8,135,522
8,241,066
10,749,365
513,376
1,837,246
657,025
30,133,601
1998
total 1979
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
7,092,640.64
1,120,841.25
-
7,749,253.22
473,453.06
-
138,307.98
10,523,559.05
-
2,368.13
1,420.88
510,060.52
-
14,444.67
151,760.40
229,866.23
1,467,336.99
1,443.37
7,107,085
9,162,531
11,228,299
510,061
1,467,337
656,844.62 658,288
8,213,482
8,222,706
10,661,867
513,850
1,864,852
656,845
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
7,104,794.36
1,186,647.34
-
7,670,571.18
533,774.89
-
111,077.99
10,463,291.06
-
2,368.13
1,894.51
510,060.52
-
14,444.67
146,961.59
256,568.76
1,472,858.02
1,623.79
7,119,239
9,117,626
11,255,529
510,061
1,472,858
656,664.20 658,288
8,291,442
8,204,346
10,574,369
514,323
1,892,457
656,664
1999
2000
30,133,601
total 1980
30,133,601
total 1981
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
7,116,948.07
1,252,453.43
8,369,401
7,591,889.14
594,096.72
8,185,986
83,848.00
10,403,023.06
10,486,871
2,368.13
2,368.13
510,060.52
514,797
14,444.67
142,162.79
283,271.29
1,478,379.06
1,804.21
1,920,062
7,131,393
9,072,721
11,282,759
510,061
1,478,379
656,483.77 658,288
656,484
30,133,601
2001
total 1982
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
7,130,670.41
1,316,690.89
8,447,361
7,571,704.62
630,082.16
8,201,787
83,848.00
10,281,363.95
10,365,212
2,368.13
2,841.76
510,060.52
515,270
14,444.67
142,162.79
305,175.02
1,483,900.10
1,984.63
1,947,667
7,145,115
9,116,774
11,219,463
510,061
1,483,900
656,303.35 658,288
656,303
30,133,601
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
2002
Forest
7,144,392.76
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2002
1,380,928.34
8,525,321
7,551,520.10
666,067.60
8,217,588
83,848.00
10,159,704.84
10,243,553
total 1983
2,368.13
3,315.39
510,060.52
515,744
14,444.67
142,162.79
327,078.74
1,489,421.13
2,165.06
1,975,272
-
7,158,837
9,160,827
11,156,167
510,061
1,489,421
656,122.93 658,288
656,123
30,133,601
210
2003
Forest
8,525,321
Forest
7,158,115.11
-
-
-
-
8,217,588
Grassland
1,445,165.80
7,531,335.58
83,848.00
8,603,281
702,053.04
8,233,389
10,038,045.74
10,121,894
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
473.63
515,744.04
516,218
26,702.53
1,975,272.39
180.42
2,002,878
Wetlands
Settlements
655,942.51
655,943
8,602,558.67
78,682.04
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2004
-
Cropland
8,154,706.58
94,482.95
total 2003
722.23
-
8,603,281
Forest
7,171,837.46
-
-
-
-
8,233,389
Grassland
1,509,403.25
-
10,121,894
10,000,234.63
10,000,235
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
473.63
26,702.53
516,217.67
516,691
2,002,877.57
180.42
2,030,483
Wetlands
Settlements
655,762.09
655,762
2004
Grassland
81,654.36
8,167,535.17
97,455.28
total 2004
-
-
-
-
9,878,575.52
473.63
3,694.56
-
Cropland
-
Wetland
-
-
-
516,691.29
8,759,201
8,264,990
9,878,576
517,165
2,030,482.76
180.42
2,058,088
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
8,206,676.23
84,892.72
9,769,478.97
Settlements
Other Land
total 2005
23,730.20
-
2005
8,755,505.95
58,314.21
-
Wetland
-
-
-
Settlements
-
-
-
Other Land
total 2006
-
-
8,813,820
8,291,569
9,769,479
Forest
Grassland
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
8,810,125.60
58,314.21
-
8,233,254.74
84,892.72
-
-
517,164.92
-
3,694.56
23,730.20
2,058,087.94
180.42
2006
Settlements
-
Other Land
-
10,000,235
-
517,165
-
2,058,088
655,401.25
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
473.63
517,638.55
-
9,660,382
-
Forest
Grassland
8,259,833.25
84,892.72
-
2007
8,864,745.25
58,314.21
-
Other Land
total 2008
total 2006
-
2,085,693.13
180.42
2008
Settlements
Other Land
total 1985
9,878,576
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
7,257,574.95
1,556,245.21
-
7,429,679.99
861,888.96
-
2,368.13
142,162.79
-
9,248,933
-
11,029,574
4,262.64
370,886.20
510,060.52
516,691
1,500,463.21
2,525.90
2,030,483
655,762.09
655,762
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
Wetland
-
-
-
Settlements
-
-
-
2,368.13
4,736.27
510,060.52
17,416.99
-
7,200,004
142,162.79
-
9,292,986
-
10,966,278
389,817.60
1,505,984.24
2,706.32
2,058,088
655,581.67
655,582
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
510,060.52
-
20,389.32
140,432.76
388,394.88
1,533,589.43
-
-
655,401.25
658,288
517,639
2,085,693
655,401
30,133,601
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
7,332,562.43
1,535,877.38
-
7,371,365.79
946,781.67
-
2,886.74
2007
83,848.00
9,576,534.43
-
total 1988
2,368.13
5,683.52
510,060.52
23,361.65
138,702.73
386,972.16
-
518,112
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
7,407,549.90
1,515,509.55
-
7,313,051.58
1,031,674.39
-
655,040.40
518,586
2,140,903
655,040
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
655,221
Total 2008
total 2008
20 years matrix
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
8,919,364.89
58,314.21
-
8,286,411.76
172,464.25
-
9,354,911.00
-
518,585.80
-
3,694.56
23,910.63
2,140,903.50
-
655,040.40
8,923,059
8,344,726
9,551,286
518,586
2,140,903
655,040
total 2009
8,977,679
8,458,876
9,354,911
518,586
2,168,509
655,040
30,133,601
Total 2009
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
total 2009
20 years matrix
Forest
8,973,984.54
58,314.21
-
8,400,561.80
172,464.25
-
9,158,536.12
-
518,585.80
-
3,694.56
23,910.63
2,168,508.68
-
655,040.40
8,977,679
8,458,876
9,354,911
518,586
2,168,509
655,040
9,032,299
8,573,026
9,158,536
518,586
2,196,114
655,040
30,133,601
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2010
-
7,355,924
9,132,162
10,915,972
510,061
-
1,561,195
655,220.82
658,288
2,113,298
655,221
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
2,368.13
6,157.14
510,060.52
-
26,333.97
136,972.71
385,549.44
1,588,799.80
2008
83,848.00
9,467,437.88
-
total 1989
3,247.58
-
7,433,884
9,051,750
10,890,819
510,061
1,588,800
-
-
-
-
655,040.40
658,288
8,923,059
8,344,726
9,551,286
518,586
2,140,903
655,040
30,133,601
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
7,482,537.38
1,495,141.72
-
7,254,737.37
1,204,138.64
-
2,368.13
6,157.14
510,060.52
-
29,306.30
135,242.68
384,307.14
1,616,404.98
3,247.58
7,511,844
8,971,338
10,865,666
510,061
1,616,405
655,040.40 658,288
8,977,679
8,458,876
9,354,911
518,586
2,168,509
655,040
Cropland
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
2,368.13
6,157.14
510,060.52
-
32,278.62
133,512.65
383,064.84
1,644,010.17
3,247.58
7,589,803
8,890,926
10,840,513
510,061
1,644,010
655,040.40 658,288
518,586
2,196,114
Other Land
30,133,601
1,533,589
9,769,479
9,660,382
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
510,061
-
-
8,318,147
8,868,440
8,318,147
9,660,382
518,112
2,113,298
-
8,291,569
8,868,440
-
7,277,964
9,212,574
10,941,125
-
3,067.16
20 years matrix
-
8,813,820
1,561,194.61
total 2007
510,061
1,505,984
658,288
30,133,601
total 1987
2,368.13
5,209.89
-
Total 2007
-
517,165
-
30,133,601
510,061
1,500,463
658,288
30,133,601
total 1986
-
2006
83,848.00
9,685,630.97
7,186,282
14,444.67
-
-
2010
2009
Wetlands
-
2009
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2010
11,092,870
510,061
1,494,942
655,942.51 658,288
655,943
30,133,601
-
3,694.56
23,730.20
2,113,298.31
Grassland
348,982.47
1,494,942.17
2,345.48
2,002,878
-
473.63
518,112.17
-
Forest
3,789.01
510,060.52
516,218
-
9,551,285.88
-
180.42
9,204,880
-
Other Land
-
-
Other Land
Settlements
-
142,162.79
Settlements
Wetlands
9,551,286
-
8,264,990
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
7,172,560
2,368.13
655,401
Cropland
-
9,794,727.52
-
20 years matrix
-
2,085,693
655,221
8,344,726
776,996.24
-
Other Land
Total 2006
Other Land
14,444.67
655,220.82
2,113,298
-
83,848.00
8,759,201
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Settlements
8,813,820
8,291,569
9,769,479
517,639
518,112
8,923,059
655,582
7,487,994.20
-
20 years matrix
30,133,601
-
Cropland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2005
-
-
2008
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
8,759,201
8,264,990
9,878,576
-
Wetland
Other Land
9,660,382.43
-
-
516,691
2,030,483
655,762
30,133,601
total 1984
Wetlands
2005
1,576,613.03
Cropland
8,318,147
Cropland
Grassland
655,401
-
Grassland
8,249,190
2,085,693
8,868,440
Forest
-
2007
total 2007
10,000,235
7,182,587.48
655,581.67
655,582
83,848.00
9,916,386.63
Forest
-
7,511,151.05
8,249,190
8,681,241
517,639
3,694.56
23,730.20
-
20 years matrix
-
738,038.47
-
total 2005
473.63
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2004
-
8,681,241
-
Cropland
Other Land
2006
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
516,218
2,002,878
655,943
30,133,601
-
2004
-
8,249,190
-
20 years matrix
-
8,681,241
8,677,546.15
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2003
Other Land
2005
Forest
10,243,553
515,744
1,975,272
656,123
30,133,601
1984
-
10,121,893.74
10,121,894
-
Cropland
722.23
1990
2003
Grassland
Grassland
Grassland
-
2004
Forest
2003
Forest
-
1985
94,482.95
8,233,389
20 years matrix
Other Land
1986
8,603,281
8,138,905.66
Settlements
1987
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2003
78,682.04
-
total 2002
Wetlands
1991
2002
Grassland
8,524,598.87
Cropland
1988
Forest
Grassland
1989
Forest
2009
83,848.00
9,271,063.00
-
total 1990
2010
Forest
Grassland
7,557,524.85
1,474,773.90
-
7,196,423.16
1,376,602.90
-
9,032,299
8,573,026
83,848.00
9,074,688.12
9,158,536
655,040
30,133,601
total 1991
30,133,601
211
2011
8,514,711.85
36,455.69
8,551,168
9,098,169.80
9,098,170
total 2010
Wetlands
Settlements
518,585.80
518,586
3,694.56
23,910.63
2,196,113.87
2,223,719
Wetlands
Settlements
518,585.80
518,586
3,694.56
23,910.63
2,223,719.05
2,251,324
Wetlands
Settlements
518,585.80
518,586
3,694.56
23,910.63
2,251,324.24
2,278,929
655,040.40
655,040
2012
2011
Forest
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2012
Grassland
9,083,223.84
58,314.21
9,141,538
8,492,853.34
36,455.69
8,529,309
Cropland
9,037,803.48
9,037,803
2012
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2013
Grassland
9,137,843.49
58,314.21
9,196,158
6.2
6.2.1
8,470,994.82
36,455.69
8,507,451
Cropland
8,977,437.16
8,977,437
9,032,299
8,573,026
9,158,536
518,586
2,196,114
655,040
30,133,601
total 2011
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2011
20 years matrix
Other Land
655,040.40
655,040
2013
Forest
20 years matrix
Other Land
1992
9,028,604.19
58,314.21
9,086,918
Cropland
Other Land
655,040.40
655,040
9,086,918
8,551,168
9,098,170
518,586
2,223,719
655,040
30,133,601
total 2012
9,141,538
8,529,309
9,037,803
518,586
2,251,324
655,040
30,133,601
1993
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
total 2011
Grassland
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2012
21 years matrix
1994
2010
Forest
Forest
Grassland
Cropland
Wetland
Settlements
Other Land
Total 2013
2011
Forest
Grassland
7,632,512.33
1,454,406.07
9,086,918
7,138,108.95
1,413,058.59
8,551,168
Forest
Grassland
7,707,499.81
1,434,038.24
9,141,538
7,079,794.74
1,449,514.29
8,529,309
Forest
Grassland
7,782,487.28
1,413,670.42
9,196,158
7,021,480.54
1,485,969.98
8,507,451
Cropland
67,078.40
9,031,091.40
9,098,170
total 1992
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
1,894.51
6,157.14
510,534.15
518,586
35,250.95
106,810.12
406,975.46
1,671,615.35
3,067.16
2,223,719
7,667,763
8,768,298
10,857,283
510,534
1,671,615
655,040.40 658,108
655,040
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
1,420.88
6,157.14
511,007.78
518,586
38,223.28
80,107.59
430,886.09
1,699,220.54
2,886.74
2,251,324
7,745,723
8,645,670
10,874,052
511,008
1,699,221
655,040.40 657,927
655,040
30,133,601
Wetlands
Settlements
Other Land
947.25
6,157.14
511,481.40
518,586
41,195.60
53,405.06
454,796.71
1,726,825.72
2,706.32
2,278,929
7,823,683
8,523,042
10,890,822
511,481
1,726,826
655,040.40 657,747
655,040
30,133,601
2012
Cropland
50,308.80
8,987,494.68
9,037,803
total 1993
2013
Cropland
33,539.20
8,943,897.96
8,977,437
total 1994
Forest Land (4A)
Description
Under this category, CO2 emissions from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils, from forest land
remaining forest land and from land converted to forest land have been reported.
Forest land removals share, in 2013, 67.7% of total CO2 eq. LULUCF emissions and removals; in particular,
the living biomass removals represent 95.9%, while the removals from dead organic matter and soils stand
for 2.1% and 2.0% of total 2013 forest land CO2 removals, respectively, also taking into account that, for
forest land remaining forest land, soils pool has been not reported (providing in the relevant paragraph
information to demonstrate that this pool is not a source).
CO2 emissions and removals from forest land remaining forest land and from land converted to forest land
have been identified as key categories in level and in trend assessment either with Approach 1 and Approach
2. Concerning CH4 or N2O emissions, neither forest land nor land converting to forest land have resulted as a
key source.
212
6.2.2
Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
Coherently with the previous submission, forest definition adopted by Italy in the framework of application
of elected 3.4 activity, under Kyoto Protocol, has been fully implemented also in the LULUCF sector of the
inventory under the Convention, in order to maintain coherence and congruity between the two forest-related
reporting. The forest definition has been set up, and included in the determination of Italy’s assigned amount
under Article 7, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol, and the election of the art. 3.3 and 3.4 activities, by a
national expert panel set up under the coordination of Ministry of Environment and in cooperation with the
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies. The abovementioned panel involves, on a voluntary basis,
the
relevant
national
experts,
including
the
forest
inventory
experts
(http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/home_en.jsp), members of the FAO-FRA Italian panel
(http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al537E/al537E.pdf) and other national researchers. The national expert
panel has considered the Kyoto Protocol rules and requirements, related to reporting and accounting of art.
3.3 and 3.4 activities, and agreed the national forest definition. In the same context, national circumstances
(e.g. forest composition, forestry management practices, agroforestry practices, etc.) were examined and it
was decided to classify shrublands in the grassland category because they do not fulfil national forest
definition; in the current submission, following a key finding in the 2013 review process, the plantations,
previously classified in the cropland category, have been included in forest.
The forest definition adopted under the Convention and under Kyoto Protocol is the same used by the
NFIs 17. The forest definition included trees which 1) fulfil the criteria based on the required threshold or 2)
"have the potential to reach" such required thresholds. In the second case, there is an assessment on future
vegetation conditions, so that in principle it is considered forest a land that is expected to reach the thresholds
but not a land with severe limitations that do not make it possible to reach the thresholds. In the example,
abandoned land with regenerating forest is assessed considering the potential to reach the thresholds while
shrublands will not and for this reason has been included in grassland category, other wooded land. The
assessment of potential tree-height is carried out in the field (phase 2 of the NFI). Transition from shrublands
to forest is estimated in terms of the time needed. If the transition is expected in a time span similar to that
needed to reach the thresholds by areas under reforestation or temporarly unstoched areas which are expected
to regenerate, the area is considered forest otherwise it is considered shrublands and transition is in practice
discarded.
For the land use conversion, land use change matrices have been used; as abovementioned, LUC matrices for
each year of the period 1990–2013 have been assembled on the basis of the IUTI 18 data, related to 1990,
2000 and 2008 and 2012. Annual figures for areas in transition between different land uses have been
derived by a hierarchy of basic assumptions (informed by expert judgement) of known patterns of land-use
changes in Italy as well as the need for the total national area to remain constant.
Forest land area detected by the National Forest Inventories (NFI) has been used as basis to assess the
growth in forest land area. It was assumed that new forest land area can only come from grassland.
The Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MAF) and the Experimental Institute for Forest
Management (ISAFA) carried out the first National Forest Inventory in 1985. As a result of the first NFI
based on a regular sampling grid of 3 km by 3 km, the global Italian extent of forest resources was about 8.7
million hectares (MAF/ISAFA, 1988). A second national forest inventory (INFC2005), using a grid of 1 km
by 1 km, had been launched in 2001. A first inventory phase, consisting in interpretation of orthophotos, was
17
The detailed definition is reported on the website of the NFIs http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/q_features.jsp (forest
definition: http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/linkmetodo/definizionilink1.jsp)
18
Detailed information on IUTI is reported in Annex 10
213
followed by a ground survey, in order to assess the forest use, and to detect the main attributes of Italian
forests. The final result, regarding forest surfaces, has been used (Tabacchi et al., 2007). The third national
forest inventory (NFI2015), using the same sampling design of the II NFI, has been carried out in 2013,
concluding the first phase, interpretation of orthophotos, in October 2013. Even though the NFI2015 has
completed only the first phase, the data related to “Forest + other wooded land”, resulting by the first phase
(photo-interpretation) of NFI2015, have been split in the “Forest” and “other wooded land”, region by
region, using the ratio “other wooded land”/ “Forest”, deduced from previous NFI. The abovementioned
data, referring to forest area estimates, have been used in the estimation process.
6.2.3
Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
The forest definition adopted by Italy in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol has been adopted; this
definition is in line with the definitions of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
therefore the following threshold values for tree crown cover, land area and tree height are applied:
a. a minimum area of land of 0.5 hectares;
b. tree crown cover of 10 per cent;
c. minimum tree height of 5 meters.
6.2.4
Methodological issues
Forest Land remaining Forest Land
All the data concerning the growing stock and the related carbon are assessed by the For-est model,
estimating the evolution in time of the Italian forest carbon pools, according to the IPCC classification and
definition: living biomass, both aboveground and belowground; dead organic matter, including dead wood
and litter; and soils as soil organic matter. Additional information on the methodological aspects may be
found in Federici et al., 2008; some specific parameters (i.e. biomass expansion factors, wood basic densities
for aboveground biomass estimate, root/shoot ratios) used in the estimation process are the same reported in
the above-mentioned article; in other cases (i.e. dead wood or litter pools) different coefficients have been
used to deduce the carbon stock changes in the pools, on the basis of the results of the II National Forestry
Inventory and the national forest definition. Details are reported in the following relevant sections. The
model has been applied at regional scale (NUTS2) because of availability of forest-related statistical data:
model input data for the forest area, per region and inventory typologies, were the Italian forest inventories
(NFI1985, NFI2005), while the results of the first phase of the NFI2015 were used in forest area assessment.
An independent verification of the model results versus measured data, relating to the year 2005, was carried
out and provided validation of the model (Tabacchi et al., 2010), more details are included in paragraph
6.2.6.
The inventory typologies, classified in 4 main categories, are:
Stands: norway spruce, silver fir, larches, mountain pines, mediterranean pines, other conifers,
European beech, turkey oak, other oaks, other broadleaves.
Coppices: European beech, sweet chestnut, hornbeams, other oaks, turkey oak, evergreen oaks, other
broadleaves, conifers.
Plantations: eucalyptuses coppices, other broadleaves coppices, poplar stands, other broadleaves
stands, conifers stands, others.
Protective Forests: rupicolous forest, riparian forests, shrublands
214
To estimate the growing stock of Italian forest, from 1990 to 2013, the following methodology was applied:
1.
the initial growing stock volume is the 1985 growing stock data (MAF/ISAFA, 1988);
2.
starting from 1985, for each year, the current increment per hectare [m3 ha-1] is computed with the
derivative Richards function 19, for each forest typology by the Italian yield tables collection;
3.
starting from 1986, for each year the growing stock per hectare [m3 ha-1] is computed, from the
previous year growing stock volume, with the addition of the calculated increment (“y” value of
the derivative Richards) for the current year and subtraction of the losses due to harvest, mortality
and fire for the current year. Mortality and rate of drain and grazing are applied, as percentage,
directly to the growing stock amount of the previous year.
The relationship can be summarized as follows:
Vi −1 + I i − H i − Fi − M i − Di
Ai
where:
I i = f (vi −1 ) ⋅ Ai −1
vi =
in which the current increment is estimated year by year applying the derivative Richards function and
vi
is the volume per hectare of growing stock for the current year
Vi-1 is the total previous year growing stock volume
Ii
is the total current increment of growing stock for the current year
Hi
is the total amount of harvested growing stock for the current year
Fi
is the total amount of burned growing stock for the current year
Mi
D
is the annual rate of mortality
is the annual rate of drain and grazing for the protective forest
Ai
is the total area referred to a specific forest typology for the current year
vi −1
is the previous year growing stock volume per hectare
A i-1
is the total area referred to a specific forest typology for the previous year
f
is the Richards function reported above
19
In the followed approach the Richards function is fitted through the data of growing stock [m3] and increment [m3 y-1] obtained by
the data of the national forestry inventory and yield tables collection.
[
]
1
−
1 ± e ( β −kt ) ν
y = a⋅
(Richards function)
The independent variable represents the growing stock of the stand, while the dependent variable y is the correspondent increment
computed with the Richards function - first derivative.
  y ν 
dy k
(Richards function - first derivative)
= ⋅ y ⋅ 1 −    + y0
dt ν
a
   
where the general constrain for the parameters are the following:
a,k>0 -1≤v≤∞ and v≠0
The constant y0 is derived from the data of age and volume reported in the yield tables: more precisely y0 has the value of the volume
for the age 1. After choosing the function, it is fitted to the measurements by non-linear regression. The minimization of the deviation
is performed by the least squares method. The model performances were evaluated against the data by validation statistics according
to Jabssen and Heuberger (1995).
215
The average rate of mortality, the fraction of standing biomass per year, used for the calculation was 0.0116,
concerning the evergreen forest, and 0.0117, for deciduous forest, according to the GPG (IPCC, 2003).
The rate of draining and grazing, applied to protective forest, has been set as 3% following an expert
judgement (Federici et al., 2008) because of total absence of referable data.
Biomass losses from timber harvest, fuel wood collection and harvest from short rotation forests are
calculated on the basis of official statistic by ISTAT; total commercial harvested wood, for construction and
energy purposes, has been published by ISTAT (disaggregated at NUTS2 level, in sectoral statistics (ISTAT,
several years [a]) or at NUTS1 level for coppices and high forests in national statistics (ISTAT, several years
[c])). Nevertheless as data on biomass removed in commercial harvest, particularly concerning fuelwood
consumption, have been judged underestimated (APAT - ARPA Lombardia, 2007, UNECE – FAO, Timber
Committee, 2008, Corona et al., 2007), the time series has been recalculated, applying a correction factor, on
regional basis, to the commercial harvested wood statistical data. The correction factor 20, was inferred with
the outcome of a specific survey 21 conducted in the framework of the NFI, carrying out a regional
assessment of the harvested biomass; the computed figures have been subtracted, as losses, from growing
stock volume, as mentioned above.
Carbon amount released by forest fires has been included in the overall assessment of carbon stocks change.
Moreover, not having data on forest typologies of burned areas, the total value of burned forest area coming
from national statistics has been subdivided and assigned to forest typologies based on their respective
weight on total national forest area. Finally, the amount of burned growing stock has been calculated
multiplying average growing stock per hectare of forest typology for the assigned burned area. Assessed
value has been subtracted to total growing stock of respective typology, as aforesaid.
In Figure 6.3, losses of carbon due to harvest and forest fires, referred to forest land category and reported as
percentage on total aboveground carbon, are shown.
2.00
Losses in aboveground carbon by harvest
Losses in aboveground carbon by fires
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Figure 6.3 Losses by harvest and fires in relation to aboveground carbon
20
A correction factor for each Italian region (21) has been pointed out. The mean value is 1.57, obtained as ratio of data from official
statistics and INFC survey data. The variance is equal to 0.82.
21
INFC survey on harvested volume: http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/caricaDocumento?idAlle=442
216
CO2 emissions due to wildfires in forest land remaining forest land are included in CRF Table 4.A.1, carbon
stocks change in living biomass - losses. Non CO2 emissions from fires have been estimated and reported in
CRF table 4(V); details on the methodology used to estimate emissions are reported in the paragraph 7.12.2.
Once the growing stock is estimated, the amount of aboveground tree biomass (dry matter), belowground
biomass (dry matter) and dead mass (dry matter), can be assessed, from 1990 to 2013. In the following, the
default value of carbon fraction of dry matter (0.47 t d.m.) has been applied to obtain carbon amount from
biomass.
The net carbon stock change of living biomass has been calculated according to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines
(IPCC, 2006), from the aboveground tree biomass and belowground biomass:
∆C Living biomass = ∆C Aboveground biomass + ∆C Belowground biomass
where the total amount of carbon has been obtained from the biomass (d.m.), multiplying by the conversion
factor carbon content/dry matter.
With regard to the aboveground biomass:
1. starting from the 1985 growing stock data, reported in the NFI, the amount of aboveground woody
tree biomass (d.m) [t] was calculated, for every forest typology, through the relation:
Aboveground tree biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF ⋅ WBD ⋅ A
where:
GS = volume of growing stock (MAF/ISAFA, 1988) [m3 ha-1]
BEF = Biomass Expansion Factors which expands growing stock volume to volume of aboveground
woody biomass (ISAFA, 2004)
WBD = Wood Basic Density for conversions from fresh volume to dry weight (d.m) [t m-3]
(Giordano, 1980)
A = forest area occupied by specific typology [ha] (MAF/ISAFA, 1988)
The BEF were derived for each forest typology and wood basic density (WBD) values were different
for the main tree species:
2. starting from 1985, for each year, current increment per hectare [m3 ha-1 y-1] is computed with the
derivative Richards function, for every specific forest typology by the Italian yield tables collection;
3. starting from 1986, for each year growing stock per hectare [m3 ha-1] is computed, from the previous
year growing stock volume, adding the calculated increment (“y” value of the derivative Richards)
for the current year and subtracting losses due to harvest, mortality and fire for the current year, as
described above.
Re-applying the relation:
Aboveground tree biomass = GS ⋅ BEF ⋅ WBD ⋅ A
it is possible to obtain the aboveground woody tree biomass (d.m.) [t] for each forest typology, for
each year, starting from the 1986.
In Table 6.4 biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and
wood basic densities are reported.
217
Table 6.4 Biomass Expansion Factors and Wood Basic Densities
protectiv
e
Plantations
Coppices
Stands
Inventory typology
norway spruce
silver fir
larches
mountain pines
mediterranean pines
other conifers
european beech
turkey oak
other oaks
other broadleaves
european beech
sweet chestnut
hornbeams
other oaks
turkey oak
evergreen oaks
other broadleaves
conifers
eucalyptuses coppices
other broadleaves coppices
poplars stands
other broadleaves stands
conifers stands
others
BEF
aboveground biomass /
growing stock
1.29
1.34
1.22
1.33
1.53
1.37
1.36
1.45
1.42
1.47
1.36
1.33
1.28
1.39
1.23
1.45
1.53
1.38
1.33
1.45
1.24
1.53
1.41
1.46
WBD
Dry weigth t/ fresh volume
0.38
0.38
0.56
0.47
0.53
0.43
0.61
0.69
0.67
0.53
0.61
0.49
0.66
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.53
0.43
0.54
0.53
0.29
0.53
0.43
0.48
rupicolous forest
1.44
0.52
riparian forest
1.39
0.41
Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The
belowground biomass is computed, as:
Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF ⋅ WBD ⋅ R ⋅ A
where:
GS = volume of growing stock [m3 ha-1]
R = Root/Shoot ratio which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass
BEF = Biomass Expansion Factors which expands growing stock volume to volume of aboveground woody
biomass (ISAFA, 2004)
WBD = Wood Basic Density [t d.m. m-3]
A = forest area occupied by specific typology [ha]
Also in this case, the Root/shoot ratios and WBDs were derived for each forest typology, on the basis of
different studies conducted at the national and local level in different years and contexts; the derived
218
Root/Shoot ratios have been then included in the JRC-AFOLU database 22. Description of the database is
detailed in Somogyi et al., 2008. The relevant projects taken into account to derive Root/Shoot ratios used in
the estimation process are the European projects CANIF 23 (CArbon and NItrogen cycling in Forest
ecosystems), CARBODATA 24 (Carbon Balance Estimates and Resource Management - Support with Data
from Project Networks Implemented at European Continental Scale), CARBOINVENT 25 (Multi-source
inventory methods for quantifying carbon stocks and stock changes in European forests) and COST 26 Action
E21- Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects.
In Table 6.5 root/shoot ratio and wood basic densities are reported.
Table 6.5 Root/Shoot ratio and Wood Basic Densities
Plantations
coppices
stands
Inventory typology
norway spruce
silver fir
Larches
mountain pines
mediterranean pines
other conifers
european beech
turkey oak
other oaks
other broadleaves
european beech
sweet chestnut
Hornbeams
other oaks
turkey oak
evergreen oaks
other broadleaves
Conifers
eucalyptuses coppices
other broadleaves coppices
poplars stands
other broadleaves stands
conifers stands
R
Root/shoot ratio
0.29
0.28
0.29
0.36
0.33
0.29
0.20
0.24
0.20
0.24
0.20
0.28
0.26
0.20
0.24
1.00
0.24
0.29
0.43
0.24
0.21
0.24
0.29
WBD
Dry weigth t/ fresh volume
0.38
0.38
0.56
0.47
0.53
0.43
0.61
0.69
0.67
0.53
0.61
0.49
0.66
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.53
0.43
0.54
0.53
0.29
0.53
0.43
22
European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, AFOLU DATA clearinghouse:
Allometric Biomass and Carbon (ABC) factors database: http://afoludata.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.php/public_area/data_and_tools
23
CANIF
CArbon
and
NItrogen
cycling
in
Forest
ecosystems
http://www.bgc-jena.mpg.de/bgcprocesses/research/Schulze_Euro_CANIF.html; Scarascia Mugnozza G., Bauer G., Persson H., Matteucci G., Masci A.
(2000). Tree biomass, growth and nutrient pools. In: Schulze E.-D. (edit.) Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European forest
Ecosystems, Ecological Studies 142, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. Pp. 49-62. ISBN 3-540-67239-7
24
CARBODATA - Carbon Balance Estimates and Resource Management - Support with Data from Project Networks Implemented
at European Continental Scale: http://afoludata.jrc.it/carbodat/proj_desc.html
25
CARBOINVENT - Multi-source inventory methods for quantifying carbon stocks and stock changes in European forests;
http://www.joanneum.at/carboinvent/
26
COST
Action
E21
Contribution
of
forests
and
forestry
to
mitigate
greenhouse
effects:
http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/fps/Actions/E21;
http://www.afsjournal.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/forest/pdf/2005/08/F62800f.pdf
219
protective
rupicolous forest
0.42
0.52
riparian forest
0.23
0.41
The dead organic matter carbon pool is defined, in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), as the sum of
the dead wood and the litter.
∆C
Dead Organic Matter
= ∆C
dead mass
+ ∆C
litter
The total amount of carbon for dead organic matter has been obtained from the dead organic matter (d.m.),
multiplying by the conversion factor carbon content / dry matter.
The dead wood mass has been estimated using coefficients calculated from outcomes of a survey conducted
by the Italian national forest inventory, in 2008 and 2009, which specifically intended to investigate the
carbon storage of forests. Samples of dead-wood were collected across the country from the plots of the
national forest inventory network, and their basic densities measured in order to calculate conversion factors
for estimating the dry weight of dead-wood (Di Cosmo et al., 2013). The values used, aggregated at regional
level, may be found on the NFI website: http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/dati_carquant_tab.jsp.
The definition of the deadwood pool, coherent with the definition adopted by the NFI, is related to “All nonliving woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on the ground, or in the soil. Dead
wood includes wood lying on the surface, stumps larger than or equal to 10 cm in diameter and standing
trees with DBH > 4,5 cm”. Additional explanation on the data and parameters used for deadwood are
included
in
the
paper
Di
Cosmo
et
al.,
2013,
and
in
the
NFI
website
(http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/necromassa.jsp).
In Table 6.6 dead wood coefficients are reported.
Table 6.6 Dead-wood expansion factor
plantati
ons
coppices
stands
Inventory typology
norway spruce
silver fir
Larches
mountain pines
mediterranean pines
other conifers
european beech
turkey oak
other oaks
other broadleaves
european beech
sweet chestnut
Hornbeams
other oaks
turkey oak
evergreen oaks
other broadleaves
Conifers
eucalyptuses coppices
other broadleaves coppices
poplars stands
dead wood (dry matter)
t ha-1
6.360
7.770
3.830
4.385
2.670
4.290
3.350
1.770
1.690
3.990
3.350
12.990
2.730
1.690
1.770
1.370
2.690
4.290
0.670
0.670
0.480
220
Inventory typology
protective
other broadleaves stands
conifers stands
dead wood (dry matter)
t ha-1
0.670
3.040
rupicolous forest
2.730
riparian forest
4.790
The dead wood [t] is:
Dead wood (d.m.) = DC ⋅ A
where:
DC = Dead wood expansion factor (dead wood - dry matter) [t ha-1]
A = forest area occupied by specific typology [ha]
Carbon amount contained in litter pool has been estimated using the values of litter carbon content, per
hectare, assessed by the Italian national forest inventory. The values used, aggregated at regional level, may
be found on the NFI website: http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/dati_carquant_tab.jsp. The average
value of litter organic carbon content, for Italy, is equal to 1.990 t C ha-1.
Following the main finding of 2011 review process regarding soils pool, Italy has decided to apply the IPCC
Tier1, assuming that, for forest land remaining forest land, the carbon stock in soil organic matter does not
change, regardless of changes in forest management, types, and disturbance regimes; in other words it has to
be assumed that the carbon stock in mineral soil remains constant so long as the land remains forest.
Therefore carbon stock changes in soils pool, for forest land remaining forest land, have been not reported.
Carbon stock changes in minerals soils, for Forest land remaining Forest land have been estimated and
detailed in par. 10.3.1.2.
Land converted in Forest Land
The area of land converted to forest land is always coming from grassland. There is no occurrence for other
conversion. Carbon stocks change due to grassland converting to forest land has been estimated and reported.
The carbon stock change of living biomass has been calculated taking into account the increase and the
decrease of carbon stock related to the areas in transition to forest land, using the same For-est model already
used in the forest land remaining forest land sub-category: a description of the methodology used in the
estimation process is provided in par. 6.2.4 where forest land remaining forest land is concerned.
Net carbon stock change in dead organic matter and soil has been calculated as well. Italy used the IPCC
default land use transition period of 20 years, to estimate carbon stock changes in mineral soils related to
land converted in Forest Land. The relevant equations of 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, ch. 2, eq. 2.24,
2.25) have been applied; once a land has converted to a land use category, the annual changes in carbon
stocks in mineral soils have been reported for 20 years subsequent the conversion. SOC reference value for
grassland has been revised and set to 78.9 t C ha-1, after a review of the latest papers reporting data on soil
carbon in mountain meadows, pastures, set-aside lands as well as soil not disturbed since the agricultural
abandonment, in Italy (Viaroli and Gardi 2004, CRPA 2009, IPLA 2007, ERSAF 2008, Del Gardo et al
2003, LaMantia et al 2007, Benedetti et al 2004, Masciandaro and Ceccanti 1999, Xiloyannis 2007).
Concerning forest soils, the SOCs reported in table 6.7 have been used; each SOC reported in the
abovementioned table has been used for the years indicated in the first column of table 6.8. A detailed
description of the methodology used in the estimation process of soils pool, and consequently of the SOCs, is
provided in par. 10.3.1.2, related to the KP-LULUCF.
221
Table 6.7 Soil Organic Content (SOC) values for forest land remaining forest land
years
years
1985-1994
SOC
t C ha-1
79.960
1995-1999
80.399
2000-2004
80.872
2005-2009
81.452
2010-2013
81.950
The total amount of carbon for dead organic matter has been obtained from the dead organic matter (d.m.),
multiplying by the conversion factor carbon content/dry matter.
In Table 6.8 carbon stock changes due to conversion to forest land, for the living biomass, dead organic
matter and soil pools, have been reported.
Table 6.8 Carbon stock changes in land converting to forest land
Conversion Area
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
20 years change
kha
689
736
782
829
876
923
989
1,055
1,121
1,187
1,252
1,317
1,381
1,445
1,509
1,577
1,556
1,536
1,516
1,495
1,475
1,454
1,434
1,414
Carbon stock change in living biomass
Increase
2,162
2,272
2,384
2,498
2,610
2,726
2,885
3,038
3,189
3,351
3,510
3,657
3,806
3,954
4,102
4,255
4,206
4,134
4,066
3,999
3,934
3,872
3,885
3,897
Decrease
-1,399
-1,197
-1,327
-1,702
-1,506
-1,512
-1,583
-1,961
-2,131
-2,109
-2,235
-2,069
-2,028
-2,361
-2,284
-2,335
-2,336
-3,048
-2,433
-2,273
-2,121
-2,279
-2,529
-2,257
Net C stock change in Net C stock change
dead organic matter
in mineral soils
Net change
Gg C
763
1,075
1,057
795
1,104
1,215
1,302
1,077
1,059
1,242
1,275
1,588
1,778
1,593
1,818
1,919
1,869
1,087
1,634
1,726
1,813
1,594
1,355
1,640
30.68
32.36
34.01
35.62
37.20
38.75
41.02
43.25
45.44
47.58
49.69
51.69
53.67
55.60
57.50
59.47
37.43
36.73
36.04
35.35
34.67
34.00
34.00
34.00
54.28
59.80
65.32
70.84
76.36
83.61
91.94
100.28
108.61
116.95
127.14
137.25
147.35
157.45
167.56
179.93
182.38
184.83
187.28
189.72
193.63
197.53
201.43
205.33
222
CO2 emissions due to wildfires in land converting to forest land are included in CRF Table 4.A.2, carbon
stocks change in living biomass - decrease. Non CO2 emissions from fires have been estimated and reported
in CRF table 4(V); details on the methodology used to estimate emissions are reported in paragraph 6.12.2.
6.2.5
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Estimates of removals by forest land are based on application of the above-described model. To assess the
overall uncertainty related to the years 1990–2013, Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) has
been followed. Input uncertainties dealing with activity data and emission factors have been assessed on the
basis of the country specific information and the values provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
In Table 6.9, the values of carbon stocks in the five pools, for the 1985, and the abovementioned
uncertainties are reported.
Uncertainty
Carbon stocks
t CO2 eq. ha-1
Table 6.9 Carbon stocks and uncertainties for year 1985 and current increment related uncertainty
Aboveground biomass
VAG
129.53
Belowground biomass
VBG
29.6
Dead wood
VD
5.6
Litter
VL
10.0
Growing stock
Current increment (Richards) 27
Harvest
Fire
Drain and grazing
Mortality
BEF
R
deadwood
Litter
Basic Density
C Conversion Factor
ENFI
ENFI
EH
EF
ED
EM
EBEF1
ER
EDEF
EL
EBD
ECF
3.2%
51.6%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
30%
4.6%
10%
30%
2%
The uncertainties related to the carbon pools and the overall uncertainty for 1985 has been computed and
shown in Table 6.10.
Table 6.10 Uncertainties for the year 1985
Aboveground biomass
Belowground biomass
Dead wood
Litter
Overall uncertainty
EAG
EBG
ED
EL
E1985
42.59%
42.59%
42.84%
43.75%
32.51%
27
The current increment is estimated by the Richards function (first derivative); uncertainty has been assessed considering the
standard error of the linear regression between the estimated values and the corresponding current increment values reported in the
National Forest Inventory
223
The overall uncertainty related to 1985 (the year of the first National Forest Inventory) has been propagated
through the years, till 2013, following Approach 1.
The uncertainties related to the carbon pools and the overall uncertainty for 2013 are shown in Table 6.11.
Table 6.11 Uncertainties for the year 2013
Aboveground biomass
Belowground biomass
Dead wood
Litter
Overall uncertainty
EAG
EBG
ED
EL
E
42.65%
42.65%
42.90%
43.81%
33.39%
Following Approach 1 and the abovementioned methodology, the overall uncertainty in the estimates
produced by the described model has been quantified; in Table 6.12 the uncertainties of the 1985-2013
period are reported.
Table 6.12 Overall uncertainties 1985 - 2013
1985
32.5%
1990
32.7%
1995
32.9%
2000
33.1%
2005
33.2%
2006
33.2%
2007
33.2%
2008
33.3%
2009
33.3%
2010
33.3%
2011
2012 2013
33.3% 33.4% 33.4%
The overall uncertainty in the model estimates between 1990 and 2013 has been assessed with the following
relation:
E
=
1990 − 2012
(E1990 ⋅V1990 )2 + (E 2013 ⋅V2013 )2
V
+V
2013
1990
where the terms V stands for the growing stock [m3 ha-1 CO2 eq] while the uncertainties have been indicated
with the letter E. The overall uncertainty related to the year 1990–2013 is equal to 23.5%.
A Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to assess uncertainty for Forest Land category (considering both
Forest Land remaining Forest Land and Land converted to Forest Land), considering the different reporting
pools (aboveground, belowground, litter, deadwood and soils), and the subcategories stands, coppices and
rupicolous and riparian forests for the reporting year 2009, resulting equal to 49%. As for Land converted to
Forest Land, an asymmetrical probability density distribution resulted from the analysis, showing
uncertainties values equal to -147.6% and 192.3%. Normal distributions have been assumed for most of the
parameters. A more detailed description of the results is reported in Annex 1.
The table reporting the uncertainties referring to all the categories (Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland,
Wetlands, Settlements, Other Land) is shown in Annex 1.
A comparison between carbon in the aboveground, deadwood and litter pools, estimated with the described
methodology, and the II NFI data (INFC2005) is reported in Table 6.13.
Table 6.13 Comparison between estimated and INFC2005 aboveground carbon stock
aboveground
INFC2005
tC
456,857,390
For-est model
tC
438,302,583
deadwood
litter
15,987,541
28,170,660
15,873,127
28,630,759
differences
tC
%
-18,554,807 -4.06
-114,414
460,099
-0.72
1.63
224
Annual stock change (Mt)
6.2.6
Category-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the sum of sub-categories; where possible, activity data comparison among
different sources (FAO database 28, ISTAT data 29) has been made. Data entries have been checked several
times during the compilation of the inventory; particular attention has been focussed on the categories
showing significant changes between two years in succession. Land use matrices have been accurately
checked and cross-checked to ensure that data were properly reported. An independent verification of
reported data was done in the framework of the National Forestry Inventory, resulting in comparison of the
model results versus data measured, relating to the year 2005 (Tabacchi et al., 2010). In Figure 6.4 outcome
of the comparison is shown.
Stock change method
Upper boundary
Mean value
Lower boundary
Default method
Figure 6.4 Comparison between carbon stock changes, for living biomass pool, by the National Inventory (NIR,
2009) and estimated data on the basis of NFI2005 (II NFI) measurements (modified from Tabacchi et al., 2010)
The II NFI classification system, and consequent categories list, has changed respect to the system (and
inventory categories) used in the first forest inventory. A transition matrix, between the NFI2005 and first
forest inventory classification systems, has been planned to be elaborated. In the meanwhile a comparison
among NFI2005 current increment data and For-est model current increment data is possible only for a not
exhaustive number of inventory typologies. In the following Figure 6.5 the comparison has been reported.
28
29
FAO, 2015. FAOSTAT, http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [c]
225
9
8
Current increment
per ha [m3 ha -1]
for-est model
INFC
7
6
5
4
3
2
plantations - other
broadleaves
coppices evergreen oaks
coppices hornbeams
coppices european beech
stands - other
broadleaves
stands - other
oaks
stands - european
beech
stands - other
conifers
stands - larches
stands - silver fir
stands - norway
spruce
0
coppices -other
oaks
1
Figure 6.5 Comparison among NFI2005 (INFC) current increment data and For-est model current increment
data
Regarding both soil and litter, a validation of the applied methodology has been done in Piemonte region,
comparing results of a regional soil inventory with data obtained with the abovementioned methodology
(Petrella and Piazzi, 2006). Results show a good agreement between the two dataset either in litter and soil.
An interregional project, named INEMAR 30, developed to carry out atmospheric emission inventories at
local scale, has added a module to estimate forest land emission and removals, following the
abovementioned methodology. The module has been applied, at local scale with local data, in Lombardia
region, for the different pools and for the year 1990, 2000, 2005, 2008. In Figure 6.6 carbon stocks, in the
different pools, estimated by the National Inventory (ISPRA) and the correspondent values obtained in the
INEMAR framework for the Lombardia region, are shown (ARPA Lombardia - Regione Lombardia, 2011
[a, b]).
Figure 6.6 Carbon stocks estimates by the National Inventory (ISPRA) and the INEMAR project for Lombardia
In Table 6.14 carbon stocks, in the different pools, estimated by the National Inventory (ISPRA) and the
correspondent values obtained in the INEMAR framework for the Lombardia region, are shown.
30
INEMAR: INventario EMissioni Aria: http://www.ambiente.regione.lombardia.it/inemar/e_inemarhome.htm
226
Table 6.14 Carbon stocks estimates by the National Inventory (ISPRA) and the INEMAR project for Lombardia
INEMAR Lombardia
1990
2000
2005
2008
ISPRA
Differences
Gg CO2
Gg CO2
%
311,370
345,886
367,537
379,742
319,203
353,326
375,275
387,673
-2.45
-2.11
-2.06
-2.05
The same module, applied in Lombardia region, will be applied, at local scale with local data, in seven of the
20 Italian regions and the results will constitute a good validation of the used methodology.
An additional verification activity has been carried out, comparing the implied carbon stock change per area
(IEF), related to the living biomass, with the IEFs reported by other Parties. The 2014 submission has been
considered to deduce the different IEFs; in the figure 6.7 the comparison is showed, taking into account the
IEFs for both the forest land remaining forest land (FL-FL) and land converting to forest land (L-FL)
subcategories, for the living biomass.
3.50
FL-FL
L-FL
avg FL-FL
avg L-FL
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
-0.50
Figure 6.7 Implied carbon stock change per area for the living biomass
Further identification of critical issues and uncertainties in the estimations derived from the participation at
workshops and pilot projects (MATT, 2002). Specifically, the European pilot project to harmonise the
estimation and reporting of EU Member States, in 2003, led to a comparison among national approaches and
problems related to the estimation methodology and basic data needed (JRC, 2004). The estimate
methodology has been presented and discussed during several national workshops; findings and comments
have been used in the refining estimation process.
227
6.2.7
Category-specific recalculations
Deviations from the previous sectoral estimates are resulting from the implementation of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in term of updated default values and conversion factors.
6.2.8
Category-specific planned improvements
The implementation of the III national forest inventory, which has already completed the first phase related
to forest area assessment, is increasing the robustness of the data sources used in the estimation process. The
third NFI, which has the same sampling design of the previous one, is a three-phase inventory. In particular
the field surveys, related to the qualitative and quantitative attributes measurements, will allow using the
IPCC carbon stock change method to estimate emissions and removals for forest land remaining forest land
category. In addition a comparison between the two IPCC methods (carbon stock change versus gains-losses)
could be undertaken; the comparison is a valuable verification exercise and is able to highlight any potential
outlier which detaches the two estimates.
The ‘National Registry for Carbon sinks’, established by a Ministerial Decree on 1st April 2008, is part of
National Greenhouse Gas Inventory System in Italy (ISPRA, 2014) and includes information on units of
lands subject to activities under Article 3.3 and activities elected under Article 3.4 and related carbon stock
changes. The National Registry for Carbon sinks is the instrument to estimate, in accordance with the
COP/MOP decisions, the IPCC Good Practice Guidance on LULUCF and every relevant IPCC guidelines,
the greenhouse gases emissions by sources and removals by sinks in forest land and related land-use changes
and to account for the net removals in order to allow the Italian Registry to issue the relevant amount of
RMUs. In 2009, a technical group, formed by experts from different institutions (ISPRA; Ministry of the
Environment, Land and Sea; Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies and University of Tuscia), set
up the methodological plan of the activities necessary to implement the registry and defined the relative
funding. Some of these activities (in particular IUTI, inventory of land use) has been completed, resulting in
land use classification, for all national territory, for the years 1990, 2000 and 2008. After a process of
validation and verification, the IUTI data has been used in the previous and in the current submission. An
update of the for-est model has been done; the II NFI-NFI2005 (CRA-MPF, several years) data related to the
litter carbon content, collected in the framework of NFI2005 surveys, have been implemented in the model
and land use and land use changes assessment has been carried out through the use of IUTI results.
For the LULUCF sector, following the election of 3.4 activities and on account of an in-depth analysis on the
information needed to report LULUCF under the Kyoto Protocol, a Scientific Committee, Comitato di
Consultazione Scientifica del Registro dei Serbatoi di Carbonio Forestali, constituted by the relevant
national experts has been established by the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea in cooperation with
the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies. In addition, in 2013, the joint project “ITALI”
(Integration of Territorial And Land Information) has started its activities; the project, coordinated by the
National Institute of Statistics and promoted by EUROSTAT 31, involves ISPRA, the Ministry of Agriculture,
Food and Forest Policies, the National Forestry Service and the SIN (Sistema Informativo Nazionale per lo
sviluppo dell’agricoltura) and is aimed to supply national statistics related to land use and land cover,
harmonising and improving the current informative bases already available in the country.
An expert panel on forest fires has been set up, in order to obtain geographically referenced data on burned
area; the overlapping of land use map and georeferenced data should assure the estimates of burned areas in
the different land uses. The fraction of CO2 emissions due to forest fires, now included in the estimate of the
forest land remaining forest land, will be pointed out.
31
Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/about_eurostat/introduction
228
In addition to these expert panels, ISPRA participates in technical working groups, denominated Circoli di
qualità, within the National Statistical System (Sistan). Concerning the LULUCF sector, this group,
coordinated by the National Institute of Statistics, includes both producers and users of statistical information
with the aim of improving and monitoring statistical information for the forest sector. These activities should
improve the quality and details of basic data, as well as enable a more organized and timely communication.
6.3
6.3.1
Cropland (4B)
Description
Under this category, CO2 emissions from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils, from cropland
remaining cropland and from land converted in cropland have been reported.
Cropland removals share 5.3% of total 2013 LULUCF CO2 eq. emissions and removals; in particular the
living biomass removals represent 64.7%, while the emissions and removals from soils stand for 35.3% of
total cropland CO2 emissions and removals.
CO2 emissions and removals from cropland remaining cropland have been identified as key category in level
and in trend assessment either by Approach 1 and Approach 2. CO2 emissions and removals from land
converting to cropland have been identified as key category with Approach 2 concerning trend assessment.
Concerning N2O emissions, the category land converting to cropland has not resulted as a key source.
6.3.2
Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
Following 2013 ERT’s finding, plantations, previously included into cropland category, have been allocated
in forest land category. For the land use conversion, land use change matrices have been used; as
abovementioned, LUC matrices for each year of the period 1990–2013 have been assembled on the basis of
the IUTI data, related to 1990, 2000 and 2008 and 2012. Annual figures for areas in transition between
different land uses have been derived by a hierarchy of basic assumptions (informed by expert judgement) of
known patterns of land-use changes in Italy as well as the need for the total national area to remain constant.
Concerning cropland category, it has been assumed that only transition from grassland to cropland occurs.
The IPCC default land use transition period of 20 years has been used, in the estimation process of carbon
stock changes in mineral soils related to land converting to cropland; once a land has converted to a land use
category, the annual changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils have been reported for 20 years subsequent the
conversion.
Furthermore land use changes have been derived, by the way of land use change matrices, smoothing the
amount of changes over a 5 year period, harmonizing the whole time series, resulting in a constant amount of
C stock change in the 5 year period, following a previous review remark.
6.3.3
Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
Cropland areas have been assessed on the basis of IUTI assessment; due to the technical characteristics of
the IUTI assessment (i.e. classification of orthophotos for 1990, 2000, 2008 and 2012), it was technically
229
impossible to have a clear distinction among some subcategories in cropland and grassland categories (i.e.
annual pastures versus grazing land). Therefore it has been decided to aggregate the cropland and grassland
categories, as detected by IUTI, and then disaggregate them into the different subcategories, using as proxies
the national statistics (ISTAT, [b], [c]) related to annual crops and perennial woody crops. National statistics
on cropland areas have been used, in order to derive the land in conversion from grassland to cropland, by
the way of land use change matrices, following the assumption that transition into cropland category occurs
only from grassland category.
6.3.4
Methodological issues
Cropland includes all annual and perennial crops; the change in biomass has been estimated only for
perennial crops, since, for annual crops, the increase in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to
biomass losses from harvest and mortality in that same year. Activity data for cropland remaining cropland
have been subdivided into annual and perennial crops. Carbon stock changes due to annual conversion from
one cropland subcategory to another (i.e. annual crops to perennial woody crops) have not been assessed,
coherently with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
Perennial – woody crops
Concerning woody crops, estimates of carbon stocks changes are applied to aboveground biomass only,
according to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). To assess change in carbon in cropland biomass, the
Tier 1 based on highly aggregated area estimates for generic perennial woody crops, has been used. The
carbon stock change in living biomass has been estimated on the basis of carbon gains and losses, computed
applying a value of biomass C stock at maturity. The default factors of aboveground biomass carbon stock at
harvest, harvest/maturity cycle, biomass accumulation rate, biomass carbon loss, for the temperate climatic
region, are not very representative of the Mediterranean area, where the most common woody crops are
crops like olive groves or vineyards that have different harvest/maturity cycles. Therefore, in the absence of
country specific values, and following the suggestion of Joint Research Centre (JRC 32) experts, in the
framework of European Union QA/QC checks of the Member States’ inventories for the preparation of EU
greenhouse gas inventory, an average value of 10 t C ha-1 (carbon stock at maturity), deduced by the values
adopted in Spain, has been chosen (JRC, 2013). A cycle of 20 years has been considered.
Net changes in cropland C stocks obtained are equal to -189 Gg C for 1990, and -502 Gg C for 2013, as far
as living biomass pool is concerned. In Table 6.15 change in carbon stock in living biomass are reported.
Table 6.15 Change in carbon stock in living biomass
Area
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
32
Kha
2,698
2,701
2,704
2,707
2,710
2,712
2,691
Gains (Area <30yrs)
kha
70
58
49
40
32
23
14
European Commission’s
http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
GgC
35
29
25
20
16
11
7
Joint
Losses
Kha
-22
0
0
0
0
0
-21
Research
net change in C stock
GgC
-224
0
0
0
0
0
-212
Centre
GgC
-189
29
25
20
16
11
-206
(JRC)
-
Institute
for
Environment
and
Sustainability
(IES):
230
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2,670
2,648
2,627
2,606
2,600
2,594
2,589
2,583
2,577
2,578
2,579
2,579
2,577
2,574
2,524
2,473
2,422
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
16
16
16
13
10
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
7
5
-21
-21
-21
-21
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
0
0
0
-2
-2
-51
-51
-51
-213
-213
-213
-213
-57
-57
-57
-57
-57
0
0
0
-25
-25
-507
-507
-507
-206
-206
-206
-206
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
7
7
8
-17
-17
-499
-501
-502
According to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), the change in soil C stocks (vol. 4, chapter 2, eq. 2.25)
is the result of a change in practices or management between the two time periods and concentration of soil
carbon is only driven by the change in practice or management. It wasn’t possible to point out different sets
of relative stock change factors [FLU (land use), FMG (management), FI (input factor)] for the period 19902013 under investigation; therefore, as no management changes can be documented, resulting change in
carbon stock has been reported as zero.
CO2 emissions from cultivated organic soils (CRPA, 1997) in cropland remaining cropland have been
estimated, using default emission factor for warm temperate, reported in Table 5.6 of 2006 IPCC Guidelines
(vol.4, chapter 5); the IPCC default EF for cultivated organic soils is equal to 10 t C ha-1 y-1. The area of
organic soils has been updated on the basis of the data reported in the FAOSTAT 33 database; these
FAOSTAT assessement have been carried out through the stratification of different global datasets:
- the area covered by organic soils have been defined by extracting the Histosols classes from the
Harmonized World Soil Database 34
- the cultivated area has been identified from the global land cover dataset, GLC2000 35, using the three
“cropland” classes.
Land converted to Cropland
In accordance with the IPCC methodology, estimates of carbon stock change in living biomass have been
provided. Italy uses the IPCC default land use transition period of 20 years, to estimate carbon stock changes
in mineral soils related to land converted to cropland; once a land has converted to cropland, the annual
changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils have been reported for 20 years subsequent the conversion.
33
FAOSTAT database: http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/G1/GV/E
FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA,
Laxenburg, Austria.
35
EC-JRC. 2003. Global Land Cover 2000 database. Available at http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/glc2000/glc2000.php
34
231
N2O emissions arising from the conversion of land to cropland have been also estimated, and reported in
Table 4(III) - Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from nitrogen mineralization/immobilization associated
with loss/gain of soil organic matter resulting from change of land use or management of mineral soils.
The carbon stocks change, for land converted to cropland, is equal to the carbon stocks change due to the
removal of biomass from the initial land use plus the carbon stocks from one year of growth in cropland
following the conversion. The Tier 1 has been followed, assuming that the amount of biomass is cleared and
some type of cropland system is planted soon thereafter. At Tier 1, carbon stocks in biomass immediately
after the conversion are assumed to be zero.
The average area of land undergoing a transition from non cropland, only grassland as far as Italy is
concerned, to cropland, during each year, from 1990 to 2013, has been estimated through the construction of
the land use change matrices, one for each year. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines equation 2.16 (vol. 4, chapter 2)
has been used to estimate the change in carbon stocks resulting from the land use change. The carbon stocks
change per area for land converted to cropland is assumed, following the Tier1, equal to loss in carbon stocks
in biomass immediately before conversion to cropland.
For the Italian territory, only conversion from grassland to cropland has occurred; therefore the default
estimates for standing biomass grassland, as dry matter, reported in Table 6.4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines
(vol. 4, chapter 6) for warm temperate – dry have been used, equal to 1.6 t d.m. ha-1. Changes in carbon
stocks from one year of cropland growth have been obtained by the default biomass carbon stocks reported
in Table 5.9 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, chapter 5), for temperate region. In accordance to national
expert judgement, it has been assumed that the final crop type, for the areas of transition land, is annual
cropland; this assumption has been made on the basis of known patterns of land-use changes in Italy.
As pointed out in the land use matrices reported above, in Table 6.3, conversion of lands into cropland has
taken place only in a few years during the period 1990-2013. C emissions [Gg C] due to change in carbon
stocks in living biomass in land converted to cropland are reported in Table 6.16.
Table 6.16 Change in carbon stock in living biomass in land converted to cropland
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Conversion Area
annual change
20 years change
kha
Kha
0
136
16.8
153
16.8
170
16.8
186
16.8
203
16.8
220
0
193
0
166
0
138
0
111
0
84
0
84
0
84
0
84
0
84
0
84
0
84
0
84
0
84
∆C converted land
Gg C
0
-12.9
-12.9
-12.9
-12.9
-12.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
232
Conversion Area
annual change
20 years change
kha
Kha
0
84
0
84
0
67
0
50
0
34
year
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
∆C converted land
Gg C
0
0
0
0
0
Changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils in land converted to cropland have been estimated following land
use changes, resulting in a change of the total soil carbon content, with a land use transition period of 20
years. Initial land use soil carbon stock [SOC(0-T)] and soil carbon stock in the inventory year [SOC0] for the
cropland area have been estimated from the reference carbon stocks.
SOC reference value for cropland has been set to 56.7 tC/ha on the basis of reviewed references. This value
has been drawn up by analysing a collection of the latest papers reporting data on soil carbon under the most
common agricultural practices in Italy, including woody cropland cultivations such as vineyards and olive
orchards (Triberti et al 2008, Ceccanti et al 2008, Monaco et al 2008, Martiniello 2007, Lugato and Berti
2008, Francaviglia et al., 2006, IPLA 2007, ERSAF 2008, Del Gardo et al 2003, Puglisi et al, 2008,
Lagomarsino et al 2009, Perucci et al 2008).
Whenever the soil carbon stock was not reported in the papers, it has been calculated at the default depth of
30 cm from the soil carbon content, the bulk density, and the stoniness according to the following formula
(Batjes 1996):
K
Td = ∑ ρ i ⋅ Pi ⋅ Di ⋅ (1 − S i )
i =1
where
Td is the overall soil carbon stock (gcm-2) and, for each K layer of the soil profile, ρ i is the soil bulk density
(gcm-3), Pi is the soil carbon content (gCg-1), Di is the layer thickness (cm), S i is the fraction of gravel >
2mm.
If not available in the papers, soil bulk density has been calculated on the basis of the soil organic matter and
texture (Adam 1973):
ρ=
 X

 ρ0
100
  100 − X
 + 
  ρm



where
ρ, soil bulk density (gcm-3); X, percent by weight of organic matter;
ρ 0 , average bulk density of organic
matter (0.224 gcm-3) and ρ m , bulk density of the mineral matter usually estimated at 1.33 gcm-3 or
determined on the “mineral bulk density chart” (Rawls and Brakensiek, 1985).
Since soil carbon stocks are derived from experimental measurements under some representative cropland
management systems, the effect of the practices is intended to be included into the values and consequently
no stock change factors (FLU, FMG, FI) have been applied on the soil carbon stock. Each soil carbon stock was
assigned to the geographical area where the relative soil carbon content has been measured and the overall
values have been averaged by means of weights resulting from the proportional relevance of the investigated
area (ha) over the entire Italian territory.
The annual change in carbon stocks in mineral soils has been, at last, assessed as described in the equation
2.25 of the the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, chapter 2). C emissions [Gg C] due to change in carbon stocks
in soils in land converted to cropland are reported in Table 6.17.
233
Table 6.17 Change in carbon stock in soil in land converted to cropland
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
6.3.5
Conversion Area
annual change
20 years change
kha
Kha
0
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
136.1
152.9
169.7
186.5
203.2
220.0
192.8
165.5
138.3
111.1
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
83.8
67.1
50.3
33.5
Carbon stock
Gg C
-145.6
-163.6
-181.5
-199.5
-217.4
-235.3
-206.2
-177.1
-147.9
-118.8
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-89.7
-71.8
-53.8
-35.9
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Uncertainty estimates for the period 1990–2013 have been assessed following Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Input uncertainties dealing with activity data and emission factors have been
assessed on the basis of the information provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
A Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to assess uncertainty for Cropland category (considering both
cropland remaining cropland and land converted to cropland). For cropland remaining cropland, an
asymmetrical probability density distribution resulted from the analysis, showing uncertainties values equal
to -108.5% and 210.2%, taking into account all the carbon pools estimated. As for land converted to
cropland, an asymmetrical probability density distribution resulted from the analysis, showing uncertainties
values equal to -408.2% and 178.5%. Normal distributions have been assumed for most of the parameters. A
more detailed description of the results is reported in Annex 1.
234
6.3.6
Category-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the sum of sub-categories; where possible, activity data comparison among
different sources (FAO database 36, ISTAT data 37) has been made. Data entries have been checked several
times during the compilation of the inventory; particular attention has been focussed on the categories
showing significant changes between two years in succession. Land use matrices have been accurately
checked and cross-checked to ensure that data were properly reported. Several QA activities are carried out
in the different phases of the inventory process. In particular the applied methodologies have been presented
and discussed during several national workshop and expert meeting, collecting findings and comments to be
incorporated in the estimation process. All the LULUCF categories have been embedded in the overall
QA/QC-system of the Italian GHG inventory.
6.3.7
Category-specific recalculations
Deviations from the previous sectoral estimates are resulting from the implementation of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in term of updated default values and conversion factors.
Additional causes for the noted deviation are related to allocation of CO2 emissions from liming, previously
reported in the cropland category, in the Agriculture sector.
6.3.8
Category-specific planned improvements
Additional research will be carried out to collect more country-specific data on woody crops. Improvements
will concern the implementation of the estimate of carbon change in cropland biomass at a higher
disaggregated level, with the subdivision of the activity data in the main categories of woody cropland
(orchards, citrus trees, vineyards, olive groves) and the application of different biomass accumulation rates
and harvest/maturity cycles for the various categories.
In addition, in 2013, the joint project “ITALI” (Integration of Territorial And Land Information) has started
its activities; the project, coordinated by the National Institute of Statistics and promoted by EUROSTAT 38,
involves ISPRA, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies, the National Forestry Service and the
SIN (Sistema Informativo Nazionale per lo sviluppo dell’agricoltura) and is aimed to supply national
statistics related to land use and land cover, harmonising and improving the current informative bases
already available in the country.
36
FAO, 2005. FAOSTAT, http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [c]
38
Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/about_eurostat/introduction
37
235
6.4
Grassland (4C)
6.4.1
Description
Under this category, CO2 emissions from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils, from grassland
remaining grassland and from land converted in grassland have been reported.
Grassland category is responsible for 7,203 Gg of CO2 removals in 2013, sharing 13.0% of absolute CO2
LULUCF emissions and removals; in particular the living biomass emissions represent 29.3%, while the
removals from dead organic matter pool share for 1.1% and removals from soils stand for 69.6% of absolute
total grassland CO2 emissions and removals.
CO2 emissions and removals from grassland remaining grassland and from land converting to grassland have
resulted as key category, concerning trend analysis, either by Approach 1 and Approach 2. CH4 emissions
and removals from grassland remaining grassland have been identified as a key category with Approach 2
concerning trend assessment.
6.4.2
Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
Coherently with the forest definition adopted by Italy in the framework of application of elected 3.4
activities, under Kyoto Protocol, shrublands have been reported into the grassland category, as they don’t
fulfil the national forest definition. For the land use conversion, land use change matrices have been used; as
abovementioned, LUC matrices for each year of the period 1990–2013 have been assembled on the basis of
the IUTI data, related to 1990, 2000 and 2008 and 2012. Annual figures for areas in transition between
different land uses have been derived by a hierarchy of basic assumptions (informed by expert judgment) of
known patterns of land-use changes in Italy as well as the need for the total national area to remain constant.
Concerning grassland category, it has been assumed that only transition from cropland to grassland occurs.
Italy uses the IPCC default land use transition period of 20 years, in the estimation process of carbon stock
changes in mineral soils related to land converting to grassland; once a land has converted to a land use
category, the annual changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils have been reported for 20 years subsequent the
conversion.
Furthermore land use changes have been derived, by the way of land use change matrices, smoothing the
amount of changes over a 5 year period, harmonizing the whole time series, resulting in a constant amount of
C stock change in the 5 year period, following a previous review remark.
6.4.3
Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
Grassland areas have been assessed on the basis of IUTI assessment; due to the technical characteristics of
the IUTI assessment (i.e. classification of orthophotos for 1990, 2000, 2008 and 2012), it was technically
impossible to have a clear distinction among some subcategories in cropland and grassland categories (i.e.
annual pastures versus grazing land). Therefore it has been decided to aggregate the cropland and grassland
categories, as detected by IUTI, and then disaggregate them into the different subcategories, using as proxies
the national statistics (ISTAT, [b], [c]) related to grazing lands, forage crops, permanent pastures, and lands
once used for agriculture purposes, but in fact set-aside since 1970. The subcategory “shrublands” has been
added; shrublands areas have been derived from national forest inventories (CRA-MPF, several years)
236
(NFI1985, NFI2005 and the ongoing NFI2015), through linear interpolations for the periods 1985-2005,
2005-2012 and linear extrapolation for 2012-2013. National statistics on cropland areas have been used, in
order to derive the land in conversion from cropland to grassland, by the way of LUC matrix, following the
assumption that transition into cropland category occurs only from grassland category.
6.4.4
Methodological issues
Grassland remaining Grassland
Grassland includes all grazing land and other wood land that do not fulfil the forest definition (as
shrublands); the change in biomass has been estimated only for subcategory “other wooded land”, since, for
grazing land, the increase in biomass stocks in a single year is assumed equal to biomass losses from harvest
and mortality in that same year. Activity data for grassland remaining grassland have been subdivided into
grazing land and other wooded land.
Grazing land
To assess change in carbon in grassland biomass, the Tier 1 has been used; therefore no change in carbon
stocks in the living biomass pool has been assumed; in accordance with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC,
2006) no data regarding the dead organic matter pool have been provided, since not enough information is
available.
According to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), the estimation method is based on changes in soil C
stocks over a finite period following changes in management that impact soil C (eq. 2.25, vol.4, chapter 2).
Soil C concentration for grassland systems is driven by the change in practice or management, reflecting in
different specific climate, soil and management combination, applied for the respective time points. It wasn’t
possible to point out different sets of relative stock change factors [FLU (land use), FMG (management), FI
(input factor)] for the period 1990-2013 under investigation; therefore, as no management changes can be
documented, resulting change in carbon stock has been reported as zero.
Other wooded land
Regarding shrublands, growing stock and the related carbon are assessed by the For-est model, estimating
the evolution in time of the different pools and applied at regional scale (NUTS2). A detailed description of
the model is reported in the paragraph 6.2.4.
The aboveground biomass was calculated, for shrublands, through the relation:
Aboveground tree biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF ⋅ WBD ⋅ A
where:
GS = volume of growing stock (MAF/ISAFA, 1988) [m3 ha-1]
BEF = Biomass Expansion Factors which expands growing stock volume to volume of aboveground
woody biomass (ISAFA, 2004)
WBD = Wood Basic Density for conversions from fresh volume to dry weight (d.m.) [t m-3]
(Giordano, 1980)
A = area occupied by specific typology [ha] (MAF/ISAFA, 1988)
In Table 6.18 biomass expansion factors for the conversions of volume to aboveground tree biomass and
wood basic densities are reported.
237
Table 6.18 Biomass Expansion Factors and Wood Basic Densities for shrublands
Inventory typology
shrublands
BEF
aboveground biomass /
growing stock
1.49
WBD
Dry weigth t/ fresh
volume
0.63
Belowground biomass was estimated applying a Root/Shoot ratio to the aboveground biomass. The
belowground biomass is computed, as:
Belowground biomass (d.m.) = GS ⋅ BEF ⋅ WBD ⋅ R ⋅ A
where:
GS = volume of growing stock [m3 ha-1]
BEF = Biomass Expansion Factors which expands growing stock volume to volume of aboveground woody
biomass (ISAFA, 2004)
R = Root/Shoot ratio which converts growing stock biomass in belowground biomass
WBD = Wood Basic Density [t d.m. m-3]
A = area occupied by specific typology [ha]
The Root/shoot ratio and WBD were estimated on the basis of different studies conducted at the national and
local level in different years and contexts, and then included in the JRC-AFOLU database 39. Further details
are reported in par. 6.2.4.
In Table 6.19 Root/shoot ratio for the conversion of growing stock biomass in belowground biomass and
wood basic density for shrubland are reported.
Table 6.19 Root/Shoot ratio and Wood Basic Densities for shrubland
Inventory typology
R
WBD
Root/shoot ratio
Dry weigth t/ fresh volume
0.62
0.63
Shrublands
Dead wood mass has been estimated using coefficients calculated from outcomes of a survey conducted by
the Italian national forest inventory (Di Cosmo et al., 2013). The values used, aggregated at regional level,
may be found on the NFI website: http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/dati_carquant_tab.jsp.
In Table 6.20 Dead wood coefficients are reported.
The dead wood [t] is computed, as:
Dead wood (d.m.) = DC ⋅ A
where:
DC = Dead-wood expansion factor (dead/live ratio – dry matter) [t ha-1]
A = forest area occupied by specific typology [ha]
Table 6.20 Dead-wood expansion factor [live/dead ratio]
Inventory typology
Shrublands
dead wood (dry matter)
t ha-1
1.510
39
European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, AFOLU DATA clearinghouse:
Allometric Biomass and Carbon (ABC) factors database: http://afoludata.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.php/public_area/data_and_tools
238
Carbon amount contained in litter pool has been estimated using the values of litter carbon content assessed
by the Italian national forest inventory. The values used, aggregated at regional level, may be found on the
INFC website: http://www.sian.it/inventarioforestale/jsp/dati_carquant_tab.jsp. The average value of litter
organic carbon content, for Italy, is equal to 1.990 t C ha-1.
As for soils pool, following the ERT recommendation, Italy has decided to apply the IPCC Tier1, assuming
that, the carbon stock in soil organic matter, for shrubland, does not change. Therefore carbon stock changes
in soils pool, for grassland remaining grassland, have been not reported.
In Table 6.21, other wooded land areas and net changes in carbon stock, for the different required pools, are
reported, for the period 1990-2013.
Table 6.21 Change in carbon stock in living biomass, dead organic matter and soil organic matter in other
wooded land
Area
Increase
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
kha
1,555
1,571
1,586
1,602
1,618
1,634
1,650
1,666
1,682
1,698
1,713
1,729
1,745
1,761
1,777
1,793
1,804
1,816
1,827
1,839
1,850
1,862
1,873
1,885
2,318
2,353
2,390
2,437
2,472
2,501
2,529
2,562
2,599
2,628
2,660
2,689
2,715
2,744
2,770
2,795
2,820
2,848
2,863
2,880
2,893
2,908
2,929
2,949
Living biomass
Decrease
Net Change
Gg C
-2,429
-111.15
-2,213
139.24
-2,336
53.91
-2,680
-242.91
-2,355
117.07
-2,156
344.50
-2,187
341.85
-2,362
200.22
-2,525
73.61
-2,306
321.71
-2,462
197.87
-2,353
335.22
-2,313
402.04
-2,404
339.71
-2,357
413.23
-2,359
436.16
-2,352
468.38
-2,874
-25.30
-2,431
432.22
-2,501
379.33
-2,388
505.08
-2,497
411.14
-2,706
222.54
-2,411
537.93
Dead organic
matter
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
31.51
25.97
25.97
25.97
25.97
25.97
25.97
25.97
25.97
Land converted to Grassland
The assessment of emissions and removals of carbon due to conversion of other land uses to grassland
requires estimates of the carbon stocks prior to and following conversion and the estimates of land converted
during the period over which the conversion has an effect.
In accordance with the IPCC methodology, estimates of carbon stock change in living biomass have been
provided. Concerning soil carbon pool, Italy uses the IPCC default land use transition period of 20 years, to
estimate carbon stock changes in mineral soils related to land converted to grassland; once a land has
239
converted to grassland, the annual changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils have been reported for 20 years
subsequent the conversion. As a result of conversion to grassland, it is assumed that the dominant vegetation
is removed entirely, after which some type of grass is planted or otherwise established; alternatively
grassland can result from the abandonment of the preceding land use, and the area is taken over by grassland.
The Tier 1 has been followed, assuming that carbon stocks in biomass immediately after the conversion are
equal to 0 t C ha-1.
The annual area of land undergoing a transition from non grassland to grassland during each year has been
pointed out, from 1990 to 2013, for each initial and final land use, through the use of the land use change
matrices, one for each year. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines equation 2.16 (vol. 4, chapter 2) has been used to
estimate the change in carbon stocks, resulting from the land use change. Concerning Italian territory, only
conversion from cropland to grassland has occurred; therefore the default biomass carbon stocks present on
land converted to grassland, as dry matter, as supplied by Table 6.4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4,
chapter 6) for warm temperate – dry, have been used, equal to 6.1 t d.m. ha-1. Since, according to national
expert judgement, it has been assumed that lands in conversion to grassland are mostly annual crops, carbon
stocks in biomass immediately before conversion have been obtained by the default values reported in Table
5.9 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, chapter 5), for annual cropland.
As pointed out above in the land use matrices (see Table 6.3), the conversion of lands into grassland has
taken place only in a few years during the period 1990-2013. C emissions [Gg C] due to change in carbon
stocks in living biomass in land converted to grassland, are reported in Table 6.22.
Table 6.22 Change in carbon stock in living biomass in land converted to grassland
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Conversion Area
annual change
20 years change
kha
Kha
0
325
0
318
0
312
0
305
0
299
0
292
60
353
60
413
60
473
60
534
60
594
94
630
94
666
94
702
94
738
97
777
85
862
85
947
85
1,032
172
1,204
172
1,377
36
1,413
36
1,450
36
1,486
C before
∆Cgrowth
∆C
t C ha-1
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
t C ha-1
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.87
Gg C
0
0
0
0
0
0
-111
-111
-111
-111
-111
-173
-173
-173
-173
-179
-156
-156
-156
-316
-316
-67
-67
-67
240
Changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils in land converted to grassland have been estimated following land
use changes, resulting in a change of the total soil carbon content, with a land use transition period of 20
years. Initial land use soil carbon stock [SOC(0-T)] and soil carbon stock in the inventory year [SOC0] for the
grassland have been estimated from the reference carbon stocks.
SOC reference value for grassland has been revised and set to 78.9 tC ha-1 on the basis of reviewed
references. It makes the current estimate consistent with the SOC stocks reported for grassland in temperate
regions, 60-150 tC ha-1 (Gardi et al., 2007). This value has been drawn up by analysing a collection of the
latest papers reporting data on soil carbon in mountain meadows, pastures, set-aside lands as well as soil not
disturbed since the agricultural abandonment in Italy (Viaroli and Gardi 2004, CRPA 2009, IPLA 2007,
ERSAF 2008, Del Gardo et al 2003, LaMantia et al 2007, Benedetti et al 2004, Masciandaro and Ceccanti
1999, Xiloyannis 2007).
Whenever the soil carbon stock was not reported in the papers, it has been calculated at the default depth of
30 cm from the soil carbon content, the bulk density, and the stoniness according to the following formula
(Batjes 1996):
K
Td = ∑ ρ i ⋅ Pi ⋅ Di ⋅ (1 − S i )
i =1
where Td is the overall soil carbon stock (gcm-2) and, for each K layer of the soil profile, ρ i is the soil bulk
density (gcm-3), Pi is the soil carbon content (gCg-1), Di is the layer thickness (cm), S i is the fraction of
gravel > 2mm. If not available in the papers, soil bulk density has been calculated on the basis of the soil
organic matter and texture (Adam 1973):
ρ=
 X

 ρ0
100
  100 − X
 + 
  ρm



where ρ , soil bulk density (gcm-3); X, percent by weight of organic matter;
ρ 0 , average bulk density of
organic matter (0.224 gcm ) and ρ m , bulk density of the mineral matter usually estimated at 1.33 gcm-3 or
determined on the “mineral bulk density chart” (Rawls and Brakensiek, 1985).
Since soil carbon stocks are derived from experimental measurements under some representative cropland
management systems, the effect of the practices is intended to be included into the values and consequently
no stock change factors (FLU, FMG, FI) have been applied on the soil carbon stock. Each soil carbon stock was
assigned to the geographical area where the relative soil carbon content has been measured and the overall
values have been averaged by means of weights resulting from the proportional relevance of the investigated
area (ha) over the entire Italian territory.
The annual change in carbon stocks in mineral soils has been, at last, assessed as described in the equation
2.25 of the the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, chapter 2). C emissions [Gg C] due to change in carbon stocks
in soils in land converted to grassland, are reported in Table 6.23.
-3
Table 6.23 Change in carbon stock in soils
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
Conversion Area
annual change
20 years change
kha
kha
0
325
0
318
0
312
0
305
Carbon stock
Gg C
348
341
334
327
241
year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
6.4.5
Conversion Area
annual change
20 years change
kha
kha
0
299
0
292
60
353
60
413
60
473
60
534
60
594
94
630
94
666
94
702
94
738
97
777
85
862
85
947
85
1,032
172
1,204
172
1,377
36
1,413
36
1,450
36
1,486
Carbon stock
Gg C
320
313
377
442
506
571
635
674
712
751
789
831
922
1,013
1,104
1,288
1,473
1,512
1,551
1,590
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Uncertainty estimates for the period 1990–2013 have been assessed following Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Input uncertainties dealing with activity data and emission factors have been
assessed on the basis of the information provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
A Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to assess uncertainty for Grassland category (considering both
Grassland remaining Grassland and Land converted to Grassland). For Grassland remaining Grassland, an
asymmetrical probability density distribution resulted from the analysis, showing uncertainties values equal
to -67.7% and 75.0%. An asymmetrical probability density distribution resulted from the analysis also for the
subcategory Land converted to Grassland, showing uncertainties values equal to -119.3% and 194.5%.
Normal distributions have been assumed for most of the parameters; whenever assumptions or constraints on
variables were known this information has been appropriately reflected on the choice of type and shape of
distributions. A more detailed description of the results is reported in Annex 1.
6.4.6
Category-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the sum of sub-categories; where possible, activity data comparison among
different sources (FAO database 40, ISTAT data 41) has been made. Data entries have been checked several
40
FAO, 2005. FAOSTAT, http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E
242
times during the compilation of the inventory; particular attention has been focussed on the categories
showing significant changes between two years in succession. Land use matrices have been accurately
checked and cross-checked to ensure that data were properly reported. Several QA activities are carried out
in the different phases of the inventory process. In particular the applied methodologies have been presented
and discussed during several national workshop and expert meeting, collecting findings and comments to be
incorporated in the estimation process. All the LULUCF categories have been embedded in the overall
QA/QC-system of the Italian GHG inventory.
6.4.7
Category-specific recalculations
Deviations from the previous sectoral estimates are resulting from the implementation of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in term of updated default values and conversion factors.
6.4.8
Category-specific planned improvements
Concerning land in transition to grassland, further investigation will be made to obtain additional information
about different types of management activities on grassland, and the crop types of land converting to
grassland, to obtain a more accurate estimate of the carbon stocks change.
In 2013, the joint project “ITALI” (Integration of Territorial And Land Information) has started its activities;
the project, coordinated by the National Institute of Statistics and promoted by EUROSTAT 42, involves
ISPRA, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies, the National Forestry Service and the SIN
(Sistema Informativo Nazionale per lo sviluppo dell’agricoltura) and is aimed to supply national statistics
related to land use and land cover, harmonising and improving the current informative bases already
available in the country.
6.5
6.5.1
Wetlands (4D)
Description
Under this category, activity data from wetlands remaining wetlands are reported. Neither wetlands
remaining wetlands nor land converting to wetlands have resulted as a key source.
6.5.2
Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
For the land use conversion, land use change matrices have been used; as abovementioned, LUC matrices for
each year of the period 1990–2013 have been assembled on the basis of the IUTI data, related to 1990, 2000,
2008 and 2012, through linear interpolations for the periods 1990-2005, 2005-2012 and linear extrapolation
for 2012-2013. Annual figures for areas in transition between different land uses have been derived by a
41
42
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [c]
Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/about_eurostat/introduction
243
hierarchy of basic assumptions (informed by expert judgement) of known patterns of land-use changes in
Italy as well as the need for the total national area to remain constant.
Concerning land converted to wetland, during the period 1990-2013, cropland and grassland categories have
been converted into wetlands area.
6.5.3
Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
Lands covered or saturated by water, for all or part of the year, have been included in this category (MAMB,
1992). CO2 emissions related to land converted to Wetlands, addressing the 2014 review’s recommendation.
Reservoirs or water bodies regulated by human activities have not been considered.
6.5.4
Methodological issues
CO2, emissions from flooded lands have been supplied. According to the 2006 IPCC guidelines eq 7.10 (vol.
4, chapter 7) the biomass stock after flooding is zero. The biomass in land immediately before conversion to
flooded land have been estimated on the basis of the default values reported in the 2006 IPCC guidelines:
GL (Bbefore): the value reported in table 6.4 (vol 4, chapter 6) for warm temperate dry, equal to 6.1 t d.m. ha-1
has been used; CL (Bbefore): the value reported in par. 6.3.1.2 (vol 4, chapter 6) for cropland containing
annual crops, equal to 10 t d.m. ha-1 has been used.
In Table 6.24 C stocks [Gg C] related to change in carbon stocks in living biomass in cropland converted to
wetlands are reported.
Table 6.24 Change in carbon stocks in living biomass in cropland converted to wetlands
annual
change
kha
20 yrs
change
kha
B after
B before
t d.m. ha-1
t d.m. ha-1
∆C
converted
GgC
1990
-
-
0.0
6.1
-
1991
0.47
0.47
0.0
6.1
-1.36
1992
0.47
0.95
0.0
6.1
-1.36
1993
0.47
1.42
0.0
6.1
-1.36
1994
0.47
1.89
0.0
6.1
-1.36
1995
0.47
2.37
0.0
6.1
-1.36
1996
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
1997
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
1998
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
1999
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2000
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2001
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2002
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2003
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2004
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2005
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2006
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
244
annual
change
kha
20 yrs
change
kha
B after
B before
t d.m. ha-1
t d.m. ha-1
∆C
converted
GgC
2007
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2008
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2009
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2010
-
2.37
0.0
6.1
-
2011
-
1.89
0.0
6.1
-
2012
-
1.42
0.0
6.1
-
2013
-
0.95
0.0
6.1
-
In Table 6.25 C stocks [Gg C] related to change in carbon stocks in living biomass in grassland converted to
wetlands are reported.
Table 6.25 Change in carbon stocks in living biomass in grassland converted to wetlands
1990
annual
change
kha
20 yrs
change
kha
B after
B before
t d.m. ha-1
t d.m. ha-1
∆C
converted
GgC
-
-
0.0
10.0
-
1991
-
-
0.0
10.0
-
1992
-
-
0.0
10.0
-
1993
-
-
0.0
10.0
-
1994
-
-
0.0
10.0
-
1995
-
-
0.0
10.0
-
1996
0.47
0.47
0.0
10.0
-2.23
1997
0.47
0.95
0.0
10.0
-2.23
1998
0.47
1.42
0.0
10.0
-2.23
1999
0.47
1.89
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2000
0.47
2.37
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2001
0.47
2.84
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2002
0.47
3.32
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2003
0.47
3.79
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2004
0.47
4.26
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2005
0.47
4.74
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2006
0.47
5.21
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2007
0.47
5.68
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2008
0.47
6.16
0.0
10.0
-2.23
2009
-
6.16
0.0
10.0
-
2010
-
6.16
0.0
10.0
-
2011
-
6.16
0.0
10.0
-
2012
-
6.16
0.0
10.0
-
2013
-
6.16
0.0
10.0
-
245
6.5.5
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Uncertainty estimates for the period 1990–2013 have been assessed following Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Input uncertainties dealing with activity data and emission factors have been
assessed on the basis of the information provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
6.5.6
Category-specific recalculations
In the current submission, the 2014 review’s recommendation, related to the estimates of emissions from
land converted to wetlands (flooded land) has been addressed, resulting in a deviation from the previous
sectoral estimates.
6.5.7
Category-specific planned improvements
Improvements will concern the development of an higher tier country-specific method based on models,
measurements and associated parameters.
6.6
Settlements (4E)
6.6.1
Description
Under this category, activity data from settlements and from land converted to settlements are reported; CO2
emissions, from living biomass and soil, from land converted in settlements have been also reported. In
2013, settlements emissions share 13.5% of absolute CO2 eq. LULUCF emissions and removals.
CO2 emissions and removals from land converting to settlements have resulted as key category, concerning
level and trend analysis, either by Approach 1 and Approach 2.
6.6.2
Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use databases used
for the inventory preparation
For the land use conversion, land use change matrices have been used; as abovementioned, LUC matrices for
each year of the period 1990–2013 have been assembled on the basis of the IUTI data, related to 1990, 2000,
2008 and 2012, through linear interpolations for the periods 1990-2005, 2005-2012 and linear extrapolation
for 2012-2013. Annual figures for areas in transition between different land uses have been derived by a
hierarchy of basic assumptions (informed by expert judgement) of known patterns of land-use changes in
Italy as well as the need for the total national area to remain constant. The average area of land undergoing a
transition from non-settlements to settlements during each year, from 1990 to 2013, has been estimated with
the land use change matrices that have also permitted to specify the initial and final land use.
In response to ERT remark in the 2009 review, land use changes have been derived, by the way of LUC
matrices, smoothing the amount of changes over a 5 year period, harmonizing the whole time series,
resulting in a constant amount of C stock change in the 5 year period.
246
6.6.3
Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to the
LULUCF categories
All artificial surfaces, transportation infrastructures (urban and rural), power lines and human settlements of
any size, comprising also parks, have been included in this category.
6.6.4
Methodological issues
Settlements remaining Settlements
CO2 estimates related to carbon stocks changes for settlements remaining settlements haven’t been
submitted, following the 2006 IPCC Tier 1 approach which assume no change in carbon stocks in living
biomass, considering that changes in biomass carbon stocks due to growth in biomass are fully offset by
decreases in carbon stocks due to removals from both living and from dead biomass. Furthermore Tier 1
approach assumes that the dead wood, litter and soils stocks are at equilibrium, and so there is no need to
estimate the carbon stock changes for these pools.
Land converted to Settlements
The 2006 IPCC Guidelines equations 2.15 and 2.16 in Chapter 2, vol. 4 (IPCC, 2006) have been used to
estimate the change in carbon stocks, resulting from the land use change. A 20-years transition period has
been applied to determine the area in conversion to Settlements, while the related CO2 emissions are
assumed to happen in the year following the conversion, taking into account the nature of final land use
category (Settlements) and assuming that soils organic matter content of previous land use category is lost in
the conversion year. The annual change in carbon stocks, for land converted to settlements, is assumed equal
to carbon stocks in living biomass immediately following conversion to settlements minus the carbon stocks
in living biomass in land immediately before conversion to settlements, multiplied for the area of land
annually converted. The default assumption, for Tier 1, is that carbon stocks in living biomass following
conversion are equal to zero. As reported in Table 6.3, conversions from forest land, grassland and cropland
and other land categories to settlements have occurred in the 1990-2013 period. Carbon stock changes
related to forest land converted to settlements have been estimated, for each year and for each pool (living
biomass, dead organic matter and soils), on the basis of forest land carbon stocks deduced from the model
described in paragraph 6.2.4 and 10.3.1.2, concerning soils pool.
Concerning forest soils, the SOCs reported in the table 6.26 have been used; the time range reported in the
first column of the abovementioned table provides the time references for the SOCs' use. A detailed
description of the methodology used in the estimation process of soils pool, and consequently of the SOCs, is
provided in par. 10.3.1.2, related to the KP-LULUCF.
Table 6.26 Soil Organic Content (SOC) values for forest land remaining forest land
years
years
1985-1994
1995-1999
2000-2004
2005-2009
2010-2013
SOC
t C ha-1
79.960
80.399
80.872
81.452
81.916
247
SOC reference value for grassland has been revised and set to 78.9 t C ha-1, after a review of the latest papers
reporting data on soil carbon in mountain meadows, pastures, set-aside lands as well as soil not disturbed
since the agricultural abandonment, in Italy (Viaroli and Gardi 2004, CRPA 2009, IPLA 2007, ERSAF 2008,
Del Gardo et al 2003, LaMantia et al 2007, Benedetti et al 2004, Masciandaro and Ceccanti 1999,
Xiloyannis 2007). SOC reference value for cropland has been set to 56.7 tC/ha on the basis of reviewed
references. This value has been drawn up by analysing a collection of the latest papers reporting data on soil
carbon (Triberti et al 2008, Ceccanti et al 2008, Monaco et al 2008, Martiniello 2007, Lugato and Berti
2008, Francaviglia et al., 2006, IPLA 2007, ERSAF 2008, Del Gardo et al 2003, Puglisi et al, 2008,
Lagomarsino et al 2009, Perucci et al 2008).
SOC reference value, for settlements category, has been assumed, using a conservative approach, to be zero.
In Table 6.27 C stocks [Gg C] related to change in carbon stocks in living biomass, dead organic matter and
soils in forest land converted to settlements are reported.
Table 6.27 Change in carbon stocks in forest land converted to settlements
Year
Conversion Area
kha
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
3.69
3.69
3.69
3.69
3.69
3.69
3.69
3.69
3.69
Forest land to settlements
Living biomass
Dead organic matter
Gg C
Gg C
-32.42
-32.77
-33.09
-33.16
-33.46
-33.84
-34.20
-34.40
-34.57
-34.83
-35.06
-35.41
-35.82
-36.12
-36.50
-188.71
-191.13
-191.88
-193.91
-196.14
-198.63
-200.69
-202.22
-204.47
-3.06
-3.06
-3.06
-3.06
-3.06
-3.06
-3.05
-3.05
-3.05
-3.05
-3.05
-3.05
-3.04
-3.04
-3.04
-15.55
-15.53
-15.52
-15.51
-15.49
-15.48
-15.47
-15.45
-15.44
Soils
Gg C
Total Carbon
stock
Gg C
-57.75
-57.75
-57.75
-57.75
-57.75
-58.07
-58.07
-58.07
-58.07
-58.07
-58.41
-58.41
-58.41
-58.41
-58.41
-300.93
-300.93
-300.93
-300.93
-300.93
-302.77
-302.77
-302.77
-302.77
-93.23
-93.59
-93.90
-93.96
-94.27
-94.96
-95.32
-95.52
-95.68
-95.95
-96.52
-96.87
-97.27
-97.58
-97.95
-505.19
-507.59
-508.33
-510.35
-512.56
-516.88
-518.92
-520.44
-522.68
Concerning grassland converted to settlements, change in carbon stocks has been computed for living
biomass, addressing a 2014 review report’s recommendation, and for the soil pool. The carbon stocks in
living biomass immediately following conversion from grassland to settlements has been set to 6.1 t d.m ha-1,
equivalent to 2.867 t C ha-1 (IPCC, 2006, table 6.4, vol. 4, chapter 6).
248
For what concerns cropland in transition to settlements, carbon stocks, for each year and for crops type
(annual or perennial), have been estimated, using as default coefficients the factors shown in the following
Table 6.28 (IPCC, 2006, table 8.4, vol. 4, chapter 8).
Table 6.28 Stock change factors for cropland
Annual cropland
Perennial woody cropland
Biomass carbon stock
t C ha-1
4.7
10
In Table 6.29 C stocks [Gg C] related to change in carbon stocks in living biomass in cropland and grassland
converted to settlements are reported.
Table 6.29 Change in carbon stocks in living biomass in cropland and grassland converted to settlements
Year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
cropland to settlements
Conversion Area Carbon stock
kha
Gg C
25.15
-152
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
26.70
-161
26.70
-161
26.70
-161
26.70
-161
26.70
-161
26.70
-161
26.70
-162
26.70
-162
26.70
-162
23.73
-145
23.73
-145
23.73
-145
23.73
-146
23.91
-148
23.91
-148
23.91
-148
23.91
-147
23.91
-147
grassland to settlements
Conversion Area Carbon stock
kha
Gg C
1.73
-5
26.70
-77
26.70
-77
26.70
-77
26.70
-77
26.70
-77
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Changes in soil carbon stocks from land converting to settlements have been also estimated. In Table 6.30
soil C stocks [Gg C] of cropland and grassland converted to settlements are reported.
249
Table 6.30 Change in carbon stocks in soil in cropland and grassland converted to settlements
Year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cropland to settlements
Conversion Area
Carbon stock
kha
Gg C
25.15
-1,426
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
26.70
-1,514
23.73
-1,345
23.73
-1,345
23.73
-1,345
23.73
-1,354
23.91
-1,360
23.91
-1,356
23.91
-1,356
23.91
-1,356
23.91
-1,356
grassland to settlements
Conversion Area
Carbon stock
kha
Gg C
1.73
-135
26.70
-2,085
26.70
-2,085
26.70
-2,085
26.70
-2,085
26.70
-2,085
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Concerning other land converted to settlements, change in carbon stocks has been not estimated, in line with
the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) as no change in carbon stocks in the other land has been assumed.
6.6.5
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Uncertainty estimates for the period 1990–2013 have been assessed following Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Input uncertainties dealing with activity data and emission factors have been
assessed on the basis of the information provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
A Montecarlo analysis has been carried out to assess uncertainty for Settlements category, resulting in an
asymmetrical probability density distribution, with uncertainties values equal to -100.3% and 49.2%. Normal
distributions have been assumed for most of the parameters; whenever assumptions or constraints on
variables were known this information has been appropriately reflected on the choice of type and shape of
distributions. A more detailed description of the results is reported in Annex 1.
6.6.6
Category-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness in the sum of sub-categories; where possible, activity data comparison among
250
different sources (FAO database 43, ISTAT data 44) has been made. Data entries have been checked several
times during the compilation of the inventory; particular attention has been focussed on the categories
showing significant changes between two years in succession. Land use matrices have been accurately
checked and cross-checked to ensure that data were properly reported. Several QA activities are carried out
in the different phases of the inventory process. In particular the applied methodologies have been presented
and discussed during several national workshop and expert meeting, collecting findings and comments to be
incorporated in the estimation process. All the LULUCF categories have been embedded in the overall
QA/QC-system of the Italian GHG inventory.
6.6.7
Category-specific recalculations
Deviations from the previous sectoral estimates are resulting from the implementation of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in terms of updated default values and conversion factors. In addition the estimates
of carbon stock changes related to living biomass for grassland converted to settlements have been provided,
addressing a 2014 review report’s recommendation.
6.6.8
Category -specific planned improvements
Urban tree formations will be probed for information, in order to estimate carbon stocks. In addition, in
2013, the joint project “ITALI” (Integration of Territorial And Land Information) has started its activities;
the project, coordinated by the National Institute of Statistics and promoted by EUROSTAT 45, involves
ISPRA, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies, the National Forestry Service and the SIN
(Sistema Informativo Nazionale per lo sviluppo dell’agricoltura) and is aimed to supply national statistics
related to land use and land cover, harmonising and improving the current informative bases already
available in the country.
6.7
Other Land (4F)
Under this category, CO2 emissions, from living biomass, dead organic matter and soils, from land converted
in other land should be accounted for; no data is reported since the conversion to other land is not occurring.
6.8
Direct N2O emissions from N inputs to managed soils (4(I))
N2O emissions from N inputs to managed soils of cropland and grassland are reported in the agriculture
sector; therefore only N inputs to managed soils in forest land should be included in this table. By including
the short rotation forests under forest land category (and consequently under the art. 3.3 and 3.4 activities
under Kyoto Protocol), we have to take into account the amount of fertiliser applied to these lands;
nevertheless, in Italy, data related to the amount of applied fertilisers are deduced by the national fertiliser
sales statistics that include also the fertilisers used for short rotation forest crops. All the related emissions
43
FAO, 2015. FAOSTAT, http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E
ISTAT, several years [a], [b], [c]
45
Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/about_eurostat/introduction
44
251
are reported in the Agriculture sector, following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006, par. 11.2.1.3, vol.
4, chapter 11) and coherently with the KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014, par. 2.4.4.2).
Emissions and removals from drainage and rewetting and other
management of organic and mineral soils (4(II))
6.9
As regards N2O emissions from N drainage of forest or wetlands soils no data have been reported, since no
drainage is applied to forest or wetlands soils.
6.10 N2O emissions from N mineralization/immobilization associated with
loss/gain of soil organic matter resulting from change of land use or
management of mineral soils
6.10.1
Description
Under this category, N2O emissions from N mineralization/immobilization associated with loss/gain of soil
organic matter resulting from change of land use or management of mineral soils are reported, according to
the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
6.10.2
Methodological issues
N2O emissions from land use conversions are derived from mineralization of soil organic matter resulting
from conversion of land to cropland. The average area of land undergoing a transition from non-cropland to
cropland during each year, from 1990 to 2013, has been estimated with the land use change matrices; as
mentioned above, only conversion from grassland to cropland has occurred in the Italian territory. The 2006
IPCC Guidelines eq. 11.1 and 11.8 (vol. 4, chapter 11) have been used to estimate the emissions of N2O from
mineral soils, resulting N mineralization/immobilization associated with loss/gain of soil organic matter
resulting from the land use change.
Changes in carbon stocks in mineral soils in land converted to cropland have been estimated following land
use changes, resulting in a change of the total soil carbon content. Assuming the 2006 IPCC default values,
15 and 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N for the C/N ratio and for calculating N2O emissions from N in the soil
respectively, N2O emissions have been estimated.
In Table 6.31 N2O emissions resulting from the disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland
are reported.
Table 6.31 N2O emissions from land-use conversion to cropland
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
Conversion Area
annual change
annual change
kha
kha
0
136.15
16.77
152.92
16.77
169.69
16.77
186.46
16.77
203.23
Carbon stock
Nnet-min
N2O net-min -N
N2O emissions
Gg C
145.64
163.57
181.51
199.45
217.39
kt N
15
15
15
15
15
kt N2O-N
9.7
10.9
12.1
13.3
14.5
Gg N2O
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
252
year
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
6.10.3
Conversion Area
annual change
annual change
kha
kha
16.77
220.00
0
192.77
0
165.54
0
138.31
0
111.08
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
83.85
0
67.08
0
50.31
0
33.54
Carbon stock
Nnet-min
N2O net-min -N
N2O emissions
Gg C
235.33
206.20
177.07
147.94
118.82
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
89.69
71.75
53.81
35.88
kt N
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
kt N2O-N
15.7
13.7
11.8
9.9
7.9
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.8
3.6
2.4
Gg N2O
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
0.0100
Category-specific recalculations
The comparison with previous submission results in a decrease of the emissions equal to 25%, in the period
1990-2012, due to the change of default IPCC emission factor related to the to the amount of N2O emitted
from the various synthetic and organic N applications to soils, including crop residue and mineralisation of
soil organic carbon in mineral soils due to land-use change or management (from 1.25% to 1%, as compared
to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines).
6.11 Indirect N2O emissions from managed soils (4(IV))
Indirect N2O emissions from N inputs of synthetic and organic fertilizer to managed soils of cropland and
grassland are reported in the agriculture sector. N fertilization, both synthetic and organic one, in land use
categories, other than cropland and grassland, is not occurring.
Concerning the N mineralization associated with loss of soil organic matter resulting from change of land
use or management on mineral soils in all land use categories except for cropland remaining cropland, the
related indirect N2O emissions have been considered. The nitrogen leaching and run-off has been assessed on
the basis of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol. 4, chapter 11): these estimates have not been reported, in the
current submission, as they have been considered insignificant, being below 0.05% of the national total GHG
emissions, and minor than 500 kt CO2 eq. Italy will very likely include the mentioned estimates in the 2016
submission.
253
6.12 Biomass Burning (4(V))
6.12.1
Description
Under this source category, CH4 and N2O emissions from forest fires are estimated, in accordance with the
IPCC method, reporting areas for forest land remaining forest land and land converting to forestland
subcategories. CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions have been also estimated for cropland and grassland categories.
Areas affected by fires encompassed in settlements category have been reported, but no emissions are
estimated, assuming the carbon losses from the settlements areas affected by fires are irrelevant.
For the period 1990-2013, national statistics on areas affected by fire per region and forestry use, high forest
(resinous, broadleaves, resinous and associated broadleaves) and coppice (simple, compound and degraded),
are available (ISTAT, several years [a]). In addition, for the period 2008-2013, a detailed database, provided
by the Italian National Forest Service (CFS - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies), has been
used; the database collects data related to any fire event occurred in 15 administrative Italian regions 46 (the 5
autonomous regions are not included), reporting, for each fire event, the following information:
- burned area [ha]
- forest typology (27 classes in line with the NFI nomenclature)
- scorch height [m]
- fire’s type (crown, surface or ground fire)
Data and information related to fire occurrences in the 5 remaining autonomous regions are collected at
regional level, with different level of disaggregation and details (for example, in Sardinia region, the amount
of biomass burned is reported instead of the scorch height).
Therefore the data used in the estimation process may be subdivided into the following groups with similar
characteristics:
a. time series from 2008 on for the 15 Regions: data related to burned area, divided into different forest
types, scorch height and fire's type;
b. time series from 2008 on for the 5 autonomous regions/provinces: data related to burned area;
c. time series from 1990 to 2007 for the 20 Italian regions: data related to burned area.
Statistics related to fires occurring in other land use categories (i.e. cropland, grassland and settlements) have
been collected in the framework of ad hoc expert panel on fires has been set up, formed by experts from
different institutions from ISPRA and Italian National Forest Service (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and
Forest Policies), currently in charge for the official publication related to burned area
(http://www3.corpoforestale.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/IT/IDPagina/6358).
CO2 emissions due to forest fires in forest land remaining forest land and land converting to forest land are
included in Table 4.A.1 of the CRF, under carbon stock change in living biomass - losses.
Non CO2 emissions from fires have been estimated and reported in CRF Table 4(V), while NOx, CO and
NMVOC emissions from fires have been reported in CRF Table 4. SO2 emissions from fires are reported in
4H (Other - SO2 from fires).
46
The Italian territory is subdivided in 20 administrative regions, 5 of which are autonomous: Valle d’Aosta, Friuli Venezia Giulia,
Sardegna, Sicilia and Trentino Alto Adige, the latest subdivided in two autonomous provinces (Trento and Bolzano).
254
6.12.2
Methodological issues
In Italy, in consideration of national legislation 47, forest fires do not result in changes in land use; therefore
conversion of forest and grassland does not take place. CO2 emissions due to forest fires in forest land
remaining forest land and land converting to forest land are included in table 4.A.1 of the CRF, under carbon
stock change in living biomass - decrease. The total biomass reduction due to forest fires, and subsequent
emissions have been estimated following the methodology reported in paragraph 6.2.4.
On the basis of the different datasets available, in each year and group of regions, different approaches and
assumptions have been followed to estimate non CO2 emissions from forest fires.
a. The estimation of non CO2 emissions from fires in the 15 regions has been carried out on the basis of the
approach developed by Bovio (Bovio, 2007); the approach is aimed to assess forest fire damage and
related biomass losses in Italy, taking into account two main elements: the fire intensity (assessed through
the scorch height) and the forest typologies affected by fire. These two elements allow an assessment of
the fraction of biomass burnt in a fire event. The estimation process has been carried out using the
database containing around 24,000 records, related to any fire event fires on forest and other wooded land
for the period 2008-2013, including information as the scorch height and the area per forest type.
DB 2008-2013
15 regions
Region
m3 Biomass (NFI)
Burned
biomass
Forest type
Scorch
Damage level
In case of some data missing, record by record, a gap filling procedure has been adopted, using the
following assumptions/data:
1. Scorch height data missing: the average damage level for the forest type/type of fire/region calculated
over the 5 years data period (2008-2013) has been attributed to the record.
2. No volume is associated with the record – this is due to the probable misclassification of the forest
type by the surveyors, which have attributed a forest type that is not present in the region, thus no data
from NFI can be attributed. In this case the average burned volume per region and fire’s type has been
attributed to the record. In case of no specific indication on fire’s type, then the average of the most
severe fire’s type, by region, calculated over the complete dataset (2008-2013) has been used (i.e.
highest average among averages calculated per fire’s type in the region)
3. Scorch height and volume missing: In case information on both issues is missing the highest average
burned biomass calculated per fire’s type in each region has been attributed to the record.
b. The emissions from fires for the 5 autonomous regions/provinces has been estimated on the basis of the
average values assessed for the 15 regions from 2008 on, using the following procedure:
1. for each of the 15 regions (group a), the highest value of C released among the averages, calculated
for the years from 2008 on, has been selected, per fire’s type;
2. the 15 regions have been clustered into three group with similar climatic conditions and forest types
(Northern, Center and Southern Italy);
47
Legge 21 novembre 2000, n. 353 - "Legge-quadro in materia di incendi boschivi" art. 10, comma 1 http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/00353l.htm
255
3. the average values of carbon released for fire’s type have been calculated for the three abovementioned
clusters;
4. the 5 autonomous regions have been classified according the 3 cluster identified at step 2;
5. an average value of carbon released, computed at step 3, is associated to the 5 autonomous regions,
according the belonging cluster;
6. the emissions from fires are estimated by multiplying average value of carbon released per the burned
area of each autonomous region.
c. The emissions from fires for the period 1990-2007 for the 20 Italian regions have been estimated on the
basis of the maximum of average values computed among 2008 and 2013 (when the detailed database is
available), taking into account the fire’s type and each region. The selected value of released carbon is
then multiplied by the burned area of the region in each year from 1990 to 2007.
CH4, N2O, CO and NOx have been estimated following IPCC 2006 approach (eq. 2.27, vol. 4, chapter 4),
multiplying the amount of C released from 1990 to 2013, calculated as abovementioned, by the emission
ratios from EMEP/EEA 2009 (table 3.3, chapt. 11.B).
In Table 6.32 CH4 and N2O emissions resulting from biomass burning in forest land category are reported.
Table 6.32 CH4 and N2O emissions from biomass burning in forest land category
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Forest land remaining forest land
CH4
N2O
Gg
Gg
35.967
0.011
10.861
0.003
15.454
0.005
37.597
0.012
15.431
0.005
7.204
0.002
6.706
0.002
21.309
0.007
24.396
0.008
13.623
0.004
18.571
0.006
12.004
0.004
6.778
0.002
14.050
0.004
6.500
0.002
6.759
0.002
5.166
0.002
33.725
0.011
6.657
0.002
8.032
0.003
4.080
0.001
7.614
0.002
21.211
0.007
4.397
0.001
Land converting to forest land
CH4
N2O
Gg
Gg
3.588
0.001
1.152
0.000
1.737
0.001
4.459
0.001
1.925
0.001
0.943
0.000
0.938
0.000
3.175
0.001
3.855
0.001
2.275
0.001
3.268
0.001
2.217
0.001
1.310
0.000
2.837
0.001
1.368
0.000
1.484
0.000
1.108
0.000
7.064
0.002
1.362
0.000
1.605
0.001
0.796
0.000
1.451
0.000
3.946
0.001
0.799
0.000
In Table 6.33 CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions resulting from biomass burning in cropland and grassland
categories are reported.
256
Table 6.33 CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from biomass burning in cropland and grassland categories
year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
6.12.3
CO2
Gg
39.821
28.636
25.136
35.902
36.668
11.460
15.475
19.911
33.915
13.049
23.181
15.714
8.454
19.618
16.153
10.727
9.666
45.664
14.816
16.027
8.552
18.059
33.948
56.285
Cropland
CH4
Gg
0.217
0.156
0.137
0.196
0.200
0.063
0.084
0.109
0.185
0.071
0.126
0.086
0.046
0.107
0.088
0.059
0.053
0.249
0.081
0.087
0.047
0.099
0.185
0.307
N2O
Gg
0.007
0.005
0.004
0.006
0.006
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.006
0.002
0.004
0.003
0.001
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.008
0.003
0.003
0.001
0.003
0.006
0.010
CO2
Gg
4,979.927
2,916.042
2,855.123
4,942.835
3,872.634
1,313.132
1,641.740
2,712.294
4,064.442
1,748.381
2,914.485
1,954.511
1,046.162
2,380.945
1,707.912
1,258.917
1,086.519
5,772.054
2,072.591
2,599.173
1,721.843
2,459.852
4,181.921
447.504
Grassland
CH4
Gg
27.163
15.906
15.573
26.961
21.123
7.163
8.955
14.794
22.170
9.537
15.897
10.661
5.706
12.987
9.316
6.867
5.926
31.484
11.305
14.177
9.392
13.417
22.810
2.441
N2O
Gg
0.854
0.500
0.489
0.847
0.664
0.225
0.281
0.465
0.697
0.300
0.500
0.335
0.179
0.408
0.293
0.216
0.186
0.989
0.355
0.446
0.295
0.422
0.717
0.077
Category-specific planned improvements
An expert panel on forest fires has been set up, in order to obtain geographically referenced data on burned
area. Activities planned in the framework of the National Registry for Forest Carbon Sinks should also
provide data to improve estimate of emissions by biomass burning.
6.12.4
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Uncertainty estimates for the period 1990–2013 have been assessed following Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). Input uncertainties dealing with activity data and emission factors have been
assessed on the basis of the information provided in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
6.12.5
Category-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness. Data entries have been checked several times during the compilation of the
inventory. Several QA activities are carried out in the different phases of the inventory process. In particular
257
the applied methodologies have been presented and discussed during several national workshop and expert
meeting, collecting findings and comments to be incorporated in the estimation process. Additional
methodological information and a comparison of approaches for reporting forest fire-related biomass loss
and greenhouse gas emissions in southern Europe may be found in the paper Chiriacò et al., 2013. All the
LULUCF categories have been embedded in the overall QA/QC-system of the Italian GHG inventory.
6.12.6
Category-specific recalculations
Deviations from the previous sectoral estimates are resulting from the implementation of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in terms of updated default values and conversion factors.
6.12.7
Category-specific planned improvements
An expert panel on forest fires has been set up, in order to obtain geographically referenced data on burned
area; the overlapping of land use map and georeferenced data should assure the estimates of burned areas in
the different land uses. The fraction of CO2 emissions due to forest fires, currently included in the estimate of
the forest land remaining forest land, will be pointed out.
In addition an ad hoc expert panel on fires has been constituted by experts from different institutions from
ISPRA and Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies; the panel is currently working on harmonising
the data, related to fires, collected at regional level (considering the 20 administrative regions, 5 of which are
autonomous) which are now characterized with different level of disaggregation and details (burned area,
with reference to various land uses, forest land category, with reference to different forest typologies,
specific parameters related to fire’s type (crown or grazing fire), amount of burned biomass, etc.).
6.13 Harvested wood products (HWP) (4G)
6.13.1
Description
Under this source category, annual changes in carbon stocks and associated CO2 emissions and removals
from the Harvested Wood Products (HWP) pool are estimated, following the production approach described
in the Annex to Volume 4, Chapter 12, of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in line with Decision
2/CMP.7 and the guidance provided by the 2013 Revised Supplementary Methods and Good Practice
Guidance Arising from the Kyoto Protocol (KP Supplement, IPCC 2014).
CO2 emissions and removals from HWP have resulted key categories with Approach 2 concerning trend
assessment.
6.13.2
Methodological issues
Emissions from this source are mainly influenced by the trend in forest harvest rates: in 2013, the net
emissions from harvested wood products were –234.89 kt CO2. The figure 6.8 shows the trend of HWP in
use for the period 1961-2013, disaggregated into sawnwood, wood based panels and paper & paperboard.
258
14,000
kt
paper & paperboard
12,000
wood based panels
10,000
Sawnwood
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1961
1965
1969
1973
1977
1981
1985
1989
1993
1997
2001
2005
2009
2013
Figure 6.8 HWP in use for the period 1961-2013
The activity data (production of sawnwood, wood based panels and paper and paperboard) are derived from
FAO forest product statistics (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: forest product
statistics, http://faostat3.fao.org/download/F/FO/E).
Italy uses the same methodology to estimate emissions annual changes in carbon stocks and associated CO2
emissions and removals from the HWP pools under UNFCCC and KP, following the decision Decision
2/CMP.7, paragraph 29, namely, that “transparent and verifiable activity data for harvested wood products
categories are available, and accounting is based on the change in the harvested wood products pool of the
second commitment period, estimated using the first-order decay function”.
The estimates have been carried out on the basis of the KP Supplement (IPCC 2014) methodology. The Tier
2 approach, first order decay, was applied to the HWP categories (sawnwood, wood based panels and paper
and paperboard) according to equation 2.8.5 (IPCC, 2014).
Equation 2.8.1 (IPCC, 2014) has been applied to estimate the annual fraction of the feedstock coming from
domestic harvest for the HWP categories sawnwood and wood-based panels.
The change in carbon stocks was estimated separately for each product category; the default values (Table
2.8.1, IPCC 2014) have been applied. Emission factors for specific product categories were calculated with
default half-lives of 35 years for sawnwood, 25 years for wood panels and 2 years for paper (Table 2.8.2,
IPCC 2014).
The annual change in stock for the period 1961-2013, disaggregated into sawnwood, wood based panels and
paper & paperboard, is reported in Figure 6.9.
259
Paper and Paperboard
400
kt C
Wood panels
Sawnwood
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Figure 6.9 Annual change in stock (kt C) for the period 1990-2013
6.13.3
Uncertainty and time series consistency
Uncertainty estimates for the period 1990–2013 have been assessed following Approach 1 of 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). The uncertainties of activity data and emission factors used in the estimation process
have assessed based on the uncertainties of the default factors provided in the KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014) and
the uncertainties of exiting statistical data.
6.13.4
Category-specific QA/QC and verification
Systematic quality control activities have been carried out in order to ensure completeness and consistency in
time series and correctness. Data entries have been checked several times during the compilation of the
inventory. Several QA activities are carried out in the different phases of the inventory process. All the
LULUCF categories have been embedded in the overall QA/QC-system of the Italian GHG inventory.
6.13.5
Category-specific recalculations
Harvested wood products estimates are reported for the first time in the current submission; therefore the
recalculation is not applicable.
6.13.6
Category-specific planned improvements
Planned improvements are related to the investigation on the end-use, the discard rates of HWP, as well as
the final market use of wood in Italy. The main outcome of this investigation could be the set-up of country
specific emission factors to be used in the estimation process. A review will also be undertaken aiming to
better understand the interactions among the different sectors to which the HWP pool is related (i.e.
LULUCF/forest land, the Energy sector and the Waste sector).
260
7 WASTE [CRF sector 5]
7.1
Sector overview
The waste sector comprises four source categories:
1 solid waste disposal (5A);
2 biological treatment of solid waste (5B);
3 incineration and open burning of waste (5C);
4 wastewater treatment and discharge (5D).
The waste sector share of GHG emissions in the national greenhouse total is presently 4.23% (and was
4.46% in the base year 1990).
The trend in greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector is summarised in Table 7.1. It clearly shows
that methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites (landfills) are by far the largest source category
within this sector.
Emissions from waste incineration facilities without energy recovery are reported under category 5C,
whereas emissions from waste incineration facilities, which produce electricity or heat for energetic
purposes, are reported under category 1A4a (according to the IPCC reporting guidelines).
Under 5B, CH4, N2O and NMVOC emissions from compost production and CH4emissions from anaerobic
digestion of solid waste are reported.
Emissions from methane recovered, used for energy purposes, in landfills and wastewater treatment plants
are estimated and reported under category 1A4a.
Table 7.1 Trend in greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
GAS/SUBSOURCE
CO2 (Gg)
5C. Waste incineration
CH4 (Gg)
5A. Solid waste disposal
on land
5B. Biological treatment of
waste
5C. Waste incineration
5D. Wastewater treatment
N2O (Gg)
5B. Biological treatment of
waste
5C. Waste incineration
5D. Wastewater treatment
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
507.18
453.89
201.57
225.56
159.83
162.45
193.96
194.22
726.32
757.58
859.11
777.85
667.71
643.66
635.07
554.87
0.09
0.15
0.55
1.57
2.18
2.33
2.50
2.63
2.00
128.90
2.32
122.10
2.23
114.78
2.46
110.68
2.33
105.84
2.31
103.48
2.32
102.51
2.22
100.63
0.06
0.13
0.57
1.11
1.41
1.43
1.43
1.48
0.12
4.25
0.12
4.14
0.09
4.40
0.08
4.44
0.07
4.51
0.08
4.36
0.08
4.41
0.08
4.46
In the following box, key and non-key sources of the waste sector are presented based on level, trend or both.
Methane emissions from landfills result as a key category at level and trend assessment calculated with
Approach 1 and Approach 2; methane emission from wastewater treatment is a key source at level
assessment with Approach 1 and Approach 2and at trend assessment taking into account uncertainty; N2O
emissions from wastewater treatment result as a key category at level and trend assessment only with the
Approach 2, taking into account the uncertainty; N2O emission from biological treatment of waste is a key
category at level assessment in 2013 and at trend assessment only considering the uncertainty. When
261
including the LULUCF sector in the key source analysis, methane emissions from landfills don’t result as a
key source at trend assessment, methane emission from wastewater treatment is not a key category at trend
assessment, whereas N2O emission from biological treatment of waste is a key category only at trend
assessment with the Approach 2.
Key-source identification in the waste sector with the IPCC Approach 1 and Approach 2 (without LULUCF) for 2013
5A
CH4
Emissions from solid waste disposal sites
Key (L, T)
5B
N2O
Emissions from biological treatment of waste
Key (L2, T2)
5D
CH4
Emissions from wastewater treatment
Key (L, T2)
5D
N2O
Emissions from wastewater treatment
Key (L2, T2)
5B
CH4
Emissions from biological treatment of waste
Non-key
5C
CO2
Emissions from waste incineration
Non-key
5C
CH4
Emissions from waste incineration
Non-key
5C
N2O
Emissions from waste incineration
Non-key
7.2
Solid waste disposal on land (5A)
7.2.1
Source category description
The source category solid waste disposal on land is a key category for CH4, both in terms of level and trend.
The share of CH4 emissions is presently 31.5% (and was about 33.6% in the base year 1990) of the CH4
national total. For this source category, also NMVOC emissions are estimated; it has been assumed that nonmethane volatile organic compounds are 1.3 weight per cent of VOC (Gaudioso et al., 1993): this assumption
refers to US EPA data (US EPA, 1990).
Methane is emitted from the degradation of waste disposed of in municipal landfills, both managed and
unmanaged.
The main parameters that influence the estimation of emissions from landfills are, apart from the amount of
waste disposed into managed landfills, the waste composition, the fraction of methane in the landfill gas and
the amount of landfill gas collected and treated. These parameters are strictly dependent on the waste
management policies throughout the waste streams which start from waste generation, flow through
collection and transportation, separation for resource recovery, treatment for volume reduction, stabilisation,
recycling and energy recovery and terminate at landfill sites.
Urban waste disposal in landfill sites is still the main disposal practice: the percentage of waste disposed in
landfills dropped from 91.1% in 1990 to 45.4% in 2013. This trend is strictly dependent on policies that have
been taken in the last 20 years in waste management. In fact, at the same time, waste incineration as well as
composting and mechanical and biological treatment have shown a remarkable rise due to the enforcement of
legislation. Also recyclable waste collection, which at the beginning of nineties was a scarce practice and
waste were mainly disposed in bulk in landfills or incineration plants, has been increasing: in 2013, the
percentage of municipal solid waste separate collection is near 42%, still far from legislative targets (fixed
50% in 2009) but characterized by a strong growth in recent years.
In particular, in Italy the first legal provision concerning waste management was issued in 1982 (Decree of
President of the Republic 10 September 1982, n.915), as a consequence of the transposition of some
European Directives on waste (EC, 1975; EC, 1976; EC, 1978). In this decree, uncontrolled waste dumping
as well as unmanaged landfills are forbidden, but the enforcement of these measures has been concluded
only in 2000. Thus, from 2000 municipal solid wastes are disposed only into managed landfills.
For the year 2013, the non hazardous landfills in Italy disposed 10,914 kt of MSW and 2,512 kt of industrial
wastes, as well as 174 kt of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants.
262
Since 1999, the number of MSW landfills has decreased by more than 500 plants, despite the decrease of the
amount of wastes disposed of is less pronounced. This because both uncontrolled landfills and small
controlled landfills have been progressively closed, especially in the south of the country, where the use of
modern and larger plants was opted in order to serve large territorial areas.
Concerning the composition of waste which is disposed in municipal landfills, this has been changed over
the years, because of the modification of waste production due to changes in the life-style and not to a
forceful policy on waste management.
The Landfill European Directive (EC, 1999) has been transposed into national decree only in 2003 by the
Legislative Decree 13 January 2003, n. 36 and applied to the Italian landfills since July 2005, but the
effectiveness of the policies will be significant in the future. Moreover, a following law decree (Law Decree
30 December 2008, n.208) moved to December 2009 the end of the temporary condition regarding waste
acceptance criteria, thus the composition of waste accepted in landfills is expected to change hardly.
Finally, methane emissions are expected especially from non hazardous waste landfills due to
biodegradability rate of the wastes disposed of; in the past, provisions by law forced only non hazardous
waste landfills to have a collecting gas system. Investigation on industrial sludge disposed into landfills for
hazardous waste is ongoing and relates to the 2010 activity data.
7.2.2
Methodological issues
Emission estimates from solid waste disposal on land have been carried out using the IPCC Tier 2
methodology, through the application of the First Order Decay Model (FOD).
Parameter values used in the landfill emissions model are:
1) total amount of waste disposed;
2) fraction of Degradable Organic Carbon (DOC);
3) fraction of DOC dissimilated (DOCF);
4) fraction of methane in landfill gas (F);
5) oxidation factor (OX);
6) methane correction factor (MCF);
7) methane generation rate constant (k);
8) landfill gas recovered (R).
It has been assumed that all the landfills, both managed and unmanaged, started operations in the same year,
and have the same parameters, although characteristics of individual landfill sites can vary substantially.
Moreover, the share of waste disposed of into uncontrolled landfills has gradually decreased, as specified
previously, and in the year 2000 it has been assumed equal to 0; nevertheless, emissions still have been
occurring due to the waste disposed in the past years. The unmanaged sites have been considered “shallow”
according to the IPCC classification.
Municipal solid waste
Basic data on waste production and landfills system are those provided by the national Waste Cadastre. The
Waste Cadastre is formed by a national branch, hosted by ISPRA, and by regional and provincial branches.
The basic information for the Cadastre is mainly represented by the data reported through the Uniform
Statement Format (MUD), complemented by information provided by regional permits, provincial
communications and by registrations in the national register of companies involved in waste management
activities.
263
These figures have been elaborated and published by ISPRA yearly since 1999: the yearbooks report waste
production data, as well as data concerning landfilling, incineration, composting and generally waste lifecycle data (APAT-ONR, several years; ISPRA, several years).
For inventory purposes, a database of waste production, waste disposal in managed and unmanaged landfills
and sludge disposal in landfills was created and it has been assumed that in Italy waste landfilling started in
1950.
The complete database from 1975 of waste production, waste disposal in managed and unmanaged landfills
and sludge disposal in landfills is reconstructed on the basis of different sources (MATTM, several years;
FEDERAMBIENTE, 1992; AUSITRA-Assoambiente, 1995; ANPA-ONR, 1999 [a], [b]; APAT, 2002;
APAT-ONR, several years; ISPRA, several years), national legislation (Legislative Decree 5 February 1997,
n.22), and regression models based on population (Colombari et al, 1998).
Since waste production data are not available before 1975, they have been reconstructed on the basis of
proxy variables. Gross Domestic Product data have been collected from 1950 (ISTAT, several years [a]) and
a correlation function between GDP and waste production has been derived from 1975; thus, the exponential
equation has been applied from 1975 back to 1950.
Consequently the amount of waste disposed into landfills has been estimated, assuming that from 1975
backwards the percentage of waste landfilled is constant and equal to 80%; this percentage has been derived
from the analysis of available data. As reported in the Figure 7.1, in the period 1973 – 1991 data are
available for specific years (available data are reported in dark blue, whereas estimated data are reported in
light blue). From 1973 to 1991 waste disposal has increased, because the most common practice in waste
management; from early nineties, thanks to a change in national policies, waste disposal in landfill has
started to decrease, in favour of other waste treatments.
% MSW disposed in non hazardous landfills
100.0
90.0
80.0
70.0
%
60.0
88.2
92.6
78.5
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.0
Figure 7.1 Percentage of MSW disposal on land (%)
In the following Table 7.2, the time series of MSW production and MSW disposed of into non hazardous
landfills from 1990 is reported. The amount of waste disposed in managed landfills is yearly provided by the
national Waste Cadastre since 1995. The time series has been reconstructed backwards on the basis of
several studies reporting data available for 1973, 1988, 1991, 1994 (Tecneco, 1972; MATTM, several years).
264
The amount of waste disposed in unmanaged landfills has been estimated as a percentage of the waste
disposed in managed landfills. Different studies provided information about the percentage of waste in
unmanaged sites for 1973, 1979, 1991 (Tecneco, 1972; ISTAT, 1984, MATTM, several years) and data in
other years are extrapolated. These studies show that the share of waste disposed of into uncontrolled
landfills has gradually decreased, from 72.8%, in 1973, to 53.4% in 1979 and 26.6% in 1991, which is a
consequence of the progressive implementation of the national legislation. Since 2000 the percentage of
waste in unmanaged landfills is equal to zero because of legal enforcement described in 7.2.1.
Industrial waste
Industrial wastes assimilated to municipal solid waste (AMSW) could be disposed of in non hazardous
landfills. Composition of AMSW must be comparable to municipal solid waste composition.
From 2001, data on industrial waste disposed in municipal landfills are available from Waste Cadastre.
For previous years, assimilated municipal solid waste production has been reconstructed, and the same
percentage of MSW disposed in landfill has been applied also to AMSW.
The complete database of AMSW production from 1975 to 2000 has been reconstructed starting from data
available for the years 1988 (ISTAT, 1991) and 1991 (MATTM, several years) with a linear interpolation,
and with a regression model based on Gross Domestic Product (Colombari et al, 1998). From 1975 back to
1950 AMSW production has been derived as a percentage of MSW production; this percentage has been set
equal to 15%, which is approximately the value obtained from the only data available (MSW and AMSW
production for the years 1988 and 1991).
The time series of AMSW and domestic sludge disposed of into non hazardous landfills from 1990 is
reported is also reported in Table 7.1.
Table 7.2 Trend of MSW production and MSW, AMSW and domestic sludge disposed in landfills, 1990 – 2013
ACTIVITY
DATA
MSW production
(Gg)
MSW disposed in
landfills for non
hazardous waste
(Gg)
Assimilated
MSW disposed in
landfills for non
hazardous waste
(Gg)
Sludge disposed
in
managed
landfills for non
hazardous waste
(Gg)
Total Waste to
managed landfills
for non hazardous
waste (Gg)
Total Waste to
unmanaged
landfills for non
1990
1995
2000
2005
22,231
25,780
28,959
31,664
17,432
22,459
21,917
2,828
2,978
2,454
2010
2011
2012
2013
32,479
31,386
29,994
29,595
17,226
15,015
13,206
11,720
10,914
2,825
2,914
3,508
2,883
2,292
2,512
1,531
1,326
544
301
292
214
174
16,363
21,897
26,069
20,684
18,825
16,380
14,226
13,600
6,351
5,071
0
0
0
0
0
0
265
ACTIVITY
DATA
1990
1995
2000
2005
22,714
26,968
26,069
20,684
2010
2011
2012
2013
16,380
14,226
13,600
hazardous waste
(Gg)
Total Waste to
landfills for non
hazardous waste
(Gg)
18,825
Sludge from urban wastewater plants
Sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants has also been considered, because it can be disposed of at the
same landfills as municipal solid waste and assimilated, once it meets specific requirements. The fraction of
sludge disposed in landfill sites has been estimated to be 75% in 1990, decreasing to 8% in 2013.
On the basis of their characteristics, sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants is also used in
agriculture, sludge spreading on land, and in compost production, or treated in incineration plants.
The percentage of each treatment (landfilling, soil spreading, composting, incinerating and stocking) has
been reconstructed within the years starting from 1990: for that year, percentages have been set based on
data on tonnes of sludge treated in a given way available from a survey conducted by the National Institute
of Statistics on urban wastewater plants for the year 1993 (ISTAT, 1998 [a] and [b]; De Stefanis P. et al.,
1998). From 1990 onwards each percentage has been varied on the basis of data available for specific years:
in particular, data on sludge use in agriculture have been communicated by the Ministry for the Environment,
Land and Sea concerning the reference time period from 1995 (MATTM, 2005; MATTM 2010; MATTM,
2014); data on sludge used in compost production are published from 1999, while data on sludge disposed
into landfills are published from 2001 (APAT-ONR, several years; ISPRA, several years).
The total production of sludge from urban wastewater plants is communicated by the Ministry for the
Environment, Land and Sea from 1995 (MATTM, 2005; MATTM 2010; MATTM, 2014) in the framework
of the reporting commitments established by the European Sewage Sludge Directive (EC, 1986) transposed
into the national Legislative Decree 27 January 1992, n. 99.
Moreover, sewage sludge production is available from different sources also for the years 1987, 1991
(MATTM, several years) and 1993 (ISTAT, 1998 [a] and [b]). Thus, for the missing years data have been
extrapolated.
As for the waste production, also sludge production time series has been reconstructed from 1950. Starting
from the number of wastewater treatment plants in Italy in 1950, 1960, 1970 and 1980 (ISTAT, 1987), the
equivalent inhabitants have been derived.
To summarize, from 1987 both data on equivalent inhabitants and sludge production are available (published
or estimated), thus it is possible to calculate a per capita sludge production: the parameter results equal on
average to 80 kg inhab.-1 yr-1. Consequently, this value has been multiplied to equivalent inhabitants from
1987 back to 1950.
In Table 7.3, time series of sewage sludge production and landfilling is reported.
266
Table 7.3 Trend of total sewage sludge production and landfilling, 1990 – 2013
ACTIVITY DATA
Total sewage sludge
production (Gg)
Sewage
sludge
landfilled (Gg)
Percentage (%)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
3,272
2,437
3,402
4,299
3,359
3,407
2,616
2,237
2,454
1,531
1,326
544
301
292
214
174
75.0
62.8
39.0
12.7
9.0
8.6
8.2
7.8
Waste composition
One of the most important parameter that influences the estimation of emissions from landfills is the waste
composition.
An in-depth survey has been carried out, in order to diversify waste composition over the years.
On the basis of data available on waste composition (Tecneco, 1972; CNR, 1980; Ferrari, 1996), three slots
(1950-1970; 1971-1990; 1991- 2005) have been individuated to which different waste composition has been
assigned. Waste composition used from 2005 back to 1971 (CNR, 1980; Ferrari, 1996) has been better
specified, on the basis of data available from those publications. In particular, screened waste (< 20mm) has
been included in emissions estimation, because the 50% of it has been assumed as organic and thus rapidly
biodegradable. This assumption has been strengthened by expert judgments and sectoral studies (Regione
Piemonte, 2007; Regione Umbria, 2007).
Moreover, a fourth slot (2006-2013) has been individuated on the basis of the analysis of several regional
waste composition and the analysis of waste disposed of into non hazardous landfills specified by the
European Waste Catalogue (EWC) code for the year 2007, available from Waste Cadastre database (ISPRA,
2010). Data on waste composition refer to recent years and they are representative of the national territory,
deriving from the North of Italy (Regione Piemonte, 2007; Regione Veneto, 2006; Regione Emilia Romagna,
2009), the Centre (Regione Umbria, 2007; Provincia di Roma, 2008) and the South (Regione Calabria, 2002;
Regione Sicilia 2004). The new waste composition, adopted from 2006, includes compost residues which are
disposed into landfills because their parameters are not in compliance with those set by the law: compost
residues are reported under garden and park waste component, as they are considered moderately
biodegradable. The moisture content and the organic carbon content are from national studies (Andreottola
and Cossu, 1988; Muntoni and Polettini, 2002).
In Tables 7.4, 7.5, 7.6 and 7.7 waste composition of each national survey mentioned above and waste
composition derived from the analysis of EWC code is reported, together with moisture content, organic
carbon content and consequently degradable organic carbon both in waste type i and in bulk waste, DOC
calculation is described in following paragraphs.
Waste types containing most of the DOC and thus involved in methane emissions are highlighted in bold
type.
Since sludge is not included in waste composition, because it usually refers to waste production and not to
waste landfilled, it has been added to each waste composition, recalculating the percentage of waste type.
267
Table 7.4 Waste composition and Degradable Organic Carbon calculation, 1950 - 1970
WASTE COMPONENT
Organic
Garden and park
Paper, paperboard
Plastic
Inert
Sludge
Composition by
weight (wet waste)
32.7%
3.6%
29.7%
2.9%
26.9%
4.2%
60%
50%
9%
2%
Organic carbon
content
(dry matter)
48%
48%
50%
70%
75%
48%
Moisture content
DOC
DOCi (kgC/tMSW)
62.72
8.71
135.09
5.07
211.59
Table 7.5 Waste composition and Degradable Organic Carbon calculation, 1971 – 1990
WASTE COMPONENT
Organic
Garden and park
Paper,
paperboard,
textile and wood
Plastic
Inert
Metal
Screened waste ( < 2 cm)
- organic
- non organic
Sludge
DOC
Composition by
weight (wet waste)
Moisture content
33.3%
3.7%
60%
50%
Organic carbon
content
(dry matter)
48%
48%
19.6%
9%
50%
6.3%
6.2%
2.6%
2%
70%
8.0%
8.0%
12.0%
60%
48%
15.45
75%
48%
14.44
DOCi (kgC/tMSW)
64.00
8.89
89.26
192.04
268
Table 7.6 Waste composition and Degradable Organic Carbon calculation, 1991 - 2005
WASTE COMPONENT
Organic
Garden and park
Paper, paperboard
Nappies
Textiles
Leather and rubbers
Light plastics
Rigid plastics
Inert and glasses
Metal
Bulky waste
Various
Screened waste ( < 2 cm)
- organic
- non organic
Sludge
24.7%
4.2%
25.5%
2.7%
4.8%
2.1%
8.9%
3.0%
5.9%
2.9%
0.5%
1.5%
60%
50%
8%
8%
10%
2%
2%
2%
Organic carbon
content
(dry matter)
48%
48%
44%
44%
55%
70%
70%
70%
3.4%
3.4%
6.3%
60%
48%
6.60
75%
48%
7.53
Composition by
weight (wet waste)
Moisture content
DOC
DOCi (kgC/tMSW)
47.36
10.09
103.38
10.98
23.98
209.92
Table 7.7 Waste composition and Degradable Organic Carbon calculation, 2006 – 2013
WASTE COMPONENT
Organic
Garden and park
Wood
Paper,
paperboard,
nappies
Textiles and leather
Plastics
Metals and Aluminium
Inert and glasses
Bulky waste
Various
Screened waste ( < 2 cm)
- organic
- non organic
Sludge
DOC
Composition by
weight (wet waste)
Moisture content
21.9%
5.6%
1.6%
60%
50%
20%
Organic carbon
content
(dry matter)
48%
48%
50%
23.9%
8%
44%
96.72
3.0%
11.8%
2.3%
6.4%
2.2%
6.5%
10%
2%
55%
70%
14.86
5.4%
5.4%
3.9%
60%
48%
10.43
75%
48%
4.68
DOCi (kgC/tMSW)
42.07
13.53
6.47
188.76
269
On the basis of the waste composition, waste stream have been categorized in three main types: rapidly
biodegradable waste, moderately biodegradable waste and slowly biodegradable waste, as reported in Table
7.8. Methane emissions have been estimated separately for each mentioned biodegradability class and the
results have been consequently added up.
Table 7.8 Waste biodegradability
Waste biodegradability
Food
Sewage sludge
Screened waste (organic)
Garden and park
Paper, paperboard
Nappies
Textiles, leather
Wood
Rapidly
biodegradable
X
X
X
Moderately
biodegradable
Slowly
biodegradable
X
X
X
X
X
Degradable organic carbon (DOC) and Methane generation potential (L0)
Degradable organic carbon (DOC) is the organic carbon in waste that is accessible to biochemical
decomposition, and should be expressed as Gg C per Gg of waste. The DOC in waste bulk is estimated based
on the composition of waste and can be calculated from a weighted average of the degradable carbon content
of various components of the waste stream. The following equation estimates DOC using default carbon
content values.
DOC = Σi (DOCi * Wi)
Where:
DOC = fraction of degradable organic carbon in bulk waste, kg C/kg of wet waste
DOCi = fraction of degradable organic carbon in waste type i,
Wi = fraction of waste type i by waste category
Degradable organic carbon in waste type i can be calculated as following:
DOCi = Ci * (1-ui) * Wi
Where:
Ci = organic carbon content in dry waste type i, kg C/ kg of waste type i
ui= moisture content in waste type i
Wi = fraction of waste type i by waste category
Once known the degradable organic carbon, the methane generation potential value (L0) is calculated as
following:
L0 = MCF * DOC * DOCF * F * 16/12
Where:
270
MCF = methane correction factor
DOCF = fraction of DOC dissimilated
F = fraction of methane in landfill gas
Fraction of degradable organic carbon (DOCF) is an estimate of the fraction of carbon that is ultimately
degraded and released from landfill, and reflects the fact that some degradable organic carbon does not
degrade, or degrades very slowly, under anaerobic conditions in the landfill.
DOCF value is dependent on many factors like temperature, moisture, pH, composition of waste: the default
value 0.5 has been used.
The methane correction factor (MCF) accounts for that unmanaged SWDS (solid waste disposal sites)
produce less CH4 from a given amount of waste than managed SWDS, because a larger fraction of waste
decomposes aerobically in the top layers of unmanaged SWDS. The MCF should be also interpreted as the
‘waste management correction factor’ because it reflects the management aspects.
The MCF value used for unmanaged landfill is the default IPCC value reported for uncategorised landfills: in
fact, in Italy, before 2000 the existing unmanaged landfills were mostly shallow, because they resulted in
uncontrolled waste dumping instead of real deep unmanaged landfills. On the basis of the qualitative
information available regarding the national unmanaged landfills, the default IPCC value used has been
considered the most appropriate to represent national circumstances also in consideration of the type of waste
landfilled and the humidity degree of landfills. It is assumed that landfill gas is 50% VOC. The following
Table 7.9 summarizes the methane generation potential values (L0) generated, distinguished for managed and
unmanaged landfills.
Table 7.9 Methane generation potential values by waste composition and landfill typology
L0 (m3CH4 tMSW-1)
Rapidly biodegradable
- Managed landfill
- Unmanaged landfill
Moderately biodegradable
- Managed landfill
- Unmanaged landfill
Slowly biodegradable
- Managed landfill
- Unmanaged landfill
1950 - 1970
1971 - 1990
1991 - 2005
2006 - 2013
90.5
54.3
86.6
52.0
88.1
52.9
90.2
54.1
118.2
70.9
118.2
70.9
118.2
70.9
118.2
70.9
224.1
134.5
224.1
134.5
205.9
123.5
204.0
122.4
Finally, oxidation factors have been assumed equal to 0.1 for managed landfills and 0 for unmanaged
according to the IPCC Good Practice Guidance where 0.1 is suggested for well managed landfills.
Methane generation rate constant (k)
The methane generation rate constant k in the FOD method is related to the time necessary for DOC in waste
to decay to half its initial mass (the ‘half life’ or t½).
The maximum value of k applicable to any single SWDS is determined by a large number of factors
associated with the composition of the waste and the conditions at the site. The most rapid rates are
associated with high moisture conditions and rapidly degradable material such as food waste. The slowest
decay rates are associated with dry site conditions and slowly degradable waste such as wood or paper. Thus,
for each rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable fraction, a different maximum methane generation
271
rate constant has been assigned, as reported in Table 7.10. Different k values for rapidly, moderately and
slowly biodegradable waste are applied to the different parts of the model.
The methane generation rate constant k values derive from national and international literature and reported
by Italian national experts (Andreottola and Cossu, 1988; Ham, 1979); these figures are representative of
average biogas production conditions with respect to the characteristics of national landfills and waste
composition in terms of moisture, density and size.
Table 7.10 Half-life values and related methane generation rate constant
Rapidly biodegradable
1 year
Methane generation
rate constant
0.69
Moderately biodegradable
5 years
0.14
Slowly biodegradable
15 years
0.05
WASTE TYPE
Half life
The average k is calculated on the basis of the waste composition, and assumes different values during
different periods on account of the waste composition changes, as reported in Table 7.11.
Table 7.11 Average k values based on waste compositions
1971 - 1990
1991 - 2005
2006 - 2030
0.463
0.362
0.363
k
Landfill gas recovered (R)
Landfill gas recovered data have been reconstructed on the basis of information on extraction plants (De Poli
and Pasqualini, 1991; Acaia et al., 2004; Asja, 2003) and electricity production (TERNA, several years).
Only managed landfills have a gas collection system, and the methane extracted can be used for energy
production or can be flared.
The amount of methane recovery in landfills has increased as a result of the implementation of the European
Directive on the landfill of waste (EC, 1999); the amounts of methane recovered and flared have been
estimated taking into account the amount of energy produced, the energy efficiency of the methane
recovered, the captation efficiency and the efficiency in recovering methane for energy purposes assuming
that the rest of methane captured is flared. The emissions from biogas recovered from landfills and used for
energy purposes are reported in the energy sector in “1A4a biomass” category together with wood, the
biomass fraction of incinerated waste and biogas from wastewater plants. In Table 7.12 consumptions and
low calorific values are reported for the year 2013.
Table 7.12 1A4a biomass detailed activity data. Year 2013
Fuels
Consumption (Gg)
Wood
Wood
106.07
and
Steam Wood
0.22
similar
Incinerated waste (biomass)
2804.14
Biogas from landfills
306.25
Biogas from wastewater
16.41
plants
LCV (TJ/Gg)
10.48
31.38
9.20
53.55
53.55
The total CH4 recovered is the sum of methane flared and methane used for energy purposes (see figure 7.2).
Until 2000, the methane used for energy production is estimated starting from the electricity produced
272
annually (E=GWh*3.6=TJ) by landfills (TERNA, several years) assuming an energy conversion efficiency
equal to 0.3, typical efficiency value for engines that produce electricity from biogas (Colombo, 2001), and a
LCV (Lower Calorific Value) equal to 50.038 TJ/Gg:
((E/0.3)/50.038)*1000= CH4 Mg/year
500,000
450,000
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Mg
The LCV used for biogas derives from national experts and it is verified with energy and quantitative data
about biogas production from waste supplied by TERNA (National Independent System Operator).
Since 2001, TERNA provides directly the amounts of biogas recovered for energy purposes, in this case the
LCV has been derived from the comparison with the supplied energy data.
For the years 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990, the methane flared is supplied by the plants (De Poli and
Pasqualini, 1991); from 1991 to 1997 the methane flared has been extrapolated from the previous years;
finally, for the following years the methane flared has been estimated using information based on monitored
data supplied by the main operators (Asja, 2003 and Acaia, 2004) regarding the efficiency in recovering
methane for energy purposes with respect to the total methane collected. This efficiency value increased
from 56% of the total, in 1998, to 65% since 2002. In particolar, the flared quantity of methane in 1990,
reported by (De Poli and Pasqualini, 1991), is equal to 1,170,000 m3/day which result in 108,858 Mg/y and,
in 1990, this amount corresponds to the total methane recovered. Since 1991 TERNA (National Independent
System Operator) supplies the amount of biogas collected with energy recovery while (ASJA, 2003) and
(Acaia, 2004) supply the percentage (flared / with energy recovered) equal to 35% in 2000 (survey on
landfills in the Lombardy region, year 2000, 32 plants) and 30% in 2001-2002 (Asja landfills produced 35%
of energy from landfill gas at the national level in 2001-2002). After 2002 this value, 30 % flared of total
biogas collected, has been keep constant not considering further improving in efficiency in recovering
methane for energy purposes with respect to the total methane collected. More recent data deriving from
environmental declarations/statements of plants are still under investigation.
Total methane collected is estimated, in 2013, equal to 52% of the total methane produced.
Methane recovery
- flared
- energy pourposes
Figure 7.2 Methane recovery distinguished in flared amount and energy purposes (Mg)
273
CH4 and NMVOC emission time series
The time series of CH4 emissions is reported in Table 7.13; emissions from the amount used for energy
purposes are estimated and reported under category 1A4a.
Whereas waste production continuously increases, from 2001 solid waste disposal on land has decreased as a
consequence of waste management policies, although fluctuations in the amounts of industrial waste and
sludge could influence this trend. At the same time, the increase in the methane-recovered percentage has led
to a reduction in net emissions.
Further reduction is expected in the future because of the increasing in waste recycling.
Table 7.13 VOC produced, recovered and CH4 and NMVOC net emissions, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
EMISSIONS
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
VOC produced (Gg)
648.1
755.0
1,028.3
1,084.6
1,085.6
1,082.5
1,054.6
1,014.9
VOC recovered (Gg)
108.9
144.1
220.4
316.5
417.4
437.5
415.4
462.5
VOC recovered (%)
16.8
19.1
21.4
29.2
38.5
40.4
39.4
45.6
CH4 net emissions (Gg)
NMVOC net emissions
(Gg)
Unmanaged Landfills
479.0
542.6
717.7
682.3
593.5
573.0
567.7
490.7
6.3
7.1
9.5
9.0
7.8
7.5
7.5
6.5
VOC produced (Gg)
250.6
217.8
143.3
96.9
75.2
71.6
68.2
65.0
VOC recovered (Gg)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
247.4
214.9
141.4
95.6
74.2
70.7
67.3
64.1
3.3
2.8
1.9
1.3
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
Managed Landfills
CH4 net emissions (Gg)
NMVOC net emissions
(Gg)
7.2.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The uncertainty in CH4 emissions from solid waste disposal sites has been estimated both by Approach 1 and
Approach 2 of the IPCC guidelines.
Following Approach 1, the combined uncertainty is estimated to be 22.4%, 10% and 20% for activity data
and emission factors, respectively, as suggested by the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Applying Montecarlo analysis, the resulting uncertainty is estimated equal to 12.6% in 2009. Normal
distributions have been assumed for most of the parameters; whenever assumptions or constraints on
variables were known this information has been appropriately reflected on the choice of type and shape of
distributions. A summary of the results is reported in Annex 1.
Emissions from landfills (Table 7.13) are influenced, apart from the amount of waste landfilled, also from
waste composition, as for each biodegradability class different parameters are used in the model. The total
amount of waste disposed into managed landfills increased until 2000 (in 2000 the landfilling of waste in
unmanaged landfills has stopped too), then it decreased from 2000 to 2003, while from 2003 to 2008 it is
quite stable. Since 2009, due to the increasing in collection and recycling, but also to the economic crisis, the
amount of waste disposed of in landfills is significantly decreased. It is important to remind that the total
amount of waste disposed of is the sum of municipal solid wastes (which have decreased due to the
enforcement of the legislation), sludge and industrial waste, which are subjected to fluctuation. As previously
274
reported, four waste compositions have been used, changing from 1950 to 2013 as well as the percentage of
rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable fraction. The combination of the amount of waste landfilled
and the waste composition has led to an increase of methane production from 1990 to 2002 and stabilization
from 2003 to 2013 with a slight reduction in the last two years. At the same time, biogas recovery has
increased from 1990 to 2013, but from 2000 the recovery rate is higher: in 2013 the methane recovered is
about half of the methane produced. Methane emissions for 2013 result prevantly from the amount of waste
landfilled in the last three years (2010-2012) and the observed decline in 2013 respect to 2012 is explained
by the sharp decrease in the amount of solid waste disposed in landfills in these years. In fact the amount of
waste landfilled in 2012 were 25% less than those in 2010.
7.2.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
The National Waste cadastre is managed by ISPRA and is formed by a national branch hosted by ISPRA and
regional and provincial branches hosted by the Regional Agencies for the Protection of the Environment. So
the system requires continuous and systematic knowledge exchange and QA/QC checks in order to ensure
homogeneity of information concerning waste production and management throughout the entire Italian
territory. At central level, ISPRA provides assessment criteria and procedures for data validation, through the
definition of uniform standard procedures for all regional branches. The national branch, moreover, ensures
spreading of the procedures and training of technicians in each regional branch. Data are validated by ISPRA
detecting potential errors and data gaps, comparing among different data sources and asking for further
explanation to the regional branches whenever needed. Moreover, ISPRA has started a number of sectoral
studies with a view to define specific waste production coefficients related to each production process. So
through the definition of such ‘production factors’ and the knowledge of statistical information on
production, it is possible to estimate the amount of waste originated from each sector for the selected
territorial grid cell and compare the results to the statistical data on waste production.
For general QC checks on emission estimates and related parameters, each inventory expert fills in, during
the inventory compilation process, a format with a list of questions to be answered which helps the compiler
avoid potential errors and is also useful to prove the appropriateness of the methodological choices.
Moreover, an in depth analysis of EWC codes of waste disposed of in landfills has been done for the year
2007, thanks to the complete database of Waste Cadastre kindly supplied by ISPRA Waste Office. This
accurate analysis has permitted to verify the correctness of waste typology assumptions used for the
estimations.
Finally, an important improvement in waste data collection has been implemented by ISPRA and the
Regional Agencies for the Protection of the Environment, consequently the waste statistical report includes
the urban waste data referred to last years allowing a timely reporting.
7.2.5
Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations in the sector have been done because the quantity of waste disposed in landfill has been
updated for 2012 (ISPRA, several years) producing a minor recalculation.
In Table 7.14, municipal and industrial (assimilated to MSW) wastes disposed into non hazardous landfills
are reported also for Submission 2014, with differences in percentage.
275
Table 7.14 MSW disposed into landfills time series, 1990 – 2013 (t), AMSW disposed into landfills time series,
1990 – 2013 (t), and differences in percentage between Submission 2015 and Submission 2014.
Submission 2015
Year
MSW
to
landfill (t)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
17,431,760
22,458,880
21,917,417
17,225,728
17,525,881
16,911,545
16,068,760
15,537,822
15,015,119
13,205,749
11,720,316
10,914,353
AMSW
to
landfill
(t)
2,827,867
2,977,672
2,825,340
2,913,697
2,480,830
2,776,637
3,703,220
3,180,904
3,508,400
2,882,686
2,291,946
2,511,711
Submission 2014
Total waste
(except
sludge) to
landfill (t)
20,259,627
25,436,552
24,742,757
20,139,425
20,006,711
19,688,182
19,771,980
18,718,726
18,523,519
16,088,435
14,012,262
13,426,064
MSW
to
landfill (t)
17,431,760
22,458,880
21,917,417
17,225,728
17,525,881
16,911,545
16,068,760
15,537,822
15,015,119
13,205,749
11,663,832
AMSW
to
landfill
(t)
2,827,867
2,977,672
2,825,340
2,913,697
2,480,830
2,776,637
3,703,220
3,180,904
3,508,400
2,882,686
2,291,946
Total waste
(except
sludge) to
landfill (t)
20,259,627
25,436,552
24,742,757
20,139,425
20,006,711
19,688,182
19,771,980
18,718,726
18,523,519
16,088,435
13,955,778
∆%
∆%
∆%
MSW
AMSW
Total
0.48%
-
0.40%
The availability of data regarding the physical amount (instead of GWh) of biogas recovered for energy
purposes by TERNA (National Independent System Operator)led to recalculations since 1998. Some other
change in the amount of sludge disposed of in landfills conducted to some negligible recalculations (<
0.01%).In Table 7.15 differences in percentage between emissions from landfills reported in the updated
time series and 2014 submission are presented.
Table 7.15 Differences in percentage between emissions from landfills reported in the updated time series and
2014 submission
EMISSIONS
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
VOC produced (Gg)
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
VOC recovered (Gg)
0.00%
0.00%
8.33%
-12.20%
-13.88%
-17.62%
-20.78%
CH4 net emissions (Gg)
0.00%
0.00%
-2.05%
6.07%
11.19%
16.97%
20.56%
NMVOC net emissions (Gg)
0.00%
0.00%
-2.05%
6.07%
11.19%
16.97%
20.56%
VOC produced (Gg)
0.00%
0.00%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
VOC recovered (Gg)
0.00%
-
-
-
-
-
CH4 net emissions (Gg)
0.00%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
NMVOC net emissions (Gg)
0.00%
0.00%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
Managed Landfills
Unmanaged Landfills
276
7.2.6
Source-specific planned improvements
Currently, more recent data on the fraction of CH4 in landfill gas and on the amount of landfill gas collected
and treated are under investigation. A survey on industrial sludge disposed of into landfills for hazardous
waste is ongoing and relates to 2010 activity data.
7.3
Biological treatment of solid waste (5B)
7.3.1
Source category description
Biological treatment of solid waste is a key category for N2O emissions at level and trend assessment but
only with the Approach 2. Under this source category CH4 and N2O emissions from compost production and
CH4 emissions from anaerobic digestion of waste have been reported. The amount of waste treated in
composting and digestion plants has shown a great increase from 1990 to 2013 (from 283,879 Mg to
7,408,485 Mg for composting and from 79,440 Mg to 2,410,470 Mg for anaerobic digestion).
Information on input waste to composting plants are published yearly by ISPRA since 1996, including data
for 1993 and 1994 (ANPA, 1998; APAT-ONR, several years; ISPRA, several years), while for 1987 and
1995 only data on compost production are available (MATTM, several years; AUSITRA-Assoambiente,
1995); on the basis of this information the whole time series has been reconstructed. Regarding anaerobic
digestion, the same sources of information have been used to reconstruct the time series until 2004 while
ISPRA publishes yearly more accurate data from 2005.
7.3.2
Methodological issues
Composting
The composting plants are classified in two different kinds: plants that treat a selected waste (food, market,
garden waste, sewage sludge and other organic waste, mainly from the agro-food industry); and mechanicalbiological treatment plants, where the unselected waste is treated to produce compost, refuse derived fuel
(RDF), and a waste with selected characteristics suitable for landfilling or incinerating systems.
It is assumed that 100% of the input waste to the composting plants from selected waste is treated as
compost, while in mechanical-biological treatment plants 30% of the input waste is treated as compost on the
basis of national studies and references (Favoino and Cortellini, 2001; Favoino and Girò, 2001).
For these emissions, literature data (Hogg, 2001) have been used for the emission factor, 0.029 g CH4 kg-1
treated waste, which is the same as the compost production emission factor. The paper referred to considers
also national experimental measurements from the Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza, and reports that
methane emissions are expected to be zero where the facility is well operated.
NMVOC emissions have also been estimated: emission factor (51 g NMVOC kg-1 treated waste) is from
international scientific literature too (Finn and Spencer, 1997).
In Table 7.16 and in Figure 7.3, activity data, CH4, N2O and NMVOC emissions are reported.
Anaerobic digestion
The anaerobic digestion plants too are subduvided in the same two different kinds: plants that treat a selected
waste and mechanical-biological treatment plants.
It is assumed that 100% of the input waste to the anaerobic digestion plants from selected waste is treated as
compost, while in mechanical-biological treatment plants 15% of the input waste is considered as
anaerobically digested.
277
Table 7.16 CH4, N2O and NMVOC emissions from biological treatment of solid waste, 1990 – 2013
1990
Activity data
Amount of waste to
composting process (Mg)
Amount of waste to
anaerobic digestion (Mg)
283,879
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
657,215 2,834,309 5,550,888 7,030,808 7,163,543 7,150,442 7,408,485
79,440
127,433
467,803 1,407,203 1,976,357 2,123,466 2,293,812 2,410,470
CH4
Compost production (Gg)
Anaerobic digestion (Gg)
0.008
0.079
0.019
0.127
0.083
0.468
0.163
1.407
0.206
1.976
0.210
2.123
0.210
2.294
0.217
2.410
N2O
Compost production (Gg)
0.014
0.033
0.144
0.282
0.357
0.364
0.363
0.376
NMVOC
Compost production (Gg)
0.057
0.131
0.567
1.110
1.406
1.433
1.430
1.482
Figure 7.3 Waste treated in compost and anaerobic plants in 2013
7.3.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The uncertainty in CH4 emissions from biological treatment of waste is estimated to be about 100% in annual
emissions, 20% and 100% concerning activity data and emission factors respectively.
7.3.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
This source category is covered by the general QA/QC procedures.
278
7.3.5
Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations occurred in composting because of implementing 2006 Guidelines, CH4 emissions from
anaerobic digestion, until now partially contained in composting, have been explicitated and reported alone.
7.3.6
Source-specific planned improvements
Anaerobic digestion of solid waste is under investigation to collect more information about technologies and
emission factors.
7.4
Waste incineration (5C)
7.4.1
Source category description
Existing incinerators in Italy are used for the disposal of municipal waste, together with some industrial
waste, sanitary waste and sewage sludge for which the incineration plant has been authorized by the
competent authority. Other incineration plants are used exclusively for industrial and sanitary waste, both
hazardous and not, and for the combustion of waste oils, whereas there are few plants where residual waste
from waste treatments, as well as sewage sludge, are treated. Since 2007, the activity of co-incineration in
industrial plants, especially to produce wooden furniture, has increased significantly, resulting in an increase
of the relevant emissions related to the proportion of waste burned.
Emissions from incineration of human bodies in crematoria have been estimated too.
As mentioned above, emissions from waste incineration facilities with energy recovery are reported under
category 1A4a (Combustion activity, commercial/institutional sector, see Table 7.12) in the “Other fuel” and
“Biomass” sub category for the fossil and biomass fraction of wastes, respectively, whereas emissions from
other types of waste incineration facilities are reported under category 5C (Waste incineration). For 2013,
more than 95% of the total amount of waste incinerated is treated in plants with energy recovery system.
A complete database of the incineration plants is now available, updated with the information reported in the
yearly report on waste production and management published by ISPRA (APAT-ONR, several years;
ISPRA, several years).
Emissions from removable residues from agricultural production are included in the IPCC category 5C: the
total residues amount and carbon content have been estimated by both IPCC and national factors. The
detailed methodology is reported in Chapter 5 (5.6.2).
CH4 emissions from biogenic, plastic and other non-biogenic wastes have been calculated.
7.4.2
Methodological issues
Regarding GHG emissions from incinerators, the methodology reported in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance
(IPCC, 2000) has been applied, combined with that reported in the CORINAIR Guidebook
(EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007; EMEP/EEA, 2009). A single emission factor for each pollutant has been used
combined with plant specific waste activity data. Since 2010, NOx, SO2 and CO emission factors for urban
waste incinerators have been updated on the basis of data provided by plants (ENEA-federAmbiente, 2012;
De Stefanis P., 2012).
279
As regard incineration plants, emissions have been calculated for each type of waste: municipal, industrial,
hospital, sewage sludge and waste oils.
A complete database of these plants has been built, on the basis of various sources available for the period of
the entire time series, extrapolating data for the years for which no information was available (MATTM,
several years; ANPA-ONR, 1999 [a] and [b]; APAT, 2002; APAT-ONR, several years; AUSITRAAssoambiente, 1995; Morselli, 1998; FEDERAMBIENTE, 1998; FEDERAMBIENTE, 2001; AMAComune di Roma, 1996; ENI S.p.A., 2001; COOU, several years).
For each plant a lot of information is reported, among which the year of the construction and possible
upgrade, the typology of combustion chamber and gas treatment section, if it is provided with energy
recovery (thermal or electric), and the type and amount of waste incinerated (municipal, industrial, etc.).
Different procedures were used to estimate emission factors, according to the data available for each type of
waste, except CH4 and N2O emission factor that is derived from EMEP Corinair (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007).
Specifically:
1 for municipal waste, emission data from a large sample of Italian incinerators were used
(FEDERAMBIENTE, 1998; ENEA-federAmbiente, 2012);
2 for industrial waste and waste oil, emission factors have been estimated on the basis of the allowed
levels authorized by the Ministerial Decree 19 November 1997, n. 503 of the Ministry of
Environment;
3 for hospital waste, which is usually disposed of alongside municipal waste, the emission factors used
for industrial waste were also applied;
4 for sewage sludge, in absence of specific data, reference was made to the emission limits prescribed
by the Guidelines for the authorisation of existing plants issued on the Ministerial Decree 12 July
1990.
In Table 7.17, emission factors are reported in kg per tons of waste treated, for municipal, industrial, hospital
waste, waste oils and sewage sludge.
Table 7.17 Waste incineration emission factors
POLLUTANT/WASTE
TYPOLOGY
Municipal waste 1990 - 2009
Municipal waste since 2010
Hospital waste
Sewage sludge
Waste oils
Industrial waste
NMVOC
(kg/t)
CO
(kg/t)
0.46
0.46
7.4
0.25
7.4
7.4
0.07
0.07
0.075
0.6
0.075
0.56
CO2
fossil
(kg/t)
289.26
289.26
1200
0
3000.59
1200
N2O
(kg/t)
NOx
(kg/t)
SO2
(kg/t)
CH4
(kg/t)
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.227
0.1
0.1
1.15
0.62
0.604
3
2
2
0.39
0.02
0.026
1.8
1.28
1.28
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
Here below (Tables 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21), details about data and calculation of specific emission factors are
reported. Emission factors have been estimated on the basis of a study conducted by ENEA (De Stefanis,
1999), based on emission data from a large sample of Italian incinerators (FEDERAMBIENTE, 1998; AMAComune di Roma, 1996), legal thresholds (Ministerial Decree 19 November 1997, n. 503 of the Ministry of
Environment; Ministerial Decree 12 July 1990), the last study conducted by ENEA and federAmbiente
(ENEA-federAmbiente, 2012) and expert judgements.
In details, CO2 emission factor for municipal waste has been calculated considering a carbon content equal to
23%; moreover, on the basis of the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) and referring to the average content
280
analysis on a national scale (De Stefanis P., 2002), a distinction was made between CO2 from fossil fuels
(generally plastics) and CO2 from renewable organic sources (paper, wood, other organic materials). Only
emissions from fossil fuels, which are equivalent to 35% of the total, were included in the inventory, C in
sludge is considered completely organic, while C in industrial and hospital waste are considered completely
fossil carbon. This fraction is not expected to change significantly because of the energy characteristics
required for the waste incinerated. At the time, as the incineration of waste is not a key category, but rather in
terms of emission of carbon dioxide is almost negligible, it is believed that the estimate is sufficiently
accurate even if investigations are ongoing.
CO2 emission factor for industrial, oils and hospital waste has been derived as the average of values of
investigated industrial plants. On the other hand, CO2 emissions from the incineration of sewage sludge were
not included at all, while all emissions relating to the incineration of hospital and industrial waste were
considered.
In Table 7.22 activity data are reported by type of waste.
Table 7.18 Municipal waste emission factors
MUNICIPAL
WASTE
SO2
NOx
CO
N2O
CH4
NMVOC
C content, % weight
CO2
Average
concentration values
(mg/Nm3)
1990-2009
2010
78.00
2.17
230.00
97.08
14.00
12.30
23
Standard specific flue
gas volume
(Nm3/KgMSW)
1990-2009
2010
5
6.7
E.F. (g/Mg)
1990-2009
390
1,150
70
100
59.80
460.46
2010
18
621
73
100
59.80
460.46
826.5 (kg/Mg)
826.5(kg/Mg)
23
Table 7.19 Industrial waste and oils emission factors
INDUSTRIAL
WASTE
SO2
NOx
CO
N2O
CH4
NMVOC
CO2
AND
OIL
Average concentration
values (mg/Nm3)
160.00
250.00
70.00
Standard specific flue
gas volume
(Nm3/KgMSW)
8
E.F. (g/t)
1,280
2,000
560
100
59.80
7,400
1,200 (kg/t)
281
Table 7.20 Hospital waste emission factors
HOSPITAL WASTE
Average concentration
values (mg/Nm3)
SO2
NOx
CO
N2O
CH4
NMVOC
CO2
3.24
75.45
9.43
Standard specific flue
gas volume
(Nm3/KgMSW)
8
E.F. (g/t)
26
604
75
100
59.80
7,400
1,200 (kg/t)
Table 7.21 Sewage sludge emission factors
SEWAGE SLUDGE
SO2
NOx
CO
N2O
CH4
NMVOC
CO2
Average concentration
values (mg/Nm3)
300
500
100
Standard specific flue
gas volume
(Nm3/KgMSW)
6
E.F. (g/t)
1,800
3,000
600
100
59.80
251.16
700 (kg/t)
282
Table 7.22 Amount of waste incinerated by type, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
Total
Waste
incinerated
- with energy
recovery
- without energy
recovery
MSW incinerated
- with energy
recovery
- without energy
recovery
Industrial Waste
incinerated
Other waste
- with energy
recovery
- without energy
recovery
Hospital waste
- with energy
recovery
- without energy
recovery
Sludge
- with energy
recovery
- without energy
recovery
Waste oil
- with energy
recovery
- without energy
recovery
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1,656
2,149
3,062
4,964
6,977
6,761
6,674
6,898
911
1,558
2,752
4,721
6,798
6,581
6,484
6,708
745
591
310
243
179
181
190
190
1,026
1,437
2,325
3,220
4,337
4,733
4,257
4,316
626
1,185
2,161
3,168
4,284
4,695
4,255
4,314
399
251
164
52
53
38
2
2
473
536
604
1,602
2,499
1,909
2,272
2,437
258
330
510
1,447
2,401
1,815
2,159
2,324
215
206
94
155
98
94
113
113
134
152
110
126
135
103
118
118
25
41
77
106
113
71
70
70
109
111
34
21
23
33
48
48
20.72
23.18
21.50
15.60
5.98
16.36
26.73
26.77
0.00
0.00
3.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
20.72
23.18
18.11
15.60
5.98
16.36
26.73
26.77
2.66
1.41
0.82
0.67
0.18
0.18
0.05
0.05
1.77
0.94
0.55
0.54
0.18
0.18
0.05
0.05
0.89
0.47
0.27
0.12
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
CH4 and N2O emissions from agriculture residues removed, collected and burnt ‘off-site’, as a way to reduce
the amount of waste residues, are reported in the waste incineration sub-sector.
Removable residues from agriculture production are estimated for each crop type (cereal, green crop,
permanent cultivation) taking into account the amount of crop produced, the ratio of removable residue in the
crop, the dry matter content of removable residue, the ratio of removable residue burned, the fraction of
residues oxidised in burning, the carbon and nitrogen content of the residues. Most of these wastes refer
especially to pruning of olives and wine, because of the typical national cultivation. Emissions due to stubble
burning, which are emissions only from the agriculture residues burned on field, are reported in the
agriculture sector, under 3.F. Under the waste sector the burning of removable agriculture residues that are
collected and could be managed in different ways (disposed in landfills, used to produce compost or used to
283
produce energy) is reported. Different percentages of the removable agriculture residue burnt for different
residues are assumed, varying from 10% to 90%, according to national and international literature.
Moreover, these removable wastes are assumed to be all burned in open air (e.g. on field) taking in
consideration the higher available CO, NMVOC, PM, PAH and dioxins emission factors. The amount of
these wastes treated differently is not supplied, but they are included in the respective sectors (landfill,
composting, biogas production for energy purposes, etc.).
The methodology is the same used to calculate emissions from residues burned on fields, in the category 3F,
described in details in Chapter 5.
On the basis of carbon and nitrogen content of the residues, CH4 and N2O emissions have been calculated,
both accounting nearly for 100% of the whole emissions from waste incineration. CO2 emissions have been
calculated but not included in the inventory as biomass. All these parameters refer both to the IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) and country-specific values (CESTAAT, 1988; Borgioli, 1981).
The amount of biomass from pruning used for domestic heating is reported in the energy sector in the 1A4b
category as biomass fuel.
As regard incineration of corpses in crematoria, activity data have been supplied by a specific branch of
Federutility, which is the federation of energy and water companies (SEFIT, several years). Emission factors
are from EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2009).
In Table 7.23 time series of cremation as well as annual deaths and crematoria in Italy are reported.
Table 7.23 Cremation time series (activity data), 1990 – 2013
Cremations
(no.
of
corpses)
Deaths (no.
of corpses)
Mortal
remains
(no.)
Cremation
percentage
Crematoria
(no.)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
5,809
15,436
30,167
48,196
77,379
87,871
101,842
110,712
543,700
555,203
560,241
567,304
587,488
593,404
612,883
600,744
1,000
1,750
1,779
9,880
18,899
23,353
29,009
29,588
1.07
2.78
5.38
8.50
13.17
14.81
16.62
18.43
NA
31
35
43
53
56
58
63
The major emissions from crematoria are nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, particulate
matter, mercury, hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), NMVOCs, other heavy metals, and some
POPs. Here below emission factors used for GHG emissions estimate; all emission factors are from
EMEP/EEA, 2009 except for CH4 and N2O, assumed equal to MSW emission factor because not available
from 2009 Guidebook. CO2 emissions have been not calculated for the inventory as human body is
‘biomass’.
In Table 7.24 emission factors for cremation are reported.
284
Table 7.24 Cremation emission factors
POLLUTANT/WASTE
TYPOLOGY
NMVOC
(kg/body)
CO
(kg/body)
N2O
(kg/t)
NOx
(kg/body)
SO2
(kg/body)
CH4
(kg/t)
0.013
0.141
0.1
0.309
0.544
0.06
Cremation
7.4.3
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in emissions from waste incineration is estimated to be about 22.4%, 10% and
20% for activity data and emission factors respectively.
The time series of activity data, distinguished in Municipal Solid Waste and other (including cremation), is
shown in Table 7.25; CO2 emission trends for each type of waste category are reported in Table 7.26, both
for plants without energy recovery, reported under 5C, and plants with energy recovery, reported under
1A4a. In Table 7.27 N2O and CH4 emissions are summarized, including those from open burning and
cremation.
In the period 1990-2013, total CO2 emissions have increased by 318%, but whereas emissions from plants
with energy recovery have increased by nearly 683%, emissions from plants without energy recovery
decreased by 62% (Table 7.25). While CO2 emission trend reported in 5C is influenced by the amount of
waste incinerated in plant without energy recovery, CH4 and N2O emission trend are related to the open
burning, as already reported above.
Table 7.25 Waste incineration activity data, 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
Activity Data
MSW Production (Gg)
MSW Incinerated (%)
- in energy recovery plants
MSW to incineration (Gg)
Industrial, Sanitary, Sewage
Sludge and Waste Oil to
incineration (Gg)
Cremation (no. of corpses)
Total
Waste
to
incineration,
excluding
cremation
(5C and 1A4a) (Gg)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
22,231
4.6%
2.8%
1,026
25,780
5.6%
4.6%
1,437
28,959
8.0%
7.5%
2,325
31,664
10.2%
10.0%
3,220
32,479
13.4%
13.2%
4,337
31,386
15.1%
15.0%
4,733
29,994
14.2%
14.2%
4,257
29,595
14.6%
14.6%
4,316
631
712
737
1,744
2,640
2,028
2,417
2,583
5,809
15,436
30,167
48,196
77,379
87,871
101,842
110,712
1,656
2,149
3,062
4,964
6,977
6,761
6,674
6,898
Table 7.26 CO2 emissions from waste incineration (without and with energy recovery), 1990 – 2013 (Gg)
CO2 Emissions
Incineration of domestic or
municipal wastes (Gg)
Incineration of industrial
wastes (except flaring) (Gg)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
115.47
72.64
47.30
15.02
15.31
11.00
0.44
0.44
257.99
247.11
113.09
185.57
117.40
112.45
135.81
135.99
285
Incineration of hospital wastes
(Gg)
Incineration of waste oil (Gg)
Incineration of corpses
Waste incineration (5C)
(Gg)
Waste incineration reported
under 1A4a (Gg) – not
biomass
Waste incineration reported
under 1A4a (Gg) - biomass
Total waste incineration
(Gg)
131.07
132.73
40.36
24.61
27.12
39.00
57.72
57.80
2.66
NO
1.41
NO
0.82
NO
0.36
NO
0.00
NO
0.00
NO
0.00
NO
0.00
NO
507
454
202
226
160
162
194
194
526
791
1,331
2,781
4,256
3,621
3,906
4,121
337
637
1,161
1,702
2,301
2,522
2,286
2,318
1,033
1,245
1,532
3,007
4,416
3,784
4,100
4,315
Table 7.27 N2O and CH4 emissions from waste incineration (cremation and open burning included), 1990 – 2013
(Gg)
GAS/SUBSOURCE
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.12
0.12
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.05
0.08
0.13
0.27
0.40
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.04
0.08
0.14
0.21
0.28
0.31
0.28
0.28
2.00
2.32
2.23
2.46
2.33
2.31
2.32
2.22
0.03
0.05
0.08
0.16
0.24
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.02
0.05
0.08
0.12
0.17
0.18
0.17
0.17
N2O (Gg)
Waste incineration (5C)
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a – not biomass
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a – biomass
CH4 (Gg)
Waste incineration (5C)
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a – not biomass
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a – biomass
7.4.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Several verification were carried out which led to some recalculations as described in the following
paragraph 7.4.5.
7.4.5
Source-specific recalculations
As planned in the previous submissions a rearrangement of incinerators database has been made. During this
process an in depth analysis about all incineration plants has been carried out with the target to eliminate
double counting and to add eventual not counted plants (Table 7.28).
286
Table 7.28 Differences in percentages between time series reported in the updated time series and 2014
submission
GAS/SUBSOURCE
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2013
-
-
-
-
-5%
-6%
14%
-
-
-
-
0%
-11%
0%
-2%
-2%
-3%
-3%
-4%
-2%
2%
-
-
-
-
0%
-10%
-1%
-4%
-4%
-4%
-4%
-4%
-4%
-4%
-
-
-
-
0%
-10%
-1%
CO2 (Gg)
Waste incineration (6C)
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a
N2O (Gg)
Waste incineration (6C)
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a
CH4 (Gg)
Waste incineration (6C)
MSW incineration reported
under 1A4a
The analysis regarding incineration plants has been conducted through verifications and comparisons with
data reported in E-PRTR registry, Emissions Trading Scheme and updated data of waste amount and
pollutants emissions (ENEA-federAmbiente, 2012). These investigations have led, in the previous
submission, to the right allocation of some plants erroneously reported as incinerators whilst boilers and
cement kiln facility already considered in the energy sector have been deleted. In the current submission,
recalculations occurred since 2010 because of the update of plants activity data.
Recalculations in N2O and CH4 emissions occurred because of updates in agriculture waste activity data.
7.4.6
Source-specific planned improvements
An assessment of the changes in GHG EFs across the time series with the aim of reflecting efficiency
improvements or other changes with time is planned for the future.
7.5
Wastewater handling (5D)
7.5.1
Source category description
Under source category 5D, CH4 and N2O are estimated both from domestic and industrial wastewater.
The principal by-product of the anaerobic decomposition of the organic matter in wastewater is methane gas.
Normally, CH4 emissions are not encountered in untreated wastewater because even small amounts of
oxygen tend to be toxic to the organisms responsible for the production of methane. Occasionally, however,
as a result of anaerobic decay in accumulated bottom deposits, methane can be produced. Again, wastewater
collected in closed underground sewers is not believed to be a significant source of CH4 (IPCC, 2006).
In 2013, about 95% of population is served by sewer systems, whereas 80% of population is served by
wastewater treatment plants (BLUE BOOK, several years; COVIRI, several years; ISTAT [d], [e], several
years). In 1990, the percentage of population served by sewer system was 57%, whereas only 52% of
287
population was served by wastewater treatment plants (BLUE BOOK, several years; COVIRI, several years;
ISTAT [d], [e], several years).
In Italy, domestic wastewater follow the treatment systems and discharge pathways reported in Figure (7.4),
whereas in brown are enhanced CH4 sources.
Domestic/industrial
wastewater
Collected
Untreated
Sea, lakes, river
discharge
Uncollected
Treated
Flowing sewer
Sea, lakes, river
discharge
Sewered to plant
Wastewater
treatment plants
Imhoff
Latrine
Figure 7.4 Domestic wastewater treatment system and discharge pathways
In the framework of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD, 2011) regarding agglomerations
≥ 2,000 p.e. (population equivalent) and referred to reporting year 2007, Italy reported the following data:
3,246 agglomerations ≥ 2,000 p.e. and 97.8% of all agglomerations have a collecting system in place; 2,942
of these agglomerations (or 90.6% of the total generated load) have installations for secondary treatment in
place, while 2,584 agglomerations (or 79.6% of the total generated load) have more stringent treatment
installations in place.
On the contrary, in treatment plants, methane is produced from the anaerobic treatment process used to
stabilised wastewater sludge.
The plant typology is usually distinguished in ‘primary’ (only physical-chemical unit operations such as
sedimentation), ‘secondary’ (biological unit process) or ‘advanced’ treatments, defined as those additional
treatments needed to remove suspended and dissolved substances remaining after conventional secondary
treatment.
In urban areas, wastewater handling is managed mainly using a secondary treatment, with aerobic biological
units: a wastewater treatment plant standard design consists of bar racks, grit chamber, primary
288
sedimentation, aeration tanks (with return sludge), settling tank, chlorine contact chamber. The stabilization
of sludge occurs in aerobic or anaerobic reactors; where anaerobic digestion is used, the reactors are covered
and provided of gas recovery.
On the contrary, in rural areas, wastewaters are treated in Imhoff tanks or in other on-site systems, such as
latrines.
For high strength organic waste, such as some industrial wastewater, anaerobic process is recommended also
for wastewater besides sludge treatment.
It is assumed that industrial wastewaters are treated 85% aerobically and 15% anaerobically (IRSA-CNR,
1998).
Emissions from methane recovered, used for energy purposes, in wastewater treatment plants are estimated
and reported under category 1A4a, as reported in Table 7.12.
7.5.2
Methodological issues
Emissions from domestic wastewater – CH4
CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater are estimated using a Tier 2 approach, according to new 2006
IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
The general equation used to estimate CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater is:
CH4 emissions = [ Σi,j ( Ui * Ti,j * EFj )] * (TOW - S) - R (kg CH4/yr)
where:
TOW = total organics in wastewater in inventory year (kg BOD/yr)
S = organic component removed as sludge in inventory year (kg BOD/yr)
Ui = fraction of population in income group i in inventory year
Ti,j = degree of utilisation of treatment/discharge pathway or system, j, for each income group fraction i in
inventory year
i = income group: rural and urban high income (urban low income is not considered in national inventory, for
the typical Italian urbanization)
j = each treatment/discharge pathway or system
EFj = emission factor (kg CH4/kg BOD)
R = amount of CH4 recovered in inventory year (kg CH4/yr)
An in-depth analysis of national circumstances has been made, collecting many statistical data on population
and on urban wastewater treatment plants (BLUE BOOK, several years; COVIRI, several years; ISTAT,
1984; ISTAT, 1987; ISTAT, 1991; ISTAT, 1993; ISTAT [a], [b], 1998; ISTAT [d], [e], several years).
289
Some data, such as the degree of collected or treated wastewater are available for specific year, so the entire
time series has been reconstructed with interpolation of data.
In the following tables (7.29, 7.30, 7.31), domestic wastewater population data are reported.
Table 7.29 Population data for domestic wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (*1000)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Total Population
57,104
Urban high-income Population 53,272
Rural Population
3,831
Population served by collected
57.0
wastewater systems (%)
Population served by wastewater
51.9
treatment plants (%)
57,333
53,623
3,710
57,844
54,255
3,589
58,752
55,330
3,422
60,626
57,280
3,347
59,434
56,111
3,322
59,394
56,096
3,298
59,685
56,411
3,274
69.8
86.0
83.0
90.1
91.6
93.1
94.5
58.0
60.0
69.0
76.1
77.3
78.5
79.7
Population Activity Data
Table 7.30 Urban high-income Population for domestic wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (*1000)
Urban high-income Population 1990
Population not served by
22,900
collected wastewater systems
Population served by collected
30,372
wastewater systems
Pop. collected and treated 15,775
Pop. collected untreated 14,597
sea/lake/river discharge 8,758
flowing sewer discharge 5,839
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
16,190
7,596
9,406
5,655
4,716
3,871
3,084
37,433
46,659
45,924
51,624
51,395
52,225
53,327
21,705
15,728
9,437
6,291
27,996
18,664
11,198
7,465
31,687
14,236
8,542
5,695
39,295
12,329
7,398
4,932
39,742
11,653
6,992
4,661
40,997
11,228
6,737
4,491
42,525
10,802
6,481
4,321
Table 7.31 Rural Population data for domestic wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (*1000)
1990
Rural Population
Population not served by
1,647
collected wastewater systems
Population served by collected
2,184
wastewater systems
Pop. treated in Imhoff tanks
506
Pop. treated in latrines
1,679
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
1,120
502
582
330
279
228
179
2,590
3,087
2,840
3,016
3,043
3,071
3,095
776
1,814
1,014
2,073
561
2,279
762
2,254
827
2,216
952
2,119
908
2,187
The emission factor for a wastewater treatment and discharge pathway and system is a function of the
maximum CH4 production potential B0 and the methane correction factor (MCF) for the wastewater
treatment and discharge system, as indicated as following:
EFj = B0 * MCFj
The default B0 value (0.6 kg CH4/kg BOD) and default MCF values have been used.
290
Type of treatment and discharge
pathway or system
MCF
Untreated system
Sea, river and lake discharge
Flowing sewer
Treated system
Centralized, aerobic treatment plants
Anaerobic digester for sludge
Imhoff tanks
Latrines
0.1
0
0.05
0.8
0.5
0.1
The total amount of organically degradable material in the wastewater is calculated from the human
population and the BOD generation per person:
TOW = P * BOD * 0.001 * I * 365
where:
TOW = total organics in wastewater in inventory year (kg BOD/yr)
P = country population in inventory year (person)
BOD = country specific per capita BOD in inventory year (g/person/day)
0.001 = conversion from grams to kg BOD
I = correction factor for additional industrial BOD discharged into sewers (I = 1.25, IPCC 2006).
The organic load in biochemical oxygen demand per person is equal to 60 g BOD5 capita-1 d-1, as defined by
national legislation and expert estimations (Legislative Decree 11 May 1999, no.152; Masotti, 1996; Metcalf
and Eddy, 1991). In the following table 7.32, the total amount of organically degradable material expressed
in tons, calculated for each treatment/discharge pathway or system is reported.
Table 7.32 Total organically degradable material in domestic wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (t BOD)
TOW (t BOD)
Urban high-income
Population
TOW uncollected
wastewater
TOW wastewater
treatment plant
TOW sludge
TOW untreated
(sea/lake/river)
TOW untreated (flowing
sewer)
Rural Population
TOW uncollected
wastewater
TOW Imhoff
TOW latrines
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
626,899
443,188
207,932
257,490
154,816
129,099
105,958
84,431
431,834
594,178
766,379
867,439 1,075,701 1,087,937 1,122,291 1,164,122
215,917
297,089
383,189
433,720
537,850
543,968
561,146
582,061
239,754
258,334
306,551
233,832
202,510
191,407
184,427
177,423
159,836
172,223
204,368
155,888
135,007
127,604
122,952
118,282
45,088
30,665
13,755
15,925
9,045
7,644
6,230
4,900
13,842
45,956
21,246
49,656
27,755
56,740
15,358
62,395
20,853
61,716
22,641
60,666
26,057
58,001
24,846
59,878
291
As previously reported, in Italy wastewater handling is managed mainly using a secondary treatment, with
aerobic biological units. The stabilization of sludge occurs in aerobic or anaerobic reactors covered and
provided of gas recovery. All the anaerobic digestion systems are equipped with systems to collect the
methane produced. The methane collected is partly flared and partly used for energy purposes. The total
methane recovered is estimated on the basis of the methane production and the efficiency of captation.
Where anaerobic digestion of sludge is used, the reactors are covered and provided of gas recovery and the
efficiency of captation is equal to 100%.
CH4 emissions from sludge have been subtracted from the total amount of CH4 produced, because emissions
from sludge from wastewater treatment are considered in landfills, agricultural soils and incineration.
Moreover, CH4 recovery has been distinguished between flaring and CH4 recovery for energy generation,
which has been reported in the Energy Sector.
Emissions from domestic wastewater –N2O
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can occur as direct and indirect emissions. Direct emissions occur from
nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment plants, whereas indirect emissions are those from
wastewater after disposal of effluent into waterways, lakes or sea.
Emissions from advanced centralised wastewater treatment plants are typically much smaller than those from
effluent and are estimated using the method reported in Box 6.1 of the Volume 5, Chapter 6 of new 2006
IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006).
Direct emissions
N2OPLANTS = P *TPLANT * FIND-COM * EFPLANT
where:
N2OPLANTS = total N2O emissions from plants in inventory year (kg N2O/yr)
P = human population
TPLANT = degree of utilization of modern, centralised wastewater treatment plants (%)
FIND-COM = fraction of industrial and commercial co-discharged protein (default = 1.25)
EFPLANT = emission factor, 3.2 g N2O/person/year
Indirect emissions
N2OEMISSIONS = NEFFLUENT * EFEFFLUENT * 44/28
where:
N2OEMISSIONS = N2O emissions in inventory year (kg N2O/yr)
NEFFLUENT = nitrogen in the effluent discharged to aquatic environments (kg N/yr)
EFEFFLUENT = emission factor for N2O emissions from discharged to wastewater (kg N2O-N/kg N)
292
Moreover:
NEFFLUENT = NEFFLUENT TOT - NSLUDGE = (P * Protein * FNPR * FNON-CON *FIND-COM) – NSLUDGE
where:
NEFFLUENT = nitrogen in the effluent discharged to aquatic environments (kg N/yr)
P = human population
Protein = annual per capita protein consumption (kg/person/yr)
FNPR = fraction of nitrogen in protein (default = 0.16 kg N/kg protein)
FNON-COM = fraction of non consumed protein added to the wastewater
FIND-COM = fraction of industrial and commercial co-discharged protein (default = 1.25)
NSLUDGE = nitrogen removed with sludge (kg N/yr)
The time series of the protein intake is from the yearly FAO Food Balance (FAO, several years) and refers to
the Italian value. The estimation procedure checks for consistency with sludge produced and sludge
applications, as sludge applied to agriculture soils, sludge incinerated, sludge composting and sludge
deposited in solid waste disposal. Sludge spreading is subtracted from nitrogen in the effluent discharged to
aquatic environments and is not accounted for twice.
For the parameter FNON-COM the value of 1.1 it is assumed, because, even if Italy is a developed country,
garbage disposals of food that is not consumed and may be washed down the drain are not used.
Emissions from industrial wastewater – CH4
The methane estimation concerning industrial wastewaters makes use of the IPCC method based on
wastewater output and the respective degradable organic carbon for each major industrial wastewater source.
Default emission factors of methane per Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) equal to 0.25 kg CH4 kg-1 COD,
suggested in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), has been used for the whole time series.
It is assumed that industrial wastewaters are treated 85% aerobically and 15% anaerobically (IRSA-CNR,
1998).
Data have been collected for several industrial sectors (iron and steel, refineries, organic chemicals, food and
beverage, paper and pulp, textiles and leather industry). The total amount of organic material, for each
industry selected, has been calculated multiplying the annual production (t year-1) by the amount of
wastewater consumption per unit of product (m3 t-1) and by the degradable organic component (kg COD
(m3)-1). Moreover, the fraction of industrial degradable organic component removed as sludge has been
assumed equal to zero. The yearly industrial productions are reported in the national statistics (ISTAT,
several years [a], [b] and [c]), whereas the wastewater consumption factors and the degradable organic
component are either from 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) or from national references. National data
have been used in the calculation of the total amount of both COD produced and wastewater output specified
as follows: refineries (UP, several years), organic chemicals (FEDERCHIMICA, several years), beer
(Assobirra, several years), wine, milk and sugar sectors (ANPA-ONR, 2001), pulp and paper sector (ANPAFLORYS, 2001; Assocarta, several years), and leather sector (ANPA-FLORYS, 2000; UNIC, several years).
In Table 7.33 detailed references for 2013 are reported: for these national data, slightly differences within the
years can occur.
293
Emissions from industrial wastewater – N2O
N2O emissions from industrial wastewater have been estimated on the basis of the emission factors equal to
0.25 g N2O/m3 of wastewater production (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2007). The wastewater production is resulting
from the model for the estimation of methan
e emissions from industrial wastewater.
Table 7.33 Wastewater generation and COD values, 2013.
Wastewater
generation
References
COD (g/l)
References
(m3/t)
1.5
IPCC, 2000
0.1
IPCC, 2000
UNIONE PETROLIFERA supplies Total COD generated per year
FEDERCHIMICA,
22.33
3
IPCC, 2000
several years
5.5
IPCC, 2000
5.5
IPCC, 2000
0.6
IPCC, 2000
3.7
IPCC, 2000
3
IPCC, 2000
0.9
IPCC, 2000
Coke
Petroleum Refineries
Organic Chemicals
Paints
Plastics and Resins
Soap and Detergents
Vegetables, Fruits
Juices
Sugar Refining
Vegetable Oils
Dairy Products
Wine and Vinegar
Beer and Malt
Alcohol Refining
Meat and Poultry
and
20
IPCC, 2000
5.2
IPCC, 2000
4
3.1
3.87
3.8
5
24
13
ANPA-ONR, 2001
IPCC, 2000
ANPA-ONR, 2001
ANPA-ONR, 2001
Assobirra, several years
IPCC, 2000
IPCC, 2000
same value of Meat and
Poultry
2.5
1.2
2.7
0.2
2.9
11.0
4.1
ANPA-ONR, 2001
IPCC, 2000
ANPA-ONR, 2001
ANPA-ONR, 2001
IPCC, 2000
IPCC, 2000
IPCC, 2000
2.5
IPCC, 2000
Fish Processing
13
Paper
28
Assocarta, several years
0.1
Pulp
28
Assocarta, several years
0.1
60
350
0.11
IPCC, 1995
IPCC, 1995
UNIC, several years
1.0
1.0
4.57
Textiles (dyeing)
Textiles (bleaching)
Leather
7.5.3
ANPA-FLORYS,
2001; Assocarta,
several years
ANPA-FLORYS,
2001; Assocarta,
several years
IPCC, 2000
IPCC, 2000
UNIC, several years
Uncertainty and time-series consistency
The combined uncertainty in CH4 and N2O emissions from wastewater handling is estimated to be about
102% in annual emissions 100% and 20% for activity data and emission factor respectively, as derived by
the IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2006).
Concerning domestic wastewater, CH4 emission trends are shown in Table 7.34, whereas the emission trend
for N2O emissions is shown in Table 7.35.
294
Table 7.34 CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (t)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
37,614
26,591
12,476
15,449
9,289
7,746
6,358
5,066
6,478
8,913
11,496
13,012
16,136
16,319
16,834
17,462
103,640
142,603
183,931
208,185
258,168
261,105
269,350
279,389
14,385
15,500
18,393
14,030
12,151
11,484
11,066
10,645
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,705
1,840
825
956
543
459
374
294
4,153
6,374
8,327
4,608
6,256
6,792
7,817
7,454
2,757
2,979
3,404
3,744
3,703
3,640
3,480
3,593
CH4 total produced
CH4 recovered
CH4 flared
CH4 energy recovery
171,732
103,640
103,640
0
204,800
142,603
141,883
719
238,852
183,931
182,468
1,463
259,983
208,185
207,418
767
306,245
258,168
251,405
6,763
307,545
261,105
246,116
14,989
315,278
269,350
250,021
19,329
323,903
279,389
252,985
26,404
CH4 total emissions
68,092
62,197
54,921
51,798
48,077
46,440
45,929
44,514
CH4 Emissions (t)
Urban high-income
Population
CH4 uncollected
wastewater
CH4 wastewater treatment
plant
CH4 anaerobic digestion
CH4 untreated
(sea/lake/river)
CH4 untreated (flowing
sewer)
Rural Population
CH4 uncollected
wastewater
CH4 Imhoff
CH4 latrines
Table 7.35 N2O emissions from domestic wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (t)
N2O Emissions (t)
N2O emissions from
wastewater effluent
(Indirect emissions)
N2O emissions from
wastewater treatment
plants (Direct emissions)
N2O total emissions
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
3,933
3,820
4,073
4,069
4,177
4,032
4,089
4,139
87.4
85.0
92.5
156.5
153.6
146.7
142.7
143.4
4,021
3,905
4,166
4,226
4,330
4,179
4,232
4,283
The amount of total industrial wastewater production is reported, for each sector, in Table 7.36.
CH4 emission trend for industrial wastewater handling for different sectors is shown in Table 7.37, whereas
the emission trend for N2O emissions from industrial wastewater handling is shown in Table 7.38.
Concerning CH4 emissions from industrial wastewater, neither wastewater flow nor average COD value
change much over time, therefore emissions are stable and mainly related to the production data.
295
Table 7.36 Total industrial wastewater production by sector, 1990 – 2013 (1000 m3)
Wastewater production
(1000 m3)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Iron and steel
Oil refinery
Organic chemicals
Food and beverage
Pulp and paper
Textile industry
Leather industry
9.53
NA
210.94
179.12
377.17
108.46
23.62
7.78
NA
212.32
177.38
402.95
103.05
25.00
6.76
NA
215.05
182.74
387.28
101.57
27.22
6.86
NA
214.74
185.66
366.02
75.49
18.32
6.17
NA
214.12
186.26
232.69
64.36
14.25
7.18
NA
213.69
182.55
264.24
57.85
14.51
6.28
NA
213.20
182.94
250.98
49.83
13.57
3.98
NA
213.24
177.14
263.07
50.38
13.84
Total
908.84
928.48
920.61
867.09
717.85
740.02
716.80
721.64
Table 7.37 CH4 emissions from anaerobic industrial wastewater treatment, 1990 – 2013 (kt)
CH4 Emissions (kt)
Iron and steel
Oil refinery
Organic chemicals
Food and beverage
Pulp and paper
Textile industry
Leather industry
Total
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
0.036
5.850
23.794
22.946
0.923
4.067
3.192
0.029
5.625
23.911
22.112
0.986
3.864
3.378
0.025
4.250
24.173
22.871
1.055
3.809
3.677
0.026
4.750
24.177
23.197
0.997
2.831
2.901
0.023
4.750
24.069
23.447
0.544
2.414
2.517
0.027
4.750
23.999
23.070
0.578
2.169
2.449
0.024
4.750
23.892
23.055
0.683
1.869
2.313
0.015
4.750
23.897
22.477
0.716
1.889
2.369
60.81
59.91
59.86
58.88
57.76
57.04
56.59
56.11
Table 7.38 N2O emissions from industrial wastewater, 1990 – 2013 (kt)
N2O Emissions (kt)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
2013
Industrial wastewater
0.227
0.232
0.230
0.217
0.179
0.185
0.179
0.180
7.5.4
Source-specific QA/QC and verification
Where information is available, wastewater flows and COD concentrations are checked with those reported
yearly by the industrial sectoral reports or technical documentation developed in the framework of the
Integrated Pollution and Prevention Control (IPPC) Directive of the European Union (http://eippcb.jrc.es).
Moreover, in the framework of EPER/E-PRTR registry the methodology used to estimate emissions from
wastewater handling can be used by the operators of wastewater treatment plants to check if their emission
data exceed the reporting threshold values.
Finally, a Ph.D. thesis on GHG emissions from wastewater handling has been carried out at Environmental,
Hydraulic, Infrastructures and Surveying Engineering Department (DIIAR) of Politecnico di Milano (Solini,
2010), where national methodology has been compared with that reported in 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC,
2006) and with a methodology developed in the framework of a previous thesis Ph.D. for the estimation of
emissions from wastewater treatment plants located in Regione Lombardia.
296
7.5.5
Source-specific recalculations
Recalculations in the sector have been done because the application of new 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC,
2006) for domestic wastewater. More in detail, CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater have been
estimated using a Tier 2 approach, according to the Guidelines. The new methodology, in addition to the
previous one, takes in account information as the fraction of population depending from rural and urban high
income and the degree of utilisation of treatment/discharge pathway or system, not considered in previous
estimates. An in-depth analysis of national circumstances has been made, collecting many statistical data on
population and on urban wastewater treatment plants and allowing the application of the Tier 2 which result
in higher emissions for the years 1990-1997 and lower from 1998, especially because of the increase of
waste water collection and treatment. N2O emissions from domestic wastewater have been estimated taking
in account direct and indirect emissions. The decrease of emissions along the timeseries is due to two
opposite factors; from one side the new estimation model for indirect emissions, considering additional non
consumed protein and industrial protein discharged in the sewer system, results in an increase of the amount
of N in effluent while the default EF kg N2O-N/ Kg N is now equal to 0.005 instead of 0.01.
Table 7.39 Differences in percentages between time series reported in the updated time series and 2014
submission
Emissions from domestic
wastewater
CH4 emissions
N2O emissions
7.5.6
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2011
2012
50.1%
-41.3%
26.5%
-40.8%
3.7%
-43.5%
-36.7%
-40.4%
-50.5%
-43.3%
-56.7%
-45.4%
-59.3%
-43.2%
Source-specific planned improvements
Further improvements are planned for industrial wastewater.
297
8 RECALCULATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS
8.1
Explanations and justifications for recalculations
To meet the requirements of transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy of the
inventory, the entire time series from 1990 onwards is checked and revised every year during the annual
compilation of the inventory. Measures to guarantee and improve these qualifications are undertaken and
recalculations should be considered as a contribution to the overall improvement of the inventory.
Recalculations are elaborated on account of changes in the methodologies used to carry out emission
estimates, changes due to different allocation of emissions as compared to previous submissions, changes
due to error corrections and in consideration of new available information.
The complete revised CRFs from 1990 to 2012 have been submitted as well as the CRF for the year 2013.
Explanatory information on the recalculations involving methodological changes between the 2014 and 2015
submissions are reported in Table 8.1.
The revisions that lead to relevant changes in GHG emissions are pointed out in the specific sectoral chapters
and summarized in the following section 8.4.1.
8.2
Implications for emission levels
The time series reported in the 2014 submission and the actual one (2015 submission) are summarised in
Table 8.2 by gas; differences in emission levels due to recalculations are also reported.
Improvements in the calculation of emission estimates as well as the application of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines have led to a recalculation of the entire time series of the national inventory. Considering total
GHG emissions without LULUCF, estimates show an increase in comparison with the last year submission,
equal to 0.4% for the base year and 1.9% for 2012. Considering the national total with the LULUCF sector,
the base year has increased by 0.03% and the 2012 emission levels by 1.5%.
Detailed explanations of these recalculations are provided in the sectoral chapters.
298
Table 8.1 Explanations of the main recalculations in the 2015 submission
Implementing Regulation Article 16: Reporting on major changes to methodological descriptions
Please report the major changes to the methodological descriptions in the national inventory report
Member State:
ITALY
Reporting year:
2015
GREENHOUSE GAS
SOURCE AND SINK
CATEGORIES
DESCRIPTION OF
METHODS
RECALCULATIONS
REFERENCE
Please mark the
relevant cell where the
latest NIR includes
major changes in
methodological
descriptions compared
to the NIR of the
previous year
Please mark the relevant
cell where this is also
reflected in recalculations
compared to the previous
years’ CRF
If the cell is marked please provide a
reference to the relevant section or
pages in the NIR and if applicable
some more detailed information such
as the sub-category or gas concerned
for which the description was
changed.
Total (Net Emissions)
1. Energy
A.
Fuel
Combustion
(sectoral approach)
1. Energy industries
2.
Manufacturing
industries and construction
3. Transport
4. Other sector
5. Other
B. Fugitive emissions from
fuels
1. Solid fuels
2. Oil and natural gas
and other emissions from
energy production
C. CO2
storage
transport
and
2. Industrial processes and
product use
A. Mineral industry
B. Chemical industry
C. Metal industry
D. Non-energy products
from fuels and solvent use
E. Electronic industry
F.
Product
uses
as
299
substitutes for ODS
G.
Other
product
manufacture and use
X
X
§4 - SF6 emissions from research
particle accelerators have been added
according to the IPCC 2006 Guidelines
X
X
§7.2.5 - Revision of the amount of
biogas recovered for energy purposes in
landfills
X
X
§7.5 - Complete revision of the
methodology of the category according
to the IPCC 2006 Guidelines (both CH4
H. Other
3. Agriculture
A. Enteric fermentation
B. Manure management
C. Rice cultivation
D. Agricultural soils
E. Prescribed burning of
savannahs
F. Field burning
agricultural residues
of
G. Liming
H. Urea application
I. Other carbon containing
fertilisers
J. Other
4. Land use, land-use
change and forestry
A. Forest land
B. Cropland
C. Grassland
D. Wetlands
E. Settlements
F. Other land
G.
Harvested
products
wood
H. Other
5. Waste
A. Solid waste disposal
B. Biological treatment of
solid waste
C. Incineration and open
burning of waste
D. Wastewater treatment
and discharge
300
and N2O)
E. Other
6. Other (as specified in
Summary 1.A)
KP LULUCF
Article 3.3 activities
Afforestation/reforestation
Deforestation
Article 3.4 activities
Forest management
Cropland management (if
elected)
Grazing land management
(if elected)
Revegetation (if elected)
Wetland drainage
rewetting (if elected)
and
NIR Chapter
DESCRIPTION
REFERENCE
Please mark the cell
where the latest NIR
includes major changes
in descriptions
compared to the
previous year NIR
If the cell is marked please provide
some more detailed information for
example reference to pages in the NIR
Chapter 1.2 Description of
national inventory
arrangements
301
Table 8.2 Differences in time series between the 2015 and 2014 submissions due to recalculations
subm
Net CO2
emissions/removals
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
CO2 emissions
(without LULUCF)
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
CH4 emissions
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
CH4 emissions
(without LULUCF)
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
N2O emissions
(Gg CO2-eq.)
1990
1995
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2015
428,785
423,110
445,744
459,864
440,466
389,113
394,255
387,485
368,830
2014
429,213
420,729
444,257
458,089
437,299
386,425
393,426
393,585
366,803
2015
-0.10%
436,204
0.57%
447,201
0.33%
465,173
0.39%
491,006
0.72%
467,984
0.70%
418,887
0.21%
428,936
-1.55%
416,663
0.55%
391,067
2014
434,656
444,944
462,278
488,078
463,696
414,810
424,993
413,379
386,667
0.36%
55,640
45,254
22.95%
53,966
0.51%
54,407
44,686
21.75%
54,023
0.63%
55,981
46,692
19.89%
55,034
0.60%
50,716
41,440
22.39%
50,337
0.92%
47,985
38,566
24.42%
47,500
0.98%
47,645
38,464
23.87%
47,047
0.93%
46,992
37,547
25.16%
46,634
0.79%
46,444
36,208
28.27%
45,880
1.14%
46,711
35,793
30.50%
45,507
2015
2014
2015
2014
43,766
44,342
45,850
41,102
38,141
37,947
37,233
35,722
34,747
2015
2014
23.31%
27,435
37,808
21.83%
28,662
38,670
20.03%
29,643
39,765
22.47%
28,489
37,863
24.54%
21,185
29,841
23.98%
20,218
28,311
25.25%
19,380
27,264
28.43%
19,446
27,059
30.97%
19,752
28,016
-27.44%
-25.88%
-25.46%
-24.76%
-29.01%
-28.59%
-28.92%
-28.13%
-29.50%
2015
27,130
28,520
29,463
28,395
21,050
20,055
19,263
19,296
19,517
2014
37,462
38,499
39,561
37,754
29,686
28,126
27,129
26,889
27,754
2015
-27.58%
444
-25.92%
813
-25.53%
2,098
-24.79%
5,998
-29.09%
8,379
-28.70%
9,095
-29.00%
9,725
-28.24%
10,326
-29.68%
10,856
2014
351
680
1,838
5,148
7,162
7,769
8,299
8,804
9,246
26.50%
19.66%
14.17%
16.52%
17.00%
17.07%
17.19%
17.29%
17.41%
2015
2,907
1,450
1,388
1,940
1,712
1,215
1,520
1,661
1,499
2014
1,266
14.53%
664
1,217
14.03%
561
1,715
13.12%
547
1,501
14.11%
493
1,063
14.35%
469
1,331
14.24%
391
1,455
14.21%
438
1,314
14.09%
442
Differences
N2O emissions
(without LULUCF)
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
HFCs
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
PFCs (Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
SF6
(Gg CO2-eq.)
2015
2,487
16.89%
408
2014
333
601
493
465
436
398
373
351
356
Differences
NF3
(Gg CO2-eq.)
22.43%
10.36%
2015
13.64%
26
17.56%
33
13.15%
19
17.80%
18
4.63%
20
24.67%
28
24.31%
25
2015
515,619
509,107
535,440
547,589
520,239
467,773
472,283
465,829
448,115
2014
515,446
506,632
534,263
544,719
514,803
462,430
468,239
467,463
441,527
2015
0.03%
521,058
0.49%
532,672
0.22%
553,742
0.53%
578,258
1.06%
547,137
1.16%
496,787
0.86%
506,489
-0.35%
494,292
1.49%
468,913
2014
519,055
530,333
551,237
574,262
540,620
490,113
499,359
486,601
460,083
0.39%
0.44%
0.45%
0.70%
1.21%
1.36%
1.43%
1.58%
1.92%
Differences
Total
(with LULUCF)
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
Total
(without LULUCF)
(Gg CO2-eq.)
Differences
8.3
2014
Implications for emission trends, including time series consistency
302
Recalculations account for an improvement in the overall emission trend and consistency in time series.
Recalculations account for an improvement in the overall emission trend and consistency in time series.
In comparison with the time series submitted in 2014, emission levels of the base year, as total emissions in
CO2 equivalent without LULUCF, slightly changed (+0.4%) due to the revisions previously described.
If considering emission levels with LULUCF, an increase by 0.03% is observed between the 2015 and 2014
total figures in CO2 equivalent.
The trend ‘base year- year 2012’ does not show a significant change from the previous to this year
submission; the reduction in emissions, 1990-2012, is equal now to 10.0% whereas it was 11.3% in the last
year submission.
8.4
Recalculations,
improvements
response
to
the
review
process
and
planned
This chapter summarises the recalculations and improvements made to the Italian GHG inventory since the
last year submission.
In addition to a new year, the inventory is updated annually by a revision of the existing activity data and
emission factors in order to include new information available; the update could also reflect the revision of
methodologies. Revisions always apply to the whole time series.
The inventory may also be expanded by including categories not previously estimated if sufficient
information on activity data and suitable emission factors have been identified and collected.
8.4.1
Recalculations
The key differences in emission estimates occurred since the last year submission are reported in Table 8.1
and Table 8.2. For this year submission, main recalculations are due to the application of the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines; changes involved emission factors, parameters and methodologies.
Besides the usual updating of activity data, recalculations may be distinguished in methodological changes,
source allocation and error corrections.
All sectors were involved in methodological changes. Specifically:
Energy. Recalculations regarded the whole sector due to the application of the IPCC 2006 Guidelines which
provide new default emission and oxidation factors for all the fuels In particular in the guidelines (IPCC,
2006) oxidation factors are supposed to be equal to 1 for all the fuels. Time series have been reconstructed
for all the fuels taking in account the default values proposed by the Guidelines and national circumstances.
The whole time series of road transport emissions has been recalculated because of the update of activity
data and parameters used to estimate emissions; in particular a global revision of circulation parameters has
been carried out. Waste fuel consumption for commercial heating activity data has been updated from 2010
because the update of activity data for industrial waste. Biomass activity data for heating has been
recalculated for the whole time series according to updated heat values. With regard to fugitive emissions,
the major update regards the application of the 2006 Guidelines; in particular CO2 emissions from venting
have been estimated and added to the inventory. Other minor changes in activity data occurred for 2012,
including the update of the number of movements for shipping activities.
303
IPPU. In response to the review process, CO2 emission factor for clinker production has been revised from
1990 to 2004 as well as for lime production along the timeseries. In accordance with 2006 IPCC guidelines
CO2 emission factor for ammonia production and from calcium carbide production and use has been updated
along the whole time series. Following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines emissions from the use of paraffin, waxes
and urea have been estimated as well as SF6 emissions from research particle accelerators.
Agriculture. For CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation the coefficient for calculating net energy for
maintenance (NEm) and the methane conversion factor (YM) for dairy cattle and buffalo have been updated on
the basis of the default values published in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for the whole time series. Regarding
manure management CH4 emissions have been recalculated due to the updating of the default EF by average
annual temperature for goats, horses, mules and asses, poultry, rabbits as reported in the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines and N2O emissions have been recalculated due to the updating of the default EF for direct N2O
emissions. For CH4 emissions from rice cultivation the daily EF for continuously flooded fields without
organic amendments for multiple aeration regime has been revised from 2009 and the combustion factor
value for rice residues has been updated for the whole time series, accoreding to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines.
Many changes regarded N2O emissions from soils which have been recalculated for the whole time series
according to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Detailed recalculations are reported in the sectoral chapter; those
main affecting the recalculation are the addition of indirect N2O emissions from organic N applied as
fertilizer (e.g., compost and other organic N) and from N in crop residues and the update of the default EFs
for direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed soils. Liming activity data have been updated for 20102012 and data have been estimated for the period 1990-1997, since these data haven’t been made available
for that period and CO2 emissions from Urea application have been included in the sector according to the
Guidelines.
LULUCF. Besides the implementation of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines, in term of updated default values, in
response to the 2014 review’s recommendation emissions from land converted to wetlands (flooded land)
has been estimated as well as carbon stock changes related to living biomass for grassland converted to
settlements. In addition, default IPCC emission factor related to the to the amount of N2O emitted from the
various synthetic and organic N applications to soils, including crop residue and mineralisation of soil
organic carbon in mineral soils due to land-use change or management has been updated (from 1.25% to 1%,
as compared to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines). Harvested wood products estimates are reported for the first time
in the current submission.
Waste. The availability of data regarding the physical amount (instead of GWh) of biogas recovered for
energy purposes led to recalculations since 1998 of CH4 emissions from landfills. Main recalculations in the
sector have been done because the application of new 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) for domestic
wastewater as explained in the relevant paragraph.
8.4.2
Response to the UNFCCC review process
A complete list of improvements following the UNFCCC review process is reported in Annex 12.
Improvements regarded the completeness and transparency of the information reported in the NIR.
More information on the trend emissions has been provided in the energy sector and information on charcoal
production, more information on methodology used to estimate emissions for industrial processes
(specifically, lime production, limestone and dolomite use and F-gases estimations), agriculture sector
304
(manure management and lime application) and LULUCF has been added and the description of country
specific methods and the rationale behind the choice of emission factors, activity data and other related
parameters for different sector has been better detailed.
8.4.3
Planned improvements (e.g., institutional arrangements, inventory preparation)
The main institutional and legal arrangements required under the Kyoto Protocol have been finalized. Main
improvements are related to the finalization of activities defined in the framework of national registry for
forest carbon sinks, specifically related to the land and land-use changes identification. Time series related to
the different IPCC categories areas have been assembled using IUTI data, and the data assessed by the
national forest inventories (1985, 2005, 2012). Additional information is provided in Annex 10.
Specific improvements are identified in the relevant chapters and specified in the 2015 QA/QC plan; they
can be summarized in the following.
For the energy and industrial sectors, the database where information collected in the framework of different
EU legislation, Large Combustion Plant, E-PRTR and Emissions Trading, is annually updated and improved.
The database has helped highlighting the main discrepancies in information and detecting potential errors
leading to a better use of these data in the national inventory.
For the agriculture and waste sectors, improvements will be related to the availability of new information on
emission factors, activity data as well as parameters necessary to carry out the estimates; specifically, for
agriculture, improvements are expected for the grazing, housing, storage systems and land spreading
information collected by 2013 Agricultural Survey, while for waste sector the availability of additional
information on waste composition.
For the LULUCF, the third NFI field surveys will allow using of IPCC carbon stock change method to
estimate emissions and removals for forest land remaining forest land category.
Additional studies will regard the comparison between local inventories and national inventory and exchange
of information with the ‘local inventories’ national expert group.
Further analyses will concern the collection of statistical data and information to estimate uncertainty in
specific sectors by implementing Approach 2 of the IPCC guidelines.
305
PART II: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION REQUIRED UNDER ARTICLE 7, PARAGRAPH 1
306
9 KP-LULUCF
9.1
General information
Under Article 3, paragraph 3, of the Kyoto Protocol (KP), Italy reports emissions and removals from
afforestation (A), reforestation (R) and deforestation, and under Article 3, paragraph 4 emissions and
removals from forest management (FM), cropland management (CM) and grazing land management (GM).
The estimates for emissions and removals under Articles 3.3 and 3.4 are consistent with the 2013 Revised
Supplementary Methods and Good Practice Guidance Arising from the Kyoto Protocol (2013 KP
Supplement, IPCC, 2014) and the relevant UNFCCC Decisions (15/CMP.1, 16/CMP.1, 2/CMP.6, 2/CMP.7).
9.1.1 Definition of forest and any other criteria
The forest definition to be used in the second commitment period is the same definition adopted for the first
commitment period. The forest definition adopted by Italy is in line with the definitions of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for its Global Forest Resource assessment (FAO FRA 2000).
This definition is consistent with the definition given in Decision 16/CMP.1. Forest is a land with the
following threshold values for tree crown cover, land area and tree height:
a. a minimum area of land of 0.5 hectares;
b. tree crown cover of 10 per cent;
c. minimum tree height of 5 meters.
Forest roads, cleared tracts, firebreaks and other open areas within the forest as well as protected forest areas
are included in forest.
Following 2013 ERT’s finding, plantations, previously not included in areas subject to art. 3.3 and 3.4
activities, have been classified as forest and reported in the appropriate Art. 3.3 and 3.4 categories.
9.1.2 Elected activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol
Italy has elected cropland management (CM) and grazing land management (GM) as additional activities
under Article 3.4. Following the Decision 2/CMP.7, the forest management (FM) has to be compulsorily
accounted as an activity under Article 3.4.
9.1.3 Description of how the definitions of each activity under Article 3.3 and each elected activity
under Article 3.4 have been implemented and applied consistently over time
Afforestation and reforestation areas have been estimated on the basis of data of the three Italian National
Forest Inventories (IFN1985, IFNC2005 and the on-going INFC2015). Deforestation data have been
detected by the surveys carried out in the framework of the NFIs (with reference to the years 2005 and 2012;
2013 data have been deduced by a linear extrapolation for 2012-2013); administrative records at NUT2 level
collected by the National Institute of Statistics related to deforested area have been used for the period 19902005.
The definition of forest management is interpreted in using the broader approach as described in the GPG
LULUCF 2003. All forests fulfilling the definition of forest, as given above, are considered as managed and
307
are under forest management. The total Italian forest area is eligible under forest management activity, since
the entire Italian forest area has to be considered managed forest lands.
Concerning deforestation activities, in Italy land use changes from forest to other land use categories are
allowed in very limited circumstances, as stated in art. 4.2 of the Law Decree n. 227 of 2001.
Lands subject to cropland management activity are consistent with the cropland lands in the UNFCCC
reporting. CM data have assessed on the basis of the IUTI data, related to 1990, 2000 and 2008 and 2012;
2013 data have been deduced by a linear extrapolation for 2012-2013. The same activity data deduced for
UNFCCC reporting (cropland category) were therefore used to report for cropland management.
Land subject to grazing land management have been assessed on the basis of the definition included in the
Annex to the the decision 16/CMP.1 48. Lands under GM in Italy are those predominantly covered by
herbaceous vegetation (introduced or indigenous) for a period longer than five years, used for grazing or
fodder harvesting and /or under practices to control the amount and type of vegetation. In the current
submission, only the area related to the ‘improved grazing land’ have been reported; this area corresponds to
lands subject to inspections and certifications procedures, in accordance with the EU Regulations 49 on
organic production, as well as by the Rural Development Regulations 50 related to the organic farming
measure. Data of grazing lands managed with organic practices has been derived from the National System
on Organic Farming (SINAB, http://www.sinab.it/) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies
(MIPAAF).
9.1.4 Description of precedence conditions and/or hierarchy among Article 3.4 activities, and how they
have been consistently applied in determining how land was classified
In line with guidance provided by the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014), an hierarchy has been established
among the activities subject to article 3.3, FM and elected article 3.4. Land subject to article 3.3 activities
and FM are mandatory and take precedence over elected 3.4 activities.
Italy has elected CM and GM as additional activities under Article 3.4, therefore it is necessary to establish a
hierarchy between the abovementioned activities: in Italian context, the CM activity has an higher
hierarchical order than GM activity.
9.2
Land-related information
Italy implements the Reporting Method 1 for lands subject to Article 3.3 and Article 3.4 activities. The
reporting area boundaries for land subject to Article 3.3 and to FM activities have been identified with the
48
Grazing land management is the system of practices on land used for livestock production aimed at manipulating the amount and
type of vegetation and livestock produced.
49
Commision Regulation (EC) n. 889/2008: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008R0889&from=EN; Council Regulation (EC) n. 834/2007: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=URISERV:f86000&from=IT; Council Regulation (EEC) n. 2092/91: http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31991R2092:EN:HTML
50
Regulation (EEC) n. 2078/92: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/envir/programs/evalrep/text_en.pdf;
Council Regulation (EC): n. 1257/1999 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:31999R1257&from=en;
Council Regulation (EC) n. 1698/2005: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005R1698&from=en;
Regulation (EU) n. 1305/2013: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:347:0487:0548:EN:PDF
308
administrative boundaries of Italian regions (NUTS2 level). The reporting area boundaries for GM and CM
have been identified with the administrative boundaries of Italy (NUTS1 level). These areas include
multiple units of land subject to afforestation/reforestation and deforestation and land areas subject to forest
management, cropland management and grazing land management. Approach 2 has been used for
representing land areas.
Data for land use and land-use changes were obtained by the National Forest Inventories ((IFN1985,
IFNC2005 and the on-going INFC2015). IFN1985 was accomplished by means of systematic sampling with
a single phase of information gathering on the ground. The sampling points were identified in
correspondence to the nodes of a grid with a mesh of 3 km superimposed on the official map of the State on
a scale of 1:25.000. Each point therefore represents 900 ha, for a total of 33,500 points distributed within the
national territory. IFNC2005 has a three-phase sampling design; the sampling units were 300,000 and were
identified in correspondence to the nodes of a grid with a mesh of 1 km superimposed on the official map of
the State. A first inventory phase, consisting in interpretation of 1m resolution orthophotos, dated from 2002
to 2003, was followed by ground surveys, in order to assess the forest use, and to detect the main qualitative
attributes of Italian forests. The phase 3 has consisted in ground surveys to estimate the values of the main
quantitative attributes of forest stands (i.e. volume of growing stock, tree density, annual growth,
aboveground biomass, carbon stock, deadwood volume and biomass). A specific survey was dedicated to the
soils pool, gaining data on soils carbon stock by 1,500 sampling areas selected in the IFNC2005 original
grid. The third national forest inventory, IFNC2015, has the same three-phase sampling design of the
previous NFI (INFC2005); the first phase of INFC2015 (interpretation of orhophotos) has been carried out in
2013, resulting in an assessment of forest land area.
Data of land subject to grazing land management has been derived from the National System on Organic
Farming (SINAB, http://www.sinab.it/) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF).
Total organic area is reported in the SINAB at national level since 1990. Quantitative information on the
different subcategories, including organic grazing land, is available from the year 2000. The data related to
the land subject to the organic grazing land from 1990 to 1999 has been deduced applying the average
proportion of organic grazing land to the total organic area (22.6%) in the period 2000-2012.
9.2.1 Spatial assessment unit used for determining the area of the units of land under Article 3.3
The spatial assessment unit to determine the area of units of land under Article 3.3 is 0.5 ha, which is the
same as the minimum area of forest.
9.2.2 Methodology used to develop the land transition matrix
The land transition matrix is shown in Table NIR-2 (Table 9.1). The same data sources are used for the
UNFCCC greenhouse gas inventory and for the estimates of emissions and removals under Articles 3.3 and
3.4.
LUC matrices for each year of the period 1990–2013 have been assembled on the basis of the IUTI 51 data,
related to 1990, 2000 and 2008. For 2012, land use and land use changes data were assessed through the
survey, carried out in the framework of the III NFI, on an IUTI's subgrid (i.e. 301,300 points, covering the
entire country). Annual figures for land area, and consequently for afforestation/reforestation areas, were
estimated on the basis of the forest area increase as detected by the National Forest Inventories.
51
Detailed information on IUTI is reported in Annex 10
309
Deforestation data have been detected by the surveys carried out in the framework of the NFIs (with
reference to the years 2005 and 2012); administrative records at NUT2 level collected by the National
Institute of Statistics related to deforested area have been used for the period 1990-2005. Activities planned
in the framework of the registry for carbon sinks are expected to refine these estimates, providing detailed
information on the final land use of the deforested area; in the current submission, a conservative approach
was applied hypothesising that the total deforested area is converted into settlements. In addition, it should
be noted that land use changes due to wildfires are not allowed by national legislation (Law Decree 21
November 2000, n. 353, art.10.1).
Due to the technical characteristics of the IUTI assessment (i.e. classification of orthophotos), it was
technically impossible to have a clear distinction among some subcategories in cropland and grassland
categories (i.e. annual pastures versus grazing land). Therefore it has been decided to aggregate the cropland
and grassland categories, as detected by IUTI, and then disaggregate them into the different subcategories,
using as proxies the national statistics (ISTAT, [b], [c]) related to annual crops and perennial woody crops.
The cropland area has been identified as the area of land subject to cropland management. Data of land
subject to grazing land management has been derived from the National System on Organic Farming
(SINAB, http://www.sinab.it/) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF); the area
reported under GM is currently a subset of the area reported under UNFCCC, grassland category.
Table 9.1 Land transition matrices - Areas and changes in areas in 1990 and in 2013 [kha]
kha
AR
D
FM
CM
GM
Other
Total (end of 1990)
kha
1990
3.4
3.3
AR
72.32
D
FM
14.44
0.72
7,510.94
CM
GM
10,704.36
2.99
78.68
151
15.17
7,511
10,704
2013
3.4
3.3
AR
AR
1,728.40
D
FM
CM
GM
Other
58.31
Total (end of 2013)
1,787
3
otal (beginning of year)
72
14
7,512
10,704
3
11,749.14
11,828
11,749
30,134
Other
D
FM
44.08
3.69
7,467.76
CM
GM
8,943.90
47.78
7,468
8,944
380.23
89.53
470
otal (beginning of year)
1,728
44
7,471
8,944
380
11,417.70
11,566
11,418
30,134
Other
9.2.3 Maps and/or database to identify the geographical locations, and the system of identification codes
for the geographical locations
The Italian regions have been used as the geographical units for reporting (Figure 9.1) for land subject to
Article 3.3 and to FM activities; boundaries of reporting areas have been identified with the administrative
boundaries of Italian regions (NUTS2 level). The reporting area boundaries for GM and CM have been
310
identified with the administrative boundaries of Italy (NUTS1 level). ID-codes have been assigned
following the denomination of the different regions.
Figure 9.1 Geographical locations of the reporting regions and their identification codes
9.3
Activity-specific information
9.3.1 Methods for carbon stock change and GHG emission and removal estimates
9.3.1.1 Description of the methodologies and the underlying assumptions used
Methods for estimating carbon stock changes in forests (for Article 3.3 afforestation/reforestation and
Article 3.4 forest management) are the same as those used for the UNFCCC greenhouse gas inventory:
details are given in par. 6.2.4.
A growth model, For-est, is used to estimate the net change of carbon in the five reporting pools:
aboveground and belowground biomass, dead wood and litter, and soils as soil organic matter. Additional
information on the methodological aspects may be found in Federici et al., 2008; some specific parameters
(i.e. biomass expansion factors, wood basic densities for aboveground biomass estimate, root/shoot ratios)
used in the estimation process are the same reported in the above-mentioned article; in other cases (i.e. dead
wood or litter pools) different coefficients have been used to deduce the carbon stock changes in the pools,
on the basis of the results of the II National Forestry Inventory and the national forest definition. The model
has been applied at regional scale (NUTS2) because of availability of forest-related statistical data: model
input data for the forest area, per region and inventory typologies, were the Italian forest inventories
311
(NFI1985, INFC2005), while the results of the first phase of the INFC2015 were used in forest area
assessment. Following the 2011 ERT’s recommendation regarding soils pool, Italy has decided to apply the
IPCC Tier1, assuming that, for land under Forest Management activities, the carbon stock in soil organic
matter does not change, regardless of changes in forest management, types, and disturbance regimes; in other
words it has to be assumed that the carbon stock in mineral soil remains constant so long as the land remains
forest. Therefore carbon stock changes in soils pool, for land subject to Forest Management, have not been
reported, and transparent and verifiable information that the pool is not a net source for Italy is provided in
par. 9.3.1.2.
Methods for estimating carbon stock changes for lands subject to cropland management activity are the same
as those used for the UNFCCC greenhouse gas inventory: details are given in par. 6.3.4. In line with the
2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014) and 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), carbon stock changes have
been estimated only for the living biomass of perennial woody crops, on the basis of carbon gains and losses,
computed applying a value of biomass C stock at maturity. Tier 1 method has been followed for dead wood
and litter, assuming that the abovementioned pools are at equilibrium, and no carbon stock changes are
occurring. Soils carbon stock changes have been assessed to be not occurring, as no management changes
can be documented. CO2 emissions from cultivated organic soils subject to CM activity have been estimated,
using default emission factor for warm temperate, reported in Table 5.6 of 2006 IPCC Guidelines (vol.4,
chapter 5). The area organic soils, updated on the basis of the FAOSTAT database, have been assessed
through the stratification of different global datasets:
- the area covered by organic soils have been defined by extracting the Histosols classes from the
Harmonized World Soil Database 52
- the cultivated area has been identified from the global land cover dataset, GLC2000 53, using the three
“cropland” classes.
Carbon stock changes related to land subject to grazing land management have been estimated on the basis
of the guidance of 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014). In particular no change in carbon stocks in the living
biomass pool has been assumed; Tier 1 method has been followed for dead wood and litter, assuming that the
abovementioned pools are at equilibrium, and no carbon stock changes are occurring. Changes in carbon
stocks in mineral soils have been estimated following the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (eq. 2.25, vol.4, chapter 2),
on the basis of country specific SOCref deduced by the the default reference soil organic carbon stocks for
mineral soils (table 2.3, vol.4, chapter 2, IPCC, 2006). using default reference carbon stocks (SOCref). The
assessment of the country specific SOCref has been carried out using the following layers: Climatic Zone
layer 54, Corine Land Cover 2006 55 (classes codes: 2.3, 3.2), italian soil map (Costantini et al., 2013). The
country specific SOCref have been stratifies into three macroareas in Italy: northern (78.5 t C ha-1) , center
(71.3 t C ha-1) and southern (46.2 t C ha-1). Default stock change factors (FLU, FMG, FI) have been selected on
the basis of national circumstances as reported in table 9.2.
52
FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA,
Laxenburg, Austria.
53
EC-JRC. 2003. Global Land Cover 2000 database. Available at http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/glc2000/glc2000.php
54
European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC): Climatic Zones http://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/projects/renewable-energydirective
55
Corine Land Cover 2006: http://sia.eionet.europa.eu/CLC2006
312
Table 9.2 Stock change factors
Improved
grassland
FLU
FMG
FI
1.00
1.14
1.11
nominally managed
(not degraded)
1.00
1.00
1.11
Italy uses the IPCC default land use transition period of 20 years, to estimate carbon stock changes in soils
pools for afforestation/reforestation activities under art. 3.3 and for land subject to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto
Protocol.
Concerning carbon stock changes resulting from deforestation activities, for the current submission a
conservative approach was applied, hypothesising that the total deforested area is converted into settlements.
Activities planned in the framework of the registry for carbon sinks are expected to refine these estimates,
providing detailed information on the final land use of the deforested area. In addition, it should be noted that
land use changes due to wildfires are not allowed by national legislation (Law Decree 21 November 2000, n.
353, art.10, comma 1). Carbon stock changes related to the forest land areas, before deforestation activities,
have been estimated, for each year and for each pool (living biomass, dead organic matter and soils), on the
basis of forest land carbon stocks deduced from the model described in par. 6.2.4. The loss, in terms of
carbon, due to deforested area is computed assuming that the total amount of carbon, existing in the different
pools before deforestation, is lost.
GHG emissions from biomass burning were estimated with the same method as described in par. 6.12.2. CO2
emissions due to forest fires in areas subject to art. 3.3 and forest management activities have been included
in corresponding tables: in particular, CO2 emissions from biomass burning in land subject to art 3.3
activities are included in Table 4(KP-I)A.1.1, Losses (Aboveground and belowground pools), while CO2
emissions from burnt areas under forest management are included in Table 4(KP-I)B.1, Forest Management,
Losses (Aboveground and belowground pools). GHG emissions from biomass burning from lands subject to
CM and GM activities have been reported in the table (KP-II)4.
9.3.1.2 Justification when omitting any carbon pool or GHG emissions/removals from activities under
Article 3.3 and elected activities under Article 3.4
Following the main finding of 2011 review process, Italy has decided not to account for the soil carbon stock
changes from activities under Article 3.4, providing transparent and verifiable information to demonstrate
that soils pool is not a source in Italy, as required by par. 21 of the annex to decision 16/CMP.1).
Art. 3.4 – Forest Management: demonstration that soils pool is not a source
Carbon stock changes in minerals soils, for Forest land remaining Forest land and for land under art. 3.4
(Forest Management) activities, have been estimated from the aboveground carbon amount with linear
relations (SOC = f (CAboveground)), per forestry use – stands (resinous, broadleaves, mixed stands) and
coppices, calculated on data collected within the European project Biosoil 56 (for soils) and a Life+ project
56
BioSoil
project
–
http://www3.corpoforestale.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/IT/IDPagina/487/UT/systemPrint;
http://www.inbo.be/content/page.asp?pid=EN_MON_FSCC_condition_report
313
FutMon 57 (Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest Monitoring System), for the
aboveground biomass. Soil carbon stocks of mineral soils were assessed down to 40 cm with layer-based
sampling (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm) on 227 forest plots on a 15x18 km grid. Data have been calculated layer
by layer by using measured data of layer depth and soil carbon concentration (704 values), bulk density (543
measured data, 163 estimated data in the field or using pedofunctions) and volume of coarse fragment (704
values estimated in the field). BioSoil assessed also OF and OH layer in which organic material is in various
states of decomposition (down to humus). Those layers were included in the estimation of carbon stocks in
mineral soils. In Table 9.3 the different relations used to obtain soil carbon amount per ha [t C ha-1] from the
aboveground carbon amount per ha [t C ha-1] have been reported.
protec
tive
plantations
coppices
stands
Table 9.3 Relations soil - aboveground carbon per ha
Inventory typology
Relation soil –
aboveground C per ha
R2
Standard
error
norway spruce
silver fir
larches
mountain pines
mediterranean pines
other conifers
european beech
turkey oak
other oaks
other broadleaves
european beech
sweet chestnut
hornbeams
other oaks
turkey oak
evergreen oaks
other broadleaves
conifers
eucalyptuses coppices
other broadleaves coppices
poplars stands
other broadleaves stands
conifers stands
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2502x + 79.115
y = 0.2502x + 79.115
y = 0.2502x + 79.115
y = 0.2502x + 79.115
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2683x + 70.208
y = 0.2502x + 79.115
y = 0.2502x + 79.115
y = 0.2218x + 73.005
0.0713
0.0713
0.0713
0.0713
0.0713
0.0713
0.0925
0.0925
0.0925
0.0925
0.073
0.073
0.073
0.073
0.073
0.073
0.073
0.0713
0.073
0.073
0.0925
0.0925
0.0713
40.14
40.14
40.14
40.14
40.14
40.14
44.10
44.10
44.10
44.10
33.39
33.39
33.39
33.39
33.39
33.39
33.39
40.14
33.39
33.39
44.10
44.10
40.14
rupicolous forest
y = 0.3262x + 68.648
0.1338
38.96
riparian forest
y = 0.3262x + 68.648
0.1338
38.96
Linear relationships resulted in different trends for the different forest inventory typologies. In the following
Table 9.4 the Soil Organic Content (SOC) per hectare, inferred by the use of the linear relationships, is
shown for the different inventory typologies and different years.
57
FutMon: Life+ project for the "Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest Monitoring System";
http://www.futmon.org;
http://www3.corpoforestale.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeAttachment.php/L/IT/D/D.e54313ecaf7ae893e249/P/BLOB%3AID%3D397
314
Table 9.4 Soil Organic Content (SOC) per hectare, for the different inventory typologies
protect
ive
plantations
coppices
stands
Inventory typology
norway spruce
silver fir
larches
mountain pines
mediterranean pines
other conifers
european beech
turkey oak
other oaks
other broadleaves
european beech
sweet chestnut
hornbeams
other oaks
turkey oak
evergreen oaks
other broadleaves
conifers
eucalyptuses coppices
other broadleaves coppices
poplars stands
other broadleaves stands
conifers stands
rupicolous forest
riparian forest
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2013
t C ha-1
85.66
87.47
83.94
83.91
83.31
80.10
98.76
94.81
89.24
89.91
83.39
84.17
76.55
75.68
79.41
79.84
78.72
80.23
83.72
84.17
87.86
86.85
82.31
76.80
83.66
t C ha-1
85.25
86.75
83.43
84.84
85.01
80.88
98.56
95.12
89.58
90.03
83.09
87.25
76.33
76.23
79.07
79.83
80.45
80.87
87.06
86.98
91.15
86.69
83.97
77.31
83.15
t C ha-1
84.85
86.04
82.96
85.66
86.46
81.53
98.48
95.40
89.94
90.07
82.86
89.81
76.15
76.59
78.77
79.81
81.88
81.47
88.15
88.28
93.56
86.89
86.21
77.81
82.76
t C ha-1
84.62
85.92
82.88
86.80
88.14
82.42
98.81
96.06
90.70
90.64
82.95
92.53
76.14
76.94
78.65
79.94
83.26
82.25
88.83
89.16
95.75
87.46
89.29
78.43
82.53
t C ha-1
84.64
85.96
83.09
87.90
89.34
83.37
99.09
96.43
91.23
91.11
83.34
95.28
76.25
77.30
78.68
80.12
84.54
83.12
88.99
89.81
97.35
88.17
92.66
79.07
82.69
t C ha-1
84.67
85.97
83.17
88.56
90.03
83.90
99.33
96.66
91.53
91.36
83.61
96.95
76.34
77.54
78.75
80.29
85.20
83.66
88.86
90.01
97.88
88.63
94.90
79.42
82.76
Carbon stock changes in mineral soils have been reported in the following table 9.5 and figure 9.2, for the
different inventory typologies.
Table 9.5 Carbon stock changes in mineral soils (Soil Organic Matter (SOM) pool)
Inventory typology
stands
coppices
rupicolous and riparian forests
plantations
Total
1990
Gg C
2,022
3,546
569
230
6,367
1995
Gg C
2,397
3,900
648
198
7,142
2000
Gg C
2,236
3,753
627
195
6,811
2005
Gg C
2,571
3,923
661
195
7,350
2010
Gg C
2,121
3,337
494
126
6,077
2013
Gg C
2,067
3,302
494
97
5,960
315
rupicolous and riparian forests
Gg CO2 eq.
coppices
9,000 Gg C
stands
28,000
plantations
total [Gg CO2 eq.]
8,000
26,000
7,000
24,000
6,000
22,000
5,000
20,000
4,000
18,000
3,000
16,000
2,000
14,000
1,000
0
12,000
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Figure 9.2 Carbon stock changes in mineral soils in the period 1990-2013 (SOM pool)
A comparison of the model results versus data measured in the framework of II NFI (INFC2005) may be
carried out on the basis of the outcomes of the soil survey of INFC2005. In the following Table 9.6 estimated
carbon stocks for SOM, for 2008, are provided:
Table 9.6 Comparison between estimated and INFC 2008 carbon stocks for SOM
2008
SOM
INFC
t C= Mg
703,524,894
For-est model
t C= Mg
715,029,705
differences
t C= Mg
%
11,504,811 -1.64
Montecarlo analysis has been carried out for the CO2 emissions and removals from Forest Land remaining
Forest Land, considering the different reporting pools (aboveground, belowground, litter, deadwood and
soils), and the subcategories stands, coppices and rupicolous and riparian forests for the reporting year 2009,
resulting equal to 49%. In the following Table 9.7, the results of the uncertainty assessment for soils pool are
reported:
Table 9.7 Montecarlo uncertainty assessment for soils pool
Uncertainties for the different subcategories, year 2010
soils
stands
coppices
rupicolous and riparian forests
total
44.65
67.35
58.52
49.33
316
9.3.1.3 Information on whether or not indirect and natural GHG emissions and removals have been
factored out
Italy has not explicitly factored out removals from elevated carbon dioxide concentrations or the dynamic
effects of age structure resulting from activities prior to 1 January 1990.
9.3.1.4 Changes in data and methods since the previous submission (recalculations)
Deviations from the previous sectoral estimates are resulting from the implementation of the 2013 KP
Supplement (IPCC, 2014) and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in term of updated default values
and conversion factors. Furthermore a more comprehensive reporting has been provided, due to the election
of cropland management and grazing land management activities under art. 3.4.
9.3.1.5 Uncertainty estimates
It was assumed that uncertainty estimates for forest land also apply for lands under FM (par. 6.2.5). The
uncertainties related to the different pools are reported, for 2013, in Table 9.8.
Table 9.8 Uncertainties for the year 2013
Aboveground biomass
Belowground biomass
Dead mass
Litter
Overall uncertainty
EAG
EBG
ED
EL
E
42.65%
42.65%
42.90%
43.81%
33.39%
The uncertainties for Article 3.3 activities estimates are expected to be higher. It can be assumed that the
given uncertainty analysis in table 10.3 covers the uncertainty of all gains and all losses in living tree
biomass under FM and ARD. The Montecarlo analysis has been implemented for the LULUCF sector with
particular focus on Forest land category. Detailed description can be found in Annex 1.
Concerning cropland management, it was assumed that the uncertainty assessment carried out for cropland
category also apply to land subject to CM. Additional details are reported in par. 6.3.5. A Montecarlo
analysis has been carried out to assess uncertainty for cropland category (considering both cropland
remaining cropland and land converted to cropland). A detailed description of the results is reported in
Annex 1.
Concerning grazing land management, it was assumed that the uncertainty assessment carried out on the
basis of information and values included in the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014) and the 2006 IPCC
Guidelines (IPCC, 2006). The uncertainty for GM activities has been estimated to be equal to 34,77%
(1990) and 34,94% (2013).
9.3.1.6 Information on other methodological issues
Italy has decided to account for the emissions and removals under Article 3 paragraphs 3 and 4 at the end of
the commitment period. The inventory of land use (IUTI, see Annex 10) has been completed, resulting in
land use classification, for all national territory, for the years 1990, 2000 and 2008 (Corona et al., 2012,
Marchetti et al., 2012). For 2012, land use and land use changes data were assessed through the survey,
317
carried out in the framework of the III NFI, on an IUTI's subgrid (i.e. 301,300 points, covering the entire
country). Verification and validation activities have been undertaken and the resulting time series have been
discussed with the institutions involved in the data providing (i.e. National Forest Service, Ministry of
Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MIPAAF), Forest Monitoring and Planning Research Unit (CRAMPF)).
An in-depth verification process has been carried out to compare the implied carbon stock change per area
(IEF), related to the aboveground and belowground pools, with the IEFs reported by other Parties. The 2014
submission has been considered to deduce the different IEFs; in the figures 9.3 and 9.4 the comparison is
showed, taking into account the IEFs for both the AR and FM activities, for the aboveground and
belowground pools.
4.50
4.20
3.90
3.60
3.30
3.00
2.70
2.40
2.10
1.80
1.50
1.20
0.90
0.60
0.30
-0.30
-0.60
AR
FM
avg AR
avg FM
Figure 9.3 Implied carbon stock change per area related to the aboveground biomass
318
1.10
1.00
Mg C
ha -1
AR
FM
avg AR
avg FM
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
-0.10
-0.20
Figure 9.4 Implied carbon stock change per area related to the belowground biomass
9.3.1.7 The year of the onset of an activity, if after 2008
For the ARD activities (Art. 3.3) Italy reports all the area subject to these activities since 1990 (that has to be
considered the starting year of the ARD activities). Furthermore, for each reporting year of the commitment
period, the area that annually is added to each of art. 3.3 activities has been reported in table NIR-2, for the
relevant year.
Concerning Forest Management (Art. 3.4) Italy considers the entire national territory as managed, i.e. subject
to human activities, consequently the entire national forest area is subject to human activities that, by-law,
are aimed at sustainably manage the forest. Therefore, as described in par. 9.1.3, the whole set of human
activities, implemented in forest, are part of the forest management activities under art. 3.4 and those
activities were already in place before the starting of first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
9.4
Article 3.3
9.4.1 Information that demonstrates that activities under Article 3.3 began on or after 1 January 1990
and before 31 December 2012 and are direct human-induced
Changes in forest area were detected on the basis of national forest inventories data.
The following afforestation/reforestation activities that occurred or could have occurred on or after 1990
(Table 9.9) are included in the reporting of these activities:
- Planted or seeded croplands;
- Planted or seeded grasslands;
- Abandoned arable lands, which are naturally forested, through planting, seeding and/or the humaninduced promotion of natural seed sources..
319
In Italy all land use categories (cropland, grazing land, forest) are to be considered managed; therefore any
land use change occurs between managed lands and, consequently, is direct human-induced.
Afforested/reforested areas are to be considered legally bound by national legislation 58. Usually these
activities have resulted from a decision to change the land use by planting or seeding. Abandoned arable
lands are left to forest naturally.
On the basis of the definitions provided in the Decision 16/CMP.1 59, natural afforestation and reforestation
occurred on abandoned agricultural lands have to be included in the art. 3.3: a frequent forest management
strategy, in Italy, consists, in fact, in the exploitation of natural re-growth caused, for instance, by the seed of
adjacent trees. In addition the national legislation provides some references to the management strategy of
abandoned lands: Law Decree n. 3267/1923 updated in 1999, (art.39 and art. 75), has planned afforestation
and reforestation activities on areas for protection purposes (in particular hydro-geological purposes),
explicitly forbidding clear cut or clearing on areas undergo under afforestation or reforestation activities (art.
51). Therefore the provision to avoid clear cut activities is a direct consequence of current legislation, as it
provides strict constrains for different re-uses of agricultural lands. The same decree (art. 90 and 91)
furthermore subsidized land owners to naturally regenerate forest on bare lands or on grasslands. Other (Law
Decree 227/2001 Law 353/2000, Law 431/1985), even though focused on specific issues as forest fires and
to the protection of nature and landscape are coherent with the previous decrees and complete the legislative
framework on the issue; for example, for burnt areas no land use change is allowed and for forest areas,
natural restoration of previous ecosystem occurs. In addition afforestation and reforestation activities are
essentially linked to political decisions under the EEC Regulations 2080/92 and 1257/99 (art.10.1 and 31.1),
therefore induced by man. In particular articles 10.1 and 31.1 of the EEC Regulations 1257/99 (Council
Regulation (EC) No 1257/1999 of 17 May 1999 on support for rural development from the European
Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF)) refer directly to the provision of income for elderly
farmers who decide to stop farming and to the support granted for the afforestation of agricultural land.
Table 9.9 Cumulative area estimates for 1990-2008, 1990-2009, 1990-2010, 1990-2011, 1990-2012 and 1990-2013
(kha) under Article 3.3 activities Afforestation/Reforestation
Afforestation
/Reforestation
1990-2008
1990-2009
1990-2010
1990-2011
1990-2012
1990-2013
kha
Abruzzo
60.1
62.7
65.3
67.9
70.5
73.2
Basilicata
46.4
48.4
50.5
52.6
54.8
56.9
Calabria
82.6
86.4
90.1
93.9
97.7
101.5
Campania
61.1
63.5
65.8
68.1
70.5
72.8
Emilia-Romagna
89.1
92.7
96.2
99.7
103.1
106.6
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
55.9
58.1
60.3
62.5
64.6
66.8
Lazio
90.0
94.0
98.1
102.2
106.3
110.4
58
In particular: Law Decree n. 227/2001; Law n. 353/2000; Law 1497/1939; Law Decree n. 3267/1923; 985, Law n. 431
“Afforestation” is the direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to
forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources;
“Reforestation” is the direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the
human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. For the
first commitment period, reforestation activities will be limited to reforestation occurring on those lands that did not contain forest on
31 December 1989.
59
320
Afforestation
/Reforestation
1990-2008
1990-2009
1990-2010
1990-2011
1990-2012
1990-2013
kha
Liguria
55.4
57.7
59.9
62.2
64.4
66.7
Lombardia
94.8
98.5
102.1
105.7
109.3
112.9
Marche
47.5
49.4
51.2
53.0
54.8
56.6
Molise
21.4
22.6
23.7
24.8
26.0
27.2
Piemonte
137.8
143.2
148.5
153.8
159.1
164.4
Puglia
24.9
26.1
27.3
28.5
29.7
31.0
Sardegna
81.7
84.9
88.1
91.2
94.4
97.5
Sicilia
46.8
49.0
51.2
53.5
55.7
58.0
Toscana
172.7
179.4
186.1
192.8
199.4
206.0
Trentino Alto Adige
124.3
128.9
133.4
137.9
142.3
146.8
Bolzano-Bozen
57.1
58.6
60.0
61.3
62.6
63.8
Trento
67.2
70.3
73.4
76.6
79.8
83.0
Umbria
60.1
62.7
65.2
67.7
70.3
72.8
Valle d'Aosta
17.1
17.7
18.4
19.1
19.8
20.5
Veneto
66.9
69.5
72.1
74.7
77.3
79.9
1,436.8
1,495.1
1,553.5
1,611.8
1,670.1
1,728.4
Italia
Concerning deforestation activities, as mentioned above, in Italy land use changes from forest to other land
use categories are allowed in very limited circumstances, as stated in art. 4.2 of the Law Decree n. 227 of
2001. Deforestation data have been detected by the surveys carried out in the framework of the NFIs (with
reference to the years 2005 and 2012; 2013 data have been deduced by a linear extrapolation for 2012-2013);
administrative records at NUT2 level collected by the National Institute of Statistics related to deforested
area have been used for the period 1990-2005. Activities planned in the framework of the registry for carbon
sinks are expected to refine these estimates, providing detailed information on the final land use of the
deforested area; in the current submission, a conservative approach was applied hypothesising that the total
deforested area is converted into settlements.
9.4.2 Information on how harvesting or forest disturbance that is followed by the re-establishment of
forest is distinguished from deforestation
Extensive forest disturbances have been rare in Italy, except for wildfires. Land-use changes after damage do
not occur; concerning wildfires, national legislation (Law n. 353 of 2000, art.10.1) doesn’t allow any land
use change after a fire event for 15 years.
Harvesting is regulated through regional rules, which establish procedures to follow in case of harvesting.
Although different rules exist at regional level, a common denominator is the requirement of an explicit
written communication with the localization and the extent of area to be harvested, existing forest typologies
321
and forestry treatment. Deforestation is allowed only in very limited circumstances (i.e. in construction of
railways the last years) and has to follow several administrative steps before being legally permitted. In
addition, clear-cutting is a not allowed practice (Law Decree n. 227 of 2001, art. 6.2)
9.4.3 Information on the size and geographical location of forest areas that have lost forest cover but
which are not yet classified as deforested
Restocking is assumed for forest areas that have lost forest cover through harvesting or forest disturbance,
unless there is deforestation as described above. As such, information on the size and location of forest areas
that have lost forest cover is not explicitly collected on an annual basis.
9.4.4 Information related to the natural disturbances provision under article 3.3
Italy intends to apply the provisions to exclude emissions from natural disturbances for the accounting for
afforestation and reforestation (AR) under art. 3.3 during the second commitment period in accordance with
decision 2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33.
The AR background level of emissions associated with annual natural disturbances have developed, on the
basis of country-specific information, in accordance with the paragraphs 33(a) and (b) of Annex to Decision
2/CMP.7 and related guidance provided by the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014). In table 9.10 the total
and the area specific emissions from disturbance for the calibration period for AR activities have been
reported.
Table 9.10 Total and area specific emissions from disturbances for the calibration period for AR
Total and area specific emissions from disturbances for the calibration period for AR
Distrubance type*
Inventory year during the calibration period
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Total annual emission [Gg CO2 eq.]
Wildfires
748
240
362
929
401
196
196
662
804
474
681
462
273
591
285
309
231
1472
284
335
166
302
823
166
748
240
362
929
401
196
196
662
804
474
681
462
273
591
285
309
231 1,472
284
335
166
302
823
166
1012
1012
1085
1495 1553 1612
1670
1728
0.22
0.49
0.10
Insect attacks and disease infestations
extreme weather events
geological disturbances
other
SUM
Total area [kha]
For all land under AR
72
145
217
289
362
434
506
579
651
723
796
868
940
1154
1379
1437
Area-specific emissions (Emissions per unit of land area under AR, Mg CO2 eq. ha -1)**
10.34
1.66
1.67
3.21
1.11
0.45
0.39
1.14
1.23
0.66
0.86
0.53
0.29
0.58
0.28
0.29
0.20
1.07
0.20
0.11
0.19
** In any year, emissions per unit of land area are calculated as the Sum divided by the total area under AR
The background level has been developed following the default method outlined in the 2013 KP Supplement
(IPCC, 2014), applying the following steps:
(1) Calculation of the arithmetic mean of the area-specific annual emissions for AR summed over
disturbance types using all years in the calibration period.
(2) Calculation of the corresponding standard deviation (SD) of the annual emissions;
(3) Checking whether any emission estimate is greater than the arithmetic mean plus twice the SD. In this
case, such estimate(s) has(ve) been removed from the dataset and go back to step (1) above using the
reduced dataset.
322
When no further outliers can be identified, the arithmetic mean and twice the SD, as calculated in the last
step of the iterative process, define the background level and the margin, respectively.
The expectation of net credits has been avoided comparing the emissions resulting by the application of step
(3) above with the mean minus twice the SD (in this case the emissions should not be removed from the
dataset).
The main components related to background level and margin estimation process for AR activities have been
reported in table 9.11.
Table 9.11 Components of background level and margin for AR activities
Calibration period
Method used
Background level
Margin
Background level plus margin
Number of excluded years
Excluded years
1990 - 2013
IPCC default
0.52 Gg CO2 eq.
0.74 Gg CO2 eq.
1.26 Gg CO2 eq.
4
1990, 1991, 1992, 1993
rameter Value
9.4.5 Information on Harvested Wood Products under article 3.3
Annual changes in carbon stocks and associated CO2 emissions and removals from the Harvested Wood
Products (HWP) pool under article 3.3 are estimated, following the production approach described in the
Annex to Volume 4, Chapter 12, of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in line with Decision 2/CMP.7
and the guidance provided by the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014). HWPs originating from deforestation
activity are not occurring. Emissions from HWPs originated from afforestation/reforestation activities have
been included in the emissions estimated from HWPs from forest management activities.
9.5
Article 3.4
9.5.1 Information that demonstrates that activities under Article 3.4 have occurred since 1 January
1990 and are human-induced
Forests in 1 January 1990 were under forest management, since Italy considers all forest land managed, and,
therefore, human-induced.
9.5.2 Information relating to Forest Management
Italian forest resources are totally legally bound; the two main constraints, provided by the laws n. 3267 of
1923 and n. 431 of 1985, compel private and public owners to strictly respect limitations concerning the use
of their forest resources. As a matter of fact, each exploitation of forest resources must not compromise their
perpetuation and therefore, any change of land use, for hydro-geological, landscape and environmental
protection in general (the same limitations apply also to burnt areas, following the law n. 353 on forest fires
323
approved in 2000). Consequently unplanned cuttings are always forbidden and local prescriptions fix strict
rules to be observed for forestry.
9.5.2.1 Conversion of natural forest to planted forest
Conversion of natural forest to planted forest is not occurring. Therefore no related emissions have to be
accounted for.
9.5.2.2 Forest Management Reference Level (FMRL)
The forest management reference level (FMRL 60) for Italy, inscribed in the appendix to the annex to decision
2/CMP.7, is equal to –21.182 Mt CO2 eq. per year assuming instantaneous oxidation of HWP, and –22.166
Mt CO2 eq applying a first-order decay function for HWP.
Italy is one of the member States of the EU for which the JRC of the European Commission developed
projections in collaboration with two EU modeling groups. The FMRL 61 is the averages of the projected
forest management (FM) data series for the period 2013-2020, taking account of policies implemented before
mid-2009, with emissions/removals from harvested wood product (HWP) using the first order decay
functions, and assuming instant oxidation. Aboveground and belowground biomass, dead organic matter and
HWP are included in the FMRL. Non-CO2 GHGs from forest wildfires are also included in the submission.
9.5.2.3 Technical Corrections of FMRL
According to Decision 2/CMP.7, methodological consistency between the FMRL and reporting for forest
management during the second commitment period has to be ensured, applying technical correction if
necessary.
Following the guidance provided by the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014) the methodological elements
listed in paragraph 2.7.5.2 (IPCC, 2014) have been analysed, providing a description on the detected
inconsistencies and a timing for the addressing of the issue (table 9.12).
Table 9.12 Methodological elements triggering a methodological inconsistency between the FMRL and FM
reporting
Criteria
Description
Timing
The method used for GHG reporting
(for Forest land remaining forest land
or Forest Management) changed after
the adoption of FMRL
The FMRL has been calculated with the EU models G4M (IIASA)
and EFISCEN (EFI). Estimates of emissions and removals under
FM activities have been carried out with the growth model For-est,
used to estimate the net change of carbon in the five reporting pools.
2016-2017
60
Submission of information on forest management reference levels by Italy:
http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/kp/application/pdf/awgkp_italy_2011.pdf
Communication of 11 May 2011 regarding harvested wood products value by Italy:
http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/kp/application/pdf/awgkp_italy_corr.pdf
61
When constructing the FMRL, the following elements were taken into account: (a) removals or emissions from forest management
as shown in GHG inventories and relevant historical data, (b) age-class structure, (c) forest management activities already
undertaken, (d) projected forest management activities under business as usual, (e) continuity with the treatment of forest
management in the first commitment period.
324
Criteria
Description
Timing
Availability of new data resulting from the ongoing NFI and
Forest characteristics and related
consequent recalculations of the reported data under FM and Forest
62
management
Land Remaining Forest Land used to establish the reference level
2016-2017
The estimates have been carried out on the basis of the 2013 KP
Supplement (IPCC 2014) methodology
2016-2017
Harvested wood products
The recommendation received in the technical assessment (UNFCCC, 2011, §3.7) of the FMRL highlighted
the need to make a “technical adjustment to the FMRL when final agreement on the HWP estimation is
reached”.
The changes related to the methodological elements listed in the table 9.11 are triggering a methodological
inconsistency between the FMRL and FM reporting, to be addressed through a technical correction (TC).
Therefore to ensure methodological consistency between the FMRL and reporting for Forest Management
during the second commitment period, Italy is going to apply a technical correction. Qualitative information
on TC and methodological consistency and a quantitative assessment will be reported in the next national
inventory report inventory submissions, consistently with the requirements of decision 2/CMP.7, annex,
paragraph 14 and guidance of the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014, par. 2.7.6.3).
9.5.2.4 Information related to the natural disturbances provision under article 3.4
Italy intends to apply the provisions to exclude emissions from natural disturbances for the accounting for
forest management (FM) under art. 3.4 during the second commitment period in accordance with decision
2/CMP.7, annex, paragraph 33.
The FM background level of emissions associated with annual natural disturbances has been developed, on
the basis of country-specific information, in accordance with the paragraphs 33(a) and (b) of Annex to
Decision 2/CMP.7 and related guidance provided by the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014). In table 9.13
the total and the area specific emissions from disturbance for the calibration period for FM activities have
been reported.
Table 9.13 Total and area specific emissions from disturbances for the calibration period for FM
Total and area specific emissions from disturbances for the calibration period for FM
Distrubance type*
Inventory year during the calibration period
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009 2010 2011
2012 2013
Total annual emission [Gg CO2 eq.]
Wildfires
7,497
2,264
3,221
7,836
3,216
1,501
1,398
4,441
5,085
2,839
7,497
2,264
3,221
7,836
3,216
1,501
1,398
4,441
5,085
2,839
3,871
2,502
1,413
2,928
1,355
1,409
1,077
7,029
1,387
1,674
850
1,587
4,421
916
3,871
2,502
1,413
2,928
1,355
1,409
1,077
7,029
1,387
1,674
850
1,587
4,421
916
7502
7502
7501
7497
7490
7486
7483 7479
7475
7471 7468
0.22
0.21
0.59
Insect attacks and disease infestations
extreme weather events
geological disturbances
other
SUM
Total area [kha]
For all land under FM
7511
7510
7509
7509
7508
7507
7507
7506
7505
7504
7504
7503
7502
Area-specific emissions (Emissions per unit of land area under FM, Mg CO2 eq. ha -1)**
1.00
0.30
0.43
1.04
0.43
0.20
0.19
0.59
0.68
0.38
0.52
0.33
0.19
0.39
0.18
0.19
0.14
0.94
0.19
0.11
0.12
** In any year, emissions per unit of land area are calculated as the Sum divided by the total area under FM
62
This includes, among others: age-class structure, increment, species composition, rotation lengths, management practices, etc.
325
The background level has been developed following the default method outlined in the 2013 KP Supplement
(IPCC, 2014), applying the following steps:
(1) Calculation of the arithmetic mean of the annual emissions for FM summed over disturbance types
using all years in the calibration period.
(2) Calculation of the corresponding standard deviation (SD) of the annual emissions;
(3) Checking whether any emission estimate is greater than the arithmetic mean plus twice the SD. In this
case, such estimate(s) has(ve) been removed from the dataset and go back to step (1) above using the
reduced dataset.
When no further outliers can be identified, the arithmetic mean and twice the SD, as calculated in the last
step of the iterative process, define the background level and the margin, respectively.
The expectation of net credits has been avoided comparing the emissions resulting by the application of step
(3) above with the mean minus twice the SD (in this case the emissions should not be removed from the
dataset).
The main components related to background level and margin estimation process for FM activities have been
reported in table 9.14.
Table 9.14 Components of background level and margin for FM activities
Calibration period
Method used
Background level
Margin
Background level plus margin
Number of excluded years
Excluded years
1990 - 2013
IPCC default
2,214 Gg CO2 eq.
2,294 Gg CO2 eq.
4,507 Gg CO2 eq.
4
1990, 1993, 1998, 2007
9.5.2.5 Information on Harvested Wood Products under article 3.4
Annual changes in carbon stocks and associated CO2 emissions and removals from the Harvested Wood
Products (HWP) pool under article 3.4 are estimated, following the production approach described in the
Annex to Volume 4, Chapter 12, of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), in line with Decision 2/CMP.7
and the guidance provided by the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014).
Emissions from this source are mainly influenced by the trend in forest harvest rates: in 2013, the net
emissions from harvested wood products were –234.89 kt CO2. Details on HWPs in use from 1961 onwards
are reported in the figure 6.8 (§6.13.2).
The activity data (production of sawnwood, wood based panels and paper and paperboard) are derived from
FAO 63 forest product statistics. Italy uses the same methodology to estimate emissions annual changes in
carbon stocks and associated CO2 emissions and removals from the HWP pools under UNFCCC and KP,
following the decision Decision 2/CMP.7, paragraph 29, namely, that “transparent and verifiable activity
data for harvested wood products categories are available, and accounting is based on the change in the
harvested wood products pool of the second commitment period, estimated using the first-order decay
function”.
The estimates have been carried out on the basis of the 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC 2014) methodology. The
Tier 2 approach, first order decay, was applied to the HWP categories (sawnwood, wood based panels and
paper and paperboard) according to equation 2.8.5 (IPCC, 2014). Equation 2.8.1 (IPCC, 2014) has been
63
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: forest product statistics, http://faostat3.fao.org/download/F/FO/E
326
applied to estimate the annual fraction of the feedstock coming from domestic harvest for the HWP
categories sawnwood and wood-based panels.
The change in carbon stocks was estimated separately for each product category; the default values (Table
2.8.1, IPCC 2014) have been applied. Emission factors for specific product categories were calculated with
default half-lives of 35 years for sawnwood, 25 years for wood panels and 2 years for paper (Table 2.8.2,
IPCC 2014). The annual change in stock for the period 1961-2013, disaggregated into sawnwood, wood
based panels and paper & paperboard, is reported in the figure 9.5.
Paper and Paperboard
400
kt C
Wood panels
Sawnwood
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Figure 9.5 Annual change in stock (kt C) for the period 1990-2013
Additional information on uncertainties and planned improvement for HWPs are reported in the paragraphs
6.13.3 and 6.13.6.
9.5.3 Information relating to Cropland Management, Grazing Land Management, Revegetation and
Wetland Drainage and Rewetting if elected, for the base year
As reported in table 9.15, part of the area subject to cropland management activities in 1990 is no longer
reported under CM or other art. 3.3 or art. 3.4 elected activity in 2013. In principle, once land has been
reported under any Article 3.3 or 3.4 activity during a commitment period, it must continue to be reported.
For CM, the guidance provided in 2013 KP Supplement (IPCC, 2014) acknowledges the abovementioned
case of “moving land”, specifying, if this area is not transferred to another reported activity, to account as
zero in that year the related associated emissions and removals.
Table 9.15 Area subject to CM and GM activities in 1990 (base year) and in 2013
1990
Cropland management
Grazind land management
2013
kha
kha
10,704.36
8,943.90
2.99
380.23
In order to achieve transparency in reporting, it is good practice to describe the consequences of this
exclusion on reported emissions and removals.
327
9.6
Other information
9.6.1 Key category analysis for Article 3.3 activities and any elected activities under Article 3.4
Key category analysis for KP-LULUCF was carried out according to the section 2.3.6 of the 2013 KP
Supplement (IPCC, 2014).
In the following table 9.16 a summary overview for key categories for LULUCF activities under Kyoto
Protocol is reported.
Table 9.16 Summary overview for key categories for LULUCF activities under Kyoto Protocol
Criteria used for key category identification
Key categories of
emissions and removals
Gas
Forest Management
CO2
Associated category in UNFCCC
inventory is key
Category contribution is greater Comments
than the smallest key category
in the UNFCCC inventory
(including LULUCF)
Forest land remaining forest land
Yes
key (L, T)
Afforestation and Reforestation CO2
Land converted to forest land
Yes
key (L, T)
Deforestation
CO2
Land converted to Settlements
Yes
key (L, T)
Cropland managememt
CO2
Cropland remaining cropland
Yes
key (L, T)
Grazing land management
CO2
Grassland remaining Grassland
Yes
key (L, T)
The figures have been compared with Table 1.6 Key categories for the latest reported year (2013) based on
level of emissions (including LULUCF).
9.7
Information relating to Article 6
Italy is not participating in any project under Article 6 (Joint Implementation).
328
10 Information on accounting of Kyoto units
10.1
Background information
The Standard Electronic Format report for 2014, containing the information required in paragraph 11 of the
annex to decision 15/CMP.1 and adhering to the SEF guidelines, has been submitted to the UNFCCC
Secretariat in electronic format (RREG1_IT_2014.xlsx).
The report contains information, limited to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, on unit
holdings in the Italian registry at the beginning and at the end of the reporting year as well as on transfers of
units in 2014 to and from registries of other Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The contents of the report can also
be found in Annex 8 of this document.
10.2
Summary of information reported in the SEF tables
At the beginning of 2014 the holdings in the Italian registry per unit type were as follow:
-
a total of 2,280,271,071 AAUs: 1,540,039,191 in the party holding accounts, 1,970,000 in the entity
holding accounts and 738,261,880 in the retirement account;
a total of 29,641,051 ERUs: 23,605,709 in the party holding accounts, 473,880 in the entity holding
accounts and 5,561,462 in the retirement account;
a total of 71,570,370 CERs: 22,999,923 in the party holding accounts, 5,194,483 in the entity
holding accounts and 43,371,714 in the retirement account;
a total of 116,900 tCERs in the entity holding accounts.
At the end of 2014 the holdings in the Italian registry per unit type were as follow:
-
a total of 2,280,271,071 AAUs: 1,407,943,659 in the party holding accounts, 1,970,000 in the entity
holding accounts and 870,357,412 in the retirement account;
a total of 29,322,686 ERUs: 155,515 in the entity holding accounts and 29,167,171 in the retirement
account;
a total of 71,793,943 CERs: 5,417,080 in the entity holding accounts and 66,371,637 in the
retirement account;
a total of 131,267 tCERs in the entity holding accounts.
During 2014 the Italian registry received from other registries in all 2,192,935 units: 353,100 ERUs,
1,825,468 CERs and 14,367 tCERs.
Conversely, 2,273,360 units were externally transferred to other national registries: 671,465 ERUs and
1,601,895 CERs.
There were no external transactions involving AAUs, RMUs or lCERs.
As for the internal transactions during year 2014, 976 CERs have been cancelled (other cancellation) and a
total of 178,701,164 units have been retired (132,095,532 AAUs, 23,605,709 ERUs, 22,999,923 CERs).
At the end of 2014 no RMUs or l-CERs were held in the Italian registry and the total amount of units
corresponded to 2,381,518,967 tonnes CO2 eq. while Italy's assigned amount is 2,416,277,898 tonnes CO2
eq.
329
In year 2014, no corrective transactions relating to additions and subtractions, replacement or retirement took
place.
Full details are available in the SEF tables reported in Annex 8.
10.3
Discrepancies and notifications
During the reporting period (1st January 2014 - 31st December 2014) no discrepant transactions, no CDM
notifications and no non-replacements occurred. No invalid units were present as at 31 December 2014.
Therefore the relevant reports (R2, R3, R4, R5) are empty and have not been included.
10.4
Publicly accessible information
Non-confidential information required by Decision 13/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraphs 44-48, is publicly
accessible at the following link http://www.info-ets.isprambiente.it
All required information is provided with the following exceptions:
- paragraph 45(d)(e): account number, representative identifier name and contact information is
deemed as confidential according to Annex III and VIII (Table III-I and VIII-I) of Commission
Regulation (EU) No 389/2013;
- paragraph 46: no Article 6 (Joint Implementation) project is reported as conversion to an ERU under
an Article 6 project did not occur in the specified period;
- paragraph 47(a)(d)(f): holding and transaction information is provided on an account type level, due
to more detailed information being declared confidential by article 110 of Commission Regulation
(EU) No 389/2013.
10.5
Calculation of the commitment period reserve (CPR)
The commitment period reserve for Italy, for the first commitment period, was 2,174,650,108 tonnes of CO2
equivalent (or assigned amount units). The CPR for the second commitment period should be still
established and will be communicated in the Initial report in 2016.
10.6
KP-LULUCF accounting
Italy will account for Article 3.3 and 3.4 LULUCF activities at the end of the commitment period.
Information on accounting for the KP-LULUCF activities based on the reporting for the actual submission is
not reported due to the improper functioning of the CRF Reporter.
330
11 Information on changes in national system
No changes with respect to last year submission occurred in the Italian National System.
331
12 Information on changes in national registry
12.1
Previous Review Recommendations
The SIAR Report for Italy from last year reported no recommendations.
12.2
Changes to National Registry
The following changes to the national registry of Italy have occurred in 2014.
Reporting Item
Description
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(a)
Change of name or contact
No change of name or contact occurred during the reported
period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(b)
Change regarding cooperation
arrangement
No change of cooperation arrangement occurred during the
reported period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(c)
Change to database structure or the
capacity of national registry
An updated diagram of the database structure is attached as
Annex A.
Versions of the CSEUR released after 6.1.7.1 (the production
version at the time of the last Chapter 14 submission)
introduced changes in the structure of the database.
These changes were limited and only affected EU ETS
functionality. No change was required to the database and
application backup plan or to the disaster recovery plan.
No change to the capacity of the national registry occurred
during the reported period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(d)
Change regarding conformance to
technical standards
Changes introduced since version 6.1.7.1 of the national registry
were limited and only affected EU ETS functionality.
However, each release of the registry is subject to both
regression testing and tests related to new functionality. These
tests also include thorough testing against the DES and were
successfully carried out prior to the relevant major release of the
version to Production (see Annex B).
Annex H testing was carried out in February 2015 and the test
report is provided as part of this submission (see Annex C).
No other change in the registry's conformance to the technical
standards occurred for the reported period.
332
Reporting Item
Description
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(e)
Change
to
discrepancies
procedures
No change of discrepancies procedures occurred during the
reported period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(f)
Change regarding security
No change of security measures occurred during the reporting
period
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(g)
Change to list of publicly available
information
No change to the list of publicly available information occurred
during the reporting period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(h)
Change of Internet address
No change of the registry internet address occurred during the
reporting period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(i)
Change regarding data integrity
measures
No change of data integrity measures occurred during the
reporting period.
15/CMP.1 annex II.E paragraph
32.(j)
Change regarding test results
Changes introduced since version 6.1.7.1 of the national registry
were limited and only affected EU ETS functionality. Both
regression testing and tests on the new functionality were
successfully carried out prior to release of the version to
Production. The site acceptance test was carried out by quality
assurance consultants on behalf of and assisted by the European
Commission; the report is attached as Annex B.
Annex H testing was carried out in February 2015 and the test
report is provided as part of this submission (see Annex C).
The previous Annual
recommendations
There are no recommendations in the 2014 SIAR assessment
reports
Review
333
13 Information on minimization of adverse impacts in accordance with Article
3, paragraph 14
13.1
Overview
In the framework of the EU Burden Sharing Agreement, Italy has committed to reduce its GHG emissions by
6.5% below base-year levels (1990) over the first commitment period, 2008-2012. After the review of the
initial report of Italy under the Kyoto Protocol (KP), the Kyoto objective was fixed in 483.255 MtCO2 per
year for each year of the “commitment period” (UNFCCC, 2007).
In this section Italy provides an overview of its commitments under Article 3.1, and specifically how it is
striving to implement individually its commitment under Article 3 paragraph 14 of the KP. Under Article
3.14 of the KP:
“Each Party included in Annex I shall strive to implement the commitments mentioned in paragraph 1 64
above in such a way as to minimize adverse social, environmental and economic impacts on developing
country Parties, particularly those identified in Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9 65, of the Convention. In line
with relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties on the implementation of those paragraphs, the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first session,
consider what actions are necessary to minimize the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impacts of
response measures on Parties referred to in those paragraphs. Among the issues to be considered shall be the
establishment of funding, insurance and transfer of technology.
For the preparation of this chapter ISPRA has collected information through the revision of peer review
international articles on sustainable development (SD) of ex-ante/ex-post assessments related to activities on
climate change mitigation, and through personal communication with people/institutions involved in
project/programs/policy implementation of climate change activities. Moreover, experts from the Ministry
for the Environment, Land and Sea (Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare,
MATTM) and the Directorate General for Development Co-operation (DGCS) from the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs (Ministero degli Affari Esteri, MAE) were contacted. This chapter has been updated with new
information according to the on-going activities at national and international level.
As the reporting obligation related to Article 3, paragraph 14 does not include an obligation to report on each
specific mitigation policy. Italy briefly describes how EU is striving to minimize adverse impacts, because
Italy is member of the European Union, thus incorporated into its European legal system to implement
directives/policies; and individually how is striving to implement Article 3.14 with specific examples.
Two main parts are requested under Article 3.14 for reporting purposes: commitments to minimize adverse
effects (section 14.2, 14.3) and priority actions (section 14.4, 14.5). Future improvements/research activities
are expected for next submissions (section 14.6).
64
Kyoto Protocol, Art. 3 Par. 1 “The Parties included in Annex I shall, individually or jointly, ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent
emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated pursuant to their quantified emission limitation and reduction
commitments inscribed in Annex B and in accordance with the provisions of this Article, with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases by at least 5 per cent
below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012.”
65
UNFCCC, Art 4. Par 8. “In the implementation of the commitments in this Article, the Parties shall give full consideration to what actions are necessary under the
Convention, including actions related to funding, insurance and the transfer of technology, to meet the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising
from the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impact of the implementation of response measures, especially on: (a) Small island countries; (b) Countries with lowlying coastal areas; (c) Countries with arid and semi-arid areas, forested areas and areas liable to forest decay; (d) Countries with areas prone to natural disasters; (e)
Countries with areas liable to drought and desertification; (f) Countries with areas of high urban atmospheric pollution; (g) Countries with areas with fragile ecosystems,
including mountainous ecosystems; (h) Countries whose economies are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export, and/or on
consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products; and (i) Landlocked and transit countries. Further, the Conference of the Parties may take actions, as
appropriate, with respect to this paragraph.” UNFCCC Art 4. Par. 9. “The Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed
countries in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology.”
334
13.2
European Commitment under Art 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol
The EU is well aware of the need to assess impacts, and has built up thorough procedures in line with
obligations. This includes bilateral dialogues and different platforms that allow interacting with third
countries, explain new policy initiatives and receive comments from third countries. Impacts on third
countries are mostly indirect and can frequently neither be directly attributed to a specific EU policy, nor
directly measured by the EU in developing countries. A wide-ranging impact assessment (IA) system
accompanying all new policy initiatives has been established. This approach ensures that potential adverse
social, environmental and economic impacts on various stakeholders are identified and minimized within the
legislative process (European Commission, 2010).
At European level, IA is required for most important Commission initiatives, policy and programs and those
which will have the most far-reaching impacts. In 2009, IA was adopted, replacing the previous Guidelines
2005 and also the 2006 update. In general, the IA evidence advantages and disadvantages of possible policy
options by assessing their potential impacts. Among different issues, it should be assessed which are the
likely social, environmental and economic impacts of those options (European Commission, 2009[a]). Since
2003 all IA of EU policies are listed and published online by subject (European Commission, 2015). Key
questions on economic, social and environmental impacts in relation to third countries are listed in Table
14.1.
Table 14.1 Questions in relation to impacts on Third countries
Economic
•
How does the policy initiative affect trade or investment flows
between the EU and third countries? How does it affect EU trade
policy and its international obligations, including in the WTO?
•
Does the option affect specific groups (foreign and domestic
businesses and consumers) and if so in what way?
•
Does the policy initiative concern an area in which international
standards, common regulatory approaches or international regulatory
dialogues exist?
•
Does it affect EU foreign policy and EU development policy?
•
What are the impacts on third countries with which the EU has
preferential trade arrangements?
•
Does it affect developing countries at different stages of development
(least developed and other low-income and middle income countries)
in a different manner?
•
Does the option impose adjustment costs on developing countries?
•
Does the option affect goods or services that are produced or
consumed by developing countries?
Social
•
Does the option have a
social impact on third
countries that would be
relevant for overarching EU
policies,
such
as
development policy?
•
Does it affect international
obligations
and
commitments of the EU
arising from e.g. the ACPEU Partnership Agreement
or
the
Millennium
Development Goals?
•
Does it increase poverty in
developing countries or
have an impact on income
of the poorest populations?
Environmental
•
Does the option affect the
emission of greenhouse
gases (e.g. carbon dioxide,
methane etc) into the
atmosphere?
•
Does the option affect the
emission
of
ozonedepleting
substances
(CFCs, HCFCs etc)?
•
Does the option affect our
ability to adapt to climate
change?
•
Does the option have an
impact on the environment
in third countries that
would be relevant for
overarching EU policies,
such as development
policy?
Source: European Commission, 2010
A review of European response measures for two EU policies were chosen for further description because
the IA identified potential impacts on thirds countries. These measures are the Directive 2009/28/EC on the
promotion of the use of renewable energy, and the EU emission trading scheme for the inclusion of the
aviation (see European Commission, 2009[b]; European Commission, 2010).
335
Directive on the promotion of the use of renewable energy
EU will reach a 20% share of energy from renewable sources in the overall energy consumption by 2020
(with individual targets for each Member State) and a 10% share of renewable energy specifically in the
transport sector, which includes biofuels, biogas, hydrogen and electricity from renewables. EU leaders
agreed on 23 October 2014 the domestic 2030 targets of greenhouse gas reduction of at least 40% compared
to 1990 and at least 27% for renewable energy and energy savings by 2030. IAs related to enhanced use in
the EU showed that the cultivation of energy crops have positive (growing of EU demand for bioenergy
generates new export revenues and employment opportunities for developing countries and boosts rural
economies), and negative (biodiversity, soil and water resources and have positive/ negative effects on air
pollutants) impacts. For this reason, Article 17 of the EU's Directive has created "sustainability criteria",
applicable to all biofuels (biomass used in the transport sector) and bioliquids, which consider to establish a
threshold for GHG emission reductions that have to be achieved from the use of biofuels; to exclude the use
of biofuels from land with high biodiversity value (primary forest and wooded land, protected areas or highly
biodiverse grasslands), and to exclude the use of biofuels from land with high C stocks, such as wetlands,
peatlands or continuously forested areas. In this context, developing country representatives as well as other
stakeholder were extensively consulted during the development of the sustainability criteria and preparation
of the directive and the extensive consultation process has been documented. The Commission also reports
on biofuels' potential indirect land use change effect and the positive and negative impact on social
sustainability in the Union and in third countries, including the availability of foodstuffs at affordable prices,
in particular for people living in developing countries, and wider development issues. The first reports were
submitted in 2012 (European Commission, 2010).
Inclusion of aviation in the EU emission trading scheme
In 2005 the Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Reducing the Climate Change Impact of
Aviation", which evaluated the policy options available to this end and was accompanied by an IA. The
assessment concluded that, in view of the likely strong future growth in air traffic emissions, further
measures are urgently needed. Aircraft operators from developing countries will be affected to the extent
they operate on routes covered by the scheme. As operators from third countries generally represent a limited
share of emissions covered, the impact is also modest. On the other hand, to the extent that aviation's
inclusion in the EU ETS creates additional demand for credits from JI and CDM projects, there will also be
indirect positive effects as such projects imply additional investments in clean technologies in developing
countries (European Commission, 2010).
Common Agricultural Policy
Furthermore, many developing countries and least developed countries (LDC) are based on the agricultural
production, therefore, it will be important to understand how the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
Health Check, together with the new targets on climate change and renewable energies will potentially
influence developing countries. Some information on cereal intervention options on third parties have been
identified (European Commission, 2008). Some studies on the impact of agricultural policies on developing
countries are also available (Schmidhuber, 2009; Hallam, 2010). Brooks et al (2010) has recently presented
DEVPEM 66 a companion to the OECD-country PEM 67 as a tool for policy evaluation in developing
countries. Preliminary results for Malawi indicate that agricultural policies may have fundamentally different
impacts on incomes in low income countries to those obtained in developed OECD countries.
66
67
DEVPEM, Development Policy Evaluation Model
PEM, Policy Evaluation Model examine the effects of agricultural policies in member countries
336
13.3
Italian commitment under Art 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol
Article 3, paragraph 14 of the KP is related to Annex I Parties’ way of implementing commitments under
Article 3.1 of the KP. Therefore, it addresses the implementation of the quantified emission limitation and
reduction objectives (QELROs) under Article 3.1, the implementation of LULUCF activities under Article 3
paragraphs 3 and 4, the use of Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) and Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)
under Article 3 paragraphs 10, 11, and 12.
Italy is aware of the potential direct and indirect impact of measures/policies and tries to ensure that the
implementation of national mitigation policies under the KP does not impact other parties. Minimizing
adverse effects of policies/measures are described in Chapter 4.8 in the Sixth National Communication
(MATTM, 2014). Information of activities under Article 3 paragraphs 3 and 4 of the KP is described in
‘Chapter 10’ KP-LULUCF’ of this report.
National and sectoral Italian policies are expected to have no direct impacts in developing countries. Policies
and measures in the Italian energy sector aim to increase energy efficiency and develop a low-carbon energy
system but in the context of a global energy scenarios that do not foresee a decline in income for fossil fuel
exporting countries (IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008).
Efforts to tackle adverse social, economic, and environmental impacts of mitigation actions are directly
expected in the framework of the Kyoto Mechanisms. Hence, this chapter has concentrated efforts to analyze
the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation in order to provide response to reporting
requirements under Article 3.14 of KP.
Procedure for assessing sustainability at local and national level for CDM and JI
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the KP, allows a country with an
emission-limitation commitment (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing
countries.
For this section, information was collected from the UNFCCC CDM Project Search Database (UNFCCC,
2015[a]). On 05 June 2015, the UNFCCC CDM Database reported a total of 7,645 registered project
activities out of 7,984 projects. With data as of 30 April 2015, 83.9% of CDM projects were registered in
Asia and the Pacific Region, 12.9% in Latin America and Caribbean, 2.6% in Africa, and 0.6% in Countries
with economies in transition. The distribution of registered projects by scope activity was mainly: energy
industries (74.7%), waste handling and disposal (10.8%) and manufacturing industries (4.3%). Registered
projects by Host Party were mainly in China (50.3%), India (19.8%), Brazil (4.3%) and Vietnam (3.4%). The
distribution of global CDM projects by Host country and scope is presented in Figure 14.1.
2.5%
2.4% 1.4%
3.9%
Energy Industries
4.3%
Other countries
22.5%
Vietnam
3.3%
Waste handling adn
disposal
Manufacturing
industries
Fugitive emissions by
fuels
Agriculture
10.8%
China
49.3%
Brazil
4.4%
74.7%
India
20.5%
Energy demand
Others
Source: UNFCCC (UNFCCC, 2015[b])
Figure 14.1 CDM projects by Host country and scope (as for 30/04/2015)
337
Italy as investor Party, contributes with 1.6% of world-wide CDM project portfolio. Italy is involved in 127
CDM projects , and is involved directly, as government, in 52 registered CDM (MATTM, 2011[a]). Up to
now Italy is involved in 125 CDM registered projects (UNFCCC, 2015[a]), 11.6% more than the beginning
of 2014. Projects by dimension are 60% large scale and 40% small-scale. Italy is the only proposer for 47.1%
of the CDM projects. In Annex A8.2.4 a complete list of CDM projects is available. Italian CDM projects by
Host country and scope are illustrated in tables 14.2 and 14.3 respectively.
Table 14.2 Italian CDM projects by Host country
Country
China
India
Brazil
Kenya
Nepal
Uganda
Argentina
Republic of Moldova
Tunisia
Other
Total
n°
52
12
6
5
5
5
4
4
3
29
125
%
41,6
9,6
4,8
4
4
4
3,2
3,2
2,4
23.2
100
Table 14.3 Italian CDM projects by scope
Scope
n°
%
Energy industries (renewable - / non-renewable)
Afforestation and reforestation
Manufacturing industries
Waste handling and disposal
Fugitive emissions from production and consumption
of halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride
Other
70
16
14
12
56
12.8
11,2
9.6
8
5
6,4
4.0
Total
125
100
Parties should follow a project cycle to propose CDM projects (first designing phase and realization phase).
During the first phase, among other activities, Parties participating in the CDM shall designate a national
authority (DNA). Each Host Party has implemented a procedure for assessing CDM projects. The DNA
evaluates project documentation against a set of pre-defined criteria, which tend to encompass social,
environmental and economic aspects. For instance, India has SD criteria such as the social, economic,
environmental and technological ‘well-being’. Instead, China discriminated projects by priority area and by
gas based-approach (Olsen and Fenhann, 2008; Boyd et al., 2009).
Most of the CDM projects (if large-scale) are subject to ex-ante assessments. For instance, environmental
impact assessments (EIA) are required. In other cases, because of the size of the project, EIA are not
necessary. Still some CDM projects have performed voluntary EIA. This is the case for the Santa Rosa
Hydroelectric CDM project in Peru (Endesa Carbono, 2010). After, a second evaluation is performed by the
DNA as described previously. For example, in the Peruvian DNA, the process follows the: submission of the
project to the Ministry of competence on the activities, a site visit of the project done by the Ministry of
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Environment, and the conformation of an ad hoc committee that evaluate projects considering legal, social,
environmental and economic criteria (MINAM, 2010). Thus, possible impacts of the CDM projects are
mainly subject to local and national verification.
In some cases, an ex-post assessment could be also performed by the Designated Operational Entities (DOE),
which validated CDM projects and certifies as appropriate and requests the Board to issue CERs. For some
CDM projects, for instance, Poechos I Hydroelectric project (Peru), CERs are approve only if the project
complies also with social and environmental conditions (Endesa Carbono, 2010). In addition, Italy agreed to
accept in principle common guidelines for approval of large hydropower project activities. EU Member
States have arrived at uniform guidelines on the application of Article 11b(6) of the Directive 2004/101/EC
to ensure compliance (of such projects) with the international criteria and guidelines, including those
contained in the World Commission on Dams 2000 Report. It aims to ensure that hydro projects are
developed along the SD and the not damaging to the environment (exploring possible alternatives) and
addressing such issues as gaining public acceptance, and fair and equitable treatment of stakeholders,
including local and indigenous people (MATTM, 2010[a]).
Another feedback for participating to CDM project with SD characteristics comes from the carbon funds. For
instance, Italy participates to the BioCarbon Fund (BCF), the Community Development Carbon Fund
(CDCF) and the Italian Carbon Fund (ICF). The first two funds aim to finance projects with strong social
impact at local level, that combine community development attributed with emission reductions and will
significantly improve the life of the poor and their local environment (MATTM, 2010[a]). Italian CDM
projects which are under the CDCF initiative are listed in Annex A8.2.4.
The Joint implementation (JI) is defined in Article 6 of the KP allowing a country with a limitation
commitment (Annex B) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission
removal project in another Annex B Party. Two procedures could be followed. ‘Track 1’ procedures apply
when the Host Party and investors meets all of the eligibility requirements to transfer and/or acquire ERUs,
and the project is additional to any that would otherwise occur. ‘Track 2’ applies when the Host Party fulfils
with a limited set of eligibility requirements or there is not an institutional authority able to follow up the
project cycle. In this case the project should go through the verification procedure under the Joint
Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC). The development of the project is divided in a design
and implementation phases (MATTM 2011[b]). Parties involved in JI activities should designated focal point
for approving projects, and prepared Guidelines and Procedures for approving Art.6 Projects, including the
consideration of stakeholders’ (MATTM, 2010[b]). Up to February 2015 the JI database from IGES source
shows only one large scale project (Track 1) with Italy involved. The task of the project is to reduce GHG
emissions fuel switch (IGES, 2015).
Voluntary validation of sustainable development is taking place at international level for CDM and JI
projects. The UNEP database 68 highlights the Gold Standard (GS) and the Climate, Community and
Biodiversity Alliance (CCB) for assessing SD on CDM project, and only GS for JI projects. In 2014 the
CDM Board published a tool to report about the contribution of CDM projects to sustainable development
(UNFCCC[c], 2015). The SD Tool is a voluntary tool for describing sustainable development co-benefits
(SDC) of CDM project activities or programmes of activities enables CDM project developers to highlight
the sustainable development benefits of their projects or PoAs by using a check list of predefined criteria and
indicators. The GS operates a certification scheme for premium quality carbon credits and promotes
sustainable development (GS label). Indicators include air/water quality, soil condition, biodiversity, quality
of employment, livelihood of the poor, access to affordable and clean energy services, etc (Gold Standard,
2011). After labelling, these projects are tracked in the UNFCCC/CDM Registry. The CCBA is a voluntary
standard, which support the design and identification of land management activities that simultaneously
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minimize climate change, support sustainable development, and conserve biodiversity. Project design
standards include: climate, community, and biodiversity indicators (CCBA, 2011). Up to 05 June 2015, the
UNEP database reports 761 JI projects (track1+track2) from which 604 projects are registered (91.9% track
1+8.1% track 2). At the same date the UNEP database reports 8,615 CDM projects with 7,641 registered
from which 7 projects are validated with CCB, 135 with GS, and 11 with SD tool (Sustainable Development
tool).
Assessment of social, environmental, and economic effects of CDM and JI projects
The assessment of adverse social, environmental, and economic impacts contribution of CDM projects has
been concentrated in the energy sector (or non-forestry CDM projects). Results from most relevant peerreview literature are available in this section.
Most common used methodologies for assessing sustainability are checklists and multicriteria assessments
(Olsen 2007). For instance, Sirohi (2007) has qualitatively analyzed and discussed the Project Design
Document (PDD) of 65 CDM projects covering all the types of CDM project activity in India. Results from
this paper show that the benefits of the projects focusing on improving energy efficiency in industries, fossil
fuel switching in industrial units and destruction of HFC-23 would remain largely “firm-specific” and are
unlikely to have an impact on rural poverty. Boyd et al. (2009) have chosen randomly 10 CDM projects that
capture diversity of project types and regions. Environment and development benefits (environment,
economic, technology transfer, health, employment, education and other social) were assessed qualitatively.
This review shows divergences and no causal relationship between project types and SD outcomes. Sutter
and Parreño (2007) assessed CDM projects in terms of their contribution to employment generation, equal
distribution of CDM returns, and improvement of local air quality. The multi-attribute assessment
methodology (MATA-CDM) for non-forestry CDM projects was used for assessing 16 CDM projects
registered at UNFCCC as of August 30, 2005. Results indicated that projects might contribute to one of the
two CDM objectives (GHG emission reductions and SD in the Host country), but neither contributes
strongly to both objectives. Uruguay’s DNA has adopted this tool for approval of CDM projects.
Nussbaumer (2009) has presented a SD assessment of 39 CDM projects. Label CDM projects (‘Gold
Standard’ label and CDCF focuses) were compared to similar non-labelled CDM projects. Results show that
labelled CDM activities tend to slightly outperform comparable projects, although not unequivocally.
Nussbaumer selected criteria based on those from Sutter (2003) including social (stakeholder participation,
improved service availability, equal distribution, capacity development), environmental (fossil energy
resources, air quality, water quality, land resource) and economic (regional economy, microeconomic
efficiency, employment generation, sustainable technology transfer) issues.
Some studies have also addressed the assessment of forestry CDM projects. Olsen and Fenhann (2008) have
developed a taxonomy for sustainability assessment based on PDD text analysis. These authors concluded
that the taxonomy can be supportive of DNAs to decide what the consequences should be, if a CDM project
at the verification stage does not show signs of realizing its potential SD benefits. Palm et al (2009)
developed a ranking process to assess sustainability of forest plantation projects in India. They concluded
that successful implementation of forest-based project activities will require local participation and are likely
to involve multiple forest products and environmental services demanded by the local community. For the
first time a study has addressed the choice of an appropriate method for measuring strong sustainability. In a
decision-aiding process, 10 UNFCCC/CDM afforestation/reforestation projects were evaluated through
criteria that reflect global and local interests using a non-compensatory multicriteria method. Criteria for
assessing SD included: social (land tenure, equitably share natural, skill development, ensure local
participation), economic (employment, financial resource to local entities, financial forestry incentives) and
environmental (use of native species, conservation and maintenance of soil/water resources, biodiversity
conservation) issues. The multicriteria assessment allows sorting forestry projects in three ordered
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categories: synergistic, reasonably synergistic, and not synergistic. This means that those projects, which are
synergistic comply with a higher number of criteria (Cóndor et al., 2010).
A UNFCCC report concluded that most studies of hydrofluorocarbon and nitrous oxide related projects yield
the fewest SD benefits, but the studies differ in their assessment of other project types. It also reports that
other studies suggest a trade-off between the goals of the CDM in favour of producing low-cost emission
reductions at the expense of achieving SD benefits (UNFCCC, 2011[b]).
For this section we have accessed project databases (UNFCCC, Carbon Finance, UNEP Risoe Centre) and
peer-reviewed art