...

The High Speed and High Capacity railway Turin-Lyon

by user

on
Category:

agriculture

6

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

The High Speed and High Capacity railway Turin-Lyon
The High Speed and High Capacity railway
Turin-Lyon
Andrea Allasio – June 2006
Preface
In December 2005, the facts and protests against the TAV (in Italy this stands for High Speed Train) in the
Susa Valley have finally highlighted at national level the problematic over the Turin-Lyon and the concerns of
the population. Events were reported with different cuts, depths and perspectives, but the framework and the
information concerning this railway project, which apparently is one the most sponsored in Europe, were
passed in general very superficially and most of the time biased.
There is no need to go too far from Susa Valley for understanding the lack of information concerning the
project, talking with people leaving in Turin is more than enough. More then a person found is in favour of the
railway because gives the opportunity to reach the ski field in about half an hour from Turin or because it
allows to go to Paris in few hours, not knowing that the line passes 600 meters under the ground level, not in
the centre of the valley and the saving over a long trip as Turin to Paris is just an hour. Someone talks about
the freight transportation, however nobody has the idea of the volume of the freight being transported, the
future forecast, the other railway lines and tunnels under construction around the Alps and finally, if the project
is really mandatory or not.
Alarming is the scenario of so many people found totally unaware of the project and the consequences to be
paid in terms of health, taxes and drawbacks of various nature, in favour of the advertised advantages that the
new railway line will never be able to produce.
Anyone who wants to know the project, its context, building an own idea, can found in this paper a synthesis
of technical data and information taken from official documentation of the project, studies conducted by
Universities and independent institutions, report and publications of the European Community, of the “Corte
dei Conti”, minute of meetings of the Technical Commission, as well as publications from Italian, regional,
provincial and local administrations, newspapers and so on.
Most of these data are available on the official internet sites of the Piedmont Region, Transpadania,
Transalpine, LTF and together with the official documentation of the project design constitute a knowledge
base available to the Susa valley concerned inhabitants.
Content
1.
INRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................4
1.1.
History and status of the Turin-Lyon ........................................................................................................................4
1.2.
Geographical framework ...........................................................................................................................................6
2.
THE HIGH SPEED RAIWAY LINE TURIN-LYON .............................................................................................................8
2.1.
Main data and a bit of clarification concerning the tunnels. ....................................................................................8
2.2.
The historical line Turin-Modane ..............................................................................................................................9
2.3.
The connections of the new High Speed line with the historical line......................................................................9
2.4.
Traffic model of the Turin-Lyon ...........................................................................................................................10
2.5.
Leaving Turin ….. ....................................................................................................................................................12
2.6.
The transportation of the passengers.....................................................................................................................13
2.7.
The freight transportation ........................................................................................................................................13
2.8.
Is the freight transportation by road really increasing?..........................................................................................16
2.9.
The construction sites in the Italian territory ..........................................................................................................18
2.10.
The tunnel extracted material, utilisation, transportation and disposal. ...............................................................19
2.11.
The costs..................................................................................................................................................................20
2.12.
Who is financing the Turin- Lyon ? .........................................................................................................................21
2.13.
The operative costs .................................................................................................................................................22
2.14.
The Turin-Lyon work planning ................................................................................................................................22
2.15.
What about France ? ...............................................................................................................................................23
2.16.
The Europen Comunity and the High Speed Railway projects.............................................................................23
2.17.
Benefits and comfort for the Susa Valley residents...............................................................................................24
3.
AMBIENT IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS .....................................................................................................................25
3.1.
Is there asbestos or not ?........................................................................................................................................26
3.2.
About uranium..........................................................................................................................................................26
3.3.
Powders, particulate, other polluting elements and their transportation ..............................................................27
3.4.
The acoustic noise...................................................................................................................................................27
3.5.
The effects on the human health ............................................................................................................................28
3.6.
Hydrological risks.....................................................................................................................................................29
3.7.
Impact on residential, industrial and agriculture areas ..........................................................................................31
3.8.
Archaeological impacts ...........................................................................................................................................32
4.
THE ALTERNATE PROPOSAL TO THE TURIN-LYON .................................................................................................33
4.1.
The enhancement of the historical line (not to be confused with the CIPE approved)........................................33
4.2.
Improvement of other lines......................................................................................................................................35
4.3.
The results of the proposal......................................................................................................................................35
5.
THE REASONS OF THE OPPOSITION ..........................................................................................................................37
6.
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................................................38
On front-sheet a digital processing of a P.Burdizzo picture, from 2001.
A/A June 2006
2/2
1. INRODUCTION
1.1.
History and status of the Turin-Lyon
The first rumours about a TAV are dated 1998, when a connection between Grenoble and Turin was
envisaged via a tunnel under the Monginevro pass, but the first seed of the Turin Lyon and the 50 Km tunnel
under the Mont Cenis was put one year later at the Agnelli’s foundation in Turin, where Tecnocity association
has presented it to a group of expert and politicians. The idea started growing in 1990 and contemporary the
dissent of the environmentalists began, while at the end of the year the first Italian-French agreement took
place, followed by a book containing the EC study for the development of a European compatible railway net
with outmost modern means. At that time in Italy there was a very interested train named “Pendolino” able to
run faster over the ordinary railway net.
It is worth to note that the historical international line was opened on 6 Oct 1871 and run as single rail for 114
years until 1985, when the second rail between Bussoleno and Bardonecchia was completed and the original
line enhanced. So it appeared immediately strange that a new line was judged necessary only since 4-5 year
after the double rail operation opening also because from 1980 to 1990 there was no traffic increase.
The group Habitats was founded in 1991 and taking advantage of cooperation with very valuable Italian
university professors, it began to comment and to technically dismount all ideas maturing on the subject,
diffusing the opposition’s reasons, locally and in the western Turin surroundings, via two local newspapers “La
Valsusa” and “Luna Nuova”.
Meanwhile, the leadership of the TAV sponsoring committee passed from Agnelli to Pininfarina, asserting:
The new high speed railway line will cost 7,200 billions Lire (about 3.7 billions Euro) and will be necessary in
order to carry 7,7 million international passengers and 18,6 Mt (million tons) of freight, forecasted in 2002,
against 1 million and of persons and 8 Mt of freight transported today.
Studies were assigned to several institutions and the first estimations came available together with a booklet
advertising the line. Between alternating of politicians and railroad responsible, the opposition to the project
(a)
enlarged to several involved commons, CMBVS , independent research institutes, to all the environmentalist
associations, agriculture producers associations and so on.
Alpetunnel Company is created at the end of 1994 with the initial task of defining the modality of the financing
and management of the tunnel, while immediately after, the conference of Essen has placed the Turin-Lyon
railway line among the 14 projects to be submitted to the European Union for approval.
At the end of 1995 a stop appeared imminent even if the ministers of Berlusconi and Mitterand have signed
the agreement to finance the feasibility studies. The press asserted that the TAV reached a dead point
because of the strong oppositions and local battles "e.g. the motion of the 4 NOT", fully supported by the CMBVS.
Nevertheless the projects continued and two draft proposals of the International railway segment, which
extend from Bruzolo to Saint Jean de Maurienne, were proposed by Alpetunnel and by the administration of
the Province of Turin in the year 2000. The trace passing in the north side of the valley, proposed by
Alpetunnel was selected by the administration of Piedmont region.
Accuses of having already spent 200 billions Lire (about 100 millions Euro) and asking others 600 billions for
other studies, were formulated in the 2001 by the Turin Province president, Mrs Bresso.
A counter analysis assigned by the CMBVS to Polinomia institute, completely demolished the feasibility and
economic return of the project. The feasibility was questioned as well from the French company SetecEconomie to which the CIG, Inter Governmental Commission - Italian-French, through Alpetunnel entrusted
one study of economic appraisal.
That was the end of Alpetunnel, but immediately after an other French/Italian company, Lyon Turin Ferroviaire
(LTF) comes constituted in order to carry on the studies, the surveys and the plans at completion. Meanwhile the
Italian Parliament approved and launched the “objective law” for simplifying the procedures for ambient impact
evaluation, excluding completely any possible of intervention and discussion with the local administrations
(b)
Under the request of the CIG headed by Pininfarina, all the project documentation relevant to the Italian
segment and the “Gronda nord di Torino” (northern Turin collector) remained secret until April 2002, when the
first preliminary indications of the railway path were presented.
(c)
The first preliminary project plan of the national segment appearing from RFI in spring 2003, was
immediately strongly commented and technically taken apart by all members of the opposition, because of the
heavy impacts to the environment and because of the rough forgetfulness and weaknesses. Criticism was so
large that RFI withdrawn the project in autumn of the same year.
Meanwhile the CMBVS requested to the European Community the position concerning presumed violations of
railway projects against the environmental impact verification procedure.
On 12 Feb 2004 the European Community the returned the response in Italian stating: "no hypothesis of
violation of the directive 85/337/CEE could have been identified concerning the project of the railway line Lyon
Turin, in relation to which no authorization to the realization of the work turns out to have been given. This
A/A June 2006
3/3
project turns out to be still in the feasibility phase". This answer gives justice to TAV opposition, confirming the
falsity of the politician affirmations that the European Union had already decided and already financed.
In 2004 comes written up the second preliminary plan, with many more details, a given number of valid points,
however the technical and economic justification of the work is still inexistent, while the impact to the
(d)
environment remains too high. In the meantime, CIPE
approved of the International segment, where the
preparation of the detailed plans requires long studies, surveys and soundings, including the geognostic
gallery of Venaus, near the Italian entrance of the international tunnel.
On 14 Oct 2004, E.Ghigo, the President of the Piedmont Regional Administration, nominated the monitoring
commission for the geognostic surveys. Obviously the commission was composed by members of the
Piedmont Region, Turin City, Province of Turin, Ministry of Transportation, RFI, LTF, but no member of the
local administrations or experts nominated by them were included. In France the supervisory committee are
usually including independent observators, having as well the right to call and convene on call controls.
Technical Commission Rivalta was constituted in August 2005, including representatives of the Ministry of
(e)
Transportation, Piedmont Region, Turin City, Province of Turin, ARPA ,LTF, RFI, as well as the CMBVS.
The commission met on weekly basis since August 29. Several argumentations were pointed out, discussed
and debated as the lack of risk analysis of the International segment.
The commission often mentioned and referred to the August 2005 CIPE approval of the national segment,
however neither the deliberation and nor the plan / modifications eventually approved, contextually to the
(g)
deliberation, were available. Afterward it was discovered that it was blocked by the Corte dei Conti , and
subsequently published only in March 2006.
On 26 October 2005, the commission is pushing discussion on the geognostic tunnel, trying forcing
agreements in absence of the CIPE deliberation: The representatives of the CMBVS took distance from the
commission as the attempt of pushing for agreements without having the terms of the CIPE approval was
judged a severe matter of concern on transparency and proceeding approach.
The geognostic tunnel is a real tunnel, 10Km long with 6.3 meters drilling diameter, bringing 400-500
thousand cubic meter of extracted material. It cannot be sold out to the population as a sounding, without
environmental impact verification, without risks analysis, without local hydro-geological evaluation, without
planning how to treat extraction of eventual dangerous material (asbestos-uranium) and without a basic
agreement with the local administrations. This created a strong protest of the local population, the presidium
of the sites, the blocking of the access areas, railway, motorway and the events of the beginning of December
2005, reported by most of the European media.
Thanks to these events the TAV opposition has got the national level and European levels, problems and the
reasons of the opposition become difficult to be hidden by the national press, as it was in the past. All
commons of the low Susa Valley were continuing the opposition all together, while opening of discussions
among the government and all involved entities was envisaged. Start of the geognostic gallery works is
postponed after the conclusion of the Turin 200 Olympic games or even after spring political elections.
The design of the international segment is more advanced and the start of the sounding works is the LTF
current primary objective, so to be able to produce the final design within 2007, while the works of recognition
will continue until 2009.
Italy and France will have to declare the reciprocal public interest to the project within the 2007, only
after this event the selected general contractors will apportion the works to subcontractors and providing the
availability of financing, the work might start. The final national segment design was expected by spring 2006.
At the beginning of 2006, ISPA (f) has started advertising in television the importance of the company in
realising the big infrastructures, promising prosperity, wealth and comfort to the population as well as an
indirect message of economical return to private investors.
But today, in June 2006, nothing is so far decided and frozen concerning the Turin-Lyon AC/AV line and the
financing for realising the project might not become available.
The bottom line is that after years and years of requests, nobody has been able to demonstrate the
necessity of a so heavy impacting project.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(a) CMBVS: “Comunita Bassa Val Susa e Val Cenischia” is a local administration grouping all commons of the low side of the Valley.
(b) CIG, Commission Inter-Governative
(c) RFI, Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, is the Italian company in charge of the railway network.
(d) CIPE, Comitato Interministeriale Per lo sviluppo Economico, Interministerial Committeee for the Economical Development, in
charge as well to approve the economical plan and financing of such projects.
(e) ARPA, Agenzia Regionale Per l’Ambiente, regional institution for the environment
(f) ISPA – Infrastrutture S.p.A, is the company in charge of managing the realisation of the Italian’s infrastructures
(g) Corte dei Conti is the ultimate institution endorsing the financing plans.
A/A June 2006
4/4
1.2.
Geographical framework
The Susa Valley is a glacial alpine valley, one of the largest of the west Piedmont area, extending for more
then 100 Km, from the French border until the flat area of the Turin western surroundings. Known for the
various winter 2006 Olympics game sites, the Susa Valley has been a passing place since millennia, thanks
to its two major natural passes, the Moncenisio e Monginevro, at 2000 and 1800 meters of altitude
respectively.
The Moncenisio pass opens over the French narrow valley of the Arc River, descending to Modane and Aiton,
few tens of kilometres before Chambery. On the south-western side, Monginevro pass bring down to Briançon
and to the south of France.
From the Roman emperor until the 1861 when Italy became a state, almost all population of the north-western
Europe has crossed or attempted to cross the valley, Celtics, Barbarians, Normans, Longobards (famous was
the battle of the “Chiuse”), French , including Hannibal who descent toward Susa with his elephants.
Frequents invasion of foreign population and the fog extending for long periods from the flat, have contributed
to move the population to the mountains. Several villages developed on the mountain slopes are today still
permanently populated and sites of summer vacations. Today agriculture, industries and commercial activities
has grown along the river, while the mountains deserve a variety of sites of a rare beautifulness, together with
hundreds place where the sacrifices of the mountain population and the effects of the wars is still alive, in an
environment where only the noise of the trains brake the sound of the wind.
Some numbers of the Susa valley, just to get familiar with it.
•
Population:
about 76,500 residents, 63,500 in lower valley and 13,000 in upward valley.
•
Surface:
1047 squared Km, 468 in lower valley and 579 upward.
•
Communes:
23 in low valley side and 1 in upward valley, grouped in the respective two
Communities, “Comunità Montana Bassa Val Susa e Val Cenischia” and
“Comunità Montana Alta Val Susa”
•
Railways (existing):
Turin – Bussoleno – Modane – State border and Bussoleno Susa, for a total of
89Km, excluding the segment pertaining to the Turin city and surroundings.
•
Highways:
A32 – Rivoli-Bardonecchia-State border, 82 Km
•
National Roads:
SS24 of Monginevro (82 Km) and SS25 of Moncenisio (60Km), SS23 CesanaSestriere (11Km) and SS 335 Oulx-Bardonecchia (14Km). 167 Km in total,
excluding Turin city and surroundings segments.
•
Main River:
Dora Riparia, 105 Km long from its spring to confluence inside Po river.
•
Artificial Water Basins:
Moncenisio lake with 333 million of cubic meters and supplying several power
plats in France as well tone in Italy (Venuas). The Pont Ventoux barrage and
its power plants in the Dora Riparia River rapids over Susa. The Rochemolles
Lake and the power plant of Bardonecchia.
•
International passes:
There are 5 international crosses points: Frejus motorway tunnel (T4),
Monginevro road pass, Moncenisio road pass (May to October), “Colle della
Scala” (scenery road – June to September), Frejus railway tunnel.
•
Population density:
22 people/Km2 in upward valley and 135 people/Km2 in low valley side, against
a national average of 192, but considering the 85% of the valley is composed
by mountains and very narrow side valleys.
•
Railway density:
85 Km every 1000 Km , against a national average of 53. The railway density
of the valley is already 50% higher of the Italian average.
•
Highway density:
78Km of highway ever 1000 Km , while the Italian average is 22 Km only. The
Susa valley density is three times higher, despite the mountains.
2
2
2
159 Km of national roads every 1000 Km , about the same of the national
average of 152 Km.
The Susa Valley is as a consequence, a quite occupied natural area, considering the very limited flat surface
across the river, already taken by national roads, highway railway, other local roads and so on. A large
infrastructure as a high speed/high capacity railway line, inevitably creates impacts to the population and to
the environment. An impact difficult to be accepted, even in presence of a real technical and economical
justification (so far non existing) for building a so impacting infrastructure.
•
National road density:
A/A June 2006
5/5
Railway network
Km
Km of Railway for
100,000 habitats
Km of Railway for 1000
Km2
Germany
35,804 Susa Valley
115
116 Belgium
France
29,352 Finland
113 Luxembourg
105
United Kingdom
16,652 Sveden
111 Germany
100
70 Susa Valley
Italy
15,985 Austria
85
Spain
12,298 Luxembourg
69 Piedmont
74
Sveden
9,860 Ireland
51 United Kingdom
68
50 The Netherland
68
Europe (average)
9,818 France
67
Finland
5,850 Piedmont
44 Austria
Austria
5,647 Germany
43 France
54
Belgium
3,518 UE
53
39 Italy
Portugal
2,881 Denmark
39 Denmark
48
The Netherland
2,806 Belgium
34 UE
46
Greece
2,383 Spain
31 Portugal
31
Denmark
2,047 Portugal
29 Ireland
27
Ireland
1,919 United Kingdom
28 Spain
24
22
Piedmont
1,870 Italy
28 Sveden
Luxembourg
274 Greece
24 Greece
18
18 Finland
17
Susa Valley
89 The Netherland
Data from Union international chemin de fer (Uic.) - Year 2002 and ISTAT for local Italian data.
Population density
(people over 1 Km2)
The Netherland
Belgium
United Kingdom
Germany
Italy
Piedmont
Luxembourg
Denmark
UE
Portugal
France
Austria
Spain
Greece
Susa Valley
Ireland
Sveden
Finland
385
338
245
231
192
167
154
123
117
109
108
97
80
76
63
54
20
15
Before entering into the railway transportation topic, an overview of the situation of the railway transportation in
Piedmont, Italy and Europe is given, allowing as well some easy comparisons.
Only 6221 Km over the 15,985 Km Italian railways are double track and electrified while in France the double
track electrified is almost large as the whole Italian network (14,135 Km equal to 44.6% of the entire SNCF
network). In Germany the double track – electrified is 12,267 Km long, 43% of the entire network. This means
that in Italy the 84% of the whole railway traffic is concentrated over about 6,000 Km, 38% of the network.
The Italian network extension is the forth in Europe after, Germany, France and UK, however the railway density
per habitants is one of the lower in Europe. Only 28Km of railway for 100,000 habitants, against 43 Km in
Germany, 50Km in France and 113 Km in Finland. The Italian railway service is less capillary.
The average density of the Piedmont and Susa Valley are well above the Italian values.
The Turin compartment administers 1,870 Km of railways, the most extended network over all Italian regions,
but only 27% of it is double track and electrified, while an other 27% is double track non-electrified and the
remaining 46% of the network is single track non-electrified. The average length of the Italian double track –
electrified railways is 38%, 46% for the continental side (excluding Sicily and Sardinia island railways). This
brings the Piedmont as the second last region of the continental Italy, in front of Bari compartment only.
Operating railway network for typology and territorial zone (compartment) - Year 2002 (data in Km)
Compartment
Double track
Single track
Electrified Non-electrified
Electrified Non-electrified
Torino
498
520
851
Milano
677
667
203
Genova
360
188
3
Verona
409
235
165
Venezia
376
95
316
Trieste
298
82
98
Bologna
452
404
30
Firenze
907
226
18
578
Ancona
360
336
453
Bari
298
352
581
Roma
645
373
80
Napoli
422
318
275
Reggio Calabria
378
237
10
386
Palermo (Sicily)
141
637
621
Cagliari (Sardinia)
16
412
Italia (continental)
6,080
4,033
28
4,019
Italia
6,221
4,670
44
5,052
Data from ISTAT and FS
Total
1,869
1,547
551
809
787
478
886
1,729
1,149
1,231
1,098
1,015
1,011
1399
428
14,160
15,987
% of the
Double track % Single
total
electrif total Track %
12%
27%
54%
46%
10%
44%
87%
13%
3%
65%
99%
1%
5%
51%
80%
20%
5%
48%
60%
40%
3%
62%
79%
21%
6%
51%
97%
3%
11%
52%
66%
34%
7%
31%
61%
39%
8%
24%
53%
47%
7%
59%
93%
7%
6%
42%
73%
27%
6%
37%
61%
39%
9%
10%
56%
44%
3%
0%
0%
100%
43%
71%
29%
89%
100%
39%
68%
32%
In Piedmont most of the freights run over the 500 Km of double track – electrified railway, mainly in the in the
axes between Turin and Milan, Genoa, Bardonecchia (Frejus) and Simplon. The passenger traffic among
cities and villages not included in the above main axes, are served by single-track rails, mostly non-electrified
and in a significant state of degradation.
The service offered to passenger is too often inadequate to the current epoch, for timing, cleanliness, and
comfort; so several passenger associations have grown in the last years, for denouncing the status and for
defending the passengers rights.
A/A June 2006
6/6
2. THE HIGH SPEED RAIWAY LINE TURIN-LYON
2.1.
Main data and a bit of clarification concerning the tunnels.
•
Despite the name, the Turin-Lyon doesn’t pass to Turin town. Exiting from Gravio Musine tunnel, it takes the
direction of Settimo Torinese where it connects with the ordinary and high-speed lines, Turin–Milan.
•
The Turin-Lyon TAV length ranges between 254 and 265 depending of the France side option, about 20 to
30 shorter than the historical line which is 287 Km long (RFI data) and passing through the Frejus railway
tunnel. The TAV fleeting train connection Turin to Lyon is only 247 Km long, as the historical line is used till
Bruzolo, then the new line until Lyon.
•
The well advertised 53 Km long tunnel, known as well as basic tunnel, is not the only one. There are other 4
tunnels in Italy for a total amount of other 41 Km. All tunnels are double tube, meaning that there is one
gallery for each direction. In addition there are other 50Km of tunnel for priority-passing rails, inspections,
access window and service tunnels, descents, ventilations, refuges for people, and so on.
•
The Turin-Lyon is composed by three segments, Italian and assigned to RFI as general contractor,
International and assigned to LTF (Lyon Turin Ferroviaire) and a French segment, not yet assigned.
The Italian segment is (see red track in Fig. 2.1-1) is 43 km long. Starts from San Didero, includes the
tunnel Gravio-Musine tunnel (21.3 Km) and the northern Turin surrounding part, also called Gronda Nord
of Turin, which is implemented as series of artificial tunnels, embankment, trench, viaducts, until Settimo.
It includes as well two natural tunnels at Venaria (5 Km) and Settimo (2Km). The Gravio Musine tunnel
has 4 service accesses, one in proximity of Condove two at Caprie and one at Almese.
Basic
Tunnel
Bruzolo
Junction
Venaus-Chianocco
Tunnel
Venaria Settimo T.se
Tunnel
Tunnel
Gravio-Musinè Tunnel
Cenischia
Viaduct
Esclosa
San Didero
Chianocco
Berno
Bruzolo
Foresto
Villardora
Condove
Alpignano
Casellette
Borgone
Caprie
S.Gillio
Brione
Settimo T.se
Venaria
Almese
Pianezza
Susa
Venaus
Mattie
S:Giorio
Meana Bussoleno
Villarfocchiardo
International Segment
Italian Segment
Ordinary Lines
Turin Node (not planned)
Turin-Milan AV line
Vaie
S.Antonino Chiusa SM
S.Ambrogio
Avigliana
Rosta
Pronda
crossing
Torino PN
Orbassano
goods yard
Fig 2.1-1 The Italian segment and the junctions with the existing lines
•
The International segment starts from Saint Jean Maurienne (France) and ends at San Didero (Italy), after
72 Km. It is composed by the basic tunnel 53 Km long, until Venaus, a viaduct of about 1 Km crossing the
Cenischia Valley and the subsequent 12.5Km tunnel until Bruzolo and the train temporary parking area of
San Didero. The segment includes the Modane station at 360 meters under the ground level, reachable
through a 4Km descent tunnel and equipped with priority-passing rails, crossing rails, a large refuge,
tunnel control means and safety equipments. 35% of the international segment pertains to Italian territory
and 65% to France.
•
Four forced air ventilation stations inside the tunnel and connected externally, are providing the cooling
system which together with the piston effect of the trains, are in place for removing the large quantity of
geothermic and train dissipated heat. The tunnel mid way temperature is predicted around 45-50 degC.
•
The France segment is 137 Km long of which 40Km are made of 3 tunnels, respectively Belledonne,
Beron-Chartreuse, Dullin-l’Epine. Belledonne tunnel is the only one in the line having a single tube. The
design of the France segment is mostly unknown.
•
The complete project (see Tab 2.1-1) can be split in about, 119 Km of external line and 135 Km inside
double tube tunnels, which becomes about 300 Km including as well service tunnel, refuges etc.
A/A June 2006
7/7
Turin-Lyon
Official data Piedmont Region
At ground level
Embankment
Trench
Viaduct
Artificial tunnel
Natural Tunnel - single tube
Natural Tunnel - double tube
Total
% per Nation
International Segment
Italiana
French
Segment in Italy in France Sum Segment
Km
Km
Km
Km
Km
2.4
2.8
2.8
5.0
4.4
4.4
97.0
6.0
0.6
0.9
0.9
5.9
16.0
23.6
20.2
45.1
65.3
24.0
43.5
25.5
47.9
73.5
137.0
100%
35%
65%
100%
100%
Total
Km
%
119.2
47%
134.8
53%
254.0
100%
Tab 2.1-1 Composition of Railway segment per typology
•
The traffic of the line will be mixed, i.e. fleeting and freight trains. This choice makes the line less efficient as
the freight trains travel at a speed lower then the fleeting trains (around 100Kmh). As a consequence it will
be an High Capacity line rather then High Speed, as advertised. Other countries have chosen to build highspeed lines between big towns, 300-500 Km apart and keeping the freight trains over the ordinary lines.
•
As understood from the LTF and RFI design documentation, the material extracted from the tunnels will
amount to about 26 million of cubic meters, of which 16 in the Italian territory, equivalent to block of 1Km
times 1Km and 16 meters tall. About the volume of the houses of a city of 250,000 people. The final report
prepared by COWI for L. de Palacio [49] mentions 33 millions of cubic meters extracted for the international
segment only. The discrepancy between the data is too wide to be technically explainable.
•
Millions of cubit meters of sand and gravel, partly obtained by milling and fragmenting the excavated
material and partly from local sites, will be needed for the concrete of the inner tunnel revetment, viaducts,
trench walls and so on, mainly taken from extractions along the Po river. The volume of the concrete needed
for the International segment only is 3.8 million of cubic meters.
•
The electrical power to supply the line which will operate at 25KV, will be provided by two new power substations at Casellette and Bruzolo, supplied respectively with a new 380KV power line from Leini and a twin
132KV power lines to Bruzolo. The precise track of the power lines has not been defined yet.
2.2.
The historical line Turin-Modane
•
The rail doubling completed in 1985 was done with the purpose of running more than 100 trains pair daily.
•
Since more than 30 years express trains runs at 155 Km/h between Bussoleno and Alpignano (30Km).
•
France TGV and Italian TAV are running since several years on the historical line, managed by Artesia,
which is a Trenitalia and SNCF joint venture. Due to 6 M€ losses at the end of 2004, Artesia has cancelled
all trains based on TGV/TAV material, scheduled between Milan and Lyon Part Dieu (Lyon centre) and
passing on the historical line, because of the negative results, redirecting them to Paris via Simplon.
•
Now it takes 4 or 5 hours to reach Lyon from Turin, of which 3:35 of real travel and the rest as waiting time
at Chambery (direct trains no longer exist). Turin to Paris journey takes only 5:21 (official Trenitalia-SNCF
schedule– e.g. train 9241) because they are passing via Culoz instead at Lyon and are stopping nowhere.
•
The average number of trains running daily in 2003 was 123 (87 transporting freight and 36 passengers) for
the Bardonecchia-Bussoleno segment and 141 between Bussoleno-Turin, where the numbers of fleeting
trains increase to 54 [1]. Globally the line was used only for the 38% of its capacity, now even less.
•
The weaknesses of the line are (1) the steepness of its mountain track, Bussoleno -Bardonecchia - Saint
Jean de Maurienne, (2) the profiles of the Frejus and other tunnels, constraining the high of the trucks to be
transported, (3) the lack of electrical power in the Italian side and (4) some restrictions imposed by bridges,
rail-crossings and absence of automatic block. Work for enlarging the profile (Gabarit) of the tunnel have
started in 2004, with a forecast of completion in 2009.
•
A “ferroutage” service (transport of trucks over railcar) between Aiton and Orbassano is in place with 4 daily
trains for each direction since 2003. Each train can accommodate 18 trucks with high not exceeding 3.7 m
due to Frejus tunnel limitation. Cutting the 360 M€ for granting and improving the ferroutage in the triennium
2005-2007 from the 2004 Italian financial plan, has forced the company managing the service to increase
the ticket. Immediately the trucks have abandoned the service because of its cost and the waiting time for at
both ends. The trip in the motorway is more expensive but it takes only about 2 hours.
2.3.
The connections of the new High Speed line with the historical line
•
Two connections are planned between the new Turin-Lyon and the ordinary line, at San Didero-Bruzolo
(40Km west of Turin) and at Settimo. Rumours indicate a possible built up of a new goods yard nearby.
•
A train stabling area, where trains transporting freight will temporary stop for being passed by the
A/A June 2006
8/8
TGV/TAV, will be build at Bruzolo, supporting train length up to 750m, longer train will have to be split.
•
The Turin node and its city crossing at Corso Marche (close to western city border) will not be
implemented due to its high cost (RFI data), even though the administration of the Piedmont Region and
Province of Turin has asked several times RFI to reconsider it. People believes that one of the hidden
reason of not doing it, is because of it impact on the city and the consequent dramatic increase of the
opposition to the project.
•
The absence of the Corso Marche interconnection together with a new goods yard at Settimo, will mark
the death of the Orbassano site, which has been recently completed with significant amount of public
founds and where several related commercial activities (e.g. agro-alimentary market) have been
transferred from the town.
2.4.
Traffic model of the Turin-Lyon
Current Situation
Bardonecchia
Bussoleno
Bruzolo
Torino
87M + 38R + 16LP
87M + 20R + 16LP
Phase 1. Activation of the Italian segment
Settimo T.se
80M
Bardonecchia
Settimo
Junction
Bruzolo
Junction
Bruzolo
Bussoleno
140M + 20R + 22LP
Torino
60 M + 40 R + 22LP
Phase 2. Activation of the International segment
268M + 28LP
28LP
Bardonecchia
Settimo T.se
268M
Bruzolo
Junction
Bruzolo
Bussoleno
48M + 20R + 8LP
Settimo
Interconncetion
Torino
48M + 40R + 36LP
Ordinary line Bussoleno – Bardonecchia
Improved ordinary line – Bussoleno – Turin
Turin – Lyon TAV Line
M = Goods + Ferroutage
R = Regional Trains (note: 20 originate from Bussoleno)
LP = Long Distance Fleeting trains
Fig 2.4-1 The traffic model of the Turin-Lyon and the actuation (without Turin crossing).
The model of the traffic is depicted in Fig. 2.4-1, where trains between Bussoleno and Bruzolo have been
omitted for simplifying the scheme. Such number is however equal to the trains between Bussoleno and
Bardonecchia, plus about 20 daily regional trains originating of ending at Bussoleno.
The actuation of the high speed and high capacity is performed into two phases, the former starting at the
availability of the Italian segment and the latter once International segment will be operative.
As said before, the historical line was used in the 2001 at 38% of its capacity; 123 trains are travelling daily in
the upper part and 141are running between Bussoleno and Turin, or more correctly, between Bussoleno and
Pronda crossing, where a number of train prosecute to or come from Orbassano goods yard.
In the first phase, the Bardonecchia-Bruzolo segment will experience 182 daily trains, of which 100 are
carrying goods, 40 are devoted to “ferroutage” and 42 are fleeting trains. Eighty of the 100 freight trains will
take the junction at Bruzolo, continuing on the Italian segment until Settimo, then only 30 of these will proceed
to Milan. The freight trains will be the only one running on the Italian segment while all the other trains passing
at Bruzolo will continue to Turin or Orbassano over the historical line, including the 20 regional
originating/ending at Bussoleno and the 40 “ferroutage” trains. This means that the number of trains running
daily in the Bruzolo to Turin segment will decrease from 141 of today, to 122.
The AV/AC project will be completed in the second phase. The number of train running between
Bardonecchia-Bussoleno will decrease from 182 of the previous phase to 76, in particular 40 for freight, 8 for
“ferroutage”, 8 long distance fleeting trains and 20 regional. The utilization of the historical line will drop to
22%, while 296 trains will transit daily in the International segment, 28 long distance fleeting trains, 148 for
freight and 120 for “ferroutage” service. At Bruzolo junction, all fleeting trains from France will take the
historical line (vice-versa for the trains Turin to France), while all freight and ferroutage trains will continue be
the sole users of the Italian segment [10] if Turin crossing is not implemented.
A/A June 2006
9/9
Bruzolo-Turin segment of the historical line will experience a daily traffic decrease from 141 to 124 trains,
including the 76 also running in the upper part, 20 regional trains originating/ending at Bussoleno and 28 long
distance fleeting trains thought the International segment. This brings the line utilization to 33% of its capacity
while only 8 “ferroutage” trains to/from Orbassano site remains as today, definitely not a good future planning.
All this is a paradox because fast fleeting trains are constrained on ordinary lines and slow freight trains are
running slowly on new lines. The results is that all trains will run slowly and the Italian segment is built (with
severe implications) just for freight trains!!!. See later the implications of this.
3500
TAV Line and train
Descend
Denti d'Ambin
Altitude above sea level (m)
3000
2500
Modane
Station
2000
Viaduct of
Val Cenis
1500
Chianocco
Distance between
trains = 11 Km
1000
500
Tunnel 12.5 Km
Basic Tunnel 53 Km
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
International Segment - (Km)
Fig 2.4-2 International Segments and trains running in one direction
The traffic management into the International segment is not yet clear and there is more then one hypothesis.
180 daily tracks distributed over 20 hours (the other 4 hours are for maintenance) will be enough to let all
trains passing in both directions at the same speed of 100 Km/h, in particular the 134 freight trains and 14
long distance trains for each of the two directions plus a 20% margin for absorbing traffic unbalance. The
trains inside the International segment will transit every 6.5 minutes spaced by 11Km as shown in Fig 2.4-2,
but fleeting train speed would be penalized.
Three hypothesis are made for operating the
national segment [10].
Tratta Internazionale
The first considers 240 tracks per direction
over 20 hours a day, i.e. a track every 5
T=0min
minutes and all trains travelling at 100Km/h. In
T=5min
such a case (Fig 2.4-3) up to 9 trains per
T=10
min
direction could run together into the
T=15 min international segment.
T=20 min The trains are spaced by 8.3 Km, which is the
distance run by a 100Km/h train, in 5 minutes.
T=25 min A fleeting train could run the basic tunnel with
T=30 min other 6 trains and the only safe points of the
T=35 min international segment are the Modane station
T=40 min and the Venaus viaduct. The safety, in particular
T=45 min the perceived by the users, could be weak,
despite the modern signalling techniques and the
automatic block.
By running 147 trains/day (134 freight and 14
TGV), this hypothesis has a margin of 93 unused
8Km
tracks, being the capacity equal to 240
tracks/day. A safety improvement could be
Stazione
Viadotto
achieved by freely 3 tracks before and after each
Modane
Venaus
fleeting train. This is most likely the operating
Fig
2.4-3
International
Segment
operating
model – RFI Hypothesis 1
condition in the technical promoters minds.
A/A June 2006
10/10
The second hypothesis considers as well 240
tracks per day, interleaved by 5 minutes. The
difference is the destination of the tracks for
allowing a fleeting train transiting at about
200Km/h, a speed double of the freight trains.
The TGV will take only 22 minutes to run
entirely the international segment, while the
freight trains will take 44. To implement this at
least 5 tracks in front to a TGV trains have to be
free, so to avoid that the fleeting trains has to
decelerate because of a preceding freight trains.
This method grants always a safe recovery
place for a fleeting train.
Tratta Internazionale
T= 0
T= 5
T=10
T=15
T=20
T=25
T=30
T=35
T=40
T=45
T=50
min
min
min
min
min
min
min
min
min
min
min
At the entrance of a TGV () into the
international tunnel, all freight trains shall have
already passed Modane station and when the
TGV transits at the station, all freight trains shall
already passed Venaus viaduct. When the TGV
passes over the viaduct, then Bussoleno tunnel
is free and the last freight train has already
taken the national segment. Same is for the other
8 Km
direction.
This approach, shown in Fig 2.4-4, is only
Stazione Modane
Viadotto
theoretical because pending on the general
Venaus
security allowances and certification of the line. Fig 2.4-4 International segment operating model – RFI Hypothesis 2
Few tens of seconds of delay of a train will dissynchronised the entire traffic of the line.
In addition, the crossing rails at the Bruzolo interconnection allow a maximum safety speed of 100Km/h and
as a consequence the TGV will have to reduce the speed under this limit. Among all hypothesis, this is the
less probable because it requires wide temporary parking rail areas at both tunnel entrances, for recovering
the freight trains waiting for the TGV passes.
The third hypothesis uses the new line for freight only, having all fleeting trains passing over the historical line.
The TGV speed will be anyhow greater than the current, tanks to the historical line improvements, but the
management of the new line will be much simpler, safer and the Bruzolo interconnection less complex.
The Piedmont Region operating hypothesis has even a more complex management of the line because of the
TGV transits also in the national segment, causing in the Gravio Musinè tunnel, a safety problems similar to
one of the basic tunnel. Such hypothesis can only be adopted should the Turin crossing (Corso Marche) be
implemented; otherwise the TGV travelling on the national segment cannot pass through Turin.
A study by Polinomia Institute for the CMBVS, confirms a TGV speed inside tunnels of about 120 Km/h.
It would be curious knowing what the passengers will feel once under 2500 meters of mountains and with 2 or
3 freight trains in front and the same number of trains afterward.
The last observation comes from France, where the maintenance of the high speed line Paris-Lyon is such
that no trains are passing overnight because rectifying of the rails take place every two nights. This is
necessary to reduce the noise while the TGV are running at 270 Km/h. This is tells that the idea of the TurinLyon promoters of concentrating the freight train overnight is in conflict with the maintenance, except if the
real number of freight trains is much, much lower than the advertisement.
The degradation of a high-speed railway line used by slow and heavy freight trains is a factor worsening the
maintenance and increasing the management cost of the line.
2.5.
•
•
•
Leaving Turin …..
People will taste the flavour of the high speed only in France, as the lack of Turin interconnection will force
all TGV/TAV to pass over the historical line until San Didero, then continuing into the International segment
and part of the France segment at 120-130Kmh.
There won’t be any station in the Susa Valley, not even near to the ski stations of the 2006 winter Olympics
games, because the line is hundreds of meter under the ground level. The only service and safety station
will be at Modane, 360 meter underground. Perhaps French might open it in the future, if they see the
business of shortening the distance between Milan, Turin for advantaging France ski stations.
Passengers will arrive at Lyon in not less than 2 hours and 10 minutes. This because the speed will be
limited by the freight trains into the International segment and partly by the historical line. The saving of 1:25
over the current travel duration of 3:35 (Artesia data) is due to several factors as: the faster speed of the line
A/A June 2006
11/11
•
2.6.
(-45 min), the fact that the new line is shorter (-30 min), there is no stop at Modane for changing the
operating personnel (-5 min) and at Chambery (-5 min). The LTF advertisement of tacking 1:45 is just not
credible because the average speed would be 145 Km/h, which is too high.
Arriving at Paris in 4:20 minimum (typically 4:30) as the faster TGV, over the Lyon-Paris segment takes 1:55
minutes minimum and 2:15 typically (SNCF data). On this journey the saving will be limited to 1 hour.
The transportation of the passengers
nd
The current cost of a two ways 2 class ticket Turin to Paris over the TAV/TGV amounts to 220€ or 330€ for a
first class ticket (SNCF and Trenitalia official fares). Once the line will be operating the cost of the tickets will
have to be aligned according to western Europe fares, including amortization of the project, so that the cost of
a two ways 2nd class ticket will be around 400-450 €.
Compatible airline fares or even lower than the railway ones can be easily found even today. Most likely
peoples in hurry will continue to travel by plane, because now it takes 3:30 from Turin centre to Paris centre
and most of the people travelling on his own or with the family will continue to take ordinary trains or the car.
LTF and RFI admit that the passenger transportation by itself will not be enough to economically justify the
project and to sustain its cost, which means that tickets will be sold out under cost and there will be the need
of other sources to compensate the loss, in principle the freight transportation. It is as well to be demonstrated
that there will be enough people for 18 daily long distance trains for each direction, 14 TAV/TGV trains 350 m
long plus 4 long distance ordinary trains 250 m long, for more than 10,000 people per day, each way.
The freight transportation
LTF estimates that the historical line saturation will
occur between 2015 and 2020, about 3 millions
trucks will cross the Alps, while the new line will allow:
• To transfer 1 million trucks per year to rail, which
correspond to null the traffic at the Frejus
motorway tunnel.
• To transport 40Mt freights in the 2030. Promoter
estimation made on 1991. (see Fig 2.7-2)
• To transport 20Mt freights in 2020. Promoter
estimation made in 1997 [10].
• Transportation of 4000 passengers per day
One of the crucial questions is the capacity of the
historical line, which has been estimated by
different parties and methods. In fact, there is in no
universal method to compute a railway capacity.
•
•
Freight Transport - Turin - Modane railway
Freight Transport 1945-2002
Capacity of the Line
TAV promoters projection
Linear Trend 1945-2065
40
30
Milionis of tons
2.7.
20
10
The joint SNCF-RFF-FS study of March 2000
estimated via a conservative formula a capacity
of 20Mt/year, corresponding to 185 freight plus
66 passengers trains daily (251 trains in total).
0
1945
1965
1985
2005
2025
2045
Fig. 2.7-1 Goods traffic & TAV promoters hipothesis
The study performed by Polinomia on May
2004, shown a capacity of 27Mt/year,
corresponding to 150 freight plus 70 passengers
trains daily, assuming improvement of the line
and the electrical power stations.
Two interesting facts can be observed from the
transportation forecast shown in Fig 2.7-1.
•
TAV promoters consider a start of the line
construction in 2006 (!!), i.e. the year saturation
minus the 9 years of works (see also para. 2.14).
•
The forecast of the promoters conducted in
1991 was envisaging a freight increase from the
8Mt of the 1991 to 13.5Mt into 2002 and to 20Mt
into 2015 (saturation). Unfortunately in the 2002,
which was in the middle of the forecast interval,
the transported freight where only 9.6Mt.
Freights increase by 1.6Mt against a prediction
of 4.5Mt, which is a factor 3 overestimation.
Fig. 2.7-1 Freight transport across the Alps
A/A June 2006
12/12
2065
The situation has worsened after 2002 and in the 2004 the amount of freight transported was only 6.9 Mt,
which is even less that the amount at the time the promoters made the estimation.
• This allows saying that the model of the freight traffic development used by the promoters was such that the
estimation of the demand evolution of the freight traffic was 3 times higher than the reality. The used model
was simply not realistic and totally uncorrelated with the demand and country exchanges.
• The saturation of the line by projecting the past trend into the future, even with the conservative maximum
capacity value estimated by the joint study mentioned before, would occur only in 2055, leading to a quite a
long time, at least up to 2040, to improve the current line, observing the traffic evolution so to make decision
whether to built or not the new line. Transportation evolution does not justify promoter’s hurry.
A certain percentage of the freights currently transported over the historical line are directed or are coming
from the Northern Europe (North of France, The Netherlands, Belgium, England) or to/from the Southern
France, even if the Frejus is not the shortest path.
• Can we exclude that someone has attempted to deviate traffic over Frejus for justifying the need of a new
high capacity line?
• Would this remain so in the future ?
Legenda
North East Europe
East Europe
South East Europe
Scandinavia
East Europe
France
Germany
Italy
North East
Europe
Netherland
Scandinavia
South East
Europe
Spain
Portugal
Total
Austria - Switzerland
Belgio Luxembourg
East Europe
France
Germany
Italy
North East Europe
Netherland
Scandinavia
South East Europe
Spain Portugal
Total
Belgio
Luxembourg
International
transportation matrix
year 2004 (tons x 1000)
Austria Switzerland
•
656
767
3,146
247
8,834
1,141
11,610
246
243
3,283
15
30,188
429
1,937
88
5,914
3,741
2,007
277
1,261
260
166
199
16,279
2,007
39
3,169
9
1,338
225
3,184
131
4
1,384
13
11,503
558
5,617
22
0
4,698
1,813
556
1,044
367
108
433
15,216
7,307
4,699
926
2,399
0
4,576
14,522
13,484
2,175
105
676
50,869
5,510
3,249
600
5,746
11,326
0
822
1,318
862
1,222
35
30,690
995
131
26,017
170
5,707
394
22,641
587
148
379
33
57,202
425
1,764
13
361
2,257
728
352
0
62
3
9
5,974
204
267
20
351
2,290
467
326
94
17,310
19
2
21,350
2,223
24
1,077
130
421
239
1,008
2
9
823
6
5,962
44
192
15
386
756
31
59
9
3
8
1,126
2,629
20,358
18,686
35,093
15,713
41,368
11,621
55,357
18,176
21,443
7,500
2,547
247,862
Poland, Czech Rep, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia
Hungaria, Romania, Ukraine
Croatia, Serbia-Montenegro, Macedonia, Bosnia-Hzergovina, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece
Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sveeden
Tab 2.7-1. International transportation matrix – year 2004 – (processing of Eurostat data)
A/A June 2006
13/13
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
Millions tons
To understand the transportation fluxes among the states, Eurostat transportation matrices are used. Tab 2.7-1
is the matrix of the year 2004, which has been simplified by grouping states pertaining to the same
geographical area. Traffic data of 1995, 2001 and 2002 are estimated because of Italian data are missing.
The rows of the matrix represent the goods quantity in thousand of tons loaded into a country (export), the
columns are those unloaded (import).
The goods transiting across Italy and France border are from two groups: 1) Italian import-export with France,
Spain and Portugal, 2) goods just transiting across Italy. Tab 2.7.1 reports these data in green and yellow
cells respectively. The matrices allow as well identifying freights that should not pass in the Frejus/Ventimille
tunnels, because shorter paths exist in France
Freight Traffic on Railway - Italy-France
or Switzerland); such data are in white cells.
12,000
12,000
The last category includes the goods
11,000
11,000
definitely not passing across Italy-France
10,000
10,000
border, which are identified in grey cells (e.g.
Scandinavia to North Eastern Europe). The
9,000
9,000
total freight that would have passed at
8,000
8,000
Ventimiglia and Frejus in 2004 is 7.964 Mt.
7,000
7,000
The historical behaviour, obtained by
6,000
6,000
repeating this exercise for the past years, can
5,000
5,000
be compared with the traffic measured at the
Frejus railway tunnel, which should have
4,000
4,000
been always lower. Unfortunately the Frejus
3,000
3,000
Ventimille traffic
traffic was almost always higher that the
2,000
2,000
Frejus traffic
geographical natural traffic, in particular in the
Italy-West Eu Traffic
1,000
1,000
2000 it was almost 3 million tons higher. This
Lineare (Italy-West Eu Traffic)
proves that at Frejus has taken care of goods
0
0
normally addressed to other tunnels. This will
be later on confirmed as well by an
institutional report and by the France audit.
Fig 2.7-3 Freight traffic at Italy-France border
Trains per Day
A/A June 2006
14/14
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
tons x 1000
The answer to the second question is more
Frejus and overall railroad traffic across the Apls
complex and it has to be approached
50,000
50%
Frejus traffic
considering the contribution of the Frejus to
Total traffic across Alps
45,000
Frejus traffic %
the overall freight transported by rail across
Lineare (Frejus traffic %)
40,000
40%
the Alps. In the past about 25% of all goods
transiting across the Alps were passing
35,000
through the Frejus tunnel (see Fig. 2.7-4).
30,000
30%
The Frejus sharing has started to decrease
in 2000 because of shift of part of the traffic
25,000
to other passes and because of the
20,000
20%
decrease of the goods and trains density
15,000
(see para 4.1), so that it went down to 16%
in 2004. Even if not mentioned and not
10,000
10%
accounted by the Turin-Lyon promoters, the
5,000
amount of traffic in an alpine pass depends
on traffic and events on all other passes.
0
0%
In the Alps (see Fig 2.7-2) there are other 3
railway tunnels under construction or
Fig 2.7-4 Frejus and Alps railway traffic and ratio
improvement:
Lötschberg (completed in
2007) connected to Simplon tunnel,
Total Railway traffic at Ventimille-Frejus-Sempione
Gottardo (completed in 2014) and Brennero.
700
In 10 years, Simplon/ Lötschberg and
Gottardo will take away from Frejus all the
600
freight traffic toward the North-West of
500
Europe.
Unfortunately the single-track railways
400
Genoa-Savona-Ventimiglia
and
NiceCuneo-Turin, will not help to alleviate the
300
traffic over the Frejus, until properly
200
enhanced. The rails doubling of the GenoaVentimille line is on going, with a forecast of
Freight Trains
100
Freight + Fleeting Trains
completion on the Italian side by 2010 and
Total Capacity
on France side by 2015. This also means
0
that starting the 2015 all traffic between
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
Spain/Portugal and centre/south Italy will
Fig 2.7-5 Freight + fleeting traffic at Ventimille - Frejus - Simplon
move from Frejus to Ventimille.
No improvement is so far planned for the Turin-Cuneo-Nice, which would provide an other connection to
southern France, particularly suitable in view of the three rails enhancement of the Marseille-Ventimille line.
Coming back to the second question, for understanding the influence of the other passes the exercise can be
limited to adjacent ones, Ventimille and Simplon, by considering their average freight and passenger daily
traffic (over 365 days), the capacity of the lines and estimating the global traffic trend by an increasing of 1%
yearly for the Fleeting trains (optimistic) and 2% yearly for freight trains, European average.
No change of transportation policies (e.g. ferroutage improvement) is here considered because of the
unknown of their implementation and results. This will be discussed in para 4.3.
The capacity of the three passes together increases from 388 trains/day of today to 598 in 2015 (Fig 2.7-5)
• The first increment is in 2007 at the completion of the Lötschberg, which brings the capacity of Simplon from
140 trains/day to 220.
• The second is at the completion of the Genoa Ventimille rails doubling on 2010, which will increase the
capacity from 90 trains/day to 200 and further to 220 trains/day on the 2015, once also the French side
enhancement will be completed.
• The capacity of the Frejus tunnel is considered unchanged to 158 trains/day.
The result is that in year 2030 there will be still 200 free traces, without doing anything on the historical line.
Now before understanding what is the effect at the Frejus, there is a need of defining the criterion of traffic
rearrangement. The criterion of the traffic geographical optimisation is complex and in practical terms
impossible to be implemented, while an intuitive criterion as the equal repartition is more suitable and logical
for adjacent passes. An example can be the Ventimille line, saturated now by a lot of fleeting trains and with
only a tens of freight trains. From the point in time in which the rails doubling will be completed the freight
trains will increase might be to 50, reducing 40 trains from Frejus, which in turns will be able to take might be
20 trains from Simplon and in turn 5 or 6 from Luino and Chiasso line. It is just a question of a bit of time, but
the traffic at the end will rearrange. The fact of having limited the study to the Frejus adjacent lines is not so
important as the influence of the passes eastern to Simplon is negligible on Ventimille and Frejus traffic.
The real important element is that in a close
system as the Alpine railway crossings, the
increase of a capacity of one of the passes
reflects beneficial effect to all others.
Total railway traffic at Frejus
180
160
140
Trains per Day
Fig 2.7-6 shows finally the effect at the traffic
evolution at the Frejus due the improvement of
the Genoa Ventimille line and Lötschberg tunnel
The computation is not so precise, the evolution
change will not be so sudden, however it must be
accounted that long term projection are never
exact because of the dependence on economical
and political status of the states.
120
100
80
60
40
Freight Trains
Freight + Fleeting Trains
Total Capacity
20
As a consequence, a projection over a single
pass, as done by the Turin-Lyon promoters,
ignoring all railway enhancements performed
around the Alps, is totally incorrect.
0
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
Fig. 2.7-6 Evolution of Frejus railway traffic
As stated into the UE white book, the very low speed of the international freight, which was 18Km/h in 2001,
and 30Km/h in 1972, is not so much affected by the speed of the trains. The major role is played by the
logistics needed for composing the trains, for moving/dispatching railcars, for changing locomotive, for custom
operations, for technical verification of the wagons, for the dead time spent by the railcars while waiting for the
next trains with the proper destination. The logistics for moving big railcars and composing/decomposing
trains is the same since a century and the increase of goods amount and train lengths has just made it worse.
In such a condition, it is evident that a global recovery of the freight transportation speed and therefore the
chance of the railway transportation to become competitive, neither depends from the increase of speed nor
from the reduction of the distance, as 100Km difference has less than 2% influence over the overall time.
An independent source, as the Primola project, realized in the frame of the Interreg II Programme and in
particular the synthesis published on December 2001 issue of “Ingeneria Ferroviaria” states literally:
The Simplon railway tunnel has not seen a traffic increase as the other adjacent alpine railway crossings,
this was due to the spatial evolution of the transportation demands as well as to the preference given to
the Modane path, even if for some traffic the transit to the Simplon tunnel would have been shorter”
The study presented in 2001 by Alpetunnel, the company to which the CIG had assigned the tunnel design,
states (translated from Italian with author comment in brackets):
The Turin Lyon railway line is definitely non-competitive and forcing trucks to use it would require a fare of
100-200 € applied to all trucks crossing the Alps, which would be much more difficult that making the
tunnel. The Europe traffic forecast is not encouraging: according to the presented report, the freight
transportation by rail is decreased by 23% in the last 30 years and projections are even worse for the 2025.
In the privileged passing point of Frejus tunnel, the freight has reached 10Mt (in 1997)which corresponds to
an increment of 18% in the period 1990-1997, against a projection of + 118% made by the Promoters
in 1991, on which the decision to built a new line has been taken. Worsen and worsen is the
passengers transportation, decreased by 15% into the decennium 1990-2000, against the forecasted growth
of 500%. The TGV will allow only 50 minutes saving over the Turin-Lyon path, not 1.5 hours as advertised,
and the ferroutage will attract about 2 or 3 thousand TIR.
The same report establishes that the line Turin-Lyon will move only 0.8% of the freight from the road to the
rail (Which is very different from a 1 million trucks reduction per year advertised by promoters!)
A question arise spontaneously concerning the reason of so much insistence to build up this line even if since
2001 the Promoters had in their hands studies reporting the usefulness of the project. Beyond sentences of
circumstance like “it ‘s necessary, it’s unavoidable, it’s strategic”, a true answer together with a consolidated
study showing that it is a good investment, do not exist.
2.8.
Is the freight transportation by road really increasing?
At the Frejus motorway tunnel a constant decrease of the freight traffic is being experienced since 1999,
except in the period mid 1999 to 2003 in which the Mont Blanc tunnel stayed closed. The number of trucks
was 1,38 millions in 1999 and 1,18 in 2004 (SITAF data), while for the 2005 the data reported by SITAF of
784,000 trucks, equivalent to 12.6Mt, has to be corrected to account for the absence of traffic in the period
th
st
June 6 to August 31 , when the tunnel remained closed for an accident. By correcting the about figures with
the traffic data of the same period of the 2004, the number of trucks becomes 953,000, for 15.3Mt of goods.
The trucks traffic at Frejus is still decreasing and the 2006 forecast is 840,000 trucks, equivalent to 14Mt
Freight traffic at Frejus motorway tunnel is still today affected by truck limitations at Mont Blanc, but the total
freight traffic (road + rail) by removing the Mont Blanc effect, is about constant around 21-22 Mt, (Tab 28-1).
A/A June 2006
15/15
Millions of tons per year
Tunnel Frejus
Mode
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Highway A32
4.3
8.9
12.4
12.4
12.6
12.8
22.8
25.8
25.7
24.1
20.7
18.6
15.3 (a)
Railway
7.5
7.2
8.5
9.7
10.1
9.3
9.2
9.4
8.6
8.6
7.8
6.9
6.9 (b)
11.8
16.1
20.9
22.1
35.2
34.3
32.7
28.5
25.5
Total
Note
22.7
22.1
32
2005
22.2
(a) The figure is computed as Frejus tunnel would have not been closed from Jun 6 to Aug 31 2005 (SITAF data)
(b) Value not yet available - data equal to 2004 is assumed
Tab 2.8-1 Freight traffic at motorway and railway Frejus tunnels (CT Rivalta + SITAF elaborated data)
The statement that the freight traffic inside the Frejus motorway tunnel is in continuous growth is not
true. Accidents and other factors as, fares increasing and forbidding dangerous freight transit in other
tunnels have influenced the natural traffic trend at Frejus, which by the way, is decreasing.
Fig 2.8-1 Road Freights traffic across the Alps
From the figure in page 21 of the “Modello di esercizio della Commissione Rivalta” [10], reproduced in fig 2.81 for convenience, allows a number of consideration for the overall road traffic across the Alps. In particular:
The freights transported across the Alps have increased from 54 to 100 Mt in 13 years, with an average
growth of 3.5Mt per year.
Switzerland have 4 of the 11 alpine passes, but the total freight across them is only a fifteenth of the total.
The traffic sustained by the Frejus tunnel due to the M.te Bianco accident.
•
•
•
Traffico stradale merci Italia/estero per valico (Mt/anno)
120
Tarvisio
Milioni Tonnellate
100
Brennero
8% anno
Reschen
80
San Bernardino
2% anno
Gottardo
60
Sempione
40
Gr. San Bernardo
Monte Bianco
20
Frejus
0
Monginevro
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Anno
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
Ventimiglia
Fig 2.8-2 Alpine road freight traffic split France and northern direction (Switzerland- Austria) .
A/A June 2006
16/16
A better understanding of the freight traffic can be obtained by grouping the alpine passes as per Fig 2.8-2,
into a France set (Ventimiglia, Monginevro, Frejus e Mont Blanc) and a Northern set (Gran San Bernardo,
Sempione, Gottardo, San Bernardino, Reschen, Brennero e Tarvisio).
•
In 1990, the freights traffic was higher with France than on northern directions but from 2003 it reversed.
•
The freight traffic with France has increased from 29Mt in 1990 to 40Mt in 1999 and it is now stable and in
slight decrease.
•
The traffic with Switzerland and Austria, sustained mainly by Brennero and Tarvisio passes, has increased
from 24 to 60 Mt in 13 years, equivalent to a 8% yearly growth and it is still increasing.
The explanation of the alpine traffic behaviour is the following:
•
The freights transferring across Switzerland suffers from circulation taxes, customs and paperwork, being
such country not part of the UE.
•
Freights instead of crossing Switzerland are going around it, via Brennero or Mont Blanc/Frejus. The Swiss
projects under implementation will change this trend, downloading traffic from the nearest passes.
•
The freights traffic in the Italian-France passes is mainly due freights exchange between Italy and France,
while Spain and Portugal traffics doesn’t play a big role. Transiting traffic (e.g Portugal-Austria, SpainSlovenia) is about negligible. The freight traffic transiting between Italy and France is kept constant by the
competitive prices of the east Europe and Asian markets and its increase cannot be envisaged being it
driven by the demand of politically and economically stable countries and by the market prices.
Fig 2.8-3 Sea freights directions (source UE TEN-T)
•
The reason of the increase of the North-South traffic is given by Fig 2.8-3, representing the sea roads and
the terrestrial connection by road and rail through the Mediterranean harbours. It provides a qualitative
evidence how the freights among Northern Europe, Northern Africa countries and Asia are driving the traffic
of the northern Italian passes, trough Switzerland and Austria. Evident is as well the Switzerland position
into the Genoa-North Europe direction.
The flow of the railway freights of northern Italy follows substantially the road flow, West-East railway freight
will stay stationary or decrease slightly, while North-South will increase due to African/Asian markets. It is
obvious that no ship will download at Lisbon freights for Kiew. Ukraine has its own harbours in the Black Sea.
2.9.
The construction sites in the Italian territory
Eleven building sites are planned for constructing the national segment, they are at Consolata, Cabianca,
Viadotto Stura, Brentatore, Pianezza, Brione, Rivera, Rocca Bianca, Caprie, Grangetta and Chiampano, while
8 sites will be in place for the international segment: Esclosa (Novalesa), Venaus, Berno, Foresto, Val Clarea
and Chianocco (3 sites).
•
Each site would be equipped with a stock of gravel and sand of 600 or 700 thousand tons, which would
require between 4 and 7 hectares of ground field, accumulating excavation products in 15-18 meter hills.
A/A June 2006
17/17
•
•
•
•
•
At some site as at Esclosa, a stock of gravel and sand of 1.5Mt would be needed for the production of
210,000 cubic meters of concrete parts. As well from Esclosa a cable conveyor will be built for transporting
the 4-5 million of cubic meters of extracted rocks up to the Carriere du Paradis, near to the Mont Cenis
artificial lake, in France, 1330 meter higher in altitude.
Management and transportation of the hogging will require the installation of about 15.4Km of tubular
transportation and a total of 110 Km of conventional tape conveyors, in use at Chianocco, Berno, Venaus,
Esclosa for either the extracted and the treated materials. Foresto-Berno conveyor is about 10Km long.
An other 5 Km tape conveyor will connect Borgone site with San Giorio disposal, by crossing historical
railway, national road, Dora Riparia River and the A32 highway. The same deposit site is also connected
through a belt conveyor with the eastern exit of Bussoleno tunnel, for tacking care of the rocks extracted in
eastern side of such tunnel.
The sites of Venaus, Berno, Foresto, Chianocco should be as well equipped with mills, for fragmenting and
smashing the extracted rocks, external station for concrete preparation, gravel pits, hoppers for concrete
and tape conveyors. Everything will be installed externally, close to the villages of the valley.
The use of belt conveyors allows in principle to save several ten-thousand truck travels, however the
extensive length of such equipment, need of over passing local infrastructure and the required operating life
(more than 10 years) are source of doubts and concerns:
- The long periods of outage for maintenance, in which transportation by truck will have to be resumed.
- Tendency of abandoning conveyors subjected to failure and using truck transportation instead.
- The noise produced by the conveyors operating 24hr a day and passing also trough residential areas.
- The visual impact of having such conveyors, running at 10-15 meters from ground, over passing
infrastructures and local elements.
- The dust and the powder of the transported material, removed and disseminated everywhere by winds.
2.10.
The tunnel extracted material, utilisation, transportation and disposal.
The material extracted from then tunnels of the Italian side should be about 16 million cubic meters, 7 of them
for half of the basic tunnel, 3 for the Venaus-Chianocco one and 6 for the Gravio-Musine tunnel. Study of the
Polytechnic of Turin has assessed that 25% of the extracted material can be reused for the railway parts
passing over embankment, for concrete preparation and for flatting the parking area of San Didero. The
remaining 75% (about 12 million cubic meters) will be disposed as follows:
•
2.3 millions of cubic meters in the northern Turin surroundings, as Castiglione Torinese, San Mauro,
Pianezza, Basse di Stura, Borgaro, Collegno laghetto and Cave Druento.
•
8.3 million will be shared in mid-low Susa Valley disposals at Almese, Sant’Ambrogio, Caprie, Borgone,
San Didero, San Giorio, Villar Focchiardo, Chianocco, Bussoleno, Mattie, Meana, Susa, Giaglione and
Chiomonte
4 to 6 millions at the Carriere du Paradis, which is a French Susa Valley place near to Mont Cenis artificial
lake, where in the past several millions of cubic meters of material was extracted for building the dam.
Absence of French authority permission will turn in additional 4 millions cubic meters to be disposed in Italy.
From the Final Report prepared for L. de Palacio [49], the volume of the extracted rocks to be disposed
appears more then double (32.9 millions of cubic meters for basic and Bussoleno tunnels only) injecting
doubts for the necessity of further disposal sites and doubts concerning the seriousness of such a report.
All material extracted from the tunnel will be mainly transported by road to the stocking areas, the re-utilisation
and treatment sites and/or to the disposal. The only exception is the material designated for the Carriere du
Paradis, which will be transported by cable, and tape conveyors and the deposit of San Giorio also fed by belt
conveyors.
About 2 million travels of the biggest trucks are estimated necessary to move all such material, while 100 to
160 travels are forecast daily in most of the construction sites, 24 hours a day, about one every 5-7 minutes.
In addition there will be all travels needed for the transportation of the construction material as, cement,
formed concrete parts, gravel, sand, pipes, railway material and so on, everything on the ordinary roads.
•
About 1150 daily, travels are foreseen for transporting the material of the Italian segment, in the area of
low Susa Valley and Turin surroundings; this every days, for 10 or more years.
The need of gravel and sand for the preparation of the concrete is satisfied by a number of hogging
excavation sites. For the construction of the Italian segment, 11 sites are identified at Castiglione T.se, Torino
(Basse di Stura), Pianezza (2 sites), Caprie (2 sites), Villarfocchiardo, San Didero/Bruzolo (2 sites).Article 17
of the “Objective law”, states that the extracted material cannot be considered “garbage”, if polluting elements
are within the established limits for site category. This sounds reasonable, however the article 18 requires the
level of pollution to be measured at the disposal site only, which does not pose any restriction of reusing,
milling and powdering, polluted material for constructing the elements of the infrastructure.
•
A/A June 2006
18/18
2.11.
The costs
Cost of the International Segment
Data in € millions
Basic Tunnel 53.1 Km
Tunnel Venaus-Chianocco 12.5 Km
External works (trench-viaduct..)
Railway system
Non railway systems
Imprevisti
Other (non declared)
Total for International Segment
Italy-French agreement
Italy
France
432
2448
960
236
123
255
480
40
224
273
466
282
481
2479
4221
37%
63%
4221
2479
63%
37%
Total
2880
960
359
735
264
739
763
6700
100%
6700
100%
Cost criteria
Proportional to 7.97Km in Italy and 45.13 Km in France
Cost totally under Italy
Proportionally to lenght of part not in tunnel
Proportional to 25.5Km in Italy and 47.7 Km in France
Proportional to 7.97Km in Italy and 45.13 Km in France
Proportional to Italian and France sharing costs
as above
Data from LTF (Jan 2005)
MoU - Lunardi-Robien May 2004
Tab 2.11-1 Geographical sharing of International segment cost (Official data from LTF- apportioned by the author)
The 2001 cost estimation was 6700 M€ (6695 for correctness) for the International segment, 2300 M€ for the
Italian segment and about 4100 for the French, thus the total project cost was 13100 M€ (M€ = € million).
rd
On Dec 23 2004 CIPE has approved the Italian part of the International segment at a cost of 6957 M€
(+3.8%), while for the Italian segment there is just a reference to the 2003 estimate. It will be approved on
August 2005 (but published only in March 2006) for an amount of 2375 M€, correspondent to about 2300 M€
at 2003 economic conditions.
The definition of the segment made at para 2.1 allows to compute the geographic cost sharing of the
International segment as 2479 M€ (37%) in Italy and 4221 M€ in France, as highlighted in Tb 2.11-1. Totals
and percentages are exact, while the author estimates the sharing of each individual element.
The geographical cost sharing of the entire TurinGeographical Cost Distribution
Italy France Total
Lyon is again in the same ratio, 37% for Italy and
Italian Segment
2300
2300
63% for France as shown in Tab 2.11-2. This is not
International
Segment
2479
4221
6700
to be confused with the sharing of the financing.
French Segment
4085
4085
The average cost of the International segment is of
Total
€ millions
4779
8306 13085
91 M€ /Km, while the cost for the various typology
37%
63%
100%
of the line is varying from 70M€/Km for the external
parts over embankment to a maximum of 114
Tab 2.11-2 Geographical cost sharing of entire Turin-Lyon
M€/Km for the Chianocco-Venaus tunnel.
May
The cost of the national segment seems High Speed Cost-Italy August August
(€ millions)
1991
2001
2002
underestimated being the average cost of 51M€,
2014
4984
6559
not even sufficient for the simpler external parts and Naple-Rome
for sure not enough for tunnels. This seem Roma-Florence
207
351
775
confirmed by the fact that a 23Km external segment Florence-Bologna
1085
4209
5113
of the high speed railway Turin-Milan has cost 1426 Bologna-Milan
1498
5733
6921
M€ (EC 2003), equivalent to 62 M€/Km. By using Milan-Turin
1085
2789
4803
such data the cost of the national segment would Milan-Verona
1136
4700
increase to 3800 M€, instead of 2300, which is Verona- Venezia
878
4235
+65% of the RFI estimation.
Genoa – Milan
1601
6249
The CIPE approval of the national segment, is Total (€ millions)
9503
18066
39354
favourable to the Turin crossing, providing the
design is submitted and cost stays within the % Increase
0%
90%
314%
approved cost of the national segment, which is
(source:GUASCO - Services to Industries - Bologna)
impossible being the cost estimation for the Turin
Tab 2-11-3 Italian TAV cost evolution
crossing equal o 1000 M€.
A very import point concerning cost is the trend of the consolidated cost of the on going Italian TAV projects
(see Tab 2.11-3), which shows an increase of a 4.4 times (+314%) in a 10 year period, from the initial
estimates. Even by removing the effect of the inflation by escalating the price from 1991 to EC 2002, which
equates to +42%, the remaining net cost increase is still 292% in 11 years, i.e. 10.2% cumulative per year on
top of the inflation. Not bad! Applying the above typical cost increase for project of the same nature, over a 15
years construction period, than the overall cost of the Turin-Lyon would range around 64000 M€.
This is not all, because to this cost most likely will sum up all so far neglected costs elements, including the
disposal of eventual dangerous material, for difficulties encountered due to water and gas inside tunnels,
archaeological findings and for all actions implemented for mitigating the impact on the environment.
A/A June 2006
19/19
2.12.
Who is financing the Turin- Lyon ?
Despite the 65% of the line is into Franch territory and 35% in Italy, the representatives of the Italian
government as agreed with the French counterpart to equally share the cost of the project. The MOU
(Memorandum of Understanding), signed in May 2004 between the Italian former transportation minister Mr
Lunardi and the French Robien, states:
•
The cost of the international segment are split as 37% for France and 63% for Italy, over a reference
amount of 6700 M€ at January 2003 EC, (i.e. ~2600 M€ for France and ~ 4220 M€ for Italy).
•
The costs of the French and Italian segment are in charge of the respective countries.
The eventual additional costs are equally shared, providing that the total increase remains within 15% of
the initial reference amount of 6700 M€. Sharing of costs in addition to 15% is subject to case by case
agreement. French are conscious of the typical cost increase on running Italian TAV projects.
The CEE law (2236/95) allows a 10% financing of the total cost of the sole infrastructure segments across
borders of the states. Extension to 20% is allowed in case, priority projects mentioned into the CEE decision
1692/96/CE (Turin-Lyon is part of those), are initiated within 2010.
The above leads to some considerations:
a) The importance of the project must not be confused with the necessity of realising it regardless the
implications. In other words, no European directive supersedes the environmental impacts.
b) The condition of starting the works within 2010 for accessing to EU financing up to 20% can be
interpreted in several ways, as for instance for facilitating the availability of short term financing, but
also for discouraging long term projects which by that time are not able to justify their necessity.
Despite the interpretation, this constitutes a stimulus for the various construction companies, for start
working before 2010, with the risk that some of this project is abandoned after few years. It is difficult
to say if this will be the case of the Turin-Lyon, however it is sure that as stated literally into the MOU:
The two States commit to put in place all possible means to maximise the contribution given by the UE.
c) The UE contributions do not fall from the sky, sooner or later will be paid back by the population of the
member states, directly (e.g. taxes) or indirectly (e.g. reduction of local productions).
As a consequence of the agreement, the forecasted cost of the project is financed 50% each (about 6500 M€)
as shown in Tab 2.12-1, but Italy is contributing with 1800 M€ higher than the cost under its territory (4779
M€) and for the France this represent an appealing discount.
Supposing a 10% contribution from UE, then the sharing established by Lunardi Robien agreement changes
as shown in the right side of Tab 2.12-1. The France will finance only 6316 M€ of the 8306 M€ under its
territory (Tab 2.11-2) which is a discount of about 2000 M€ , covered by Italy and UE, while the sharing of the
International segment remains 37% and 63% for France and Italy respectively.
•
Sharing of National Financing
Italian Segment
International Segment (agreement)
France Segment
Total
€ millions
(%)
Without UE contribution
Italy
France
Sum
2300
2300
4221
2479
6700
4085
4085
6521
6564
13085
50%
50%
100%
With UE contribution (10%)
Italy
UE
France
Sum
2300
2300
3799
670
2231
6700
4085
4085
6099
670
6316
13085
47%
5%
48%
100%
Note: These are initial estimated costs (EC 2003) and the figures provide the overview.
Tab 2.12-1 France-Italy cost sharing with and without UE contribution
It is important to recall a part of the deliberation 5/2004/g of the central control section of the “Corte dei Conti”,
concerning the management of the state administration:
The Italian state financing law for the year 2003 (art 75), has substantially exceeded the aspect related to
the percentage of the investment in charge to the State, giving disposition for a deep modification of the
entire financing scheme of the TAV/TAC System, on which ISP is tacking the place of the State for
financing the entire System. The logic of the above mentioned law is that the State does no longer finance
the construction of the railway infrastructure (the AV/AC network), the company managing such
infrastructure (ISPA) will have to access to credits for building the network but the revenues will not be
sufficient to reimburse the debit and therefore the State will have to intervene to reimburse ISPA.
Particular relevance has the new accounting of the financing system for the AV/AC project, established by
art. 75 of the law 289/2002, which for sure will have repercussion over the public finance starting from
2009, the year in which it is foreseen that the State starts intervene with considerable amount of money for
integrating the coverage of the ISPA debit.
Accordingly, the Corte dei Conti deliberation does not mention the Turin-Lyon among the projects to be
financed within 2009. As a consequence the works subcontracted from ISPA before the 2009 will be covered
A/A June 2006
20/20
by the banks, which will receive guarantees from the State, through Patrimonio S.p.A, by mortgaging state
properties (beaches, monuments, roads..) and reimbursing them with interests, after 20-30 years.
This is a bright trick of the “creative finance magicians” for not further degrading the deficit of the State public
balance, avoiding the violation of the European agreed parameters, pushing onerous costs to the future
generations. A trick for getting immediate profit to private companies, financers and constructors, by investing
public money of the future and leaving the debts to our sons. The same scheme will be applied to several
other infrastructure projects initiated by the government in these years.
• Eurostat, which has the duty of validating the public balances of the member States, has highlighted in May
2005 that the 3% maximum increase of the ratio between the Italian public deficit and the internal gross
product was indeed violated by Italy during both 2003 and 2004, because some cost elements, including
ISPA for the AV/AC projects, were not considered in the balance.
• The wish of the Turin-Lyon promoter’s is to access and collect private financing (see also PPP) but severe
doubts arise because of the low forecasted economic results and because of the recent bad example of the
Eurotunnel (France-British) where investors have lost 95%. The absence of private investors will have to be
covered by the State, subtracting founds from the budget of the welfare, sanity, school and so on.
• Fortunately since Jan 2006 it wont be possible for the UE states to skip from their balances the public
financing for European priority projects.
2.13.
The operative costs
LTF declares that the operative cost of the international segment only, will globally amount to 65 M€ per year,
including the infrastructure usage, personnel, maintenance, renewing of equipments and so on.
An independent study made by Polinomia for the CMBVS shows that 40 Mt of freight per year, corresponding
to 350 daily freight trains, 1500-2000 meters long, one every 4-5 minutes, running at 150 KM/h and
interleaved with fleeting trains travelling at 300Km/H, would be required to balance revenue with the above
operative cost. The maintenance for granting safety and minimising noise would have a significant cost.
There is a strong doubt concerning the possibility to concentrate over a single tunnel the freight fluxes
crossing the Alps in different locations as Ventimille, Bardonecchia, Domodossola, Chiasso and Brennero.
Forcing truck to pass over rail is not that simple. The traffic adapts to the situation, taking other routes o
continuing on motorway simply because for many products the effect of a motorway tunnel fare increase give
a contribution on the product price within the daily fluctuation of the market, so the consumers will simply pay
it. This is why the Turin-Lyon line will never be able to transfer significant freight traffic from road to rails.
Lack of passengers and freight trains will turn this project into an economic disaster.
2.14.
The Turin-Lyon work planning
International Segment - Work Planning (data: LFT 2005)
Description
Preparatory works
Duration
10 months
Construction civil works
5 years +6 months
Railway system assembly
2 years +3 months
Testing
N
N+1
N+2
N+3
N+4
N+5
N+6
N+7
N+8
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
1 year
Operational
Example of time scale with start of works = 2010
Fig 2.14-1 Work planning for the international segment
Italian Segment - Work Planning (data: Italferr 2005)
Descizione
Aggiudicazione
Preparaz. Progetto Esecutivo
Gallerie naturali
Tratte all'aperto e gallerie artif.
Attrezzature e prove
Messa in servizio
Durata
N
N+1
N+2
N+3
N+4
N+5
N+6
N+7
N+8
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
365 days
2157 days
1873 days
600 days
Example of time scale with start of works = 2006
Fig 2.14-2 Work planning for the national segment
According to LTF and RFI, the construction of the international segment tunnels will take about 6 years and 4
months, initiating the excavation from different 12 places, then other 2.5 years will be necessary to put in
place rails, electrical stuff, aerial power line, all the equipments and to perform testing of the line, which lasts
about 1 year. The time necessary to build and to get the line operational is about 9 years, leading to start the
work within the 2009 should the line be functioning by 2018, as requested by LTF.
A/A June 2006
21/21
On the basis of data from Italferr, general contractor of the Italian segment, the Italian portion should be
approved by mid 2006 and the winning subcontractors will have 1 year time to present the final detailed
designs (which by the way might differ from the Italferr overall design) and to complete all the constructions
and the railway in a bit less than 6 years, so to have the line operational by 2012.
The time declared to build the Turin-Lyon seems not in line with trends of other AV/AC projects in Italy and a
minimum of 15 years duration can be envisaged, going well beyond the 2020 target and providing that the
works are not suspended for unavailability of founds. A considerable delay affects already the preparatory
activities and the consequent approval of the national segment, however there’s no real hurry to start.
The duration of the works will depend on the availability of financing for covering the nominal payments of the
projects as well as the additional money, which will be needed in case of changes or in case of serious and
unforeseen events. The LTF risk management pot, consisting of the 12% of the cost of the international
segment, can be exhausted very quickly, in case of problem occurrence or in case of neglecting estimations.
Thirty years ago, the work for doubling the rails of the historical line between Bussoleno – Bardonecchia were
blocked for some year due to the difficulties encountered from the contractor while building the tunnels in the
area of Exilles and Salbertrand, because the presence of significant sources and infiltration of water. Another
example is a tunnel recently made in the same area of the basic tunnel, but not that deep, for the construction
of the Pont Ventoux power plant. The construction took 7 years against an initial estimation of 3.
2.15.
•
•
•
What about France ?
Several different commissions of experts, appointed by the French Government, have risen serious doubts
over the Turin-Lyon project, which from the France audit of the 2003 resulted as not a priority for the
France and problematic for the cost, benefit ratio. The report of the France super-experts was
suggesting directing the near term effort toward the improvement of the historical line, as its saturation by
the 2015 would be very improbable and because it was too early to predict when it will be saturated.
This concept is reinforced by the fact that from 2003 until now, the freight transportation has decreased.
The agreement for financing the project is appealing for France, which is now pushing for the construction of
the Turin-Lyon line. The project is welcomed by several local administrations of the Maurienne, but a part of
them is against, because of negative past evaluations and bad marks given by environmentalist and
economical institutes (Setec Economie).
It is worth to mention the advanced concepts developed in France as alternate to the ferroutage, for
minimizing the time needed for loading/unloading. These concepts contribute improving the average speed
of the railway freights, which according to the white book of the UE is now only 18 Km/h, as the
improvement of the logistics is more beneficial and cost effective than increasing trains speed. The R.Shift-R
and Gollor projects are based on pivoting platform and innovative railcars, so that Sea containers, full trucks
or trailers can be indifferently loaded up to a total of 44t per railcar.
2.16.
The Europen Comunity and the High Speed Railway projects
•
The law L245/296 published on the European Community Official Gazette on 12 Sept 2002 defines the
technical specifications and characteristics of the high speed railway lines, splitting them in 3 categories:
1. specially built high-speed lines equipped for speeds generally equal to or greater than 250 km/h,
2. specially upgraded high-speed lines equipped for speeds of the order of 200 km/h,
3. specially upgraded high-speed lines which have special features as a result of topographical, relief or
town-planning constraints, on which the speed must be adapted to each case;
rd
The upgrading enhancement of the historical line Turin-Modane can fit the criteria of the 3 category,
•
Concerning the environment, the CEE directive (2002/733/CE) defines 5 essential requirements for the
implementing the European railway network: 1) Safety, 2) reliability and availability, 3) health, 4)
preservation of the environment and 5) the technical compatibility.
•
The corridor number 5, frequently mentioned in the recent appearance of the Italian Prime Ministers and
other politicians, is no longer existing as Lisbon-Kiev. It was defined in 1997at the Helsinki conference,
conceived as Trieste-Lubjiana- Budapest-Leopoli railway connection and in the subsequent years it was
extended toward West of Italy. Since the end of 2002 the European Community has start defining axes and
TEN-T (Trans European Network – Transport) projects, for railway, motorway and navigation lines, where
the Turin to Lyon line is collocated within the Project Number 6.
•
The last updating (final report from the High Level Group chaired by Loyola de Palacio, November 2005),
defines 30 priority axes, including the number 6 as Lyon-Turin-Milan-Trieste-LubJiana-Budapest-Ukrainian
border and the number 3 Lisbon-Lyon. The connection between the Ukrainian border and Kiev (about 800
Km) is not mentioned by the TEN-T and it is so far not committed by the Ukraine.
The corridor 5 is now only a direction and no longer exclusivity of the Turin-Lyon. Trail Liguria, promotes the
Genoa-Ventimille rails doubling as corridor 5 over an ordinary railway, passing through Milan, Genoa,
Ventimille and Marseille, instead of Milan, Turin, Lyon and Marseille..
•
A/A June 2006
22/22
•
Despite Italian politicians repeat that precise agreement are in place for the corridor 5, there is only the
evidence of some signed bilateral agreement/MOU, while there is absolutely no trace that the European
Community has never requested to implement an highly impacting project as the one currently proposed.
The selection of the 30 priority axes covers the entire Europe with a flexible network and therefore it is
possible to define long distance path as combination of shorter traces together. According to the above
official document, none of these priority axes is privileged over the others and for instance Lisbon- Budapest
can be made by joining project 3 and 6 through Turin-Milan or by joining projects 3, 24, 17 and 22 transiting
in southern Germany, the resulting distances are about the same. This tells that the European Community
has given the same importance of passing at north or at south of the Alps.
•
Spain and Ukraine track gauges, respectively 1676 mm and 1524 mm, are different from France, Italy,
Slovenia and Hungaria gauge, which measure 1434 mm. A corridor cannot be defined as such before
having implemented the interoperability between the systems used in the different countries.
•
An interesting highlight of the above final report is the connection between navigation lines and railways
axes and the importance of the Mediterranean harbours for the connection with the far east countries
(China, Japan..) through the Suez channel. The layout of the navigation lines and harbours are such that the
south-north axes will support significant intercontinental traffic from/to Asia/Africa, while the east-west axes
are supporting the European intrastate transportations. Lisbon-Ukrainian traffic will be almost null.
•
The directive 85/337/CEE (para 4.2.3.2) requests, an evaluation of specific design data concerning the
environmental impacts, plans for impact reduction and for mitigating the risks of damages to the ambient
and population, together with the commitment of the member states to survey the application of the
regulations, granting diffusion of the information. Unfortunately in Italy a law known as “Objective Law” limits
the ambient impact evaluation to the preliminary design, skipping agreement with local administrations, so
that nothing else is due when the selected subcontractors produce the detailed designs documentation.
•
In 2004, the UE has opened an infraction procedure against Italy because of the General Contractor
assignment in direct negotiation, violating competition regulations and because the simplified Ambient
Impact Evaluation, requested by the “Objective Law”, is again in contrast with the European regulations.
•
As a consequence of the visit of L. de Palacio on 24 Nov 2005, the commission under her suggestion has
decided to engage an independent consultancy for evaluating coherency and reliability of the LTF obtained
results. The generated report “Analisi degli studi condotti da LTF in merito alla Lione-Torino” – international
section [49], was available in French since 25 April 2006 and subsequently in Italian.
The report declares that the contained viewpoints are from the experts and on page 21 of the French
version there is an unproven statement against opposition, not appearing into the Italian version.
The report limits the analysis to the international segment as it concern for EU financing, but instead of
finding the truth, the report is limiting to judge if the design documentation of LTF has properly addressed
the objections, also no judgment is made on the Ambient Impact Evaluation correctness. The report
mention the power plant of Pont Ventoux but it does not even consider consequences of its coexistence
with the basic tunnel. The report confuses widely the purpose of the new line, addressing analyses for the
fleeting train traffic, known and also admitted to be no longer the priority. Also the reported freight traffic of
the historical line is misleading being not even in line with the operations at the end of the first phase.
On 26 April 2006 at the Prefettura of Turin, L. de Palacio has not endorsed the report, stating that it was
documenting the judgements of the consulting and not of the UE commission.
2.17.
Benefits and comfort for the Susa Valley residents
Excluding the awarding of small contracts to local firms, all the other construction and equipping works will be
performed by specialized company and by their personnel coming from other region of Italy or even from
other European states. This is the typical scenario of big infrastructure construction over all states. Everybody
th
in the valley remembers the years 70 where a company from Como area was doubling the rails of the
mountain part of the historical line and the same happened during the construction of the Turin Bardonecchia A32 motorway. The personnel recruited locally have been always insignificant.
During the operational phase some resource will be employed for managing the line, the basic tunnel and the
train parking area of Bruzolo, however part of the tunnel personnel will be French. About fifty people in total, a
fraction of what was the personnel of the glorious Bussoleno railroad depot and workshop, where locomotives
maintenance and repair was performed, but then dismantled at the beginning of the years 90.
The beneficial effects advertised by the sponsors will be limited to small business for dealers, restaurants,
bars and economical operators for the duration of construction works. But we are talking about 2000 workers
over a local population of about 200.000 people (Settimo Torinese to Venaus), so the effect will be very minor.
No positive effects are envisaged once the line operates, but several negative implications and damages to
the ambient and to the inhabitants of the valley are envisaged, as it will be described in the next paragraph.
A/A June 2006
23/23
3. AMBIENT IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS
Introduction
A lot of people believe that building
something, which allows decreasing the
freight traffic on the motorway corresponds
to a reduction of the pollution. This is a very
questionable statement as in reality the
matter is complex, trucks and vehicles
pollute because of their number but also
because the engines, specially those built
outside Europe, do not fulfil regulation for
Tab 3-1 – Truck Emissions versus engine energy [g/kWh]
combustion, gas and particulate emissions.
Too often vehicles spreading suffocating gases and particles, circulates on our highways, some of them are
coming from the European east, but in many case they are simply old and out of maintenance. Forbidding the
transit of such trucks to some of the alpine passes does not correspond to a solution as if they are allowed to
enter into a state then some place has to let them go out. The local block of access to polluting vehicles does
not resolves the problem of the pollution, simply transfers it elsewhere.
Tab 3-1, defining the emission of truck engines as function of the European regulation, allows to simply
compute that 7 trucks of Euro 5 class give the same quantity of polluting elements than 1 class 0 truck.
Obviously this is not an excuse to allow any quantity of traffic because the regulation takes care of pollution. It
is a disillusion means for whoever promise or believes that with the implementation of mastodontic projects as
the AV/AC, the pollution can be drastically reduced because of the significant (30-50%) freight traffic
reduction, which by the way for the Turin-Lyon will be only 0.8%, so the pollution reduction will be negligible.
In a 10 years period most of the circulating trucks will be renewed and a pollution reduction obtained anyhow.
The ferroutage is as well a local, not very efficient compromise, because a train of 1185t, absorbing 11MW is
needed for transporting 18 trucks with a total of 288t of freight. The efficiency is 25% against a 53% by road.
To correctly compare the environment pollution in the case of railway and road transportation a complex
thermo-energetic analysis has to be performed. Such analysis, performed by the University of Siena for the
Milan-Naples TAV line starts as follows:
The TAV has environmental impacts comparable to the individual transportation in car and absolutely
superior to the freight transportation by road. The emission impact is not better and the quality of the
ambient is worse because of the presence of the infrastructure……..Even the comparison between
global level emissions are not comfortable: With respect to cars, the TAV emits more SOx (Sulphur
oxides), more particulate and comparable quantity of CO2 (Carbon dioxide)
The above is because the energy is not just needed for moving trains (up to 8.8 MW for each ETR and up
to 9.6 MW for the France TGV) but also for supplying the entire infrastructure, for the safety equipments,
services, illumination, ventilation and so on including the energy lost in the iron rails and aerial copper
wires. Particles, gases, and oxides are released where the energy is produced, including radioactive
waste whenever the energy is produced by thermo-nuclear power plants.
The advantage of the train to concentrate the pollution at the power plants, so in principle in a more
controllable way, is acknowledged but in addition there is all pollutions generated during the infrastructure
construction as, particles, powders, chemical elements, gases, liquids and so on, for 10-15 years.
Cleaner transportation means are necessary for the future, however this will not be sufficient without
adoption of a suitable policy for containing the transportation increase, avoiding mastodontic and
economically unmanageable infrastructure, just because the industry found more profitable buying
materials and freight elsewhere instead of procuring or producing them locally.
An example comes from Stefanie Böge of the German institute Wuppertal, who has conducted and
documented a study concerning a strawberry yoghurt produced entirely in Germany, considering all its
constituents, the plastic can, the aluminium foil of the cover, inks…and of course milk and strawberries.
The result is that the components are travelling by 9,115 Km and 4g of gasoline are necessary for
transporting all components of 150g yoghurt pot and the pot itself till the shops. About 40 g of gasoline for
a 1Kg yoghurt and package.
Many other examples can be found along such industrial policy of increasing revenues by finding always the
lowest price of the products and raw materials, regardless the distance, increasing energy needs and creating
as a consequence the need of huge transportation infrastructures, paid by the entire population.Also Marco
Polo project, launched by the UE for sponsoring ideas and implementation of transportation methods alternate
to road transportation, has a positive appearance but it does not contribute to decrease the future energy
demand. Incentives should be given to who produces everything locally or at least to the best extent,
minimising energy request, transportations and pollution.
A/A June 2006
24/24
3.1.
Is there asbestos or not ?
•
The asbestos, in the Lanzo and Susa Valleys is present in form of Serpentinized Peridotite (commonly
called Serpentine) and in Tremolite, white or grey minerals of the amphibole group, that is a silicate of
calcium and magnesium, in form of friable or compact matrix, generally as filling of cracks.
•
The presence of such ores, in Susa Valley and the side valleys of Lanzo and Chisone, is traced in the Italian
Mineralogical Maps. The Asbestos quarries are well visible and the Balangero one was the most productive
in Europe, located in the same mountain group of the Mont Musinè, subjected to the Gravio- Musinè tunnel.
•
The documentation of Italferr preliminary design, estimates about 1,15 million cubic meters of serpentine in
the sole Gravio-Musinè tunnel (23 Km long) equivalent to approximately 15% of all the extracted material
from such tunnel. Italferr had commissioned the study to the university of Siena, which has taken and
analysed 39 ground and rocks samples in 29 points of the zone. The result is that 34 cutting fractures have
been traced, and about 20 of them were mineralised to asbestos (8 with a good asbestos quality), but the
study clearly advises that sensitive variations could occur under work course.
•
Two recent Susa Valley events bring in mind that forgiving the asbestos aspects, treatments and its disposal
could have been intentional to keep down the initial project cost estimate.
1. The Frejus tunnel is currently subjected to works for enlarging the profile (gabarit) of the Frejus
tunnel so to allow the ferroutage to board also taller trucks. The removed material rich of asbestos is
temporary disposed at Salbertrand, treated with gluing liquids and then transported to Germany.
2. During the works for the preparation of the free style site for the 2006 winter Olympic games, Dr.
Guariniello, has open a procedure for the presence of the asbestos, measured by ARPA (Agency of
Piedmont Region for the Ambient) in percentage 16 times higher then the law allowance. The result
is that the construction of the site has been moved in a different place.
•
Last event is the ovation of politicians and promoters because no asbestos was found at the Seghino
soundings. The truth is that LTF design documentation defines the objective of that sounding (identified as
S42) for hydrologic research and not for searching asbestos, which absence was expected. Unfortunately
politicians and mass media didn’t say that to Italians.
3.2.
About uranium
•
The presence of uranium pitchblende in the zone of the basic tunnel was pointed out in the years 60 by
spectrographic analysis executed by the French Minatome and the Italian Agip companies. Superficial
rocks with radioactive emission have been localised in 16 points of the geographic trapezium connecting
Novalesa, Chiomonte, Oulx, Bardonecchia, as well as in the French territory neighbour.
•
The LTF denies the presence of Uranium and its preliminary project, thanks to the permission given by the
“Objective law” neither contemplates the radiation monitoring during excavation works for determining the
presence of radioactive material, nor plans for handling and disposing such material, if found.
In absence of such plan, rocks and debris containing radioactive material would be transported in open
trucks without knowledge of workers and inhabitants, disposed in open dumps, spread by winds, rains
and ultimately entering into the human feeding cycle, through the water, the meats, the vegetables, etc.
The specialists of the Polytechnic of Turin have defined a real nightmare.
•
Being the presence of uranium documented, the fact of not having identified such risk, estimating the
eventual cost for the handling and disposal, constitutes again a trick to keep down the initial project costs.
•
Prof Zucchetti of the Polytechnic of Turin, made a clear point concerning the severity of the Italian
legislation, in particular the law 241/2000 which is today very restrictive about radon, gas derived by decay
of radioactive material, toxic for inhalation and potential source of the pulmonary cancer. In case the
excavation works fall into area with dangerous concentration of uranium or radon, then the workers of the
tunnel would become immediately professionally exposed to radiations, with all health and cost implication.
•
ARPA has documented in 1998 the presence of Radon into the water sources of the area between
Salbertand and Giaglione, where in 12 sources over 27 shown a value between 11 e 40 Bq/l (Bequerel/liter).
The limit established by US for drinking water is 11 Bq/l, while in Europe such a limit does not exist and only
a recommendation is made for not drinking water with Radon concentration higher than 100Bq/l.
Also the 30 min work shifts implemented and observed during the excavation of the tunnel of the Pont
Ventoux power plant, are signs of presence of dangerous material, for which the Italian regulation prescribes
work in short working shifts. The concentration of Radon in excess to normal values is a sign of the
radioactive activities and composition of the ground and it is a clear message to tunnel constructors.
•
LTF mentions the monitoring of the Radon and the Grisou, sadly known to coal miners, but does not identify
any plan and counter measurements.
A/A June 2006
25/25
3.3.
Powders, particulate, other polluting elements and their transportation
The meteorologist did comments the inadequacy of the Italferr project of the Italian segment because it was
not including any environmental analysis for assessing the dissemination of the particles, mainly asbestos. In
particular, the weaknesses of not considering the Val Susa peculiar climate and the risk of spreading
asbestos in a wider town area were pointed out. The small asbestos fibres with a diameter of some microns,
present in the zones of excavation, over the trucks loading and in the open dumps, will be then carried toward
Turin and surroundings by the breeze that in morning flows from the valley towards the city, or by strong
western wind blowing again toward the city. Vice-versa, in the sunny afternoons the large air masses,
warmed by the mountains slopes exposed to the sun, will such cold air through the valley entrance dragging
asbestos fibres upwards, toward the tip of the mountains, at altitude much higher than the working sites.
Gliders flying into the Susa valley know and use such large ascending air columns for gaining altitude up to
3000-4000 meters by spiralling inside them.
Same journey will occur to all particles, smoke and harmful gases generated during the construction, risen by
the trucks and operating machines at the construction sites, generated by smashing the extracted rocks and
by distributing the resulted gravel, by handling cement and other powders as well as by the thousand daily
truck travels. All of them will deposit particles and chemicals over a large area, from the grasslands in high
mountains to city of Turin, day by day, for 10 – 15 years.
The promoters have computed that the pollution effect would be equivalent of having 1000 -1100 daily heavy
vehicles in addition to the traffic already circulating in the A32 highway, which correspond to a 35% daily
increase, for the whole duration of the works. A study made by Habitat is showing that the pollution
concentration could be double and the computation is totally credible.
The design data of Italferr mentions a 3% increase of the particulate, which would make the atmosphere of
the valley equivalent to the one of a big town. The question of the people is how it will become the
atmosphere in 10-15 years if today it is already close to the limits. A whole generation of infants will born and
grow until the adolescence in such environment.
3.4.
The acoustic noise
For 15 years the noise coming from the construction yards, the transportation vehicles, the augers, the mines,
the equipment running days and nights, will propagate along the valley and in the Turin northern
surroundings.
LTF states that during the construction phase, absorbing provisions will be taken if necessary to limit the
noise to the population, such to bring the noise lever under the law (L447 26/10/95) prescription. The noise
estimated by the designers for the sites of the Italian segment, ranges between 100 and 123 dBA (acoustic
decibel-see Tab 3.4-1). The construction sites of the Turin surrounding are plan to work from 6 AM to 10 PM,
while in the Susa valley all sites will work 24 hours around the clock.
Level
0 dBA
Qualitative ambient
Reference level = human hear sensitivity =
pressure wave of 20 microPascal
Max admissible external noise
Vs area typology
Law 447 of 26/10/95
Level dBA LEq
Daytime
Night time
6:00-22:00 22:00-6:0
20 dBA Very silent ambient: bed rooms at night,
windows with double glass and closed
30 dBA Silent ambient: some fable background noise
in a room during the day, closed windows.
Residential areas
55
45
Mixed areas
60
50
40 dBA Some noise distant noise can be perceived: a
room during the day with open windows, in a
quite area.
50 dBA External noise in quite areas during the day
Area with intense human activity
65
55
Areas mainly industrial
70
60
70 dBA Crowd road
75 dBA Threshold for the working areas
Areas exclusively industrial
70
70
Tab 3.4-1 Qualitative noise levels
Tab 3.4-2. Regulation for external noise - Italy
60 dBA External noise in areas with some traffic.
The risk is that the provisions mentioned by LTF remains just good proposition and in case of problems during
the works the people has to proceed legally, hoping that in the meantime the legislation shortens the times
when remedy must be set.
Once the line will be operative fleeting and freight trains will produce noise. LTF and RFI declare that barriers
made of aluminium, PMMA and wood, as well as ground dunes will be arranged to meet the noise
requirements imposed by the law, but the difficult of the problem is evident as RFI is planning to implement 6
meter tall barriers in all railway opening and country side segments.
A/A June 2006
26/26
The objectives of LTF, respectively 58 dBAs at night (10 PM to 7 AM) and 63 dBAs in the daytime 63 dBAs,
are not in line with Italian law because exceeding both levels and the night time duration (see Tab 3.4-2).
The RFI objective is not to exceed 50dBA LEaq wherever, which is good but very optimistic as measures
taken around operating lines give noise figures much higher that RFI expectation. The dimension of the bands
of respect around the line will play a certain role for noise reduction.
Even if the European normative has imposed design limits to railcars and locomotives emitted noise, the first
results are just coming and the way to get silent trains is still long, as the noise produced by a TGV passing is
around 93 dBAs at 100 meters. This implies the necessity of planning and building protections, absorbent
barriers, large bands of respect around the line, so to get the noise level within the applicable regulations. Just
to make an example, the attenuation required to reduce the noise from 93dBA at 100 meters to 50 dBAs to
150 m, is of around 40dB, which are equivalent to reduce the wave pressure wave by a factor 100.
The Department of Aeronautical and Space Engineering of the Polytechnic of Turin has conducted specific
studies confirming that the propagation of the sound in an alpine valley is very different from the propagation
in a flatland. This is due to the reflections of the mountains and of the slopes, creating by diffraction zones
where noise results amplified and others in which it is attenuated. Then considerations have to be made to the
effects of the wind, the breeze and in general to the dis-homogeneity of the atmosphere of a valley.
• The designers have not taken these effects into account and noise estimation has been performed with
flatland models. This means that most of the absorbing or protecting provisions defined into the project will
not be enough to meet the regulation requirements, leading to further population protests, legal actions and
finally additional cost to be withstood by the government.
• Under request of the commons and environmentalist association, several legal procedures have been
opened against RFI-Trenitalia because of exceeding the noise limits. Unfortunately the Italian law prescribes
that remedy to noise issues is put in place within 15 years, meanwhile population waits.
th
In the Dec 13 2005 meeting, the technical commission of the Turin-Lyon has approved a series of studies
over different design and environmental aspects relevant to the noise [8], but unknown are the planning of the
activities and the timescale for getting the results. The approach of the promoters is clearly stated by the
document [8] which reads “further mitigation actions should be foreseen and adopted in the event that non
conformities with limits established by the law are found”.
The statement is emblematic of the general approach of the entire project, wherever promoters and designers
are unable to produce demonstrations and solid solutions against opposition technical comments.
3.5.
The effects on the human health
Some month after of the presentation of the preliminary projects, physicians and oncologists begun to
denounce the human risks associated to the accomplishment of the TAV, particularly to the tunnel and to
dangerous materials like the asbestos and uranium, which could be extracted during the works. In May 2004,
more than 100 physician operating in Susa valley denounced the worry for the TAV construction works and
the risks of severe damages to the public health. The envisaged health problems are the following:
• Asbestosis. It is a respiratory chronic illness awkward to the property of the asbestos fibres to provoke a
cicatrisation (fibrosis) of the woven pulmonary with the consequent stiffening and loss of the functional
capacity. The illness rises up after a long period of latency and begins in gradual manner, 10–15 years after
the exposition to the asbestos. It is a typical professional illness occurring at mid-high expositions.
• Pulmonary Carcinoma. The pulmonary carcinoma is in general the most frequent malicious tumour. As
for the asbestosis also for the pulmonary carcinomas a tight connection with the total quantity of inhaled
asbestos was verified and with the habit of smocking tobacco. The risk to contract this tumour in presence
of asbestos is about 1 over 2000 people (not smokers) and 1 over 200 people (smokers). It is characterized
from a progressive deterioration of the health conditions and worsened at the end by troubles due to
metastasis formation in other organs. For some smaller tumours at the initial phase a surgical removal can
be attempted, but the results are often unsatisfying.
• Pleura Mesothelioma. The mesothelioma is a malignant tumour of the pleura; it is for sure the most serious
consequence of the exposure to the asbestos, also for modest levels of exposure. It manifest after 15-20,
also 40, years from the asbestos particle inhalation, but it has 100% mortality and the death come usually
within nine months from the diagnosis.
• Lymphomas. The lymphomas can generate following contamination due to inhalation of uranium. The
Superior Institute of Health recently emphasized a development (+236%) of lymphomas of Hodgkin in the
soldiers employed in peace mission in the Balkans, because the exposition to the impoverished uranium. To
equality of volume, the uranium present in the pitchblende is considerable more radioactive.
It is emerging with increasing obviousness the importance of the ultra fine particulate; 5 causes of death in
exceeded to the average are due to tumours of the breathing apparatus. To strengthen this observation there
are consideration related to the presence into the urban environment particulate of a lot carcinogenic targeting
the pulmonary: the isopropyl alcohol and various nitrite developed during combustion processes, but also the
heavy metals, chrome, arsenic, nickel, etc.
A/A June 2006
27/27
Meanwhile an epidemiological study lead from ARPA emphasized that 12 cases of Mesothelioma have been
found in the last years in upward Susa valley, one of highest level of the Piedmont.
Then there are all the effects due to the noise if this is not reduced to suitable levels, that are: troubles of the
sleep, hypertension, effects on the mental health, besides the annoyance which is more or less known by
everybody. However there is an extra series of auditory effects which might become important: changes in
the electroencephalogram (EGG), pot-seemed arterial, increase intercranial pressure, headache, cronassia
reduction, aggressiveness, depression, conflicting syndromes, activation of the encephalic-hypofisis system,
increase thyroidism and of adrenal activity.
In addition there will be as well the risk of tumours and childlike leukaemia because of the presence of the
new high voltage 380KV and 132KV electrical power lines for supplying the 25 KV aerial of the railway.
3.6.
Hydrological risks
About 30 superficial water springs have been identified by RFI along the track of the national segment rail
line, in the communes of Borgone di Susa, Caprie, Casellette, Condove, Rubiana, Almese, Val della Torre
and Villardora. Same situation appears in the communes impacted by the international segment, Bussoleno,
Urbiano, Venaus, Giaglione, Moncenisio, Novalesa, where the number of water sources and creeks is quite
high and higher of the number considered by LTF and RFI, with the complication that several of them are
used for supplying drinkable water to villages. Therefore two kind of problems are risen:
•
The intense activities can drain or deviate the springs leaving population without water
•
The sources can be polluted, becoming undrinkable and unusable.
The excavation of the Musinè and basic tunnels brings potential impacts to the underground waters, typically
interception of high pressure springs, or deviation of the normal flow of the underground waters produced due
to obstacles and sections of the line. In presence of such very deep tunnel, the surveys soundings are not so
practicable because in many cases the line is even more than 1000 meters under the ground level (see
Fig.1.4-2) and because of the difficulty to reach the sounding sites situated upwards in mountain.
During the activities for the construction of the Pont Ventoux hydroelectric power plant, which is in the same
zone of the basic tunnel, innumerable high pressure water jets have been found together with an underground
lake of hundred thousands cubic meters. The artificial lake of the Mont Cenis, a 333 millions cubic meters
water reservoir at 2000 meter of altitude, supplying power plants in France and in Italy, is only 5-6 Km from
the basic tunnel. Interception of very high-pressure jets cannot be excluded a priori during excavations.
Fig 3.6-1 Flow of Dora Riparia at Oulx and Torino (Database Piedmont Region)
Reg Piedmont Database
Dora Riparia River - Flow Rates (Mag 05 - Mar 06)
35,000
Rate at Oulx (DRIOU)
Rate at Pont Ventoux
Rate at Bussoleno
Rate at Turin (DRITO)
Litri per second
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
m
-0
ag
5
05
ugi
g
lu
5
-0
ag
0
o-
5
se
t-0
5
ot
t-0
5
no
05
v-
cdi
05
ge
0
n-
6
fe
06
b-
m
-0
ar
6
From the final report prepared for L. de Palacio [49],it is possible understanding for the first time the amount of
water drained by the tunnels, in particular:
•
1700 ÷ 3452 l/s for the basic tunnel and the descending accesses.
• 251 ÷ 521 l/s for the Bussoleno tunnel.
Fig 3.6.1showing the behaviour of the daily flow of the Dora Riparia river taken at Oulx and at Turin in the time
span from 1 May 2005 to 30 Apr 2006, the minimum and maximum flows can be derived as follows:
•
500 ÷ 12100 l/s at Oulx, before junction with Dora di Bardonecchia river.
•
4200 ÷ 32000 l/s at Turin, except during the exceptional raining week of Sept 9, 2005
A/A June 2006
28/28
•
30 - 61 l/s/km for the drained sector
Modane-Saint Jean de Maurienne:
•
12÷25 l/s/km for the Modane-Venaus
sector (up to 50 l/s/km for both tubes)
Day of the observation period in which the flow
rate is lower then x-axis values
The water drained by tunnel is comparable
with minimum and maximum flow rate of
the Dora Riparia River but also with the
lower flow of the Dora di Bardonecchia
River. Some other interesting data
mentioned into report are coming from the
specific flow rates of a single tunnel tube,
without contribution of the descending
accesses:
Cumulative Distribution of Dora Riparia River
specific flow rate (1 Mag 05 - 30 Mar 06)
250
PV-Buss
200
Buss-TO
150
100
19÷40 l/s/km for the Bussoleno tunnel,
50
i.e. up to 80 l/s/km for both tubes.
The report [49] is admitting that the values
are much higher than usual and in
0
particular higher than the Pont Ventoux
0
50
100
150
200
250
tunnel, which with its 33 l/s/km and an
Specific flow rate (l/s/Km) lilters/sec/Km
average of 10 l/s/Km, was identified as
Fig 3.6-2 Specif flow rate of Dora Riparia river (Piedmont Reg. data)
one of the highest.
A simple comparison with the Dora Riparia specific flow rates statistics derived from the Piedmont Region
database, allows understanding the criticality of the depicted numbers and assessing the necessity of further
in depth analyses.
The statistic of the Dora Riparia river is given in fig 3.6-2, known as cumulative distribution of the specific flow
rate, representing the days within the observation period (365 days) in which the specific rates is lower then
the value on the x-axis. A comparison of the water drained by the tunnels allows to find out that the Dora
Riparia specific rates is lower that the draining of the Bussoleno tunnel (80 l/s/Km) for 64 days of the year,
and it is for 50 days lower than the Modane-Venaus draining sector of the basics tunnel (50 l/s/Km).
Being the most water quantity of Dora Riparia given by the left creeks, a tunnel draining such water amount at
left creeks expenses, turns into an high probability that the river flow downstream of Oulx is decreasing
instead of enlarging. Difficult and complex analysis have to be made for understanding the extent of the Dora
Riparia river flow reduction and the existence of period and areas where the river goes under the minimum
vitality level, however this should have been done by LTF and RFI as part of the general contractor scope of
work and submitted to the ambient impact evaluation.
It is reminded that into the Mugello section of the Milan-Rome TAV line, the flow rate reduction under the vital
limit has been the major cause of civil legal procedures (Italian law 183/1989) opened against the
constructors. It is to be noted that the huge damage made the Mugello’s tunnels as total drying of creeks,
were produced by draining rates 10 to 15 times lower that those expected in the international segment of the
Turin-Lyon tunnels. For example the draining found at Vaglia tunnel (completed to 90%) was only 4.7 l/s/Km.
The situation of the national segment is even more ambiguous, as no water draining data were produced by
RFI/Italferr concerning the Gravio-Musinè, 23 Km tunnel.
In addition, Susa Valley has two additional aggravating factors:
• Pont Ventoux power plant is as well draining water from Dora Riparia river and some of its left crecks. AEM,
customer of the Pont Ventoux plant is admitting the draining and confirming that 1000 l/s will be granted into
Dora Riparia river between Pont Ventoux and Susa. Being this flow very reduced respect to the natural flow
of the river, someone should have analysed the compatibility of the two projects but there is no evidence
that this was done.
• Tunnels are draining water from the valley left side, which is as well the driest side, being exposed to South.
Proper precautions have to be taken as part of the design to avoid the fall again in a Mugello’s like situation,
where due the intense activities of the Bologna-Rome TAV, a lot of villages and small cities waterworks
remained dried because the underground water flow was deviated or lowered. It is necessary to account in
advance for the water decrease, building in advance redundant water provisions, which unfortunately will
increase again the cost.
In the national segment part surrounding Turin, several risks exist for the crossing of the water course,
channels for irrigation and some of these are of serious concern where the lines runs in artificial tunnels under
the ground level or in deep trench (from 7 to 12 meters) and in the country around Venaria and Settimo
Torinese. It will be necessary to account for the hydraulic works necessary to restore trenches and irrigation
channels and for the possible interferences with points of water withdrawal, waterworks and wells.
•
A/A June 2006
29/29
3.7.
Impact on residential, industrial and agriculture areas
The impacts to the residential, industrial and agricultural areas are substantially due to the presence of a
large, visible, shadowing and noisy infrastructure and to the means necessary to build it, as:
• 19 sites that will occupy about 120 hectares of ground for a variable duration between the 7 and 15 years
• 20 depot sites of for about 10 millions of cubes meters of extracted rocks, will occupy not less that 100,
without accounting for 4 – 6 millions deposited at the Carriere du Paradis, in France.
• 20 kilometres of external railway over embankment, viaduct and trench, for a total of about 50 hectares.
• The train parking area of Bruzolo with its the intersection, the station, the power transformation plant will
occupy more than 30 hectares, all together.
• A 150 meter wide band of respect, along each external track of the line, for a total of about 600 hectares
Neglecting the access roads to the sites, cableways and tape conveyors, the overall occupied area is about
900 hectares, equivalent to an area 200 meters wide and 45 Kilometres long, more or less long as the
distance between Bussoleno and Turin. Crucial are the areas at north of Turin, in particular Venaria and San
Gillio, but also Venaus and Chianocco-Bruzolo-San Didero-Borgone areas, which will be devastated (Fig 3.7-1).
The effects are obvious in the Italferr technical documentation, justifying fields and lands compulsory
purchase as well as destruction of houses and commercial buildings, even if the photographic documentation
covers only the part of the line between Settimo Torinese and the entrance of the Musinè tunnel.
The same will be in the Italian part of the international segment where demolition of houses, commercial
buildings and a gas station will take place between Chianocco and San Didero, as briefly identified into the
LTF design documentation.
Fig3.7-1 Impacts at Chianocco-Borgone talweg
The consequence of the above can be synthesizes as:
• Occupancy, use and compulsory purchase of wide agriculture fields and mountain lands for the duration of
works
• Destruction of a number of houses, cottages and industrial structures.
• People forced to move in other places
• Industrial activities relocation
• Decrease of the terrains economical values around the construction sites and close to the line
• Years and years of trucks running on ordinary roads and the consequent unavoidable accidents
• Recovery of the areas used by construction sites at the completion of the project. Usually late and painful.
• Recovery of the areas designated to temporary disposal. The trend is to transform them as permanent.
Moreover the external part of the line, with its trench and embankment acts as a cut in the territory and
constitutes a discouraging element for the small farmers who are assuring today the maintenance of the
areas, limiting the brutal propagation of urban and industrial establishments.
The aspect of the band of respect on the side of the line is curious. In France such band has been agreed as
150 meters on both sides of the railway, which makes the overall line areas 320 wider. For the TGV
Mediterraneo such band is increased to 200 meters. The preliminary design of the Turin-Lyon foresaw only 30
meters on both side. Piedmont Region administration answered to the comment raised by CMBVS, saying
that the French band size was just an agreement with the people (i.e not a law) and it was a people penalty.
A/A June 2006
30/30
To the formal enquire made by the CMBVS concerning different treatment of European people, the European
Union answered 12/02/2004: “no hypothesis of violation of the directive 85/337/CEE has been identified
concerning the project of the Turin-Lyon railway line, in which relation no authorisation to the construction of
the line has been given. Such project appears still in the feasibility study phase. (and so far unchanged)
In spite of the above, in Italy the compensation of the damages could only be obtained for houses, building
th
and properties within 30 meters from the lines while the Italian law 459 of November 18 1998, defines the
pertinence of the line as a 250 meters band on both side.
France citizen having properties within the bands of respect are protected by an agreement allowing them to
eventually sold out the property at the market price of before the construction, within 3 years from the
completion of the works. They can decide to sell properties before the construction or wait and checking for
the impacts of the lines once it operates.
The TAV promoters has sponsored an advertisement inside Turin Porta Nuova railway station, in which it is
possible to see posters, prints and a video showing the train running along trees and grassland of the valley.
Houses, industrial and agriculture structures have been removed with the modern techniques of digital images
processing, almost to prove that a mouse click is enough for cancelling culture, tradition, effort and history of a
population.
The crossing of the Val Cenischia, already impacted by the long viaduct of the A32 motorway, is particularly
critic because of the historical and scenic values of the site, in which the huge 900 m long, 70 meters wide
and 12 meters thick viaduct, constitute an enormous impact together with the 3 construction sites and a
worker residential site, all in 1Km area from Venaus.
Critical is as well the east entrance of Bussoleno tunnel as the initial part of the tunnel is within the Prebec
creek dejection area, few tens of meters under a populated residential area. The tunnel excavation within the
rounded stones deposited by river in the millennia will produce the same kind of problems and damages to
the houses already occurred on the other site of the Valley, during the construction of A32 Prapuntin tunnel.
The entire infrastructure within the Bruzolo-San Didero area will have particular visual impact due to complex
insertion of the railway works within a dense mixed residential and industrial area. The intersection of the new
line should be at the same level of the historical line instead of jumping on it from a side viaduct, which implies
complex and tall merging structures, right in the middle of the valley. As shown in Fig 3.7-1, such area will be
totally compromised by the construction works, the intersection, the new asset of the national road 25, the
dumping sites, power station and so on. All this will be largely visible from the mountains and villages around.
An important point concerns the dumping sites, the construction and basic sites positioned in the natural
flooding relief areas along the Dora Riparia River and other minor creeks, as the Pissaglio creek, right at the
east entrance of Bussoleno tunnel. The LTF design includes in the same flooding area also the power station
for supplying the new railway. For such natural areas of flooding expansion without endangering the villages
on the border, there is so far no evidence that the utilisation permission has been provided by the Po river
authority, who has territorial jurisdiction.
Other valuable places exist also in the Turin northern surroundings, particularly the countryside between San Gillio
and Brione, between Venaria tunnel entrance and Pianezza, including a residential area with several cottages.
3.8.
Archaeological impacts
All of the area of the line, where there are the sites, windows and the dumps of extracted material is rich of
archaeological items, rocky engravings, restive of prehistoric installations, carved bowls, bas-reliefs, walls that
can be temporally placed from the prehistory to the high medieval age. In the design documents Italferr cites
the inquiries and archaeological searches carried out in the Piedmont’s files, carrying out a classification of
archaeological series of sites potentially at risk during the intense activities of the Turin – Lyons.
151 archaeological sites are identified and 146 of them are defined as under high risk, due to interference with
the works of the line.
RFI does not state it, but there are two envisaged risk categories:
•
Destruction, damage or alteration of existing archaeological sites
Concealment of archaeological items eventually discovered during the excavations, this to not block the
continuation of the works.
The second risk is without any doubt the more likely due the considerable archaeological density of sites
along the route of the railway and in the places designated to construction sites, openings, service tunnels,
windows etc, etc. Unfortunately this risk is also the less controllable.
Despite the project documentation of RFI is identifying all the above risks, it does not address the any solution
for minimizing risk occurrence or for managing the cases of archaeological discoveries.
•
A/A June 2006
31/31
4. THE ALTERNATE PROPOSAL TO THE TURIN-LYON
The necessity of supporting the East ⇔ West freights traffic is recognised as a valid objective for the axis
passing at the Frejus, the disagreement is over the overestimation made by the promoters, so to show the
necessity of a new line.
The attempt to constrain all East-West freight traffic in a single valley, creating a bottleneck in case of natural
accidents, is not shared by the opposition as for the northern directions the traffic is split among several axes
as Simplon, Gottardo and Brennero.
Several European states grudged the Italian train named “Pendolino” for it peculiarity of adapting its inclination to
the turns e running faster; but in Italy its development has been limited between Milan and Rome.
The alternate proposal given herein leads to distribute the traffic over more several directions, constituting a
North-West axis (see para 2.7) and henancing the historical line so to take maximum profit of its full capacity.
4.1.
The enhancement of the historical line (not to be confused with the CIPE approved)
About 5 years ago, SNCF, FS and RFF have executed a joint study for improving the historical line,
envisaging the possibility to get 250 daily tracks through the Frejus tunnel, equivalent to about 27 Mt per year.
This does not seem unfeasible being 226 the numbers of daily tracks that according to RFI-LTF are planned
to be available at the completion of the first operating phase (see para 2.4), allowing 182 trains per day over
the historical line and Frejus tunnel.
An overview of the historical Turin-Modane-Montmelian line is given is Tab 4.1-1, together with its main
characteristics and weaknesses.
Parameter
Montmelian-State border State border -Torino
Lenght
Electrical power
Slopes up to 1.2%
Slopes 1.2 a 1.8%
Slopes 1.8 a 3.0%
Speed
Train mass
Rise w single locomotor
Rise w double locomotor
Rise w triple locomotor
Falling
Gabarit
96.6 Km
96 MW
420 KW/Km
940 KW/Km
1750 KW/Km
Decrease gradually vs
slope increase (Km/h)
140 P 90 M
110 P 60 M
75 P 70 M
600
1000 (2T) – 1150 (1T1C)
1600 (1T2C)
1600 t
B
Type of Block
Automatic, everywhere
Legend:
P: Passenger trains
M: Freight trains
91.2 Km
44MW
480 KW/Km
480 KW/Km
480 KW/Km
Gradually but also sudden
decrease
105 P 100 M
90 P 90 M
85 P 75 M
650
1150 t (2T) 1300 (1T1C)
1600 (2T1C)
1600 t
Notes
Power insufficient in the Italian side
Power density insufficient
Power density insufficient
Main bottlenecks:
Alpignano turn: 130 -> 105Km/h
Auto block absence: 160->100
Bridges and intersections 100->90
Contraints are given by the hooks of
the railcars.
1000 t in France
- 1150 t in Italy
A with some, B+ between Gabarit enlargement on going –
Bussoleno and Salbertrand completion by 2009
Automatico but for
Bussoleno-Bruzolo.
Absence of automatic block slow
down train speed.
2T:
two pulling locomotives ahead
1T1C: 1 locomotives pulling and 1 pushing on tail
1T2C: 1 locomotives pulling and two pushing on tail
Tab 4.1-1 Characteristic of the Historical Turin-Modane-Montmelian line [29] [10]
The table provides an insight of the lack technological upgrading in the Italian side. Considering the work in
progress for Gabarit enlargement of the original single rail line, the remaining weaknesses are due to the
slope of the mountain part Bussoleno-Modane-Saint Jean de Maurienne (to be judged as function of the
electrical power) and some local bottlenecks.
The electrical power installed on the France side is such that on the maximum slope of 1.3 to 3%, there power
enough to move a 13 MW freight train every 7 KM, while in the Italian side there is only power to move a 13
MW train every 24Km (two trains between Bussoleno an Bardonecchia).
The segment Bussoleno-Torino allows 165 Km/h to fleeting trains and 130 for freight trains, however speed
limitations exist due to, a short radius turn at Alpignano, line-crossing devices and the absence of the automatic
block between Bussoleno and Borgone, which limits the fleeting trains to 130 Km/h and freight to 100.
Limitations are existing as well between Bussoleno and Bardonecchia, due to line crossing devices, old
bridges.
A/A June 2006
32/32
A series of minor problems of the historical line, never solved because the lack of founds, will have to be fixed
anyhow for achieving a proper fluidity of the line. Such main necessary fixing are:
• Enhancing the Railway stations equipments and systems
• Suppression of road-rail crossing with barriers, by building over/under passes.
• Increase of the available power by improving the power conversion and distribution plants, which are
currently limiting the number or running train.
• Enhancement of the aerial electrical line, for carrying more current or passing to 25KV standard.
• Implementation of automatic block between Bussoleno and Borgone.
• Improvement of the sensing, monitoring and signalling system.
Some of the current limitations of the historical line are due to: the different operating voltage, 1.5Kv in France
and 3KV in Italy, the organisation of the logistic, the custom operations and the .non-optimal synchronisation
of the maintenance period between Italy and France. These are common problems to be solved, some as well
for the new line Turin-Lyon and the solutions are the same:
• Making use of interoperating locomotives on all freight and fleeting trains.
• Simplifies the custom operation at Modane
• Giving reciprocal training to Italian and French locomotive drivers avoiding change of personnel at the border.
• Synchronising maintenance period avoiding wasting of useful tracks.
Particularly important is the use of interoperating locomotives, which today are limited to fleeting trains as
TGV and ETR and to few freight trains. Without them, also the new line will have the same limitation of the
historical one. Such locomotive are one of the outmost mean for easing the Modane station traffic, for
increasing globally the use of the line, for saving about 10 minutes for fleeting trains and up to 1 hour for
freight trains adopting conventional locomotive. Note that Italian old locomotives could run in France but
developing just half of the power, while France locomotive cannot circulate in Italy, except the new ones.
The synchronisation of the maintenance intervals is very important to avoid waste of tracks, but for sure much
more difficult to be implemented in the new line because of the long tunnels, without stations or recovery rails.
The problem of the inclination, requiring multiple locomotives (typically 2 or 3), can be solved and in any case
the inclination is not the only element limiting the traction, as also the safety load limit of the car-hooks (1600 t)
plays a major role. The long 1600t freight trains that the line promoters are advertising on the line, would require
also a double locomotive, one pulling the head of the train and the other pushing the tail. This would also cause
locomotives re-entry (standalone or grouped), occupying tracks as on the old line.
The fact that on the new line, the 1100 t trains can be pulled by a single locomotive while in the historical line
the traction limit for one locomotive is around 600-650t, creates the necessity of returning locomotives,
whenever there is a traffic flux unbalance between the two directions. The locomotives return cannot be used
as argument for justifying the project because this problem is solvable through a correct logistics organisation
of the trains, with an optimised management of the line and with interoperating locomotives on all trains.
Freight Transportation at Frejus
This table is from Rivalta Technical Commission - Model of Exercise document, 13 Dec 05, annex 1
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
8,500
9.529
9,632
8,471
8,654
Italy-France
Freight trains n°
8,555
9,638
9.577
9,140
9,038
France-Italy
Freight trains n°
55
109
55
669
384
difference
total
Freight trains n°
17,055
19,167
19,209
17,611
17,692
freight from Frejus
millions of tons
10.41
9.68
9.35
8.83
8.21
610
505
487
501
464
100.00%
0.00%
82.79%
-17.21%
-17.21%
-17.21%
79.84%
-20.16%
-2.95%
-10.08%
82.13%
-17.87%
2.30%
-5.96%
76.07%
-23.93%
-6.07%
-5.98%
freight load per train
load variation from 2000
load increment from 2000
looad increment from prev year
average increment since 2000
tons/train
%
%
%
%
Note: Figures does not include the trains returning the empty cars
A progressive reduction of the average load is observable from 20000 to 2004, evidently due to the good
typology (reduction of basic raw material and increase of semi-finished)
Figures in red-italiaus have been corrected by the autor
Fig 4.1-1. Freight traffic over the historical line (source: Rivalta Tech Commission).
A/A June 2006
33/33
There is no need to upgrade the historical line to 4 rails. The upward segment can support more than 200 trains
st
per day and the new Turin-Lyon is using the upward segment of the historical line with 182 trains/day between 1
nd
and 2 implementation phases. The assumption of 200 train/day in the the upward segment is coherent with a
downstream capacity of 226 trains/day, because of the regional trains running between Bussoleno and Turin.
A small increase of freight trains number from 17055 to 17692 transited at the Frejus between 2000 and 2004
is evident from the RFI data in Fig 4.1-1, but limited to 0.7% per year. Curious is the fact the freight mass has
decreased from 10.41t to 8.21t, leading to a decrease of the goods density per train. This phenomenon can
be explained by an increase of finished or semi-finished products transportation and a reduction of the raw
materials and elementary products, which is in line with the current trend of procuring such material from the
east market. It is also evident that ferroutage contributes to decrease the density (see para. 3). Despite table
2.8-3 and fig 4.1-1 are coming from the same document [49], they are including slightly different freight
masses. The explanation is that table 4.1-1 includes al well the weight of the trucks.
On the motorway the freight density per vehicle is more or less constant around 16.5 t while on the railway the
density of 610t/train of the 2004 has decreased to 464t/train into the 2004. The 2004 daily average number of
freight trains was only 48 but in some day there has been up to 100 trains per day. These data prove that
there is no enough demand, the historical line is under-utilised and the management of the line is not optimised.
4.2.
Improvement of other lines
The other piedmont candidate line for both alleviating the future Frejus traffic and for creating an alternate
connection with the France is the Nice-Cuneo-Turin.
This line constitute the first priority as it will be a very positive fleeting connection with the France and will
remove from the Frejus the freight traffic coming from the southern France and part of the Spanish traffic,
might be the low priority. The simple electrification of line will allow 5Mt freight traffic per year.
G. Manfredi and the architect S.Nicola has presented in 2001 a very innovative project, going opposite to the
Turin-Lyon and sponsoring an high speed connection between Turin and Nice, via Cuneo. This was as well
motivated by solving the intrinsic mobility problem of the area, not yet served by any motorway and for
containing traffic over the roads, pushing the Piedmont region role outside the French border. Resuming of
the project is envisaged by several parties, as it can be implemented with minimal ambient impact, works
duration much shorter than the Turin-Lyon, low cost and with a genuine vocation of an international
connection. Perhaps many people ignores that Nice-Turin-Lyon is shorter than Nice-Marseille-Lyon.
There is no need of realising a Turin-Nice TAV infrastructure. A modern ordinary line, with modern and
properly maintained locomotives and railcars will make an efficient service for the Piedmont, allowing the
goods exchanges respecting the ambient and population, providing furthermore cultural exchanges between
two cities, tied by a common history until world war one.
A last general point cannot be forgotten on the status of the Italian railways, to which the AV/AC projects
subtracts founds for the ordinary and extraordinary maintenance to lines, cars and locomotives.
The other alternate priority is the enhancement of the single-track railway Casale-Mortara-Novara allowing a
good connection of the northwest axis Simplon-Genoa harbour, without transiting to Turin and Frejus.
Also the Turin-Aoste and many other freight and fleeting lines should be subjected to improvement, because
as said in the introduction, the Piedmont is the last continental region in terms of electrified railways.
The results of the proposal
The full picture can now be obtained by
combining the effects of the on going
enhancements presented at paragraph
2.7 with the alternate proposals to the
Turin-Lyon line, namely:
• the improvement alternating the
Turin-Modane, allowing a capacity
increase to 200 trains/day on the
Bussoleno-Modane segment
• the electrification of the Cuneo-Nice
line, allowing at least a capacity of
70 daily trains.
The combined effect can be seen in Fig
4.3-1 for the overall traffic of VentimilleCune/Nice-Frejus and Simplon, as well
as in Figf 4.3-2 for the evolution of the
railway traffic at Frejus.
A/A June 2006
Total Railway traffic at Ventimille + Frejus + Sempione +Cuneo-Nice
800
700
600
Trains per Day
4.3.
500
400
300
200
Freight Trains
Freight + Fleeting Trains
Total Capacity
100
0
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
Fig. 4.3-1 Enhancement of Turin-Modane and Cuneo-Nice
34/34
2050
Trains per Day
Freights per year (million tons)
For
keeping
plot
simple,
the
Daily traffic at Frejus (enhanced)
enhancement of the Turin-Modane and
250
25
Cuneo-Nice
are
both
assumed
completed by the 2015, which by the
way might not be a bad target.
200
20
Freight Trains
The overall effect is visible in comparison
Freight + Fleeting Trains
with the correspondent figures of para
Total capacity - tracks
2.7, the total capacity after the 2015
150
15
Goods per Year - 500t/train
increase from 598 to 710 trains/day and
in 2030 there are still 300 free traces.
30 years
100
10
The situation improves as well at the
Frejus and the end effect is that the
same traffic load scenario of today will
50
5
occur again only after 30 years, around
2036 but the utilised capacity of the
upward line will be only 55%. In low side
of the valley the can increase to 220
0
0
trains/days due the existence of priority
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
and waiting rails in many stations of the
Fig.4.3-2 Enhancements effect over Frejus traffic
low side valley.
The projection is optimistic because at para 2.7 a freight growth of 2% per year was assumed, while
according to the official data of the Rivalta Technical Commission (Tab 4.1-1) the freight trains growth has
been only 0.7% per year. After the 2015 the net capacity of the line varies between 24 Mt and 21.5 Mt per
year, considering 500t per train and 300 days per year. Trains with 650t of freights will make a yearly capacity
above 30Mt.
Now also the question of the ferroutage can be simply addressed in terms of allowance of all free traces, but:
How many ferroutage trains can run daily? how much goods volume can be transported ?
Concerning the Frejus, about seventy of Modalhor trains can be added since 2010 to the eight already
running between Aiton and Orbassano, achieving as a consequence about 80 ferroutage trains per day,
similarly to the wish of the Turin-Lyon promoters, but with the following advantages:
•
the service can available 10 years before, right at the conclusion of the gabarit enlargement at Frejus.
•
without making a huge and impacting infrastructure
•
simply by distributing the railway capacity enhancement over the existing infrastructure across the Alps,
without limiting the vision only to the Piedmont backyard.
The quantity of goods transportable by 80 daily Modalhor of the same type of the currently used between
Aiton and Orbassano, will be just a bit below 7 Mt per year (80 trains, 288 t /train, 300 days), more or less
50% of the goods transiting over the Frejus motorway tunnel. The problem remains a proper mechanism to
force goods from roads to rails, which has not easy solution as stated by “Prevision de Trafic d’un service de
ferroutage entre la France et l’Italie dans un cadre du projet Lyon-Turin – Rapport Final Novembre 2000”. For now the 8
daily Modalhor remains poorly used and the important verification will be in 2009 at the completion of the
Frejus gabarit enlargement.
As stated at para 3, the ferroutage is an inefficient and expensive compromise, drawing a lot of energy, while
freights should travel as long as possible over trains, not just for crossing the Alps. This is the true
challenging objective for the future. Transportation growing should be limited as well.
A/A June 2006
35/35
5. THE REASONS OF THE OPPOSITION
The opposition to the TAV in Val Susa, risen in 1989 with the committee Habitat, then has extended to all
local public institutions, CMBVS, Commons, Legambiente, Pro Nature, Agriculture association and so on. By
getting motivation from university, independent institutes of research, the consensus has increased and
expanded to most population, which now recognise themselves through the guards, the anti-TAV committees,
and into a technical knowledge, consolidated by attending to discussion and informative events.
Since years and years the opposition reasons are always the same, because:
1. It will bring beneficial effects neither to the valley nor to Piedmont, but only to the constructors.
2. It is not true that the Piedmont would remain cut outside from exchanges with the foreign countries. The
truth is the opposite, as the huge cost will deviate founds which would be beneficial for the other regional
scopes, moreover wealth for the region will not come from the transit of freights.
3. It concentrates the traffic towards the west in a single corridor, it is not far-sighted and it does not take
advantage of the works recently executed for the Orbassano goods site.
4. The project, initially born as high speed line for fleeting trains (AV), it was not and it is still not justified, as
emphasized from studies executed by institutes for the same TAV promoters and French government.
5. The speed for the fleeting trains will not be as advertised but much lower (around 100 Km/h).
6. The current justification of the project as high capacity (AC) cannot be even supported by freight
transport.
7. The estimation of the freight traffic trend prepared by promoter has been exaggerated for the scope of
justifying the project., not accounting for the traffic decrease once the new North-western Switzerland
passing will be operational and not accounting the Genoa-Ventimille ongoing rail doubling.
8. The existing line, technologically abandoned since years, can support all the traffic of next the 50 years
and together with the enhancement of the Nizza-Cuneo-Turin it is possible to get a better result
respecting people and ambient.
9. International institutes have established that it will not be able to decrease the number of trucks that are
crossing daily the Frejus motorway tunnel.
10. Although the European Union asks for an engagement over the project 6 (Turin-Lyon), it is not true they
are requiring a so costly and invasive work.
11. The European Union has not yet approved the project which is still in the feasibility study and several
specific investigation have to be performed prior to arrive to its the final definition.
12. The impact during its construction is highest for both health and the living conditions of the inhabitants of
the Susa valley as well as of the Turin northern surroundings.
13. An entire generation of children will grow until the adolescence in a atmosphere polluted by powders, gas,
asbestos, noise, etc, etc, with the risk of having later on a generation of sick people.
14. Our sons will inherit an area degraded by a mastodontic and useless infrastructure.
15. Unless the adoption of very wide bands of respect, it will be almost impossible reduce the noise of the fast
trains to a level allowing a comfortable life but on the other way around wide bands are not compatible
with the residential and industrial territories crossed by the line.
16. Its cost will be of 3 or 4 times higher than the initial estimate and it will be entirely paid by the Italians
through taxes or via reduction of the welfare, social services, instruction and anything the magician of the
creative finance will be able to find out, selling and mortgaging.
17. Because founds are not available and if initiated it will be abandoned as many other projects, while such
founds could been used and invested in a better way, e.g. for promoting and maintaining the research.
18. It will not be economically profitable and it would require continuous financing from the government
through mechanisms similar to the ones used to cover the gap during its construction.
19. The status of the Italian railroads and fleeting railcar in a normal period (i.e. not during popular events as
the Olympic games) is merciful, in terms of availability of the service, capability of maintain the train
scheduling, cleaning and car and locomotives maintenance, avoiding breakdowns. The money sucked in
the future by such TAV projects will just make them worse.
20. Because with the excuse of the safety there is a wish for implementing the second tube of the T4 Frejus
motorway tunnel, this in contrast with the objective of transferring freight traffic from road to rail.
21. The project is useless under all points of view and will create only damages to the ambient and economy.
The message of the Susa valley people is not limited to the environmental aspects, has nothing to do with
NIMBY syndrome “a political way for escaping problems resolution” and can be very clearly stated as follows:
The Susa valley population is simply not available to accept the huge impacts deriving from
a useless AV/AC line, damaging the local environment and the economy of whole Nation.
A/A June 2006
36/36
6. REFERENCES
The documentation listed hereafter with Titles in the original languages, has been used for the evaluation of
the Turin-Lyon project:
Design documentation
1. Italferr - L161 00 R13 …., secondo progetto preliminare della tratta Nazionale con in suoi anessi, mappe, etc
2. LTF - PP 2085 TSE3 …, progetto preliminare della tratta Internazionale, annessi e mappe.
Documentation of the Rivalta technical commission
3. Com Tec Rivalta – Programma dei lavori 29 AGOSTO
4. Com Tec Rivalta – Ubicazione cantieri e siti di stoccaggio dello smarino. 12 ottobre 2005Com Tec Rivalta –
5. Com Tec Rivalta – Cunicolo esplorativo di venaus proposte di variazioni/integrazioni al progetto 09 novembre 2005
6. Com Tec Rivalta – Stato di avanzamento dei lavori Settembre – Novembre 2005
7. Qualche risposta sulla questione dell’ammodernamento della rete ferroviaria internazionale Torino-Lione (TAC-TAV)
10 dicembre 2005
8. Com Tec Rivalta - Proposte per approfondimenti sul tema dell’impatto acustico. 13 dicembre 2005
9. Com Tec Rivalta – Verbali riunioni dal 29 Agisto al 13 Dicembre
10. Com Tec Rivalta – Modello di Esercizio – 13 Dic 2005
Studies and statistics
11. Federtrasporto, Centro Studi Indagine congiunturale sul settore dei trasporti, I°semestre 2002, No 14 Luglio 2002
12. Region Rhone-Alpes – Expertise sue le projet de livraison ferroviaire voyageurs et merchanises Lyon-Turin 30 Sept
1977.
13. GIP Transalps – Prevision de Trafic d’un service de ferroutage entre la France et l’Italie dans un cadre du projet LyonTurin – Rapport Final Novembre 2000.
14. Polinomia - La Valle di Susa nel contesto del traffico merci transalpino: il progetto Alpetunnel e le sue prospettive,
Maggio 2001.
15. Ecole Politechnique Federale de Lausanne e Dipartimento di Idraulica,Trasporti e Infrastrutture Civili del Politecnico di
Torino. Progetto “Primola”.
16. Setec Economie – Previsione di traffico merci senza vincoli di capacità, Giugno 2000
17. FS,RFF e SNCF e Alpetunnel l’Etude de modernisation de la ligne à l’horizon 2020.
18. Dott. M.Federici, Analisi termodinamica integrata dei sistemi di trasporto in diversi livelli territoriali –Università di Siena,
2001.
19. Università di Siena, Centro di Geotecnologie, Progetto Ferroviario Torino-Bussoleno, Gennaio 2003
20. ANPA, Rassegna degli effetti derivanti dall’esposizione al rumore, RTI CTN_AGF 3/2000
21. M.Zambrini, WWF Italia, La costruzione della rete AV/AC dalla finanza di progetto alla finanza creativa, Maggio 2004
22. ISTAT, Statistiche dei trasporti 2003-2004.
23. A.Debernardi, Dai buchi nei monti all’esercizio integrato: uno scenario alternativo per il rilancio del trasporto ferroviario
attraverso le Alpi.
24. S.Lenzi - “Indagine sullo stato di attuazione della Legge-Obiettivo in materia di infrastrutture e insediamenti strategici”,
elaborata dalla Sezione centrale di controllo della Corte dei Conti sulla gestione delle Amministrazioni dello Stato
(approvata con Delibera 8/2005 il 22 marzo 2005), Roma, 4 aprile 2005
25. Memoria Per La Commissione Petizioni Del Parlamento Europeo. S.Lenzi. Torino, 28 novembre 2005
26. OECD, Statistics of the Member states, edition 2005.
27. Eurostat, european database of transport
28. Eurostat – Energy, transport and environment indicators – Data 1997-2002
29. Commissione Intergovernativa Franco-Italiana per la nuova Linea Ferroviaria Torino-Lione - Relazione del gruppo di
lavoro Economia e Finanza Dic 2000.
30. LCPC-LIVIC-INRETS - Route Automatisee Poids Lourds- Rapport final – June 2004
Official documentation of the Piedmont Region administration and regulations
31. Integrazioni alla DGR 26-12997 del 21 luglio 2004 relativa al parere regionale sul “Nodo Urbano di Torino,
potenziamento linea Bussoleno - Torino e Cintura Merci” con annesso elettrodotto a 132 KV
32. D.G.R. n. 40-9816 OGGETTO: Art. 3 comma 9 D.lg. 190/2002 espressione dell’intesa di competenza Regionale per
l’autorizzazione Ministeriale relativa al Progetto prot. n. 2682/26-26.5 presentato in data 06/03/2003 “Cunicolo
esplorativo di Venaus”
33. D.G.R. n.67-10050 e D.G.R. n.68-10051 Torino, 21 Luglio 2003 Parere facorevole progetti LTF e RFI
34. D.G.R. n. 69-1011 OGGETTO: Istituzione di Commissione Tecnica a supporto degli Enti Locali piemontesi interessati
dalla linea AC/AV Torino-Lione, 3 Ottobre 2005.
35. Decreto del Presidente della Giunta Regionale 14 ottobre 2004, n. 110 Nomina dei componenti il Comitato di
Monitoraggio relativo ai Sondaggi Geognostici per la caratterizzazione del sottosuolo attraversato dalla infrastruttura
ferroviaria Torino-Lion.
36. Reg Piemonte Prot 14431/26.5 Risposta puntuale alle osservazioni della Comunità Montana…1/12/2004
37. D.Lgs. Governo del 13 gennaio 1999 n° 41. Attuazione delle direttive 96/49/CE e 96/87/CE relative al trasporto di
merci pericolose per ferrovia.
A/A June 2006
37/37
Official documentation of the Italian Governement
38. Memorandum di intesa tra l’Italia e la Francia sulla realizzazione del nuovo collegamento ferroviario Torino-Lione, 5
Mag 2005
39. Legge 27 marzo 1992 n. 257. Norme relative alla cessazione dell'impiego dell'amianto. E successive modificazioni.
40. DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 20 agosto 2002, n. 190 (in G.U. n. 199 del 26 agosto 2002- Suppl. Ordinario n. 174 - in
vigore dal 10 settembre 2002) - Attuazione della legge 21 dicembre 2001, n. 443, per la realizzazione delle
infrastrutture e degli insediamenti produttivi strategici e di interesse nazionale.
41. DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 24 maggio 2001, n.299 Attuazione della direttiva 96/48/CE relativa all'interoperabilità del
sistema ferroviario transeuropeo ad alta velocità.
42. DECRETO DEL PRESIDENTE DELLA REPUBBLICA 18 novembre 1998, n. 459. Regolamento recante norme di
esecuzione dell'articolo 11 della legge 26 ottobre 1995, n. 447, in materia di inquinamento acustico derivante da traffico
ferroviario.
43. LEGGE 27 settembre 2002, n.228 Ratifica ed esecuzione dell'Accordo tra il Governo della Repubblica italiana ed il
Governo della Repubblica francese per la realizzazione di una nuova linea ferroviaria Torino-Lione, fatto a Torino il 29
gennaio 2001
44. LEGGE 21 dicembre 2001, n. 443 Delega al Governo in materia di infrastrutture ed insediamenti produttivi strategici ed
altri interventi per il rilancio delle attività produttive (G.U. n. 299, 27 dicembre 2001, Supplemento Ordinario)
45. PRIMO PROGRAMMA DELLE OPERE STRATEGICHE (LEGGE N. 443/2001):
46. CIPE - Nuovo Collegamento Ferroviario Transalpino Torino-Lione, Approvazione Tratta Internazionale, Roma, 5
dicembre 2003
47. CIPE – Nuovo collegamento ferroviario nodo urbano di Torino: Potenziamento linea ferroviaria Torino Bussoleno,
05/08/2005.
48. E CINTURA MERCICorte dei conti - delibera n. 5/2004/g della sezione centrale di controllo della corte dei conti sulla
gestione delle amministrazioni dello Stato, 21 Gennaio 2004
Official Documentation of the European Community (ottenibile anche in altre lingue sul siti EU e TEN-T)
49. Analisi degli studi condotti da LTF in merito al progetto Lione-Torino (sezione internazionale)
TREN/05/ADM/S07.54919/2005 revised Version 2
50. TRANS-EUROPEAN TRANSPORT NETWORK European Commission TEN-T priority projects ISBN 92-894-3963-7
51. TEN-T Report from the High Level Group chaired by Loyola de Palacio, November 2005.
52. LIBRO BIANCO La politica europea dei trasporti fino al 2010: il momento delle scelte ISBN 92-894-0343-8 –ed 2001
53. Direttiva del Consiglio 85/337/CEE del 27 giugno 1985 concernente la valutazione dell'impatto ambientale di
determinati progetti pubblici e privati
54. Parere del Comitato economico e sociale europeo in merito al Libro verde sui partenariati pubblico/privato e sul diritto
comunitario degli appalti pubblici e delle concessioni COM(2004) 327 def. (2005/C 120/18).
55. Parere del Comitato delle regioni in merito al Libro verde sull'approccio dell'Unione europea alla gestione della
migrazione economica (2006/C 31/09)
56. REGOLAMENTO (CE) n. 1159/2005 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO del 6 luglio 2005 che
modifica il regolamento (CE) n. 2236/95 del Consiglio, che stabilisce i principi generali per la concessione di un
contributo finanziario della Comunità nel settore delle reti transeuropee
57. REGOLAMENTO (CE) N. 807/2004 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO del 21 aprile 2004 recante
modifica del regolamento (CE) n. 2236/95 del Consiglio, che stabilisce i principi generali per la concessione di un
contributo finanziario della Comunità nel settore delle reti transeuropee
58. DECISIONE N. 1692/96/CE DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO del 23 luglio 1996 sugli orientamenti
comunitari per lo sviluppo della rete transeuropea dei trasporti
59. DECISIONE DELLA COMMISSIONE del 30 maggio 2002 relativa alle specifiche tecniche d'interoperabilità per il
sottosistema energia del sistema ferroviario transeuropeo ad alta velocità di cui all'articolo 6, paragrafo 1, della direttiva
96/48/CE [notificata con il numero C(2002) 1949]
60. DIRETTIVA 2001/14/CE DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO del 26 febbraio 2001 relativa alla
ripartizione della capacità di infrastruttura ferroviaria, all'imposizione dei diritti per l'utilizzo dell'infrastruttura ferroviaria e
alla certificazione di sicurezza
61. DIRETTIVA 96/48/CE DEL CONSIGLIO del 23 luglio 1996 relativa all'interoperabilità del sistema ferroviario
transeuropeo ad alta velocità
62. DIRETTIVA 95/19/CE DEL CONSIGLIO del 19 giugno 1995 riguardante la ripartizione delle capacità di infrastruttura
ferroviaria e la riscossione dei diritti per l'utilizzo dell'infrastruttura
63. COMMISSION DECISION of 30 May 2002 concerning the technical specification for interoperability relating to the
rolling stock subsystem of the trans-European high-speed rail system referred to in Article 6(1) of Directive 96/48/EC
(notified under document number C(2002) 1952)
64. Oggetto: Aiuti di Stato N 810/2002 – Italia Piano di incentivazione per il trasporto di merci per ferrovia -articolo 38 della
legge 1°agosto 2002, n. 166 - C(2003)4538fin
Local Administration and Associations documentation:
In addition, all comments, observations and petitions prepared from 2002 until now and sent to Institutions,
by:
Local administrations as Comunità Bassa Val Susa e Val Cenischia (CMBVS), Communs,
Environmentalists associations, e.g. Legambiente, WWF, Habitat, Pro Natura Torino,…
Spontaneous committees against the Turin-Lyon
Letters of solidarity of associations and institutions
A/A June 2006
38/38
Fly UP