...

© 2011 Samantha M. Costanzo ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

by user

on
Category: Documents
31

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

© 2011 Samantha M. Costanzo ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
© 2011
Samantha M. Costanzo
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
THE REANIMATION OF THE PIRANDELLIAN PROTAGONIST
FROM SPIRITUAL SICKNESS TO MYSTICAL CONSCIOUSNESS
By
SAMANTHA MARY COSTANZO
A Dissertation submitted to the
Graduate School-New Brunswick
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Graduate Program in Italian
Written under the direction of
Elizabeth Leake
and approved by
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
New Brunswick, New Jersey
October, 2011
ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION
The Reanimation of the Pirandellian Protagonist
From Spiritual Sickness to Mystical Consciousness
By SAMANTHA MARY COSTANZO
Dissertation Director:
Elizabeth Leake
My analysis demonstrates Luigi Pirandello’s application of spiritual modes of thought
ranging from Eastern mysticism to the modern Western movements of Theosophy,
Spiritualism and Parapsychology. Using Antonio Illiano’s seminal work, Metapsichica e
letteratura in Pirandello (Metapsychics and Literature in Pirandello) as a point of
departure, my research incorporates the various philosophical, scientific and spiritual
frameworks Pirandello utilized to describe the psychological and spiritual crisis
pervading man’s experience in the modern world. One of the most interesting facets of
my research is the unequivocal parallel between Pirandello’s spiritual approach and the
ancients teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism.
Very few Pirandello scholars address the spiritual essence that encompasses Pirandello’s
entire collection. This is surprising considering the author’s ingenuous admission of the
fundamental role of the spirit in the genesis of his artistic creation as well as the explicit
presence of spiritual elements that pervade his aesthetic theories and fictional stories.
This dissertation contributes to the limited scholarship of this nature and aims to
ii
stimulate further discussion regarding the connection between Pirandello’s work and
Buddhism.
The historical research and close analysis of the selected texts in this dissertation provide
ample evidence that beyond being an index of Pirandello’s fluency with current, cultural,
scientific, and spiritual trends, these systems of thought provide the very scaffolding on
which Pirandello’s works are constructed. This discourse allows the reader a deeper
understanding of the spiritual evolution of the Pirandellian protagonist and offers insight
to the author’s artistic process as guided by the spirited imagination, substantiating my
claim that Pirandello’s oeuvre must be read through a spiritual lens.
iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is with sincere gratitude that I thank my advisor, Elizabeth Leake, whose guidance,
brilliance, encouragement, and support made this project possible.
I would like to sincerely thank Andrea Baldi, Paola Gambarotta, Damaris Otero Torres,
and Donato Santeramo for their participation on my committee.
Thank you to the entire faculty, staff, and my colleagues of the Department of Italian at
Rutgers University. I especially thank Alessandro Vettori, David Marsh, Andrea Baldi
and Laura S. White for their invaluable instruction. A special thank you as well to Carol
Feinberg and Robin Rogers for facilitating absolutely everything.
I would like to acknowledge Michele Lettieri for giving me my start as an Italianist at
Middlebury College. Thank you also to Pietro Frassica, Daragh O’Connell and John
Barnes of the Pirandello Studies Society, the Pirandello Society of America, and the
Istituto di Studi Pirandelliani. A special thank you to Joyce McFadden for all the support
over the years.
I would like to thank my team of experts: Johanna Wagner, Carmelo Galati, Deena Levy,
Mary Ann Mastrolia, Franceso Pascuzzi, Lara Santoro and Mattia Marino, FIAT and the
IRW. I cannot imagine a dissertation without the help of this group.
It seems appropriate to thank my cat, Luigi Purrandello, for keeping me company during
the long hours of writing.
A gigantic expression of thanks goes to my editor and my love, Richard Burrier. I cannot
thank you enough for your help, patience, love and support. Thank you to my friends and
my family for all your love and encouragement during this process. I cannot express my
gratitude to you enough. Thank you Peter Ryan for everything.
iv
Finally, I fondly dedicate this dissertation to my father, Peter Costanzo, without whom
this culmination of my studies would not be possible. Dad, I sincerely thank you for the
unconditional love, support, patience and wisdom that you have given me my entire life.
I also dedicate this dissertation to Luigi Pirandello, whose spirited imagination will
undoubtedly continue to astound and inspire me.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT..............................................................................................ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................iv
TEXTUAL NOTE ……………………………………………………...vii
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................1
1.THROUGH THE REVERSE TELESCOPE: .......................................14
Antipostivism & Pirandello’s Cosmic Vision
2. INTO THE MYSTERIOUS ABYSS ..................................................64
Pirandello’s exploration of non-theistic religions & unconventional science
3. A CURSE ON COPERNICUS! ………………………......................161
Il fu Mattia Pascal: Reincarnation, Karma & the Tantalus Syndrome
4. FROM THE TRAP TO THE EXIT: ………………...........................236
Mystical Consciousness & the Language of Paradox
CONCLUSION........................................................................................300
BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................315
vi
TEXTUAL NOTE
All translations are my own unless otherwise noted.
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used throughout this dissertation:
TLN 1
TLN 2
TLN 3
Tutte le novelle I. 1884-1904
Tutte le novelle II.1905-1913
Tutte le novelle III. 1914-1936
Tr 1
Tr 2
Tutti i romanzi I
Tutti i romanzi II
“Pirandello’s Six Characters” is abbreviated from:
Illiano, Antonio. “Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author: A Comedy
in the Making.”
Metapsichica is abbreviated from:
Illiano, Antonio. Metapsichica e Letteratura in Pirandello.
vii
1
INTRODUCTION
Ve ne sono altri [scrittori] che, oltre questo gusto, sentono un
piú profondo bisogno spirituale, per cui non ammettono figure,
vicende, paesaggi che non s’imbevano, per cosí dire, d’un
particolar senso della vita, e non acquistino con esso un
valore universale. Sono scrittori di natura piú propriamente
filosofica. Io ho la disgrazia d’appartenere a questi ultimi.1
-Luigi Pirandello
Luigi Pirandello’s literary collection reflects his concern for man’s psyche at the
turn of the twentieth century. Witness to the rapid advancements in technology and
science of the Industrial Revolution, Pirandello observed the negative consequences of
society’s shift toward industrialization and away from old world values. He saw the
profound impact of modernization not only on socioeconomic and cultural conditions but
on man’s consciousness, soul and spirit as well. He argued that the increase in
materialism, bolstered by the mechanistic and materialistic philosophies of the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries, greatly contributed to man’s mental suffering by tarnishing the
human spirit and repressing the consciousness.2 According to Pirandello’s assessment,
the limits imposed on the consciousness generate dis-ease in the human spirit, causing the
spirit to create illusions that man mistakes as reality. These fictions of the spirit
From the “Prefazione” (“Preface”) (1925) to Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Characters in
Search of an Author) (1921). See Maschere nude 1: 36. Translation: “But there are other [writers] who,
beyond such pleasure, feel a more profound spiritual need on whose account they admit only figures,
affairs, landscapes which have been soaked, so to speak, in a particular sense of life and acquire from it a
universal value. These are, more precisely, philosophical writers. I have the misfortune to belong to these
last” (Eric Bentley, trans. 364-365).
2
A comprehension of the history of science from the Copernican Revolution to the Industrial
Revolution is fundamental for an appreciation Pirandello’s response to empirically based approaches. See
Holton, Gerald Science and the Modern Mind (Boston: Beacon Press, 1958), Kern, Stephen Culture of
Time and Space (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983) and Prosch, Harry The Genesis of the 20th
Century Philosophy: the Evolution of Thought from Copernicus to the Present (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1964).
1
2
disconnect the individual from his true Being, and subsequently, force him to live
inauthentically.3
Throughout his oeuvre, Pirandello emphasizes the psychological and spiritual
ramifications of the materialistic world-view. He asserts his conviction that the human
spirit is put in crisis due to the disparate value of knowledge appropriated to the methods
of logic, reasoning and rationalizing as endorsed by scientific method and the Age of
Enlightenment. Pirandello repeatedly proposes that the influx of technological inventions
and the denial of the natural intelligence of the universal spirit, ruin humanity by
belittling man’s sense of himself in the universe and destroying his connection to the
human spirit. When scientists, such as Copernicus, uncover (not discover) certain truths
of the universe, the new findings disrupt the perspective of the unconscious collective,
limit his consciousness and displace his soul.
In the essay, “L’umorismo” (“On Humor”) (1908), Pirandello introduces his
aesthetic theory of perception and contradictions that permeates the majority of his
writing. This account of umorismo (humorism), in which Pirandello delineates his artistic
approach as a humorist, provides valuable insight to the author’s conception of psychic
Being as comprised of personality, consciousness, spirit and soul. According to
Pirandello’s humorism, the artist motivated by the passions of the humorist spirit has the
capacity to penetrate the barriers of the consciousness via the process of reflection and is
3
The capitalization of Being is in response to Pirandello’s reference to “l’Essere” in Il fu Mattia
Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (See Tr 1: 484) and in “L’umorismo” (“On Humor”) (See Spsv 155).
Pirandello uses the word Essere to signify his vision of true reality, or authentic existence, meaning the
realization of the unity between the human spirit and universal spirit and the interconnectedness of man and
nature. Similar to Buddhist enlightenment, embodiment of this reality is achieved through the cessation of
the illusions and desires of the ego-self, which brings awareness to the individual being of his higher
consciousness, or Self. Attainment of higher consciousness and the detachment from one’s individual
existence harmonizes the individual with that of the universal consciousness and spirit—allowing him to
experience genuine Being. This concept is explored throughout my dissertation. See Ghose, Aurobindo The
Psychic Being (Pondicherry: Sri Aurubindo Ashram, 1990).
3
then able to access to realms of the consciousness generally inaccessible to common man.
Pirandello explains that in his quiet meditations, he delves deeper than other artists to
contemplate existence on a profound level. By stripping the soul of its habitual fictions,
the humorist deconstructs man’s psychological tendencies so as get at the root cause of
his suffering. Armed with keen intuition, Pirandello attests that in these moments of inner
silence he is seized by an impression of a reality, different from the one normally
perceived by human vision, and he intuits true reality.4 The universe reveals to him the
illusions that man unconsciously constructs, based on his individual perceptions, which
he ignorantly mistakes as reality. Pirandello ascertains, therefore, that an existential crisis
results from man’s misperception of illusory external appearances that disconnect one’s
true self, or Being, from the wisdom that resides in, yet is concealed by, his own
consciousness. “L’umorismo” demonstrates that the humoristic disposition, and the
artistic production that results from this sophisticated thinking, is profoundly connected
to the exploration of the spirit, soul and consciousness. Pirandello suggests, via his theory
of humorism and the fictional works inspired by this philosophy, that for an individual to
be liberated from the mental suffering of the modern consciousness, one must not only
have a comprehension of the unifying universal spirit, but he must also attempt to purify
the human spirit by penetrating the unconscious through inner reflection.
As Pirandello wrote very little commentary about his own work, his critical
essays as well as the interviews collected in Interviste a Pirandello (Interviews With
Pirandello) offer the reader a beneficial view of the author’s evaluation of the spirit. In
opposition to the materialists, Pirandello considers the spirit an all-encompassing force
4
See “L’umorismo,” Part Two, Section II (Saggi, poesie, scritti varii 126-132).
4
that is manifest in each individual: “Io vedo intorno a me spirito, sempre, non materia”
[“I see spirit all around me, always, not material”] (Ed. Ivan Pupo 181). In an interview
from 1922, Pirandello further explains his position: “Per me, lo spirito è tutto, ed ognuno
di noi lo possiede in quanto che esso è attivo; i materialisti che lo negano ed ammettono
la materia non si accorgono che con questo affermano sempre una forza che è in noi
attiva e che non si manifesta che per la sua attività” [“For me, the spirit is everything, and
each of us possess it insofar as it is active; the materialists who deny it and acknowledge
the material do not realize that with this they always affirm a force that is active in us and
that does not manifest itself but for its activity”] (Ed. Ivan Pupo 159). Because traditional
science continues to dominate epistemology and fully rejects the spiritual realm, man’s
spirit traps him deeper in the entanglements of the material world. The misdirection of
the spirit results in the disharmony of the body, mind and soul and leads to psychological
suffering and a crisis of consciousness.
The compounding of technological invention, economic growth and political
tension of the early 1900s stimulated social, moral, intellectual and spirtual responses and
precipitated avante-garde movements in literature, the visual arts, and philosophy. In
contrast to the traditionalists, the most cursory glimpse of some of the pioneers of of
philosophy and psychology at the turn of the century, such as William James, Sigmund
Freud, Carl Jung, Henri Bergson, and Friedrich Nietzsche,5 provide a snapshot of the
5
William James, (1842-1910), born in New York, was a chemist, physiologist and psychologist.
He is renowned for his writings on philosophy, psychology, religion and his proposal of the “stream” of
consciousness analogy in his Principles of Psychology (1890). James graduated from Harvard University
with a medical degree in 1869 and soon after became an Assistant Professor of Philosophy, also at Harvard.
One of the first medical doctors at the turn of the century to apply scientific theory to abstract and
psychological theories, his method and results were extremely influential for the twentieth century. His
seminal work on the psychology of religion, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), is a close
examination of human nature and illuminates the philosophy behind the varying approaches to
metaphysical questions. James was the first president of the American branch of the Society for Psychical
5
contemporary and emerging metaphysical explorations of the individual consciousness,
the mind, the soul and the spirit.
Research. For more information on the life and work of William James, see Martin E. Marty’s introduction
to The Varieties of Religious Experience (NY: Penguin Books, 1982). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939),
Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist and the founder of psychoanalysis, was “one of the seminal influences on
the literature of Europe in the twentieth century. From his early collaborative inquiries into abnormal states
of mind, the results of which were published in Studien über Hysterie (Studies on Hysteria) (1895), his
clinical studies led him to propound an entirely new concept of mind, its life and ways, its structure and
development (Bradbury and McFarlane 619). Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into
three parts: Id, ego, and super-ego; he discusses this model in “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” (1920) and
fully elaborates upon it in The Ego and the Id (1923). See Freud and the 20th Century (NY: Meridian
Books, 1957).
Carl Gustav Jung, (1875-1961), “Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist and for a number of years
one of Freud’s closest collaborators, broke clear in 1913 to pursue his own line: analytical psychology.
Doubtful about the total and overriding importance Freud attached to the ‘libido,’ and persuaded that man’s
basic drive was to achieve a surer balance—the essence of ‘individuation’—between the conscious and the
unconscious parts of his mind, he advocated (notably in Psychology of the Unconscious: a study of the
transformation and symbolisms of the libido (1912), Psychological Types (1921), and The Relations
Between the Ego and the Unconscious (1928)) adoption of a new set of concepts, the yield from which
would clarify many of the more bewildering areas of religion, art history, mythology and symbolism in
general. His notion of the ‘collective unconscious’ was in support of his view that the human psyche was
only in part individually determined, and that part was an interpersonally shared experience of ‘archetypal’
phenomena” (Bradbury and McFarlane 625).
Henri Bergson, (1859-1941), “French philosopher and Nobel prize winner for Literature in 1927,
was one of the most formidable intellects to be deployed against the deterministic, rationalistic and overintellectualized patterns of though of the nineteenth century. His voice is most distinctly heard in Essai sur
les données immédiates de la coscience (Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness) (1889), in
Matière et mémoire (Matter and Memory) (1896), and – most influentially – in L’évolution créatrice
(Creative Evolution) (1907), where man’s creative spirit is defined in terms of an élan vitale which is fluid,
mobile and intuitive. Only by the recognition and acknowledgement of forces of this order can man free
himself from the fatalistic and mechanistic determinants to which the nineteenth century paid such homage.
Bergson’s ideas exercised an influence on twentieth century European literature second only to
Nietzsche’s” (Bradbury and McFarlane 614).
Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844-1900), “German philosopher and poet, welcomed the term ‘aristocratic
radicalism’ as that which most appropriately defined his maturer ideas of the eighties: the proposition that
‘God is dead’; the myth of the Eternal Recurrence; the emergence of the Superman, and the coming
inevitability of the ‘transvaluation of all values.’ From his early examinations of the origins of poetry and
tragedy in The Birth of Tragedy (1872), through the cultural pessimism of a series of works—Human, All
Too Human (1878-80), The Dawn (1881), The Gay Science (1882)—of the late seventies and early eighties,
he moved to the formulation of ideas which had (and continue to have) the profoundest influence on
Western thought and literature: Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–92), Beyond Good and Evil (1886), On the
Genealogy of Morals (1887), Twilight of the Idols (1889) and the uncoordinated fragments which were
intended to form a systematic exposition of his most advanced thinking under the title of The Will to
Power” (Bradbury and McFarlane 630).
6
Life in modern times, fostered by the justified fear of war and the collapse of
traditional norms, contributed to a collective consciousness of anxiety; the analytical and
determinist tradition gave way to ‘individualization’ and an increased attention toward
“the nature of the unconscious or subconscious or subliminal self” (Brady 76). The
artistic transformation from the nineteenth to the twentieth century, parallel to the
industrial and commercial acceleration, was marked by a reorientation of the aesthetics of
Romanticism, Realism and positivistic Naturalism that gave way to Symbolism,
Futurism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism (Bradbury and McFarlane 46). The new
movement in literature was distinguished by the recurring themes of fragmentation of the
consciousness, personality and identity with the scope of representing the current “crisis
of reality”: the confusion and difficulty one experiences in trying to adapt to the
“progressive disintegration of those meticulously constructed ‘systems’ and ‘types’ and
‘absolutes” in a “world of rapid industrial development, advanced technology,
urbanization, and secularization” (Bradbury and McFarlane 57, 80). Reflective of
Pirandello’s exploration of the human psyche, the commonalities of modern literature are
described:
We recognize the quality common to many of the most characteristic
events, discoveries, and products of this modern age: in the concern to
objectify the subjective, to make audible or perceptible the mind’s
inaudible conversations, to halt the flow, to irrationalize the rational, to
defamiliarize and dehumanize the expected, to conventionalize the
extraordinary and the eccentric, to define the psychopathology of everyday
life, to intellectualize the emotional, to secularize the spiritual, to see space
as a function of time, mass as a form of energy, and uncertainty as the
only thing. An explosive fusion, one might suppose, that destroyed the
tidy categories or though, that toppled linguistic systems that disrupted
formal grammar and the traditional links between words and words, words
and things, inaugurating the power of ellipses and parataxis. (Bradbury
and McFarlane 48)
7
Pirandello utilized various philosophical, scientific and spiritual frameworks to
describe the psychological and spiritual crisis pervading the experience of man in the
modern world.6 One of the most interesting facets of my research on Pirandello’s spiritual
approach throughout his works are the unequivocal parallels with Hinduism and
Buddhism. My analysis demonstrates that his oeuvre reflects modes of thought from
Eastern religion to the modern movements of Theosophy and Spiritualism. While
criticism regarding Pirandello’s application of Theosophy, Spiritualism and
Parapsychology is extant (yet limited), to date there is practically no scholarship
correlating Pirandello’s works and Buddhism.7 M. John Stella is perhaps the only other
scholar suggesting this link. Stella claims that an examination of Pirandello’s works will
show that he “profoundly comprehended the essence of Buddhism” (Stella 3). In his book
6
Man referring to the male gender, not humankind encompassing both men and women, as
Pirandello almost exclusively wrote about married and professionally employed men in Italy in the
twentieth century. Douglas Radcliff-Umstead writes: “Again and again in his stories and plays Pirandello
focuses on characters like clerks, teachers, civil servants and small time business men since their
professions depend on social appearances and ceremonies” (Radcliff-Umstead “Pirandello and the Puppet
World” 15). Corrado Donati writes in “Eros and Solitude in Pirandello’s Short Stories”: “Critical
historicism has taught that Pirandello’s man is first of all a twentienth-century man, and that the society
within which he finds himself struggling between anguish and alienation is our bourgeois society” (Biasin
and Gieri, eds. 142).
7
Antonio Illiano was a pioneer scholar regarding Pirandello’s application of spiritual and
parapsychalogical elements. Illiano, in his article, “Pirandello and Theosophy” (1977), and his seminal
book, Metapsichica e Letteratura in Pirandello (1982), explores Pirandello’s utilization of Spiritualism,
Theosophy and parapsychology throughout his oeuvre and establishes the influence of such approaches on
his creative process. In the positive review of Illiano’s book, Olga Ragusa writes: “[Equally interesting] is
the author’s acceptance of intellectual and scholarly respectability for systems of knowledge long judged
marginal and from a rationalist perspective suspect, and only now beginning to emerge into the mainstream
of serious scholarship” (Ragusa “A Pirandello Quintet” 71). While some scholars have presented
informative analyses of a similar nature,7 there is very little extant scholarship regarding Pirandello and
spirituality. Illiano’s fresh contribution to Pirandello studies and the informative bibliography in
Metapsichica e letturatura in Pirandello is indispensable, and is at present the most complete work for this
type of analysis. It should be noted that Illiano’s book was never translated into English and is,
unfortunately, currently out of print and difficult to obtain. For other criticism regarding Pirandello and
spirituality, see: Pirandello o La stanza della tortura by Giovanni Macchia (1981), Pirandello e l’oltre, a
compilation edited by Enzo Lauretta (1991), Futurismo Esoterico by Simona Cigliana (1996), Magia di in
Romanzo: Il fu Mattia Pascal prima e dopo, a compilation edited by Pietro Frassica (2005), Letteratura
come anamorfosi by Angelo Mangini (2007).
8
Self and Self-Compromise in the Narratives of Pirandello and Moravia, Stella describes
the correspondence between Buddhist doctrine and the works of Pirandello and Alberto
Moravia:
My study contends that several important themes in [Pirandello’s]
work have not been thoroughly understood, in part because of a lack of
familiarity with oriental thought, specifically the Buddha’s teaching.
[Buddha’s] major claim was that the assumption of a subsistent ‘I’ or ego
was the cause of the world’s ills, and that above all else we must disabuse
ourselves of this latent ‘self’-deception.8 If we can accomplish that task,
we shall transcend the everyday world with its care and commotion,
abiding placidly in a different dimension, a permanent state of wisdom and
felicity, in this very life. In sum, in order to live fully, we must negate our
own existence or Daesin. […]
So what is the self? What is it that we customarily call ‘I’, ‘me’, and
‘mine’? Pirandello and Moravia have been among the most relentless in
Western literature to ask these questions and to propose the following
answer: the ego is a persistent illusion, a deception, a shadow, or better
yet, a mirage. If this were their only contribution, they would conform to
the existentialist tradition. As opposed to their contemporaries, however,
Pirandello and Moravia dramatized a way out of the existential dilemma.
If, then, we are to consider seriously the question of identity in
Pirandello [and Moravia], it seems to me that we that we ought to
investigate Buddhist doctrine, the earliest known philosophy whose aim is
the denial of asmimana (the pre-supposition “I am”). […]
Let the reader be assured that there is enough historical and textual
evidence to link Buddhist sources with Pirandellian [and Moravian]
fiction. (Stella 1-4)
I also agree with Stella’s assertion that Pirandello scholars have not taken into account
the fact that at the time when Pirandello was studying at the University of Bonn (18891891), Germany was the European center for the research into oriental philosophies.
Indeed, Pirandello was exposed to and influenced by German philosophers, such as
8
M. John Stella’s footnote to reference the source in Buddhist doctrine: “As at Dighanikaya I:
196, where the Buddha says, ‘I teach a doctrine whose aim is the abandonment of the assumed self” (See
Stella Self and Self-Compromise in the Narratives of Pirandello and Moravia Note 1, 9).
9
Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche, who were among the first Western
intellectuals to comment on Buddhism.9
Pirandello’s ultimate message is that the spirit has the potential to create both
positive and negative manifestations and his aim is to convey the spirited imagination’s
capacity for creation. For Pirandello, the spirit is the eternal, active and creative force of
the universe and its dynamism is the essence of true reality: “Lo spirito ci guida, ci
alimenta, ci dà la vera vita” [“The spirit guides us, nourishes us, gives us true life”] (Ed.
Ivan Pupo 399). Depending on the individual, the human spirit may create valuable art or
it may create fictions that harm the consciousness and soul. Pirandello demonstrates that
the human spirit, prone to fabricate illusions based on the relative individual perceptions,
creates artificial realities that man mistakes for a communal and absolute reality.
Therefore, according to Pirandello, reality does not exist beyond the comprehension of
the dynamic nature of the universal spirit. The architecture of Pirandello’s aesthetic
vision is built upon man’s misconception of reality and the representation of the negative
consequences of the repressed spirit. For Pirandello, any conception of reality that does
not encompass the recognition and comprehension of the universal spirit is illusory, and
he emphasizes that mental anguish is inevitable if man does not detach his consciousness
from such illusions.
9
Stella writes: “While it is well-known that our author spent some three years (1889-1891)
studying at the University of Bonn, Pirandello scholars have not taken into account the fact that at the time
Germany was the European centre for the research into oriental philosophies. It might be assumed that a
young student of philology from a small town in Sicily, eager to broaden his intellectual horizon, would
have been fascinated by the possibility of discovering a new world beyond the limited vistas offered by a
traditional Italian education at that time—and would therefore have seized the opportunity to read the
translations that had aroused such interest in intellectual centres of contemporary Germany” (See M. John
Stella “Self and Suicide in Pirandello”).
10
In describing his role as an artist, Pirandello says in an interview from 1932:
“L’artista non deve servirsi delle cose, ma esprimere lo spirito delle cose” [“The artist
should not make use of things, but express the spirit of things”] (Ed. Ivan Pupo 485). At
the dawn of the twentieth-century, it is clear that Pirandello’s philosophical writing is
concentrated on exposing the causes and effects of the fragmented consciousness as
resulting from the collective unconscious imposed by a long tradition of material science,
reason and logic. As though responding to Friedrich Nietzsche’s premonition in Beyond
Good and Evil, Pirandello questions the supposed absolute truths in his criticism and
humorist art and he urges others to do the same if they wish to experience authentic
existence. Nietzsche writes:
However much value we ascribe to truth, truthfulness or altruism, it may
be that we need to attribute a higher and more fundamental value to
appearance, to the will to illusion, to egoism and desire. It could even be
possible that the value of those good and honoured things consists
precisely in the fact that in an insidious way they are related to those bad,
seemingly opposite things, linked, knit together, even identical perhaps.
Perhaps! But who is willing to worry about such dangerous Perhapses?
We must wait for a new category of philosophers to arrive, to whose taste
and inclination are the reverse of their predecessors’—they will be in
every sense philosophers of the dangerous Perhaps. And to speak in all
seriousness: I see these new philosophers coming. (Eds. Pearson and
Large 313)
Pirandello’s aim is neither to resolve the crisis of the spiritual sickness nor to
philosophize tirelessly, but to spread awareness of such issues to his fellow man through
his artistic representation. Despite Anthony Caputi’s claim that “Pirandello never
championed a pat solution to this condition,” this dissertation demonstrates that a solution
does indeed come to light for Pirandello and his characters (18). In order to demonstrate
that authentic existence and liberation from suffering is predicated on the realignment of
the human Being, that is spirit, soul and consciousness, with the universal spirit,
11
Pirandello ultimately illustrates a successful spiritual-psychological approach,
unequivocally similar to Buddhist philosophy.
Incorporating traditional science, metaphysics and the new field of metapsychics,
Pirandello effectively demonstrates the debilitating realization that one’s personal
perspective of self-identity is an illusion, and not the reality upon which one built his
life. To illustrate this crisis, as well as the solution, Pirandello explored the metaphysical
branches of ontology (the study of the nature of being pertaining to material and spiritual
existence), and cosmology (the philosophy of the structure and laws of the universe).
Examining the metaphysical and spiritual concepts interwoven throughout his collected
works, one can trace Pirandello’s application of super-mundane principles, from the
early the topical treatment of the ghost-like antagonist in his 1896 novella, “Chi fu?”
(“Who was it?”), to his last, preternaturally abstract drama begun in 1934, I giganti della
montagna (The Mountain Giants). Pirandello confronted the universal mysteries of life,
death, the soul, and the spirit, and funneled these metaphysical elements into his artistic
process, particularly his method of character creation. Eastern mystical teachings,
Western philosophy and religion, the breakthroughs of modern physics and the science
leading up to its astounding discoveries, from Copernicus to Einstein, converge in Luigi
Pirandello’s oeuvre, encompassing both his aesthetic philosophies and his extensive
collection of fiction. Focusing on Pirandello’s application of Spiritualism,
Parapsychology, Theosophy and Buddhism, this dissertation demonstrates: 1) the fusion
of ancient and modern elements throughout his oeuvre; 2) the author’s valuation of
Buddhist psychology; 3) the transformation of the Pirandellian protagonist from a crisisridden and fragmented character to one that is peaceful and spiritually fulfilled. This
12
trajectory is brought to light via the analysis of the following texts, the critical essays:
“Arte e coscienza d’oggi” (“Art and Consciousness of Today”) (1893), “Rinunzia”
(“Renunciation”) (1896), “L’umorismo” (“On Humor”) (1908), and “Da lontano”
(“From a Distance”) (1909); the novelle: “Chi fu?” (“Who was it?”) (1896),
“Pallottoline!” (“Little Pellets”) (1898), “Il vecchio Dio” (“The Old God”) (1901),
“Quando ero matto” (“When I Was Mad”) (1902), “La casa del Granella” (“Granella’s
House”) (1905), “Personaggi” (“Characters”) (1906), “Dal naso al cielo” (1907) (“From
the Nose to the Sky”), “Leviamoci questo pensiero” (Let’s Dispose of this Worry”)
(1910), “La tragedia di un personaggio” (“A Character’s Tragedy”) (1911), (“La
trappola”) (“The Trap”) (1912), “Canta l’Epistola” (“Sings the Epistle”) (1912), and
(“Di sera, un geranio”) (“At Night, A Geranium”) (1934); the plays: All’uscita (At the
Exit) (1916) and Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Characters in Search of an
Author)(1921), I giganti della montagna (The Mountain Giants) (begun 1934,
incompleted); the novels: Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (1904) and Uno,
nessuno e centomila (One, No one and One Hundred Thousand) (1909-1925).
I consider the selected texts to be paradigms of Pirandello’s artistic quest, driven
by his “profound spiritual need” to express his skepticism concerning the current social
norms and their implications for the modern consciousness, to represent Western man’s
“spiritual sickness” and existential crisis, and to reveal the healing properties found in
philosophies hitherto unknown or considered taboo. As evidenced in Pirandello’s works,
freedom of liberated consciousness, and reunion of mind, soul and spirit, is achieved
when man consciously practices detachment from his selfish desires and false beliefs and
learns to live selflessly, in harmony with himself, others, and nature—not in the universe
13
but as a manifestation of the universe. In order to overcome the “spiritual sickness,” one
must gain awareness of his misconceptions and experience the fragmentation of selfalienation in order begin the process that will heal his plagued psyche and mend the
disconnect between his perception of himself, other people, nature and ultimately, his
own soul and consciousness. The realization that one is not the rigid and fixed self he
believed himself to be is indeed frightening, but this awakening of consciousness is the
necessary first step, for those who wish to overcome their suffering, toward returning the
human spirit to a state of wholeness. Man may acknowledge that his personal perception
of the world is faultily based on his subjective belief system, but to achieve true lasting
inner peace he must be willing to completely detach from his prior way of sensing the
world—his view of himself included
The close analysis of these texts provides ample evidence that beyond being an
index of Pirandello’s fluency with current, cultural, scientific, and spiritual trends, these
systems of thought provide the very scaffolding on which Pirandello’s works are
constructed. An understanding of the esoteric philosophies and scientific theories—the
raw material from which Pirandello extracted the essence—allows a deeper
understanding of his fictional stories and critical theories. This study substantiates my
claim that Pirandello’s oeuvre finds its basis in, and must be read through a spiritual
lens—taking into consideration both Eastern and Western ideologies, methodologies and
spiritual practices.
14
CHAPTER 1
THROUGH THE REVERSE TELESCOPE
Antipostivism & Pirandello’s Cosmic Vision
Se io interrogo la mia coscienza, mi par di sentirvi un’aspra,
continua discordia di voci; mi par che tutto in lei tremi e tentenni. E
non so piú credere alla calma fiducia di certe gente serena, che
vorebbe per esempio, richiamar l’arte a fini piú civili, proponendole
d’inneggiare alla scienza, suggerendole finanche non so piú quanti
straordinarii motivi lirici. […]
Io vorrei che ci domandassimo, che cosa in fondo la scienza,
insieme con la filosofia moderna, abbia risposta e risponda al nostro
spirito liberato, mercé loro, per forza di ragionate negazioni, dalle
viete credenze, e rimasto quasi tra le rovine di queste e le nebbie
dell’avvenire.
Dalla natura appunto di questa risposta mi par che si debba
solamente argomentare il perché del presente malessere intelletuale, e
fors’anche la cagione dei torbidi commovimenti morali e sociali
dell’oggi.10
-Luigi Pirandello
Lugi Pirandello distinguishes himself from other artists claiming that, as a
humorist, he is endowed with a special process of intuition and reflection that enables
him to reveal profound truths about man, existence and the human experience. Asserting
that the artist essentially defines and gives artistic representation to psychological states,
Pirandello’s complex task as a genuine humorist is to disassemble man’s psyche,
10
From “Rinunzia” (“Rinunciation”) (1896). See Saggi, poesie, scritti varii 1056-1057.
Translation: “If I examine my conscience, I seem to sense there a sharp, continuous discord of voices; it
seems to me that everything in it trembles and wavers. And I no longer know how to believe in the calm
confidence of certain serene people, that would like for example, to redirect art to more civic ends,
proposing to sing the praises of science, suggesting even I do not know how many extraordinary lyrical
reasons. [...] I would like that we ask ourselves, what ultimately science, together with modern philosophy,
has answered and responds to our spirit, liberated thanks to them, by force of reasoned negations, from the
prohibited beliefs, and remaining almost between the ruins of these and the haze of the future. Precisely
from the nature of this response it seems to me that we should only argue the why of the present intellectual
malaise, and perhaps also the cause of the affecting moral and social troubles of today.”
15
examine the concealed elements, and identify any illusory aspects.11 Ultimately, as an
artist as well as a ‘fantastical critic,’ the humorist must re-assemble the pieces and
enlighten others via artistic representation that reflects the new awareness and gained
comprehension of the inner-workings of the mind. Dedicated to this process of creating
authentic humor, Pirandello purposefully contemplates human existence and closely
examines the current sociological issues in order to penetrate man’s disquieted
psychological state.
In this chapter, I demonstrate Pirandello’s criticism of empiricist epistemologies
and I present his concerns for the moral, psychological and spiritual well being of
humanity. In the first section, I examine the critic’s rejection of positivism12 and
metaphysical naturalism,13 specifically concentrating on his early critical essays: “Arte e
coscienza d’oggi” (“Art and Consciousness of Today”) (1893) and “Rinunzia”
(“Renunciation”) (1896). In these essays, Pirandello introduces his conceptualization of
the spiritual sickness to illustrate the negative effects of scientific, economic and
11
In “L’umorismo” (1908), Pirandello writes: “L’artista, in fondo, non fa altro che definire e
rappresentare stati psicologici” (Spsv 124).
12
Regarding positivism, Stephen Shapin writes in The Scientific Life: “Towards the end of the
nineteenth century and early twentieth century a variety of related philosophical terms of art were
developed to describe formal philosophies of scoence that, in one way or another, rejected the idea of
scientific Truth as correspondence to God’s reality, to the ultimate reality that was supposed to lie behind
appearances”; Shapin explains the tenets of positivism: “Metaphysical speculations are scientifically
illegitimate and sense-date are the only proper objects of knowledge and criteria for judging it” (Shapin
27).
13
In World without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism, Michael C. Rea
describes the rapid flurry of various trends of naturalistic philosophy in the twentieth century: “By all
accounts, naturalism involves a very high regard for the natural sciences and a very low regard for
nonscientific forms of inquiry. […] Naturalism is identified sometimes with materialism, sometimes with
empiricism, and sometimes with scientism; but all of these positions are equally difficult to characterize
[as] there is widespread disagreement among naturalists about what it is for something to count as natural
or supernatural. (21) Owing to the proliferation in the literature of different and conflicting formulations of
naturalism, it is now common for people to say that naturalism comes in several different varieties, each
expressible by a different philosophical thesis. Typically, the putative varieties are metaphysical,
epistemological, and methodological. Perhaps the only clearly formulated explicitly ontological thesis that
all naturalists agree on is the terribly uninformative thesis that there are no supernatural entities” (Rea 5254).
16
philosophical materialism on the consciousness, soul and spirit of his contemporaries.
According to Pirandello’s assessment of the present climate, man was trapped in the
throes of an existential crisis imposed by the predominance of postivistic approaches
that—in their denial of the legitimacy of metaphysical speculation and ignorance of the
spirit—deprived man of living an authentic existence. The analysis of Pirandello’s
reproachful commentary is essential for a complete comprehension of the inception of his
protagonists as afflicted and fragmented, and also serves as the theoretical point of
departure for the characters’ journey of self-realization and spiritual evolution undertaken
throughout his oeuvre.
In the second part of this chapter, I offer examples from Pirandello’s early
fictional texts in which he articulates his criticism of positivistic science and initiates his
artistic representation of the protagonist as imprisoned by the artificial barriers of his
consciousness. To convey Pirandello’s vast knowledge of cosmology and early interest in
spirituality, I specifically concentrate on his works that feature the cannochiale rivoltato
(inverted telescope), the medico-filosofo (doctor-philosopher), and the filosofia del
lontano (philosophy of distance). Pirandello’s humoristic manipulation of the telescope
and its derivative philosophy of distance, inter-textually woven throughout the first half
of corpus, serve as a trope for his protagonists’ original attempts to understand and
overcome the “spiritual sickness.” I trace this pattern from the early novelle:
“Pallottoline!” (“Little Pellets”) (1898),“Il vecchio Dio” (“The Old God”) (1901), “La
tragedia di un personaggio” (“A Character’s Tragedy”) (1911); to the critical essays:
“L’umorismo” (“On Humor”) (1908) and “Da Lontano” (“From a Distance”) (1909).
Concluding with an assessment of Pirandello’s rejection of the doctor-philosopher and
17
his discontinuance of the philosophy of distance, I prepare the reader for the following
discourse and ultimate disclosure of this dissertation: Pirandello’s protagonists attain
genuine enlightenment and embody authentic existence when, through full engagement
with the present moment, they are able to realign the human spirit with the spirit of the
universe.
Modern Consciousness & the Afflicted Spirit
Because of its past success and immense future promise, science cast a
hegemonic shadow over other intellectual endeavors during the late 18th
century and throughout the 19th century. As a result, the occult, along with
philosophy, theology, and art, suffered tremendous internal tensions. To
what degree should science be accommodated? Embracing it meant
tapping into widespread prestige and thereby winning almost
instantaneous social approbation, but outright acceptance of its principles
might irreparably compromise the integrity of whatever non-scientific
belief system one wished to promote.14
In the essay “Arte e coscienza d’oggi” (“Art and Consciousness of Today”)
(1893),15 Pirandello writes: “Lo spirito moderno è profondamente malato” [“The modern
spirit is profoundly sick”] (Saggi, poesie, scritti varii 893). Pirandello elucidates a crisis
of identity, or spiritual sickness, induced by a corrupted spirit that fragments man’s
consciousness and displaces his soul. In the critical essays of this nature, Pirandello
examines the ethical implications of scientific and philosophical materialism as the
source of man’s increasing anguish. He proclaims with antipositivistic fervor that mental
suffering is the repercussion of the narrow empirical scope of such epistemological
perspectives. Pirandello argues that modern materialist philosophy, rooted in traditional
scientific method, wrongly envisions the universe as, “una vivente macchina” [“a living
machine”] that together with science assigns man to his “malinconico posto”
14
15
Burton, Dan and Grandy, David, Magic, Mystery and Science 184.
“Arte e coscienza d’oggi” was first published in “La critica” on September 11, 1895 (Spsv 891).
18
[“melancholy position”] in nature (Spsv 895). This melancholy position, Pirandello
explains, emerges from the implementation of man-made laws of logic to explain the
universe while disregarding its innate laws and customs, i.e. the logic inherent in nature.
He disputes the restriction of using only empirical science to study the physical world,
and disproves of its reduction of the forces of nature to equations and measurements. The
author challenges ideologies that insist on intellectualizing the determining causes of
events and concepts. He claims that traditional scientific materialism, governed by the
dictates of objectivism, reductionism, physicalism and monism,16 in their refusal to
consider the nonphysical realm as a viable subject of inquiry, are the cause of the
“malessere intellettuale”—the intellectual malaise afflicting contemporary society—
particularly the young people and artists (Spsv 901).
In Pirandello’s estimation, the influx of technological inventions that supposedly
increase human comfortability, and the current void of a structured standard for values,
leads to a moral breakdown, as well as a spiritual and mental crisis. In Pirandello and the
Crisis of Modern Consciousness, Anthony Caputi describes Pirandello’s conception of
the distressed modern consciousness:
The affliction of modern consciousness, as Pirandello understood it in the
1890s, was that it had lost the focus that inherited cultural structures had
made possible for many centuries: it lacked the means to order, define, and
regulate the data of experience; the familiar categories, the time-honored
distinctions, the unexamined standards and loyalties that had given shape
and meaning to experience had been lost. The crisis of modern
consciousness consisted in its need to discover a new idea of itself and the
world, a way to structure itself that would enable it once again to derive
values coherently (Caputi 17).17
16
For specific information regarding the Scientific Method, see the Introduction to Buddhism &
Science: Breaking New Ground by B. Alan Wallace (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).
17
This “crisis of modern consciousness” echoes Friedrich Nietzsche’s concept of “bad
conscience,” his term used in On the Genealogy of Morals to describe “a serious illness which man was
forced to succumb by the pressure of the most fundamental changes which he experienced, —that change
19
In “Arte e coscienza d’oggi,” Pirandello conveys the extraordinary mental confusion that
reigns in the current consciousness and imprisons man so fiercely—as though he were a
blind man trapped in a labyrinth. Pirandello identifies a relativity of perspective,
reflective of Friedrich Nietzsche’s “perspectivism,”18 as replacing the stability of the old
norms—a concept that will later become the foundation of many of his fictional
masterpieces. Representative of these varying perspectives, there are many possible paths
for man to take to liberate himself from the suffering of wandering lost in the labyrinth of
life. However, as there is no communal directive to follow and people are unwilling or
afraid to reflect upon the values attributed to certain “truths,” the correct path to the exit
is continuously hazy and unclear. Pirandello writes:
Nei cervelli e nelle coscienze regna una straordinaria confusione. In
questo specchio interiore si riflettono le piú disparate figure. […] Ci
sentiamo come smarriti, anzi perduti in un cieco, immenso labirinto,
circondato tutt’intorno da un mistero impenetrabile. Di vie, ce ne sono
tante: quale sarà la vera? Va di qua e di là la gente in fretta, e ognuno si dà
l’aria di capirci qualche cosa. […] Qual criterio dirretivo seguire? Nessuno
osa percorrere fino in fondo la sua via, ci fermiamo a metà, ci vogliamo
indietro a guardar gli altri, e il dubbio ci viene alle labbra: E s’io sbaglio?
Forse per di là si trova l’uscita. E ci mettiamo per un’altra via. Dietro a noi
vengon sempre parecchie persone, come tante guardie di corpo, che
imitano i nostri movimenti, ripeton le nostre parole, fan tutto ciò che noi
facciamo.
whereby he found himself imprisoned with in the confines of society and peace” (Keith Pearson and
Duncan Large, eds. 419).
18
In The Gay Science (1882), Nietzsche explains his notion of perspectivism: “Our thoughts
themselves are continually governed by the character of the consciousness—by the “genius of the species”
that commands it—and translated back into the perspective of the herd. Fundamentally, all our actions are
altogether incomparably personal, unique, and infinitely individual; there is no doubt of that. But as soon as
we translate them into consciousness they no longer seem to be. This is the essence of phenomenalism and
perspectivism as I undertand them: Owing to the nature of animal consciousness, the world of which we
can become conscious is only a surface and sign-world, a world that is made common and meaner;
whatever becomes conscious becomes by the same token shallow, thin, relatively stupid, general, sign,
herd, signal; all becoming conscious involves a great and through corruption, falsification, reduction to
superficialities, and generalization. Ultimately, the growth of consciousness becomes a danger; amd anyone
who lives among the most conscious Europeans knows that it is a disease” (Nietzsche 299-301).
20
Crollate le vecchie norme, non son ancor sorte o bene stabilite le
nuove; è naturale che il concetto della relatività d’ogni cosa si sia talmente
allargato in noi, da farci quasi del tutto perdere l’estimativa. (Spsv 900)
In our minds and consciousness reigns an extraordinary confusion. The
most disparate figures are reflected in this interior mirror. [...] We feel
bewildered, rather, a blind man lost in an immense labyrinth, surrounded
all around by an impenetrable mystery. There are many paths: which will
be the true one? People hurry here and there, and each gives the air of
understanding something. […] Which directive criteria to follow? No one
dares to go to the end of his path, we stop ourselves halfway. We want to
look back at the others, and doubt comes to our lips: And if I am wrong?
Perhaps through there one finds the exit. And we put ourselves on another
path. Several people always follow us, like many bodyguards, that imitate
our movements, repeat our words, do everything that we do.
The old norms have crumbled, the new ones have not yet been sorted
or well-established; it is natural that the concept of relativity of everything
is so broadened in us, making us lose judgment almost completely.
As Pirandello deems it, the impenetrable mystery of life surrounds us—full of unexplored
paths—yet people are still afraid to go beyond the limits of the consciousness, imposed
by the collective unconscious, to discover their own path. Pirandello uses the space of the
labyrinth, filled with lost souls and inaccessible exits, to demonstrate the labored steps
and repressed impulses of the stymied modern man—a metaphor that he will return to in
many of his works. In his fictional pieces, Pirandello aesthetically represents this mental
state via the existential trauma of his protagonists as they come to realize that their
familiar reality is actually a false construction built upon an unstable foundation. As the
characters are confronted with the “illusion” of their reality, they are unnervingly
displaced from their former confidence and sense of themselves. Thrust from the safety
and comfort of their artificial worlds, they become lost in a vortex of uncertainty and
confusion.
Pirandello expresses his concerns for the norms of conduct and morality and the
future of ethics, as subjection to such mechanical laws were driving man’s need to satisfy
21
his individual instincts and vain aspirations. Ultimately, in addition to his concern for
social standards and values, the maintenance of the integrity of art is of utmost
importance to Pirandello. Expressing his negative estimation of the current state of ethics
and aesthetics, the critic writes: “Non mai, credo, la vita nostra eticamente ed
esteticamente fu piú disgregata. Slegata, senz’alcun principio di dottrina e di fede, i nostri
pensieri turbinano entro i fati attuosi, che stan come nembi sopra una rovina” [“Never, I
think, ethically and aesthetically, was our life was more disgregated. Unbound, without
any principle of doctrine and faith, our thoughts swirl in the actuated fates like clouds
above doom” (Spsv 901). In The Mirror of Our Anguish, Douglas Radcliff-Umstead
explains Pirandello’s pessimism and motivation as a writer:
According to Pirandello, when a society came to be founded on
mendacity—as Italy was at the end of the nineteenth century—art could
only reflect the falsification of genuine sentiments under an inflexible
code of conduct. That lying moral conscience, which represses natural
impulses and misrepresents them in compliance with taboos, deprives man
of tragic stature and reduces art to being the maidservant of social,
religious, and legal obligations. As a writer, Pirandello aspired to demolish
the façade of bourgeois respectability in order to reveal the pathetic truths
of inner man. (Radcliff-Umstead 22)
Pirandello fears that the current inclination of thought will further cause artistic
endeavors to succumb to egotistical imitative reproductions, as for his aesthetic
standards, art must reflect the spontaneity of life.19 He asks the question most pertinent to
his passion: “Quale sarà l’arte di domani?” [“What will be the art of tomorrow?”] (Spsv
906). Upon concluding, Pirandello imparts to the reader his perception of modern
consciousness as an “agonizing dream”:
Io non so se la coscienza moderna sia veramente così democratica e
scientifica come oggi comunemente si dice. Non capisco certe
19
In “Arte e coscienza d’oggi,” Pirandello criticizes “modern dilettante artists” and their
nongenuine aesthetic theory of knowledge (See Spsv 901).
22
affermazioni astratte. A me la coscienza moderna dà l’imagine d’un sogno
angoscioso attraversato da rapide larve or tristi or minacciose, d’una
battaglia notturna, d’una mischia disperata, in cui s’sagitino per un
momento e subito scompajano, per riapparirne delle altre, mille bandiere,
in cui le parti avversarie si sian confuse e mischiate, e ognuno lotti per sé,
per la sua difesa, contro all’amico e contro al nemico. È in lei un continuo
cozzo di voci discordi, un’agitazione continua. Mi par che tutto in lei tremi
e tentenni. Alla calma fiduciosa di certa gente serena non credo. Che
avverrà domani? Siamo certamente alla vigilia d’un enorme avvenimento.
(Spsv 906).
I do not know if the modern consciousness is truly democratic and
scientific as is commonly said today. I do not understand certain abstract
affirmations. To me the modern consciousness gives the image of an
anxious dream passed through fleeting or sad or threatening larvae, of a
nocturnal battle, a mixture of despair, which agitates for a moment and
suddenly disappears, to reappear on the other side, a thousand flags, in
which the opposing sides are confused and mixed, and every battle for
himself, for his defense, against his friend and enemy. In the
consciousness there is a continual clash of discordant voices, agitation
continues. It seems to me that everything in it trembles and wavers. I do
not believe in the calm faith of certain people. What will happen
tomorrow? We are certainly on the eve of an enormous event.
Though the closing conviction that we are on the eve of an enormous event could be
inferred to have a positive connotation, it is more plausible that Pirandello’s prediction is
pessimistic and disheartening.
Pirandello revisits his condemnation of science and modern philosophy, and
discusses their social and emotional implications in the essay, “Rinunzia”
(“Renunciation”) (1896)20. In response to the recent development of the radiotelegraph
by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895,21 Pirandello recapitulates his diagnosis of the spiritually
20
“Rinunzia” was first published in “La critica” on February 8, 1896 (Spsv 1056).
In the Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Isaac Asimov writes of Italian
electrical engineer, Marchese Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937): “In 1894 Marconi came across an article on
the electromagnetic waves discovered eight years earlier by H.R. Hertz and it occurred to him that these
might be used in signaling. By the end of the year he was ringing a bell at a distance of thirty feet. He made
use of Hertz’s method of producing the radio waves and of a device called the coherer to detect them. […]
In 1896, when the Italian government showed itself uninterested in his work, he went to England and sent a
signal nine miles. He then applied for and obtained the first patent in the history of radio. […] In 1909
Marconi shared the Nobel Prize in physics with German physicist Karl Braun and in later years
21
23
sick spirit to account for modern man’s suffering, describing the spirit as: “lo spirito cosí
invaso da mortale malsanía” [“the spirit so invaded by deadly unhealthiness”] (Spsv
1056). He points to the “rinunzia suprema di fronte al mistero della vita” [“supreme
renunciation in the face of the mystery of life”] that science and modern philosophy
impose as the cause of man’s insatiable thirst for material gratification (Spsv 1057). In
the opening of the essay, Pirandello questions the contrast between the genius and
excitement behind the miraculous discoveries and the lethargic state of artistic
production and intellectual malaise. He poses the same question he asks in the 1893
essay: “Come si spiega il contrasto tra l’ingegno così agguerrito di vita e lo spirito così
invaso da mortale malsanía? Non sappiamo noi dunque guardarci piú intorno a stimare i
portenti che l’uomo ha saputo creare in questo tempo? O è già spenta ogni meraviglia
per gli occhi e per l’anima? [“How can we explain the contrast between the genius
trained to inure life and the spirit thus invaded by mortal illness? Do we no longer know
how to look around and within ourselves to valorize the portents that man has created in
our time, or has every wonder already faded for the eyes and the soul?” (Spsv 1056).
Pirandello vehemently accuses science and modern philosophy of creating models of
consciousness that, “reduce what is exceedingly intricate and mysterious to abstract
systems” and thereby, “renounce the full dimensions of both life and consciousness”
(Caputi 17).
Pirandello theorizes that man is blinded by the incapacity of the consciousness to
reflect outside the scope of the senses and, as a result, he is rendered incapable of
experimented extensively with the use of short-wave radio for signaling. He was in charge of Italy’s radio
service during World War I, and perfected the “radio beam” along which a pilot could fly blind” (Asimov
650-651).
24
embracing his whole being (Spsv 1059). The author asks, “Abbiamo veramente una
dottrina infallibile della conoscenza e una nozione precisa dell’universo? Chi potrebbe
darcela? La scienza. Ma questa si basa soltanto su fenomeni e rapporti; conosce la
faccia, non il dentro delle cose” [“Do we truly have an infallible doctrine of knowledge
and a precise notion of the universe? Who would be able to give it to us? Science. But
this is based only on phenomenon and relationships; it knows the face, not the inside of
things.”] (Spsv 1058). Pirandello clearly believes there are crucial intangible elements,
consciousness and the soul in particular that, beyond the mystic tradition in the West, are
neglectfully unexplored by Western traditional science and philosophy—perhaps since
the days of Pythagoras and Plato, whose mystical doctrines broke away from the Greek
tradition of rationalism and humanism.22 Interestingly, there are striking parallels
22
Pythagoras and Plato both believed in transmigration and the immortality of the soul. Geoffrey
Parrinder writes of Pythagoras: “Pythagoras lived and taught in the second half of the sixth century B.C. at
Kroton. He looked upon Orpheus as the chief of his patrons. [Orpheus, said to be a Thracian, appears in
Greek history as the prophet of a religious school or sect with a code of rules of life, a mystical theology,
and a system of purificatory and expiatory rites]. Pythagoras believed not only in rebirth but in purification
of the soul. The cycle of births is regarded as a means for the growth of man’s higher nature. […] A
peculiar feature in the asceticism of the Pythagoreans from the fourth century at least seems to have been
silence. The Pythagorean order was a religious fraternity. Admission to the fraternity was gained by
initiation, i.e. by purification followed by the revelation of truth. Purification consisted not only in the
observance of rules of abstinence from certain kinds of food and dress but also in the purification of the
soul by theoria, or the contemplation of the divine reality. […] For Pythagoras, pure contemplation is the
end of man, the completion of human nature. When by the contemplative process the soul is perfected, that
is, purified from the taint of its subjection to the body, there would be no need of further rebirths. […] The
mathematical and mystical sides were side by side in Pythagoras and, according to tradition, a split
occurred within the school between the Mathematikoi or the rationalists, whose interest was in the theory of
numbers, and the Akusmatikoi, who followed up the religious side of the movement. We have in Pythagoras
a rare combination of high intellectual power and profound spiritual insight. […] Iamblichus, the
biographer of Pythagoras, tells us that he travelled widely, studying the teachings of Egyptians, Assyrians,
and Br!hmins. Gomperz writes: ‘It is not too much to assume that the curious Greek, who was a
contemporary of Buddha, and it may be of Zoroaster too, would have acquired a more or less exact
knowledge of the East in that age of intellectual fermentation, through the medium of Persia’” (Parrinder
141-143)
Regarding Plato, Parrinder writes: “The religion of Pythagoras was based on the Orphic teaching
with its austere asceticism, its voluntary poverty and community of goods, its belief in rebirth and respect
for animal life. Aristotle suggests that Plato follows closely the teaching of the Pythagoreans. He took up
Orphic and Pythagorean views and wove them into the texture of his philosophy. The essential unity of the
human and the divine spirit, the immortality of the human soul, the escape from the restless wheel of the
troublesome journey, the phenomenality of the world, the contempt for the body, the distinction between
25
between the Upanishads (or Upanisads), and the Greek mystical tradition of the Orphic,
the Eleusinian, the Pythagorean and Platonic schools.23
In the conclusion of “Rinunzia,” Pirandello returns to his supposition of
relativity; he conjectures that man will never be able to have a precise notion of the
parameters of life, but only sentiments that are changeable and various. Representative
of the fourth dimension proposed by modern physics, Pirandello appropriates the
geometrical figure of the polyhedron, with its hidden sides as an analogy for the
impossibility of embracing the totality of being—one’s own or that of another persons—
because of the relative nature of reality. He writes:
In ogni nostro atto è sempre tutto l’essere; quello che si manifesta è
soltanto relazione a un altro atto immediate; ma nello stesso tempo si
riferisce alla totalità dell’essere: è come la faccia d’un poliedro che
combaci con la faccia rispettiva d’un altro, pur non esclusendo le altre
facce che guardano per ogni verso. Ogni conseguenza ricavata da questa
manifestazione è perciò necessariamente unilaterale. E da qui
l’impossibilità d’abbracciar tutto l’essere, come è impossibile abbracciare
knowledge and opinion contradict every single idea of Greek popular religion. They are eccentrics in the
sphere of Greek thought. […] The divine origin of the soul, its pre-existence, its fall into corporeality, its
judgement after death, its expiatory wanderings through the bodies of animals or men according to its
character, its final redemption from the cycle of rebirth and its return to God, are common to the mystery
cults and Plato and Empedocles. This tradition is something which Hellenic thought, untouched by alien
speculation, was perhaps not very likely to have developed, and we have it in a striking form in Indian
religion” (Parrinder 148-149).
23
Geoffrey Parrinder distinguishes the Upanishads (or Upanisads) from the Rig Veda: “The
collection of hymns which forms the Rig Veda is the oldest source of texts on Indian religion, begun
perhaps before 1000 B.C. but passed on orally and not written down till much later. The Upanishads
(‘sitting down near’ or ‘secret sessions’) are discourses and dialogues of which the oldest were compiled
perhaps between 800 and 500 B.C.” (Parrinder 14).
Describing the parallel of Greek mysticism and the Upani!ads, Parrinder writes: “Ascetic
practices developed in the tradition represented by the schools associated with the mystery cults,
Pythagoras, and Plato, and in it we may suspect the influence of India directly or indirectly through Persia.
Dr. Inge observes that the Platonic or the mystical outlook on life for which religion is at once a philosophy
and a discipline ‘was first felt in Asia,’ especially in the Upani!ads and Buddhism. Inge writes: ‘This
mystical faith appears in Greek lands as Orphism and Pythagoreanism. In Europe as in Asia it was
associated with ideas of the transmigration of souls and a universal law of periodical recurrence. But it is in
Plato, the disciple of the Pythagoreans as well as of Socrates, who was probably himself the head of a
Pythagorean group at Athens, that this conception of an unseen eternal world of which the visible world is
only a pale copy, gains a permanent foothold in the West’” (Parrinder 150-151).
26
un poliedro a un tempo in tutte le sue faccie. Come dunque operare, se la
scienza ci manca e l’essere ci sfugge? (Spsv 1059).24
The whole being is always in each of our acts; that which manifests itself
is only relative to another immediate action; but at the same time refers to
the totality of being: it is like the face of a polyhedron that coincides with
the respective face of another, yet not excluding the other faces that look
in other directions. Every consequence obtained from this manifestation is
therefore necessarily unilateral. And hence the impossibility of embracing
the whole being, as it is impossible to embrace all facets of a polyhedron
at one time. How then to work, if we lack the science and being eludes us?
Pirandello urgently calls for an evaluation of the detrimental “renunciations” in place at
the turn of the century as he felt a reassessment was critical for the moral, ethical and
intellectual conduct of society. He reiterates his prophetic admonition that man will suffer
his defeat “come un armento verso l’estremo rovina” [“like a herd heading toward
extreme ruin”] (Spsv 1059),25 if he does not consciously reflect and meditate on this
condition, not by reasoning, doing or thinking, but concentrating solely on being. After
the turn of the century, Pirandello shifts his focus away from criticism and begins to
concentrate on his fictional works. The following sections, with the exception of the
analysis of the essay “Da lontano,” demonstrate Pirandello’s early representations of the
imprisoned protagonist and their attempts to adapt and overcome their “melancholy
positions” in the universe.
24
Pirandello similarly describes the polyhedron in “Azione Parlata” (“Spoken Action”) (1899),
and in his review of G.A. Cesareo’s Francesca da Rimini (1905) (Caputi 143).
25
This analogy of the herd echoes Friedrich Nietzche’s argument in Beyond Good and Evil
(1886), in which he states that modern European morality is a herd animal morality, and therefore, as a free
society is responsible for the “degeneration and diminution of man into a perfect herd animal” (Pearson and
Large, eds. 299, 344). Pirandello also expresses the threatening sentiment of mankind as a “herd heading
toward extreme ruin” in the essay, “Il neo-idealismo” (“Neo-Idealism”) (1896). See Saggi, poesie, scritti
varii 917.
27
The Reverse Telescope & the Vantage Point of the Soul
Maledetto il telescopio! Ma ci crede che io li fracasserei tutti quanti? che
spazzerei dalla faccia della terra tutti quanti gli osservatorii astronomici? Il
telescopio, il telescopio, sissignore, la nostra rovina! ha rovinato
l’umanità—sissignore—il telescopio! Perché, mentre l’occhio guarda di
sotto, dalla lente piccola, e vede grande ciò che la natura
provvidenzialmente aveva voluto farci vedere piccolo, l’anima che fa?
salta a guardar di sopra, l’anima, dalla lente più grande; e il telescopio
allora che diventa? Un terribile strumento, un microscopio formidabile,
che subissa la terra e l’uomo e tutte le nostre glorie e grandezze.26
Though the notion that Copernicus’s discovery that the Earth is not the center of
the universe caused man to feel small was not original to Pirandello, his unique execution
of the inverted telescope offers the reader an uncharted creative coping mechanism of
26
The original version of the novella, “Dal naso al cielo” (“From the Nose to the Sky”) (1907),
discussed in Chapter Two of this dissertation, contains the earliest reference to the reverse, or inverted,
telescope. This passage, fully quoted and translated here, is found in the original version of “Dal naso al
cielo” (first published in “Il Marzocco,” April 7th, 1907), but is omitted in subsequent printings. In the
following passage (continued from above), the spiritually progressive scientist Vernoni debates with his
former, traditional science-oriented professor. Impassioned, Vernoni explains why the telescope has ruined
humanity: “Piccolo? Ma scusi, signor professore, dice sul serio? Ma se l’uomo può intendere e concepire la
infinita sua piccolezza, vuol dire ch’egli intende e concepisce l’infinita grandezza dell’Universo. E come si
può dir piccolo, dunque, l’uomo? Lei scherza! Piccolo? Ma dentro di me dev’esserci per forza, intende? per
forza qualcosa di questo infinito, se no io non lo intenderei, come non lo intende quell’albero, putacaso, o il
mio cappello…Qualcosa che, se io affisso gli occhi nel cielo, egregio signore professore, s’apre, e diventa,
come niente, plaga dello spazio, in cui roteano mondi, dico mondi, di cui sento e compredo la formidabile
grandezza. E vuole, scusi, vuole ch’io chiuda questi occhi che la natura mi ha fatti così penetranti e così
desiderosi si vedere, di scoprire, su su, una ragione che m’appaghi e m’acquieti, per ristringermi qua allo
studio dei sassolini, dei pesciolini, dei moscherini? … Scienza, non dico di no! ma come vuole che mi
contenti, signor professore?’” (TLN 2: 1008-1011).
[“Cursed telescope! Do you believe I would break all of them? That I would wipe all the
astronomical observatories from the face of the earth? The telescope, the telescope, yes Sir, our ruin! It
ruined humanity—yes Sir—the telescope! Because while the eye looks from the smaller lens and sees big
that which nature providentially had intended for us to see as small, what does the soul do? The soul jumps
to look through the bigger lens at the other end and the telescope therefore becomes a terrible instrument, a
dreadful microscope that ruins the land and man and all our greatness and glories. Small? But excuse me,
Professor, are you serious? But if man is able to understand and conceptualize the huge infinity of his
smallness, it means he can also understand and conceptualize the infinite greatness of the universe. And
how is one able to say small, meanwhile, man? You’re joking! Small? But inside me must be something of
this infiniteness, of course, understand? inside of me, if not, I would not understand it, like that tree doesn’t
understand it, maybe, or my hat. Something that if I fix my eye in the sky, it opens itself, and becomes like
nothing, a region of space, in which worlds rotate, I say worlds, of which I feel and understand the dreadful
greatness. And you want that I close these eyes that nature made so penetrating for me and so desiring to
see, to discover, up up, a reason that satisfies me and quiets me, to restrict myself in the study of small
rocks and small fish and gnats? Science, I won’t deny it! but how do you want me to be make myself
happy, Professor?’”]
28
detachment for dealing with his Napolean complex in the universe. According to
Pirandello, when man, from his position on Earth, looks through the smaller to the larger
end of the telescope, the immensity of the universe is inconceivable and overwhelming.
While man stands still, viewing the infinite stars, his soul unconsciously panics as its
vehicle (man), no longer feels grounded or adequate in the world. As Pirandello conveys
in Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal), the soul, having its own needs, acts
independently from the spirit and consciousness (which are influenced heavily by societal
dictates), and does whatever it needs to do in order to right itself:
Le anime hanno un loro particular modo d’intendersi, d’entrare in intimità,
fino a darsi del tu, mentre le nostre persone sono tuttavia impacciate nel
commercio delle parole comuni, nella schiavitù delle esigenze sociali. Han
bisogni lor proprii e loro proprie aspirazioni le anime, di cui il corpo non
si dà per inteso, quando veda l’impossibilità di soddisfarli e di tradurli in
atto. (Tr 1: 459)
Our spirits have their own private way of understanding one another, of
becoming intimate, while our external persons are still trapped in the
commerce of ordinary words, in the slavery of social rules. Souls have
their own needs and their own ambitions, which the body ignores when it
sees that it’s impossible to satisfy them or achieve them. (Trans. William
Weaver 137)
Pirandello explains that it is his duty as a humorist to reveal the sentiment of the
opposite, and he does this by inverting the telescope so that man’s soul can gain a more
accurate perspective.27 In “L’umorismo,” Pirandello describes the telescope as the
discovery that “dealt us the coup de grâce”:
27
In “L’umorismo,” Pirandello illustrates his process of humor, and therefore, the emergence of the
“feeling of the opposite,” in the well-known example of the “vecchia signora” (old lady). This elderly
woman, whose hair is dyed and smeared with ointment and who is made up like an exotic parrot, appears
on the exterior to be the opposite of what a respectable older woman ought to be. At first glance, her
appearance is laughable and she seems completely ridiculous. The initial, superficial comic reaction, the
instinct to laugh, is what Pirandello terms the “perception of the opposite,” and it is the only reaction that
will occur if reflection does not take place. However, for the humorist Pirandello, reflection interjects itself
and suggests that perhaps the old lady does not want to dress in such a way and she is making herself up in
such a manner “only because she pitifully deceives herself into believing” that if she does so, she will be
29
Ci diede il colpo di grazia la scoperta del telescopio: altra macchinetta
infernale, che può fare il pajo con quella che volle regalarci la natura. Ma
questa l’abbiamo inventata noi, per non esser da meno. Mentre l’occhio
guarda di sotto, dalla lente piú piccola, e vede grande ciò che la natura
provvidenzialmente aveva voluta farci veder piccolo, l’anima nostra, che
fa? salta a guardare di sopra, dalla lente piú grande, e il telescopio allora
diventa un terribile strumento, che subissa la terra e l’uomo e tutte le
nostre glorie e grandezze. (Spsv 156)
It was the discovery of the telescope which dealt us the coup de grâce:
another infernal little mechanism which could pair up with the one nature
chose to bestow upon us. But we invented this one so as not to be inferior.
While our eye looks from below through the smaller lens, and sees as big
all that nature had providentially wanted us to see small, what does our
soul do? It jumps to look from above through the larger lens, and as a
consequence the telescope becomes a terrible instrument, which sinks the
earth and man and all our glories and greatness. (Trans. Antonio Illiano
142)
Though not man’s intention, as Pirandello explains, the telescope caused man to feel
inferior. The invention was meant to allow man to access knowledge of the universe that
was previously unavailable, however, this “infernal little mechanism” displaces man’s
soul and consequently, makes his existence seem small and meaningless in the vast
universe. Fortunately, Pirandello adds, it is his duty as a humorist to reflect on a more
profound level than the ordinary person. In order to provoke the feeling of the opposite,
Pirandello literally inverts the function the telescope and reveals another, more positive
perspective:
Fortuna che è proprio della riflessione umoristica il provocare il
sentimento del contrario; il quale, in questo caso, dice: — Ma è poi
veramente cosí piccolo l’uomo, come il telescopio rivoltato ce lo fa
vedere? Se egli può intendere e concepire l’infinita sua piccolezza, vuol
attractive and still desired by her much younger husband. Once reflection presents the possibility of another
and much more profound reason for the external appearance of the woman, the laughable element, the
superficial “feeling of perception” shifts to the “feeling of the opposite,” forcing the witness to enter deeper
into awareness (See “L’umorismo” Part Two, II).
perception of the opposite ! REFLECTION ! feeling of the opposite
(comic reaction)
(humor)
30
dire ch’egli intende e concepisce l’infinita grandezza dell’universo. E
come si può dir piccolo dunque l’uomo? (Spsv 157)
Fortunately, it is in the nature of humoristic reflection to provoke the
feeling of the opposite, which in this case says, “But is man really as small
as he looks when we see him through an inverted telescope? If he can
understand and conceive of his infinite smallness, it means he understands
and conceives of the infinite greatness of the universe. How, then, can one
say that man is small? (Trans. Illiano 142)
In essence, the telescope becomes a conductor for reflection in the humorist sense; it is
the conduit that allows the humorist to demonstrate the move from the perception of the
opposite to the sentiment of the opposite. In “L’umorismo” Pirandello describes
consciousness as an inner mirror, and emphasizes that it is not a creative power or an
internal light distinct from thought. Consciousness, or the mirror, is always internally
present, however, circumstance will dictate its capacity to reflect and the result of its
reflections. Pirandello explains the consciousness as distinct from the spirit:
La coscienza non rischiara tutto lo spirito; segnatamente per l’artista essa
non è un lume distinto dal pensiero, che permetta alla volontà di attingere
in lei come in un Tesoro d’immagini e d’idee. La coscienza, in soma, non
è una Potenza creatrice, ma lo specchio interiore in cui il pensiero si
rimira; si può dire anzi ch’essa sia il pensiero che vede se stesso,
assistendo a quello che fa spontaneamente. (Spsv 126)
Consciousness does not illuminate the whole realm of the spirit;
particularly in a creative artist consciousness is not an inner light distinct
from thought, which might allow the will to draw from it images and ideas
as if from a rich source. Consciousness, in short, is not a creative power,
but an inner mirror in which thought contemplates itself. One could say
rather that consciousness is thought which sees itself watching over what
it does spontaneously. (Trans. Illiano 112)
The inverted telescope, therefore, is the instrument that allows for the facilitation
of inner vision and the nurturing of intuition. The ultimate lesson from Pirandello
regarding consciousness is that man must reflect on his thoughts. It is not enough to have
a thought and either act on in it or not act on it—one must thoughtfully consider his
31
mind’s processes through reflection and meditation so that personal intuition can
develop and evolve. If, for Pirandello, consciousness is the inner mirror that allows
man’s thoughts to be reflected, the humorist must manipulate the angle of telescope’s
mirrors so as to bring the proper sentiments into focus. In inverting the telescope, it is
Pirandello’s hope that man regains his feeling of importance in the universe merely by
becoming aware, via his consciousness, of his powers of understanding and conceiving.
Pirandello asks, “Non è anche qui illusorio il limite, e relativo al poco lume nostro, della
nostra individualità?” [“Is it not possible that the limits of our individuality are illusory
and have to do with our dim-sightedness?”]; he then suggests, “Forse abbiamo sempre
vissuto, sempre vivremo con l’universo; anche ora, in questa forma nostra, partecipiamo
a tutte le manifestazioni dell’universo?” [“Perhaps we have always lived and shall
always live with the universe; perhaps even now in our present form, we participate in
all the manifestations of the universe”] (Spsv 156, Trans. Illiano 141). If man can
conceive that he is infinitely small, then he can also understand that the universe is
infinitely vast; although man’s physicality in the universe is technically small, his ability
to work with his consciousness, to reflect and disassemble thoughts, and to recognize
contrasts makes him infinitely valuable and integral to the universe as well. Pirandello’s
sentiment resembles the anthroposophist Rudolf Steiner’s statement, “If the cosmic
whole informs all of its parts—then centrality is inescapable: each of us is at the very
center of existence” (Burton and Grandy 225).
Jacopo Maraventano: Pirandello’s original Doctor-Philosopher
Sappiamo tutti, purtroppo, a che mai essi han ridotto ora la terra, questa
povera nostra terra! Un atomo astrale incommensurabilmente piccolo, una
trottoletta volgarissima lanciata un bel giorno dal sole e aggirantesi intorno
32
a lui, così, per lo spazio, su immutabili orme. Che è divenuto l’uomo? Che
è divenuto questo microcosmo, questo re dell’universo? Ahi povero re! 28
The short story, “Pallottoline!” (“Little Pellets!”) (1898),29 begins with an
exclamation of the date: “Ventotto agosto. Benone!” [“The twenty-eighth of August.
Very good!”] The narrator is about to explain why this date is so fortuitous when the
voices of passersby interrupt the initial brief narration. People are told to be quiet
because, “Il professore studia!” [“The professor is studying!”], and the professor, the man
examining the calender, immediately closes the door. The narrator points out that his
book is open to page 124, which reads: “L’universo è finito o infinito? Questione antica.
È certo che a noi riesce assolutamente impossibile…” [“The universe is finite or infinite?
Age-old question. It is certain that for us to reach is absolutely impossible…”] (TLN 1:
433); however, no explanation of this passage is offered. The reader is then told that
people are there for the view of the lakes of Albano and Nemi, surrounding Monte Cave.
There is an immediate emphasis on the heavy haze as the narrator explains that the days
of humid and dense fog have already begun to inhibit the delightful view of the lakes.
The reader is finally introduced to the protagonist, Professor Jacopo Maraventano, who
for the purpose of weather science, is shut in the small room of the Osservatorio
Meteorologico (Meteorological Observatory), and cursing the invading fog. The
observatory is on the top floor of an ancient convent, situated with the adjacent little
church on the summit of the mount. The juxtaposition of the scientific observatory,
28
This passage is from “Arte e coscienza d’oggi.” Translation: “We all know, unfortunately, that
they have now reduced the earth, this our poor land! An immeasurably small astral atom, a vulgar spinning
top launched one fine day from the sun and revolving itself around him, so, through space, upon immutable
footsteps. What has become of man? What has become of this microcosm, this king of the universe? Alas,
poor king!” (Spsv 896)
29
“Pallottoline!” was published for the first time in “L’illustrazione italiana” on March 6, 1898,
and was republished in the conclusion of the collection Quand’ero matto (When I Was Mad) in 1902. It was
later included in La giara (The Jar), the eleventh volume of “Novelle per un anno” (1928) (TLN 1: 1114).
33
located on the top floor of an empty convent, subtly forewarns the reader of the
forthcoming polemic in narrative concerning the creation of the universe. Maraventano
and his family who “pativa per tutto l’inverno i rigori crudissimi, la desolazione della
neve, l’esiliante assedio della nebbia” [“suffered through the crudest rigors of winter, the
desolation of the snow, the exiled siege of the fog”], live in this remote place because of
Maraventano’s vocation as a scientist and they entertain only a few tourists in the
summer months (TLN 1: 433). The professor is always busy studying, as his wife is
forced to tell the visitors with a sigh, so she and her daughter are always prepared to
demonstrate the use of the meteorological instruments and to answer any questions the
visitors may have. The narrator explains Maraventano’s studies and his disdain for the
visitors:
Studiava davvero il Maraventano, o almeno stava immerso tutto il giorno
nella lettura di certi libracci che trattavano d’astronomia, unico suo
pascolo. La lettura però andava a rilento, poiché egli si lasciava distrarre
dalla fantasia, rapire da ogni frase per le infinite plaghe dello spazio, da
cui non sapeva poi ridiscendere più, come la moglie avrebbe disiderato.
Ma ridiscendere perché? Per mostrare lì alla gente che veniva a
frastornarlo, a seccarlo, e da cui una così sterminata distanza lo
allontanava, come agisse un pluviomentro o un anemometro, per far
vedere i sismografi o i barometri? (TLN 1: 435)
Maraventano really studied, or at least he was immersed all day in the
reading of certain books that dealt with astronomy, his only nourishment.
The reading was slow, however, since he let himself be distracted by
fantasy, to ravish each sentence for the infinite expanses of space, from
which he no longer knew how then to descend again, as his wife would
have desired. But why go back down? To show to the people that came
there to distract him, to annoy him, and from which such a vast distance
estranged him, how a rain gauge and an anemometer work, or to show
them the seismographs or the barometers?
The seminal text, L’Astronomie populaire (Popular Astronomy) (1880) by French
astronomer Camille Flammarion, is most likely one of the astronomy books referred to in
34
the passage above. In a letter dated 1897, Pirandello asked for a copy of this book to be
sent to him immediately.30 Maraventano, immersed in his cosmological studies,
appreciates and becomes almost obsessed with man’s position in the infinite universe.
Feeling the same infinite distance of space between himself and other people, he alienates
himself physically, as well as emotionally, from others.
The desolation of the convent is reiterated as the narrator returns to the
description of the opaque and humid air. Maraventano’s exile there clearly seems
voluntary and his sanity is questioned: “Sembrava certi giorni che tutta l’aria si fosse
raddensata in un fumo bianchiccio, umido, accecante: e allora la vetta del monte restava
come esiliata dal mondo, e dalla spianata non si sarebbe potuto scorgere neanche a un
passo il convento. E tuttavia quell’ultimo matto resisteva lì” [“Some days it seemed that
all the air became thicker like a whitish smoke, moist, blinding: and so the peak of the
mountain remained as exiled from the world, and one would not have been able to
discern even one step of the convent from the esplanade. Yet that last mad man endured
there”] (TLN 1: 435). The narrator describes Maraventano as “matto” (“mad”),
presumably for staying in such a remote location, and he then recounts another night in
which the “nebbia fittissima” [“very thick fog”], metaphorically and literally, estranges
30
In a letter dated August 21, 1897, Pirandello writes: “Giovanni mi farebbe un vero regalo se mi
fa spedire subito il libro fel Flammarion, L’Astronomie populaire (credo che si chiami così); mi bisogna per
una novella che ho in composizione” (Tutte le novelle vol. 1: 1115). In Popular Astronomy, Flammarion
writes: “But the torch of progress was lit and could not be extinguished. The developments of geography
proved that our world has the form of a sphere. The earth was then represented as an enormous ball placed
in the centre of the universe, and it was supposed that the sun, moon, planets, and stars turned round us, in
circles drawn one beyond the other, as appearances seemed to indicate. For about two thousand years
astronomers observed attentively the apparent revolutions of the heavenly bodies, and this attentive study
gradually showed them a large number of irregularities and inexplicable complications, until at last they
recognised that they were deceived as to the earth’s position, in the same way that they had been deceived
as to its stability. The immortal Copernicus, in particular, discussed with perseverance the earth’s motion,
already previously suspected for two thousand years, but always rejected by man’s self-love, and when this
learned Polish canon bid adieu to our world in the year 1543 he bequeathed to science his great work,
which demonstrated clearly the long-standing error of mankind” (J. Ellard Gore, trans. 6).
35
him from his daughter (TLN 1: 435). This particularly foggy night, Maraventano hears,
yet has difficulty seeing, his daughter Didina and her summer lover talking about his
departure— an indication that, “l’inverno si stabilisse finalmente lassù” [“the winter has
finally stabilized itself down there”] (TLN 1: 436). He tells her that he must leave, and
though he promises to return, she insists that he will not come back. The professor
interrupts their private conversation, asking his daughter if she were able to see him
through the fog. The disappointed Didina, however, had already disappeared in a flurry of
tears to take refuge in her mother’s arms.
Officially winter, Maraventano is free from distraction and finally able to fully
concentrate on his studies. His reclusion allows him to feel like the king of his castle,
with nothing but sky before him: “Jacopo Maraventano restava assoluto padrone della
solitudine, libero in mezzo alla nebbia, signore dei venti, piccolo su quell’alta punta
nevosa al cospetto del cielo che da ogni parte lo abbracciava e nel quale d’ora in poi
poteva tornare a immergersi, a naufragare, non più infastidito o distratto” [“Jacopo
Maraventano remained absolute master of solitude, free in the midst of the fog, lord of
the winds, small on that lofty snowy point in the presence of the sky that from all parts
embraced him, and in which from now on he could return to submerging himself, to
shipwreck, no longer annoyed or distracted”] (TLN 1: 436).31 Pirandello perhaps
31
There is an interesting comparison to note between Maraventano’s solitude and his penetrating
thought into the infinite sky and Giacomo Leopardi’s poem, “L’infinito” (“The Infinite”). Leopardi’s
poem, like Maraventano, references the powerful effect of contemplating the immense space of the sky
and both works employ the metaphor of the shipwreck to explain their intense submergence of thought.
Leopardi writes: “Ma sedendo e mirando, interminati spazi di là da quella / e sovrumani silenzi, e
profondissima quïete / io nel pensier mi fingo, ove per poco il cor non si spaura. […] Così tra questa
immensità s’annega il pensier mio / e il naufragar m’è dolce in questo mare” [“But sitting here gazing, I
find that endless spaces beyond that hedge and more-than-human silences are fashioned in my thought; so
much that almost my heart fills up with fear. […] And so in this immensity my thought is drowned and I
enjoy my sinking in this sea”] (Leopardi 37; J.G. Nichols, trans. 53).
36
employs the metaphor of shipwreck to describe Maraventano as drowning in his
contempt and frustration, with little hope of salvation. Pirandello perhaps also alluding
to shipwreck metaphor applied by Friedrich Nietzsche in his statement regarding the
illusion of science in The Birth of Tragedy. Nietzsche writes:
But science, spurred by its powerful illusion, speeds irresistibly toward its
limits where its optimism, concealed in the essence of logic, suffers
shipwreck. For the periphery of the circle of science has an infinite
number of points; and while there is no telling how this circle could ever
be surveyed completely, noble and gifted men nevertheless reach, e’er half
their time and inevitably, such boundary points on the periphery from
which one gazes into what defies illumination. When they see to their
horror how logic coils up at these boundaries and finally bites its own
tail—suddenly the new form of insight breaks through, tragic insight
which, merely to be endured, needs art as a protection and remedy.
(Nietzsche 98).
Nietzsche’s passage embodies Pirandello’s mission as an artist to expose the illusion of
science as concealed by logic and to demonstrate the disproportionate perception of man
as the result of such illusions. As suggested by Nietzsche, when man finally tires of
intellectualizing that which cannot understood through reason, the humorist—concerned
reflection rather than reason—will be in position to provide protection through
awareness of contradictions and illusions. In “Arte e coscienza d’oggi,” Pirandello
imparts his belief that art is indeed capable of producing the unique secular book that
would point the way out of the tumult and devastation” (Caputi 18). Returning to the
metaphor of the stormy sea, Pirandello writes of this hope: “E sorgerà forse anche adesso
il genio che stendendo l’anima alla tempesta che appressa, al mare che dilagherà
rompendo ogni argine e ingojando le rovine, creerà il libro unico, secolare, come in altri
tempi è avvenuto” [“He will rise, perhaps even now, the genius who extending the soul
to the approaching storm, to the sea that will flood, breaking every embankment and
37
engulf the ruins, he will create the unique book, secular, as has happened in other ages”]
(Spsv 906).
In the passage that follows, Pirandello describes Maraventano as having been
guided by the imagination to perceive humans as microcosmic particles in the infinite
universe. His pessimistic sentiments, and later solution to this crisis—clearly influenced
by Blaise Pascal’s Disproportion of Man32—gets at the core of Pirandello’s illustration
of man’s reduced view of himself as the result of science:
32
Pirandello’s passage is rife with similarities to Blaise Pascal’s Disproportion of Man from
Pensées (with the exception of Pascal’s references to God), in which Pascal discusses the infinity of the
universe and the tiny microcosms of nature: “I would like us to look also at ourselves and decide whether
we have some kind of proportions with [nature], by comparing what we would do with these two things. So
let us contemplate the whole of nature in its full and mighty majesty, let us disregard the humble objects
around us, let us look at this scintillating light, placed like an eternal lamp to illuminate the universe. Let
the earth appear a pinpoint to us beside the vast arc this star describes, and let us be dumb-founded that this
vast arc is itself is only a delicate pinpoint in comparison with the arc encompassed by the stars tracing
circles in the firmament. But if our vision stops there, let our imagination travel further afield; our
imagination will grow weary of conceiving before nature of producing. The whole of the visible world is
merely an imperceptible speck in the ample bosom of nature, no idea comes near to it. It is pointless trying
to inflate our ideas beyond imaginable spaces, we generate only atoms at the cost of the reality of things. It
is an infinite sphere whose centre is everywhere and its circumference is nowhere. In the end, it is the
greatest perceivable sign of God’s overwhelming power that our imagination loses itself in this thought. Let
man, having returned to himself, consider what he is compared to what is in existence; let him see himself
as if lost within this forgotten outpost of nature and let us, from within this little prison cell where we find
oursleves, by which I mean the universe, learn to put a correct value on the earth, its kingdoms, its cities,
and ourselves. What is man in the infinity? But to present ourselves with another equally astonishing
wonder, let us search for what we know in the tiniest things. In its miniscule body a mite shows us parts
incomparably tinier: legs with joints, veins in its legs, blood in its veins, humours in the blood, drops in the
humours, vapors in the drops. Subdividing these last divisions, we will exhaust ourselves. Let the last
object which we can arrive at be the subject of our discussion. We think that there, perhaps, is the ultimate
microcosm of nature. I want to make us see within a new abyss. I want to depict for us not only the visible
universe, but the immensity of what can be conceived about nature within the confines of this miniature
atom. Let us see in it an infinity of universes, of which each has its own firmament, planets, earth, in the
same proportion as the visible world, in this land of animals, and ultimately of mites, in which we will find
the same things as in the first universe, and will find again in others the same thing, endlessly and
perpetually. Let us lose ourselves in these wonders, which are as startling in their minuteness as others are
in their immensity. For who will not be amazed that our body, which was not perceptible in an
imperceptible universe within the whole, is now a giant, a world, or rather an everything, in comparison
with this nothingness we can’t penetrate? Anyone who looks at himself this way will be terrified by
himself, and, thinking himself supported by the size nature has given us suspended between two gulfs of
the infinite and the void, will tremble at nature’s wonders. I believe that as his curiosity changes to
admiration, he will be more disposed to contemplate them in silence then search them out with
presumption. For in the end, what is humanity in nature? A nothingness compared to the infinite,
everything compared to a nothingness, a mid-point between nothing and everything, infinitely far from
understanding the extremes; the end of things and their beginning are insuperably hidden for him in an
impenetrable secret. What therefore can he imagine? He is equally incapable of seeing the nothingness
38
Assistendo, come gli pareva d’assistere con la fantasia, nel fondo dello
spazio, alla prodigiosa attività, al lavoro incessante della materia eterna,
alla preparazione e formazione di nuovi soli nel grembo delle nebulose, al
germogliare dei mondi dall’etere infinito: che cosa diventava per lui
questa molecola solare, chiamata Terra, addirittura invisibile fuori del
sistema planetario, cioè di questo punto microscopico dello spazio
cosmico? Che cosa diventavano questi polviscoli infinitesimali chiamati
uomini; che cosa, le vicende della vita, i casi giornalieri, le afflizioni e le
miserie particolari, le generali calamità? E di questo suo disprezzo, non
che della Terra, ma di tutto il sistema solare, e della stima che si era
ridotto a far delle cose umane, considerandole da tanta altezza, avrebbe
voluto far partecipi moglie e figliuola, che si lamentavano di continuo ora
per il freddo ora per la solitudine, traendo da ogni piccola infelicità
argomento di lagni e sospiri. (TLN 1: 436)
Assisting, as it seemed to him assisted by the imagination, in the deep of
space, to the prodigious activity, to the painstaking work of eternal matter,
to the preparation and formation of new suns in the womb of the
nebulae,33 to the yielding of worlds from infinite ether: what did this solar
molecule, called Earth, become for him, invisible even outside of the
planetary system, that is of this microscopic point of cosmic space? What
became of these infinitesimal tiny particles called men; what of the
vicissitudes of life, the daily cases, the afflictions and particular miseries,
the general calamity? And of this contempt, not that of the Earth, but of
the whole solar system, and of the estimation that it reduced itself to make
of human affairs, considering them from such heights, he would have
wanted to involve his wife and daughter, who complained for continuous
hours about the cold hours of solitude, drawing from every little affliction
reason for complaints and sighs.
Maraventano tries to explain his philosophy to his wife and daughter: “Parlava loro delle
meraviglie del cielo” [“He speaks to them of the wonders of the sky”], while they,
“infreddolite” [“chilled to the bone”], are gathered in the kitchen, trying to keep warm by
from where he came, and the infinite in which he is covered. What else may he do except to perceive some
appearance of the middle of things, eternally despairing to know their principles or ends? All things arise
from nothingness and are carried to infinity. Who can follow these astonishing processes? The author of
these marvels can comprehend them. All others cannot. Failing to contemplate these infinities, men have
recklessly taken it on themselves to study nature, as if it had the same proportions as they did. It is a mighty
strange thing that they wished to comprehend the principles of things, and to arrive from there at a
knowlege of everything, with a presumption as infinite as their object. For there is no doubt that such a plan
cannot be conceived without presumption, or capacity as infinite as nature’s” (Honor Levi, trans. 66).
33
A nebula is defined as: “A cloudlike, luminous or dark mass composed of gases and small
amounts of dust” (Webster’s Encylopedic Unabridged Dictionary 955). This definition is my addition for
clarification of terms used in metaphors recurrent in Pirandello’s collection.
39
the fire (TLN 1: 437). As a point of departure, Maraventano ask them to imagine that each
star is a world unto itself similar to ours; the stars are accompanied by planets and
satellites that rotate around them like the planets and satellites of our solar system around
the sun. He asks them to imagine that our solar system is transported to a distance in
space equal to the closest stars. He then asks what our great sun would be reduced to in
respect to us, and answers that it would become a tiny luminous point amongst other the
stars in the sky. His wife and daughter begin to lose patience with his explanation; but
Maraventano, though growing frustrated, continues his explanation that a change of
cosmic perspective of is necessary to understand man’s illusory claims in the name of
God and science. Condemning the man who reasons and attributes the creation of the
universe to God, the scientist-philosopher says:
Ma veniamo ai nostri grandi pianeti. Care mie, alla distanza che vi ho
detto, s’involerebbero addirittura al nostro sguardo, tutti, meno, forse,
Giove … forse! Ma non crediate che potreste scorgerlo a occhio nudo!
Forse con qualche telescopio di prim’ordine; e non lo so di certo.
Pallottoline, care mie, pallottoline! Quanto a noi, alla nostra Terra, non se
ne sospetterebbe nemmeno l’esistenza. [. . .] Pensare … pensare che la
stella Alfa della costellazione del Centauro, vale a dire la stella più vicina
a questo nostro cece, alias il signor pianetino Terra, dista da noi trentatré
miliardi e quattrocento milioni di chilometri! [. . .] Pensare che la Capra
dista da noi seicentosessantatré miliardi di chilometri, e che la sua luce,
prima d’arrivare a noi, con quel po’ po’ di velocità che v’ho detto, ci
mette settant’anni e qualche mese, e, se si tien conto dei calcoli di certi
astronomi, la luce emessa da alcuni remoti ammassi ci mette cinque
milioni d’anni, come mi fate ridere, asini! L’uomo, questo verme che c’è
e non c’è, l'uomo che, quando crede di ragionare, è per me il più stupido
fra tutte le trecento mila specie animali che popolano il globo terraqueo,
l’uomo ha il coraggio di dire: “Io ho inventato la ferrovia!” E che cos’è la
ferrovia? Non te la comparo con la velocità della luce, perché ti farei
impazzire; ma in confronto allo stesso moto di questo cece Terra che
cos’è? Ventinove chilometri, a buon conto, ogni minuto secondo; hai
dunque inventato il lumacone, la tartaruga, la bestia che sei! E questo
medesimo animale uomo pretende di dare un dio, il suo Dio a tutto
l’Universo! (TLN 1: 437-439)
40
But now we come to our large planets. My dears, to the distance that I
told you, even they would disappear before our eyes, all but perhaps
Jupiter … maybe! But don’t think you could see it with the naked eye!
Perhaps with some first-class telescope, and I do not know for sure. Little
pellets, my dear, pellets! As for us, our Earth, it would not even suspect
its existence. [. . .] To think…to think that the star Alpha of the
constellation of Centaurus, i.e. the star closest to our chickpea, aka Mr.
planet Earth, thirty-three billion four hundred million miles away from us!
[. . .] To think that the Goat is 663 billion miles from us, and that its light,
before reaching us, with that little bit of speed that I told you, it takes
seventy years and some months, and, if one takes into account the
calculations of some astronomers, the light emitted by some remote
clusters takes five million years, how you make me laugh, asses! Man,
this worm that is there and is not there, the man who, when he believes in
reasoning, is for me the most stupid of all the three hundred thousand
animal species that inhabit the terraqueous globe, the man who has
courage to say: “I invented the railroad.” And what is the railroad? I
won’t compare it for you with the speed of light, because I would make
you crazy, but what is it compared to the same motion of this chickpea
Earth? Twenty-nine kilometers, with good reason, every second; you have
therefore invented the slug, the tortoise, the beast that you are! And this
same animal man claims to attribute to a god, the whole universe to his
God!
Maraventano proposes that if man were to distance himself, using a special kind of
telescope that enabled him to look back at Earth as though from far away, he would see
that humans are only “pallottoline”—tiny particles compared to the infinite universe.
Maraventano does not mean to make his wife and daughter feel small or devalue their
existence; his intention is to help them understand that humans are only one humble
manifestation of the entire universe. According to Maravantano, the only way to restore
accuracy of proportion between man’s perception of himself and the universe is to
equilibrate the incongruity between man’s reduced view of himself, effected when
Copernicus proposed that the Earth is not the center of the universe, and the inflated view
of humans as intellectual super-forces with the ability to invent instruments that
propagate technological advancements and supposedly enhance the human experience.
Pirandello echoes Blaise Pascal’s sentiment that one must consciously use the
41
imagination against the imagination to re-proportion his view and reverse the extreme
misperception that his existence is either meaningless or exceedingly important. Man
must actively imagine and create a new vision to replace the inaccurate perceptions that
were imposed the imagination through unconscious imagination. As Pirandello frequently
emphasizes, only when the imaginative spirit is freed from the constraints of logic, will
the imagination reveal genuine reality and create truths instead of fictions.34 However,
whereas Pascal argues that it is pointless to inflate one’s imagination with the aim of
understanding the vastness of the universe because it is clearly the “greatest perceivable
sign of God’s overwhelming power that our imagination loses itself in this thought,”
Maraventano tries to explain that man needs to expand his imagination even further to see
that God is merely man’s construct that enables him to cope with his feelings of
nothingness in the infinite universe and that He is a superficial means of accounting for
nature’s innate wonders. His wife begs him not to blaspheme but Maraventano, a
professor of cosmology, solidly believes that man is foolish to say that God is solely
responsible for creating the entire infinite universe. He shouts at his wife:
Temi che Dio, perché io bestemmio, come tu dici, ti mandi un fulmine?
C’è il parafulmine, sciocca. Vedi dond’è nato il vostro Dio? Da codesta
paura. Ma sul serio potete credere, pretendere che un’idea o un sentimento
nati in questo niente pieno di paura che si chiama uomo debba essere il
Dio, debba essere quello che ha formato l’Universo infinito? (TLN 1: 439)
Do you fear that God, because I swear, as you say, will send you a bolt of
lightning? There is the lighting rod, stupid. See where your God is born?
From this fear. But are you seriously able to believe, to claim then an idea
or a feeling born in this nothing full of fear that one calls man must be
God, must be what formed the infinite Universe?35
34
See in “L’umorismo” Part Two, V (Spsv 145-157).
For Pirandello, the “parafulmine” (“lightning rod”), invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1749, is
another modern scientific discovery that, like the construction of the railway, is causing man to alter his
perspective of himself in the universe. He also mentions the lightning rod in the novella, “Il vecchio Dio”
(“The Old God”) (1901).
35
42
At the mention of God, the two women cover their ears and close their eyes as
Maraventano, increasingly agitated, throws a fan on the floor and waves his arms wildly,
calling them “asine” (“asses”) before shutting himself in his room without dinner (TLN 1:
439). The narrator tells the reader that such scenes occur frequently and neither Didina,
nor her mother, are interested in adapting to Maraventano’s philosophy. He calls out to
the constellations and stars, Alpha Centaurus, Sirius and Capella, asking them if they
know why his daughter is crying. He dismisses her tears, saying aloud that she is only
crying because she does not have a new dress to wear to church on Sundays: “Roba da
ridere!” [“Stuff to laugh at!”]. Didina, obviously saddened by his remark, responds
through her tears: “Roba da ridere; ma io muojo dal freddo” [“Stuff to laugh at; but I’m
dying from the cold”] (TLN 1: 439). Maraventano’s relationship with his daughter and
wife is certainly strained on account of his own bitter reasoning.
Alluding for the first time to the philosophy of distance, Maraventano resolves his
present torment by manipulating his imagination and observing his issues as though from
a distant planet. The narrator tells the reader that Maraventano’s method of
“retrospingere”—i.e. the process of pushing himself out into space so that he is far from
the Earth—is the only thing that abates his torment:
Non a parole soltanto dimostrava egli il disprezzo un cui teneva la terra e
tutte le cose della vita. Soffriva di mal di denti, e talvolta la guancia per la
furia del dolore gli si gonfiava sotto il borbone come un’anca padre abate:
ebbene, senz’altro. Retrospingeva nello spazio il sistema planetario:
spariva il sole, spariva la terra, tutto diventava niente, e con gli occhi
chiusi, fermo nella considerazione di niente, a poco a poco addormentava
il suo tormento. (TLN 1: 440)
Not only in words he showed a contempt for which held the earth and all
things in life. He suffered from toothache, and sometimes the cheek for the
fury of pain swelled under the bourbon like a being in a pleasant situation:
43
well, certainly. He pushed back the planetary system in space: the sun
disappeared, the earth disappeared, everything became nothing, and with
eyes closed, without the consideration of anything, gradually his torment
fell asleep.
The reader is offered his first glimpse at what Pirandello will officially term the filosofia
del lontano (the philosophy of distance), presented eleven years later by Dr. Paolo Post in
the article, “Da lontano” (“From a Distance”), and again proposed by Dr Fileno in “La
tragedia d’un personaggio” (“A Character’s Tragedy”). Pirandello praises Dr. Post’s
method of detachment in “Da lontano,” however, Dr. Fileno’s same strategy is far from
well received.
At the end of “Pallottoline!” the narrator says that Maraventano walks to Rome,
regardless of the season or weather, to spend time with the greatest enjoyment of his life:
the telescope. In addition to the metaphorical distance Maraventano imposes, looking
through the material instrument of the telescope provides ample fodder for his cosmic
repositioning. As Maraventano observes the magnitude of space, his pain and frustrations
diminish because everything recedes into nothingness. His solution can be surmised to be
temporary, however, as Pirandello later reveals that freedom from suffering is only
attainable by remaining present in the present. Lucio Lugnani writes, “L’unico implicito
conflitto è quello tra la saggia follia (o la folle astratta saggezza) del filosofo solitari e la
concretezza, la vitalità, l’ignoranza, la fede degli altri, ch’egli non riuscirà mai a
persuadere delle sue ragioni” [“The only implicit conflict is that between the wise folly
(or the abstract crazy wisdom) of the solitary philosopher and the pragmatism, the
vitality, the ignorance, the faith of others, that he will never be able to convince of their
rationalizations”] (TLN 1: 1119). By formulating a philosophy in which one must
consciously project his thoughts away from the present moment, Professor Maraventano
44
is merely replacing one form of reasoning and logic with another. His need to convince
and persuade others to understand and join him in his reasoning also inhibits the function
of the philosophy of distance as Maraventano cannot be freed from suffering while he is,
at the same time, continuing to reason in the present moment. In the last line of the story
Maraventano’s voice trails off as he continues to reason about distance and the size of the
earth: “Ma se la Terra è tanta …” [“But if the Earth is so …”] (TLN 1: 440). The ellipsis
indicates that his process and cycle of reasoning and logisticizing continues, perhaps ad
infinitem—leaving the reader with the sense that his contempt and need to philosophize
may never subside but will continue to agitate and annoy him for the rest of his earthly
existence.
The New Science & the Substitution of God
In the essay “Rinunzia,” as well as in the novella “Il vecchio Dio” (“The Old
God”) (1901), Pirandello presents the notion that science, with its mechanistic laws of
the universe, is but another human construction that is merely replacing the man-made
constructs of God and the ethical laws of religion. Pirandello clearly echoes Friedrich
Nietzsche’s controversial sentiment that “God is dead.” In the The Gay Science (1882),
Nietzsche writes of the madman who lights a lantern and runs into the market in the
early morning, crying inscessantly: “I seek God! I seek God!” He then tells proclaims
that God has been murdered in the pursuit of science:
“Whither is God?” he cried; “I will tell you. We have killed him—you and
I. All of us are his murderers. But how did we do this? How could we
drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire
horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun?
Whither is it moving now? Whither are we moving? Away from all suns?
Are we not plunging continually? Backward, sideward, forward, in all
directions? Is there still any up or down? Are we not straying as through
an infinite nothing? Do we not feel the breath of empty space? Has it not
45
become colder? Is not night continually closing in on us? Do we not need
to light lanterns in the morning? Do we hear nothing as yet of the noise of
the gravediggers who are burying God? Do we smell nothing as of yet of
the divine composition? Gods, too, decompose. God is dead. God remains
dead. And we have killed him. (Nietzsche181)
Like Nietszche’s madman, Pirandello integrates the notion of the lantern and the
believer’s lack of direction, and effectively stages Nietzsche’s statement that “God is
Dead”—or at least dying. In “Il vecchio Dio” Pirandello describes the protagonist,
Signore Aurelio, as wandering aimlessly in the midst of life, without purpose and having
lost all hope, illusions and wealth. The only thing that remains for him is his faith in
God, who is for him like a comforting light: “Gli era solo rimasta la fede in Dio ch’era,
tra il buio angoscioso della rovinata esistenza, come un lanternino: un lanternino ch’egli,
andando così curvo, riparava alla meglio, con trepida cura, dal gelido soffio degli ultimi
disinganni” [“The only thing that remained for him was faith in God, that was among the
dark agony of ruined lives, like a little lantern: a little lantern that he, going so bent,
repaired for the better, with anxious care, from the icy blast of recent disappointments”]
(TLN 1: 590). The simile Pirandello uses comparing God to a lantern may initially seem
as though he intends for God to be the guiding light of salvation for a disappointed man.
However, as the reader of Pirandello will come to learn in Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late
Mattia Pascal), the lanternino (“little lantern”) is actually symbolic of a false belief or
illusion. The dark shadow of anguish, in which man finds himself lost, is only cast and
made visible because of the fictitious light of illusion from the little lantern that we all
carry with in us. Pirandello argues that if the false light were not within us in the first
place, man would not have to create illusions, such as believing in God, or construct
houses such as churches, to encapsulate our vain illusions. Believing death to be “una
46
liberazione” [“a liberation”] for those who lived well on earth, Signore Aurelio hopes to
live his last years with a “coscienza tranquilla” [“a tranquil conscience”], without fearing
his passage from life to death and consoled by knowing that he did not do anything
wrong. He maintains his faith the best he can despite the doubts accumulating by
science, especially regarding death.36 The doubts, for Signore Aurelio, are like dark
clouds blocking his light from God:
Conosceva i dubbii tenebrosi accumulati dalla scienza come tanti nuvoloni
su la luminosa spiegazione che la fede ci dà della morte, sì per averne fatta
lettura in qualche libro, e sì per averne quasi respirati nell’aria; e
rimpiangeva che il Dio dei suoi giorni, anche per lui, credente, non potesse
più esser quello che in sei dì aveva creato il mondo, e s’era nel settimo
riposato. (TLN 1: 591).
He knew the dark doubts accumulated by science like so many clouds
covering the bright explanation that faith gives us about death, yes for
having read about them in some books, and yes for having almost breathed
them in the air; and he regretted that the God of his days, even for him,
believing, he could no longer be that which in six days created the world,
and had rested on the seventh.
Pirandello boldly concludes with Signore Aurelio’s dream in which the old God
dialogues with a sexton. Interestingly, God argues that his role as creator of the universe
has been replaced with a theory akin to the Big Bang Theory.37 In the following passage,
36
Psychologist Carl Jung’s explanation in “The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man” accounts for
Aurelio’s receding faith. Jung, countering Nietzsche’s argument that man is still a herd-animal, argues that
the emerging doubts concerning religion stem from man’s conscious awareness of his individual psyche:
“While man still lives like a herd-animal he has no psyche of his own, nor does he need any, except the
usual belief in immortality of the soul. But as soon as he has outgrown whatever local form of religion he
was born into—as soon as this religion can no longer embrace his life in all its fullness—then the psyche
becomes a factor in its own right which cannot be dealt with by the customary measures. It is for this
reason that we today have a psychology founded on experience, and not upon articles of faith or the
postulates of any philosophical system” (R.F.C. Hull, trans. 79).
37
It is notable that in 1901, Pirandello intuits and represents a cosmological theory that was not
officially proposed until the 1920s: “The big bang theory rests on a key assumption, namely that the
universe is expanding. Before the twentieth century, astronomers assumed that the universe had existed as
it was, forever. It wasn’t until the 1920s that theorists uncovered evidence that the universe was changing.
In 1917, Dutch astronomer Willem de Sitter showed how Albert Einstein’s calculations in his theory of
relativity could be used to describe an expanding universe. In 1922, Russian mathematician Alexander
47
God recalls a scientist, “armato del suo cannocchiale” [“armed with his telescope”], who
studied the sky and determined that there was no trace of God’s existence:
Ora, il signor Aurelio, riflettendo intorno alla vita e alla morte,
considerando amaramente ai meschini profitti dell’anima in questo tanto
decantato secolo dei lumi, rivolto col pensiero al vecchio Dio dell’intatta
fede dei padri, a poco a poco s’addormentò. E quel vecchio Dio, nel
sogno, ecco che gli venne innanzi, curvo, cadente, reggendo a fatica su le
spalle la testa enormemente barbuta e chiomata del sagrestano della
chiesa; gli sedette accanto e cominciò a sfogarsi con lui, come fanno i
vecchietti seduti sul muretto davanti ai gerontocomii:
Mali tempi, figlio mio! Vedi come mi son ridotto? Sto qui a guardia
delle panche. Di tanto in tanto, qualche forestiere. Ma non entra mica per
me, sai! Viene a visitar gli affreschi antichi e i monumenti; monterebbe
anche su gli altari per veder meglio le immagini dipinte in qualche pala!
Mali tempi, figlio mio. Hai sentito? hai letto i libri nuovi? Io, Padre
Eterno, non ho fatto nulla: tutto s’è fatto da sé, naturalmente, a poco a
poco. Non ho creato Io prima la luce, poi il cielo, poi la terra e tutto il
resto, come ti avevano insegnato ne’ tuoi gracili anni. Che! che! Non
c’entro più per nulla Io. Le nebulose, capisci? la materia cosmica … E
tutto s’è fatto da sé. Ti faccio ridere: uno c’è stato finanche, un certo
scienziato, il quale ha avuto il coraggio di proclamare che, avendo studiato
in tutti i sensi il cielo, non vi aveva trovato neppur una minima traccia
dell'esistenza mia. Di’ un po’: te lo immagini questo pover’uomo che,
armato del suo cannocchiale, saffannava sul serio a darmi la caccia per i
cieli, quando non mi sentiva dentro il suo misero coricino? Ne riderei di
cuore, tanto tanto, figliuolo mio, se non vedessi gli uomini far buon viso a
siffatte scempiaggini. Ricordo bene quand’Io li tenevo tutti in un sacro
terrore, parlando loro con la voce dei venti, dei tuoni e dei terremoti. Ora
hanno inventato il parafulmine, capisci? e non mi temono più; si sono
spiegati il fenomeno del vento, della pioggia e ogni altro fenomeno, e non
si rivolgono più a Me per ottenere in grazia qualche cosa. Bisogna,
bisogna ch’io mi risolva a lasciare la città e mi restringa a fare il
Padreterno nelle campagne: là vivono tuttora, non dico più molte, ma
alquante anime ingenue di contadini, per cui non si muove foglia d’albero
se Io noi voglia, e sono ancora Io che faccio il nuvolo e il sereno. Su, su,
andiamo, figliuolo! Anche tu qua ci stai maluccio, lo vedo. Andiamocene,
andiamocene in campagna, fra la gente timorata, fra la buona gente che
lavora. (TLN 1: 592)
Now, Mr. Aurelio, reflecting about life and death, considering bitterly
the petty profit of the soul in this so highly praised Age of Enlightenment,
Friedmann gave an exact solution for an expanding universe. Another important contributer to the big bang
theory was Georges-Henri Lemaître, a Belgian astronomer and Jesuit priest, who came to be known as the
‘Father of the Big Bang’” (Engelbert and Dupuis 7).
48
turned his thoughts to the old God, of the intact faith of the fathers, that
gradually fell asleep. And here to that old God, in the dream, came
forward the sexton of the church, bent, sagging, barely holding his
enormously long-haired and bearded head on his shoulders; he sat down
beside him and began to blow off steam with him, as do the elderly sitting
on the wall in front of homes for the aged:
Bad times, my son! Do you see how I have been reduced? I am here to
guard the benches. From time to time, some visitors. But he does not
consider me at all, you know! He comes to visit the ancient frescoes and
monuments; also he climbs up on the altars for a better view of the images
painted on some shovel! Bad times, my son. Did you hear? have you read
the new books? I, the Eternal Father, I have not done anything: everything
has been done by itself, naturally, little by little. I did not create the first
light, then the sky, then earth and all the rest, as they had taught you in
your delicate years. What! what! I don’t come into the picture at all
anymore. The nebulae, you know? the cosmic matter … And everything
has been done by itself. I’ll make you laugh: there was even one, a
scientist, who had the courage to declare that, having studied they sky in
every sense, he did not even find a trace of my existence. Tell me about it,
can you imagine this little poor man who, armed with his telescope, busily
hunting the skies seriously for me, when he didn’t feel me inside his
miserable little heart? I would laugh heartily, so much, my son, if I did not
see men look favorably upon such nonsense. I remember well when I held
them all in sacred awe, speaking to them with the voice of the winds,
thunder and earthquakes. Now they have invented the lightning rod, you
know? and they no longer fear me; they themselves have explained the
phenomenon of the wind, rain and every other phenomenon, and they no
longer turn to me to obtain something through grace. It is necessary,
necessary, that I resolve to leave the city and restrict myself to be the
Eternal Father in the countryside: they still live there, I won’t say much
more, but rather of naive souls of peasants, who don’t move of a leaf of a
tree if I don’t desire it, and I am still the One that makes the clouds and the
calm. Up, up, let’s go, son! Also you are doing poorly here, I see it. Let’s
go there, let’s go out in the countryside, among the fearing people, among
the good people who work.
In this passage, God despondently mentions the “new books” of astronomy and refers to
Professor Maraventano, the scientist “armed with his telescope,” who found no trace of
God’s existence in the infinite universe (nor felt His presence in his heart). As in
“Pallottoline!” Pirandello alludes to the nebulae, the telescope, and the lightning rod. Just
as Maraventano argues that naïve people construct the notion of God and deem Him the
49
creator of the universe because of their fear of the unknown, now God is experiencing the
same sense of displacement as more and more educated people are beginning to embrace
the scientific explanations of natural phenomena. Interestingly, Pirandello depicts God as
discriminating between the naïve souls in the country, who still fear and respect Him,
versus the progressive city-dwellers, who have access to the new books and are changing
their beliefs according to the modern scientific discoveries.
Signore Aurelio, after having heard the word of God in his dream, feels his
heartstrings pulled and he imagines the balmy air of the countryside. Suddenly he opens
his eyes and sees the Eternal Father standing before him, repeating the words from his
dream, “Andiamo, su andiamo …” [“Let’s go, up, let’s go…”]. In response to this,
Signore Aurelio, terrified by the reality of his dream, stammers: “Ma se è tanto che …”
[“But if it is so that …”] (TLN 1: 593). Signore Aurelio’s last, wavering words resemble
the lack of resolve of Professor Maraventano’s last line: “Ma se la Terra è tanta …” [“But
is the Earth is so …”] Again, the ellipsis indicates an inconclusiveness—a continuing
need to reason, to understand, to gain knowledge through observation and evidence. This
conclusion also points to the failed attempts to reach an understanding and gain
knowledge by such means of investigation.
At this moment the sexton appears, and the story ends with his poignant last
words: “La chiesa si chiude” [“The church is closed”] (TLN 1: 592). The abrupt closing
of the church and the last image of God sitting on an abandoned church pew, are
metaphors for the death of God, resembling Nietzche’s concluding statement of the
passage of the madman: “What after all are these churches now if they are not the tombs
and sepulchers of God?” (Trans. Walter Kauffman 182). Signore Aurelio, baffled by his
50
vivid dream, is forced to exit the church in a more confused state than he was before
entering the church that day. Inundated by knowledge that plunges him in all directions,
the protagonist is left suspended between God and the countryside and science and the
city.
The Philosophy of Distance
In the article, “Da lontano” (“From a Distance”) (1909),38 Pirandello presents
another doctor-philosopher: Dr. Paolo Post, inventor of the filosofia del lontano
(philosophy of distance). The philosophy of distance, similar in theory to that proffered
by Professor Maravento in “Pallottoline!” is the official name given by Dr. Post to his
method of treating the present as though one were already in the safe distance of future.
Though “Da lontano” maintains more of a fictional overtone than earlier critical essays,
with an ambiguous and playful narrative voice of one who seems to be other than
Pirandello, there is a tone of political tension and an apprehension concerning an
impending war in Europe. Contrasting Maraventano’s passionate rants, Pirandello calmly
describes a serious need for a new way and a new leader, as the lives of many are
currently in jeopardy.
In an overtly satiric manner, the article begins with an explanation that there is
one among many who can save man, and the author states that he believes to have found
this savior. Before introducing this savior (who is far from Jesus Christ), however, he
discusses the current situation in Europe. He says that luckily, in the present moment,
everything is okay; the villages destroyed by a recent earthquake will be rebuilt.
Pirandello writes, however, that even the smallest of events are able to make man lose his
38
Pirandello’s article “Da lontano” was originally published in La Preparazione (The Preparation), a
tri-weekly political-military newspaper, in Rome in February of 1909 (Spsv 1064).
51
good sense if he is not careful. He repeats that every thing today is well; though the
European nations are not entirely at peace with each other, everyone utters that the peace
will not be disturbed. He explains the importance of having a new leader/teacher:
E se noi, purtruppo, non li abbiamo, e dobbiamo prevedere che domani,
scoppiando una guerra, ci troveremmo assai male e, durando questa pace,
fors’anche peggio; d’un altro salvatore abbiamo bisogno, che ai mali oggi
lievi e domani piú gravi sappia usare un qualche rimedio efficace;
abbiamo bisogno di uno che almeno insegni a guardare le cose da un certo
lato, che ci nasconda o ci attenui le asprezze disgustose e ci insegni a
lamentarci con tristezza decente e con qualche dignità. (Spsv 1066)
And if we, unfortunately, do have not them, and we should expect that
tomorrow, a war breaks out, we would find ourselves in a very bad way
and, and during this peace, perhaps even worse; we need another savior,
who knows how to use a few effective remedy for the slight evils of today
and the more serious ones of tomorrow; we need someone who at least
teaches us to look at things from a certain side, that hides or lessens for us
the disgusting harshness and teaches us to lament with decent sadness and
with some dignity.
As he stated in the beginning, the author says he has found this leader. He will tell the
reader, but he cannot disclose this savior’s real name. He explains that, although this man
lives like a hermit among his history and philosophy books and never leaves his house or
reads the newspapers, he would be upset and the narrator would be deprived of his “lumi”
(“illuminations”). So, using a pseudonym, he calls this man “il Dottor Paulo Post” (Spsv
1066).
Pirandello then explains Dr. Post’s method of psychological detachment from
present troubles, for example, the useless minutiae and depressing information from the
daily news that is diffused to every point on the globe via the telegraph and telephones.39
Reading of such miserable quotidian particulars, and all the troubles and dangers of the
world that lack valor and other redeemable qualities, typically oppresses and saddens
39
The telegraph and telephone were recent technological inventions that contributed to Pirandello’s
skepticism of technology.
52
man. However, if one assimiliates these predicaments as though they already happened,
as if in the future and imagining all of these afflictions to be in the past, then he will not
be nearly as affected. This, the narrator says, is the method of Dr. Paolo Post, who has
proven its effectiveness in his own life: “E con questo metodo egli è guarito di tutti i suoi
mali, si è liberato da ogni pena e ha trovato, senza bisogno di morire, la pace: una pace
austere e serena, soffusa di quella certa mestizia senza rimpianto, che serberebbero
ancora i cimeteri su la terra, anche quando tutti gli uomini vi fossero morti” [“And with
this method he cured all his troubles, he liberated himself from every concern and has
found, without needing to die, peace: an austere and serene peace, suffused with that
certain sadness without regret, that would still keep the cemeteries on the earth, even
when all the men were dead”] (Spsv 1067). The narration continues with the explanation
that Dr. Paolo Post reads history books from morning to night. Though he sees the
present in the history, he by no means applies past teachings to current issues nor does he
try to foretell the future based on the present. The key to his method is proper placement:
“Si pone idealmente nell’avvenire per guardare il presente e lo vede come passato” [“He
ideally places himself in the future and he sees it as the past”] (Spsv 1067). In a shocking
example, the narrator describes how a few days earlier he had gone to pay his respects to
Dr. Paolo Post, whose daughter had recently died. Dr. Post’s composure was so dignified
and removed that it seemed as though his daughter had been dead for a hundred years. In
a description similar to that in “L’umorismo,” published one year earlier in 1908,
Pirandello returns to the reverse, or inverted telescope, and the reorientation of the soul’s
vantage point. The narrator writes of Dr. Post’s ability to control his soul:
Ha come un cannocchiale il dottor Paulo Post. Lo apre, ma non si mette
già a guardare verso l’avvenire, dove sa che non vedrebbe nulla; ma
53
persuade l’anima sua a esser contenta di porsi a guardare dalla lente piú
grande, volta all’avvenire, attraverso la piccola, appuntata nel presente. E
la sua anima cosí guarda col cannocchiale rivoltato; e il presente subito
s’impiccolisce e s’allontana. (Spsv 1067)
Dr. Paolo Post has like a telescope. He opens it, but he does not position
himself at all to see toward the future, where he knows that he would see
nothing; but he convinces his soul to be content to place itself so as to look
from the bigger lens, turned toward the future, toward the small one,
aimed at the present. And like this his soul looks with the inverted
telescope; and the present immediately shrinks and distances itself.
The inverted telescope is Pirandello’s answer to the problems caused by the original
telescope—the “infernal mechanism”—that disoriented man’s soul and made him feel
small. Instead of looking through the small lens toward the greatness of the cosmos,
causing man to feel miniscule in the infinite universe, the soul positions itself to look
back toward the present through the larger lens. The present, therefore, becomes smaller
as it is distanced from the observing soul. This perspective is meant to realign the soul, so
closely interconnected with the individual, with the infinite vastness of the universe and
reasemble man’s sense of himself. This form of “extreme detachment,” Anthony Caputi
explains, “is not a perspective that Pirandello consistently recommended; it is quite
simply one of the extremes among what he might have called the solaces of distance”
(Caputi 128). If man is able to comprehend his size in the universe, though it is small, and
if he is able to re-direct his thoughts in a positive way, his consciousness will realize its
being as a manifestation of the universe and he will experience harmony in his life.
For years, Dr. Post has promised to compose a book, aptly titled Filosofia del
lontano (Philosophy of Distance), but in the meantime, the narrator offers these
consolatory, yet pessimistic, concluding words to the reader:
Per consolazione dei lettori di questo giornale, che ne avranno voglia, io
mi propongo di sottomettere di tanto in tanto al cannocchiale rivoltato del
54
dottor Paolo Post i fatti piú notevoli, le questioni piú ardenti, gli uomini
piú celebri nell’arte, nella politica, nelle scienze dei giorni nostri.
Vedremo che bella figura essi faranno veduti da lontano, impostati nel
passato, concentrati e reassunti nella storia. Ma ho gran paura che molti
non si vedranno piú. (Spsv 1068)
For the consolation of the readers of this paper, that desire it, I propose to
subject, from time to time to Dr. Paolo Post’s inverted telescope the most
notable facts, the most ardent questions, the men most celebrated in art, in
politics, in science of our day. We will see that they make a good
impression seen from a distance, positioned in the past, concentrated and
summed up in the past. But I have a great fear that many will no longer
see themselves.
Pirandello’s concern here is that, although positioning oneself as though in the future
offers a privileged and more comforting view of the present, the current situation will
appear bleak because the notable facts and discoveries, and the celebrated artists,
scientists and politians will be concentrated to a small number in relation to all of history.
It can be surmised that Pirandello, despite the advancements made in his day, views the
present as lacking in valor. The majority of people will not see themselves when looking
back toward the present from the future because they have not made significant enough
contributions to life.
The Tragic Death of a Living Character
In the 1911 novella, “La tragedia d’un personaggio” (“A Character’s Tragedy”),
40
Dr. Fileno, the doctor-philosopher protagonist, presents the same filosofia del lontano
(philosophy of distance) as Dr. Post in the 1909 article, “Da lontano.” There is, however,
a dramatic shift in Pirandello’s representation as now a negative reception of his own
created character of the doctor-philosopher emerges. Dr. Paolo Post, earlier revered as a
40
“La tragedia d’un personaggio” (“A Character’s Tragedy”) was published for the first time in
“Corriere della Sera” on October 19, 1911. In 1915 it was included in the collection, La trappola, and was
part of the fourth volume of “Novelle per un anno,” L’uomo solo (TLN 2: 1119).
55
savior for his contribution of the philosophy of distance, is replaced by Dr. Fileno—
whose philosophy will be rejected and his character dismissed. It can be surmised that by
1911 Pirandello had begun to realize that the practice of distancing oneself from the
present is not the solution to man’s spiritual crisis. The reader comes to find out, as
witnessed for example by the transformation of the protagonist in Uno, nessuno e
centomila (One, No one and One Hundred Thousand), that the best solution to life’s
struggles is to remain in the present as much as possible—in essence, to die to every
moment and be reborn in the next.
Similar to the 1906 novella “Personaggi” (“Characters”), “La tragedia d’un
personaggio” opens with the words: “È mia vecchia abitudine dare udienza, ogni
domenica mattina, ai personaggi delle mie future novelle” [“It is my old custom to
receive, every Sunday morning, the characters of my future short stories] (TLN 2: 624).
One can assume that the narrator is the voice and sentiment of Pirandello himself, as he
described this process of character development in the 1925 Preface added to Sei
personaggi in c’erca d’autore.41 Also explained in “Personaggi,” the author’s
41
In the Preface to Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Characters in Search of an Author),
Pirandello writes: “È da tanti anni a servizio della mia arte (ma come fosse da jeri) una servetta sveltissima
e non per tanto nuova sempre del mestiere. Si chiama Fantasia. Un po’ dispettosa e beffarda, se ha il gusto
di vestir di nero, nessuno vorrà negare che non sia spesso alla bizzarra, e nessuno credere che faccia sempre
e tutto sul serio a un modo solo. Si ficca una mano in tasca; ne cava un berretto a sonagli; se lo caccia in
capo, rosso come una cresta, e scappa via. Oggi qua; domani là. E si diverte a portarmi in casa, perché io ne
tragga novelle e romanzi e commedie, la gente più scontenta del mondo, uomini, donne, ragazzi, avvolti in
casi strani da cui non trovan più modo a uscire; contrariati nei loro disegni; frodati nelle loro speranze; e coi
quali insomma è spesso veramente una gran pena trattare” [“It seems like yesterday but is actually many
years ago that a nimble little maidservant entered the service of my art. However, she always comes fresh
to the job. She is called Fantasy. A little puckish and malicious, if she likes to dress in black no one will
wish to deny that she is often positively bizarre and no one will wish to believe that she always does
everything in the same way and in earnest. She sticks her hand in her pocket, pulls out a cap and bells, sets
it on her head, red as a cock’s comb, and dashes away. Here today, there tomorrow. And she amuses herself
by bringing to my house—since I derive stories and novels and plays from them—the most disgruntled
tribe in the world, men, women, children, involved in strange adventures which they can find no way out
of; thwarted in their plans; cheated in their hopes; with whom, in short, it is often torture to deal”] (Luigi
Pirandello, Maschere nude 1: 36).
56
maidservant, Fantasia, presents to him these potential characters—typically miserable
and afflicted scourges of the Earth—and he listens as they state their cases for the author
should use them in his stories. Fantasia, however, can usher the callers only so far as her
employer will always make the last judgment as to their welcome stay or abrupt
dismissal. Pirandello’s unique method of “abitudine dare udienza” [“custom of giving
audience”] allows him to effectively illustrate to his readers that the potential character, a
spirit-like embryo introduced by the imaginative spirit, may be merely ephemeral or may
become immortal.
The narrator tells of how he was engrossed by the character of a novel sent to him
as a gift from one of his friends. This character, named Dr. Fileno, proclaimed to have
found the most effective remedy for any kind of ailment: “Una ricetta infallibile per
consolar se stesso e tutti gli uomini d’ogni pubblica o privata calamità” [“An infallible
prescription for consoling himself and all men for every public or private calamity”]
(TLN 2: 626; Trans. Stanely Appelbaum 74). In an almost verbatim description to that of
the philosophy of distance described in “Da lontano,” Dr. Fileno’s method is that of
looking at the present as though it were history. He was cured, just as Dr. Paolo Post, of
all his sorrows and annoyances and had found that same austere and serene peace without
needing to die. Again, the effectiveness of Dr. Fileno’s method is demonstrated with the
example that he had easily overcome the recent death of his daughter as though she had
already been dead for a hundred years. The narrator offers a description, similar to that in
“Da lontano,” of the inverted telescope:
In somma, di quel suo metodo il dottor Fileno s’era fatto come un
cannocchiale rivoltato. Lo apriva, ma non per mettersi a guardare verso
l’avvenire, dove sapeva che non avrebbe veduto niente; persuadeva
l’anima a esser contenta di mettersi a guardare dalla lente piú grande,
57
attraverso la piccola, appuntata al presente, per modo che tutte le cose
subito le apparissero piccole e lontane. E attendeva da varii anni a
comporre un libro, che avrebbe fatto epoca certamente: La filosofia del
lontano. (TLN 2: 626)
In sum, from that method of his Dr. Fileno made himself a sort of inverted
telescope. He opened it, but not to position himself toward the future,
where he knew that he would see nothing; he convinced his soul to be
content to place itself so as to look from the bigger lens, toward the small
one, aimed at the present, so that all things immediately appeared to him
small and far away. For years he promised to write a book that would have
certainly made the epoch: The philosophy of distance.
It occurrs to the narrator while reading about Dr. Fileno, that the author of the novel is
not able to fully realize the entire consciousness of this character who is, “contenendo in
sé, esso solo, il germe d’una vera e propria creazione” [“containing in himself, him alone,
the germ of a real and true creation”] (TLN 2: 626-27). At a certain point, it seems to
Pirandello, that this character had succeeded in detaching himself from the hands of
author of the novel by standing out amidst the boring events of the narrative. The narrator
is proven wrong, however, as the character is suddenly forced back into the plot: “Poi,
all’improvviso, sformato e immiserito, s’era lasciato piegare e adattare alle esigenze
d’una falsa e sciocca soluzione” [“Then, all of a sudden, disfigured and withered, he
yielded himself and adapted to the demands of a false and foolish solution”] (TLN 2:
627). The author, now late for his audience, visualizes the character of Dr. Fileno, seeing
in him enough material for a masterpiece, and he is extremely vexed that the novel’s
author had so neglected and failed this valuable character; he should have made him the
center of the novel instead of such other artificial elements.
When the author finally enters his study, ready to receive his audience, the
anguished Dr. Fileno in the flesh, approachs him. Despite the surprise of seeing Fileno in
his office, he feels he has already wasted too much time with this periphery character. Dr.
58
Fileno fights to be heard and he gives a lengthy philosophical discourse persuading the
author to re-write his character. Dr. Fileno explains his tragedy and begs for redeption.
He speaks the words that will be repeated by the Father in Sei personaggi in cerca
d’autore (Six Characters in Search of an Author):
Nessuno può sapere meglio di lei, che noi siamo esseri vivi, più vivi
di quelli che respirano e vestono panni; forse meno reali, ma più veri! Si
nasce alla vita in tanti modi, caro signore; e lei sa bene che la natura si
serve dello strumento della fantasia umana per proseguire la sua opera di
creazione. E chi nasce mercé quest’attività creatrice che ha sede nello
spirito dell’uomo, è ordinato da natura a una vita di gran lunga superiore
a quella di chi nasce dal grembo mortale d’una donna. Chi nasce
personaggio, chi ha l’avventura di nascere personaggio vivo, può
infischiarsi anche della morte. Non muore più! Morrà l’uomo, lo scrittore,
strumento naturale della creazione; la creatura non muore più! E per
vivere eterna, non ha mica bisogno di straordinarie doti o di compiere
prodigi. Mi dica lei chi era Sancho Panza! Mi dica lei chi era don
Abbondio! Eppure vivono eterni perché—vivi germi—ebbero la ventura
di trovare una matrice feconda, una fantasia che li seppe allevare e nutrire
per l’eternità. [. . .]
Ma dunque sul serio lei non comprende l’orrore della tragedia mia?
Avere il privilegio inestimabile di esser nato personaggio, oggi come
oggi, voglio dire oggi che la vita materiale è così irta di vili difficoltà che
ostacolano, deformano, immiseriscono ogni esistenza; avere il privilegio
di esser nato personaggio vivo, ordinato dunque, anche nella mia
piccolezza, all'immortalità, e sissignore, esser caduto in quelle mani, esser
condannato a perire iniquamente, a soffocare in quel mondo d’artifizio,
dove non posso né respirare né dare un passo, perché è tutto finto, falso,
combinato, arzigogolato! Parole e carta! Carta e parole! Un uomo, se si
trova avviluppato in condizioni di vita a cui non possa o non sappia
adattarsi, può scapparsene, fuggire; ma un povero personaggio, no: è lì
fissato, inchiodato a un martirio senza fine! Aria! aria! vita! Ma guardi …
Fileno … mi ha messo nome Fileno … Le pare sul serio che io mi possa
chiamar Fileno? Imbecille, imbecille! Neppure il nome ha saputo darmi!
Io, Fileno! E poi, già, io, io, l’autore della Filosofia del lontano, proprio
io dovevo andare a finire in quel modo indegno per sciogliere tutto quello
stupido garbuglio di casi là! [. . .] Mi riscatti lei, subito subito! mi faccia
viver lei che ha compreso bene tutta la vita che è in me! (TLN 2: 627-628)
No one is in a better position than you to know that we are living
beings, more alive than those who breath and wear clothes; perhaps less
real, but truer! There are so many ways of coming to life, sir; and you
know very well that nature makes use of the human imagination as a tool
59
for pursuing its work of creation. And anyone who is born thanks to this
creative activity which has its seat in the human spirit is ordained by
nature for a life that is higher than the life of those born from the mortal
womb of a woman. Whoever is born as a character, whoever has the good
fortune to be born as a living character, can even thumb his nose at death.
He will no longer die! The man will die, the writer who was the natural
instrument of his creation; but the creature will no longer die! And in
order to live eternally, he hasn’t the slightest need of prodigious feats.
Tell me, who was Sancho Panza? Tell me, who was Don Abbondio? And
yet they live eternally because—as living germs—they had the good
fortune to find a fertile womb, an imagination that was able to raise and
nourish them! [. . .]
So you seriously don’t understand the horror of my tragedy? To have
the inestimable privilege of being born as a character, now of all times,
when material life is so beset with tawdry difficulties which create
obstacles for, denature and impoverish every existence; to have the
privilege of being born as a living character, and therefore, petty as I may
be, ordained for immortality—and just think of it!—to fall into those
hands, to be condemned to perish unjustly, to suffocate in that artificial
world in which I can’t draw a free breath or take one step, because its all
made up, fake, contrived, a sham! Words and paper! Paper and words! If
a man finds himself entangled in circumstances of living to which he is
physically or mentally unable to adapt, he can escape, run away; but a
poor character can’t: he is stuck there, nailed to an endless martyrdom!
Air! Air! Life! Just look … ‘Fileno’ … He gave me the name ‘Fileno’…
Do you seriously think that I can be called Fileno? The imbecile, the
imbecile! He couldn’t even give me a proper name! I, Fileno! And then, I,
I, the author of The Philosophy of Distance, which that imbecile didn’t
even see his way to have me publish at my own expense. [. . .] Redeem
me, at once, at once! You, who have clearly understood all the life there
is in me, let me live! (Trans. Appelbaum 77)
The author, after hearing this rant, claims he does not work this way and questions if Dr.
Fileno is really the author of The Philosophy of Distance. Dr. Fileno answers: “È sempre
per colpa di quel mio assasino! Ha dato appena appena e in succincto, di passata, un’idea
delle mie teorie, non supponendo neppure lontanamente tutto il partito che c’era da trarre
da quella mia scoperta del cannocchiale rivoltato!” [“As usual, it is the fault of my
assassin! He just barely, in brief, in passing, offered an idea of my theories, not even
remotely supposing all the benefit that could have come from my discovery of the
60
inverted telescope!”] The author condescendingly responds to Dr. Fileno and his
philosophy:
Si lamenta del suo autore; ma ha saputo lei, caro dottore, trar partito
veramente della sua teoria? Ecco, volevo dirle proprio questo. Mi lasci
dire. Se Ella crede sul serio, come me, alla virtù della sua filosofia, perché
non la applica un po’ al suo caso? Ella va cercando, oggi, tra noi, uno
scrittore che la consacri all'immortalità? Ma guardi a ciò che dicono di noi
poveri scrittorelli contemporanei tutti i critici più ragguardevoli. Siamo e
non siamo, caro dottore! E sottoponga, insieme con noi, al suo famoso
cannocchiale rivoltato i fatti più notevoli, le questioni più ardenti e le più
mirabili opere dei giorni nostri. Caro il mio dottore, ho gran paura ch’Ella
non vedrà più niente né nessuno. (TLN 2: 629)
You’re complaining about your author; but my dear Doctor, were you
really able to derive benefit from your own theory? There, that’s exactly
what I wanted to say to you. Let me speak. If you seriously believe, as I
do, in the efficacy of your philosophy, why don’t you apply a little of it to
your own case? Here you are seeking out from among us a writer who
will make you immortal. But look at us all, one by one, putting me at the
very end of the line, naturally. And, along with us, look through your
celebrated wrong-end-of-the-telescope at the most notable events, the
most burning questions and the most admirable accomplishments of our
day. My dear Doctor, I’m very much afraid that you will no longer see
anything or anybody” (Trans. Appelbaum 78).
The author, doubting the credibility of the philosophy of distance, asks Dr. Fileno if he
thinks his own theory is truly efficient. As in the conclusion of “Da lontano,” the
narrator says that if Dr. Fileno, who is begging for immortality, applied his own
philosophy and looks back at the present as though it were history, he will no longer see
anyone. As in “Da lontano,” Pirandello affirms his conviction the present day is lacking
in genuine accomplishments.
The most interesting aspect of this story, which along with “Personaggi” serves
as the basis for Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore, is that Pirandello is subtly introducing,
on a very abstract level, his notion of the living character as the only meaningful and true
character. In “La tragedia d’un personaggio,” Pirandello effectively demonstrates—by
61
dismissing his own original creation, Dr. Fileno, and rejecting his philosophy of
distance—that despite the fact that some characters are entertaining and some of their
philosophies may be beneficial, this does not guarantee their immortality. In one of the
“Foglietti” (the fragments found in Pirandello’s papers after his death), Pirandello wrote:
“L’arte insomma è la vita, non è ragionamento” [“Art, in short, is life, not a reasoning
process” (Spsv 1262; Trans. William Murray xiii). Via the author’s rejection of Dr.
Fileno’s reasoning, Pirandello expresses his contempt for form and demonstrates that—
on his quest to create art that genuinely reflects life—he has little use for characters with
an agenda other than to breath and exude the flux of life. Pirandello shows that certain
characters, born from an author’s imagination, have the potential to take on a life of their
own while other characters, encountering the obstacles of form, may have a short lifespan, or may never even emerge from the author’s consciousness—regardless of the
seeds planted by the imagination. For Pirandello, the conception of a character worthy of
immortality stems from the author’s imagination, but the character is only truly born
when the idea detaches from its creator and thrusts itself into the flux of life. This
concept will reach its apex in Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore; although the six
characters are “rejected” by the author in the storyline of the play, Pirandello actually
grants them immortality as the result of their independent spirit.
Pirandello’s Rejection of the Philosophy of Distance
My investigation of the texts in this chapter, and evidenced by the author’s harsh
rejection of the “reasoning” doctor-philosopher and his philosophy of distance, indicates
the beginning of Pirandello’s shift away from a philosophy-based approach to
representation. After his conversation with Dr. Fileno, Pirandello dismisses the distance
62
philosophy as he recognizes it to be yet another fabricated and illusory form that
obstructs the spontaneity of life. Unlike the inverted telescope, a pedagogical tool used to
exemplify the intuitive soul’s desired emancipation from the solidified form of
personality, the philosophy of distance is man’s artificial fixation of time and space. This
manipulation of perception, accomplished by imposing an unnatural distance between
man and the present, is merely a glorified and temporary coping strategy of escapeavoidance that further separates man from his consciousness.42 Ultimately, Pirandello
abandons the philosophy of distance and the inverted telescope as he alters his
protagonists’ relationship with the present moment. The maintenance of a close
connection to the present, in direct opposition to the extreme detachment suggested by
Dr. Post and Dr. Fileno, proves to be the gateway to spiritual health for the characters as
they no longer look to material objects or depend on mental adaptation processes to
overcome the anxiety of daily stressors.
In the following chapter, I explore Pirandello’s persistent search for a viable
solution to man’s vulnerability to external illusory appearances and the spiritual sickness
induced by materialism. Through experimention with different spiritual approaches,
Pirandello disassembles and examines the paradoxical aspects of life, particularly the
dualistic forces of life and form, in order to authentically portray the inevitable conflict
that arises when man attempts to fix and stabilize the flux of life. He emphatically returns
to the representation of fundamental contradictions and the dynamic nature of reality, as
for Pirandello, the awareness and comprehension of paradox is essential for surmounting
42
According to the Handbook of Coping: theory, research, applications: “A review of the
literature by Carver & Scheier suggests that “avoidance” coping (e.g., wishful thinking, escapism, overt
effort to deny, and self-distraction and mental disengagement) typically works against people rather than to
their advantage (Moshe Zeidner and Norman S. Endler 514). For more information on the Ego-Psychology
Model of coping mechanisms, see Carpenter 32.
63
mental anguish and living authentically in the universe—beyond the restrictions of form.
Via the representation of his characters as liberated from suffering via inner reflection
and intense connection with the present (as discussed in the final chapter of this
dissertation), Pirandello demonstrates the way for the soul, or the “life with in us,” to be
in harmony with the flux of life.43
43
In “L’umorismo,” Pirandello writes: “Ma dentro di noi stessi, in ciò che noi chiamiamo anima, e
che è la vita in noi, il flusso continua, indistinto, sotto gli argini, oltre i limiti che noi imponiamo,
componendoci una coscienza, costruendoci una personalità” [“But within ourselves, in what we call the
soul and is the life in us, the flux continues, indistinct under the barriers and beyond the limits we impose
as a means to fashion a consciousness and personality for ourselves”] (Saggi, poesie, scritti varii 151;
Illiano, trans. 137).
64
CHAPTER 2
INTO THE MYSTERIOUS ABYSS
Pirandello’s exploration of non-theistic religions & unconventional science
E mi pare più giu giusto il convenire che con tutto il meraviglioso
progresso delle nostre cognizioni positive, nel presente anno di grazia
mille ottocento ottantaquattro, noi ci troviamo, di faccia a molti
fenomeni naturali, nella stessissima condizione dei poveri selvaggi al
cospetto di altri fenomeni spiegabilissimi per noi e per essi ancora un
mistero. Però noi, selvaggi della civiltà, ammaestrati dalla storia,
dovremmo condurci assai diversamente di quelle misere creature poste
dalla loro cattiva sorte nei più bassi gradini della gran scala umana.
Invece, forse per una severa legge dello spirito, procediamo alla stessa
guisa. Inoltre, siamo avvolti nella nebbia dei pregiudizii, tutti, scienzati e
non scienzati; tanto i materialisti presi dalla paura di vedersi forzati, dai
fatti, ad ammettere l’esistenza di un qualcosa non semplicemente
materiale; quanto gli spiritualisti atterriti dall’idea di veder quel qualcosa,
dagli onori di puro spirito immortale, degradato alle condizioni di un che
né tutto spirito come essi l’intendono, né tutto material come
l’intendono quegli altri. E il curioso è che, stringi, stringi, né gli uni
sanno di positivo, di veramente scientifico, intorno al loro spirito
immortale, né gli altri nulla di positivo, di veramente scientifici intorno
alla costituzione della loro materiale! Sì, siamo ancora avvolti nella
nebbia dei pregiudizii, tutti, scienzati e non scienzati.44
-Luigi Capuana
Technological and industrial advancements at the fin-de-siècle challenged
traditional mechanistic and objective thought and precipitated new modes of philosophy,
44
Luigi Capuna Spiritismo? (130-31). Translation: “And I would tend to agree that, in spite of all
the wonderful progress of our positive cognitions in this year 1884, we know about many natural
phenomena just as little as poor savages do about other phenomena which are easily explicable to us but
still mysterious to them. Yet, being savages of civilization, trained by history, we should follow a totally
different procedure to that of those miserable little creatures placed by their bad luck on the lower steps of
the great human scale. However, perhaps due to a strict law of the spirit, we proceed in the same manner.
Moreover, we are still shrouded in a fog of prejudice, all of us, both scientists and laymen, both the
materialists, who are caught by the fear to become forced by evidence to acknowledge the existence of
something not merely material, and the spiritualists, who are scared by the possibility of seeing that same
thing degraded from the honors of the pure immortal spirit to the condition of a thing which is neither
wholly spiritual, as they mean, nor entirely materially, as the materialists do. Interestingly, at the end of the
day, neither do the materialists have any positive and truly scientific knowledge of the spirit, nor do the
spiritualists have any such knowledge of matter! Yes, we are still shrouded in a fog of prejudice, all of us,
both scientists and laymen.”
65
religion and scientific inquiry. In juxtaposition to the increase in secularism and the
industrial advancements that characterized the urban centers of Western Europe in the
latter half of the nineteenth century, occultism and age-old spiritual practices regained a
popularity that had lain dormant since the Renaissance.45 The inception and positive
reception of alternative religious movements and the unconventional modes of scientific
investigation, such as parapsychology (the scientific investigation of paranormal
phenomenon), reflect the acceptant and progressive mind-set at the turn of the century.
Though Christianity remained the dominant religion in Europe, the freedom and
opportunity to explore different spiritual organizations allowed people to challenge and
break away from traditional dogmatic religion. This is especially pertinent for Pirandello
as he lived and worked in Rome, the epicenter of the Catholic Church, whose history of
religious intolerance and persecution is far from forgotten. In twentieth century Italy,
however, Pirandello was able to freely express his non-beliefs in a country where
“heretics” such as Giordano Bruno, Girolamo Savonarola and Galileo Galilei had been
punished for their independent thinking.46
Pirandello recurrently applied spiritual and supernatural elements throughout his
works—from the early novella, “Chi fu?” (“Who was it?”) (1898), to his last dramatic
endeavor, I giganti della montagna (The Mountain Giants) (1936). In this chapter I
concentrate on Pirandello’s spiritual and parapsychical application in: the novelle “Chi
fu?” (“Who was it?”) (1898), “La casa del Granella” (“Granella’s House”) (1905),
45
The word “occult” is defined by the Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology as:
“General term (derived from the Latin occultus, occultere, to hide) to denote that which is hidden,
mysterious, known only to the initiated, imperceptible by normal senses, thus embracing all of the
pseudosciences of magic belief and practice, such as alchemy, astrology, demonology, ghosts, miracles,
poltergeists, prediction of the future, psychic powers, spells, Spiritism, sympathetic magic, etc.” (Shepard,
ed. 2: 1207).
46
For more information regarding secularization and contemporary religious consciousness, see
Alienation, Atheism and the Religious Crisis by Thomas F. O’Dea (NY: Sheed and Ward, 1969)
66
“Personaggi” (“Characters”) (1906), “Dal naso al cielo” (1907) (“From the Nose to the
Sky”); the novel Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (1904); and the plays
All’uscita (At the Exit) (1916) and Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Characters in
Search of an Author) (1921). Born in religiously fervent and superstitious Sicily,
Pirandello was exposed from a young age to the mystical tendencies and superstitions of
the peasants. The biographer Gaspare Giudice writes of the impact of Maria Stella, the
maid-servant working in the Pirandello house, who tried to save the young Luigi’s soul:
It was from her that Pirandello learnt to believe in ghosts—in ghosts both
concrete and abstract which could appear at any moment of the day or
night and say what they have to say. And, once the superstitions had been
exorcised by an aesthetic system rooted in idealist thought, these ghosts
could be turned into characters. If ghosts as such, ghosts rattling their
chains, pulling away the bed covers, shaking the furniture and ringing the
bells, appear frequently in Pirandello’s work this is probably due to Maria
Stella. (Trans. Alastair Hamilton 7)47
In addition to this exposure in his native Sicily, Pirandello came of age at an exciting
time for unconventional spiritual movements and scientific explorations throughout
Europe and America. The explosion of Christian revivalism, known as the Second Great
Awakening (1800-1830), sparked the “wildfire of spiritual enthusiam” that spread across
the United States (Sarah M. Pike 44). The revivals of Spiritualism in 1848 and
Theosophy in 1875 stimulated the initiation of various spiritual societies and restored
faith to many lapsed believers. In response to positivism and materialism, many
organizations were designed to incorporate spirituality with science.48 Sarah Pike’s
47
An autobiographical reference of this nature is found in “La casa del Granella,” discussed later
in this chapter. (TLN 2: 928)
48
The following descriptions offer an index of the abounding religious activity in this period.
Regarding Theosophy, Charles Webster Leadbeater, one of the founding members of the Theosophical
Society, describes Theosophy as: “At once a philosophy, a religion, and a science that, comparatively, offer
explanations of life, death, the afterlife, the solar system and the One” (Leadbeater A Textbook of
Theosophy 8). Rudolf Steiner, the head of the Theosophical Society in Germany, broke from Theosophy
and founded the Anthroposophical Society in 1909 in Dornach, Switzerland. He called his belief system of
67
description of the lineage of New Age beliefs offers an informative summary of the
varying metaphysical approaches in Pirandello’s day. Pike writes:
New Agers inherited the belief in continuity between matter and spirit
from the western metaphysical tradition that includes Transcendentalism,
Swedenborgianism, Christian Science, New Thought, Theosophy,
mesmerism, spiritualism, and dowsing. Nineteenth century spiritual
healing traditions emerged out of a system of beliefs that scholars have
called “metaphysical” or “harmonial” religion. The central teachings of
harmonial religion—that humans and the universe are ultimately one, that
they are interconnected and the divine is not outside the world but within
human beings as well—has been taken up by the New Age movement.
Nineteenth century figures like Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) and
Helena Blavatsky (1831-1891), the founder of Theosophy (a religion
blending Asian and western thought), were proponents of the harmonial
view. (Pike 24)
Pirandello availed himself of new non-empirical approaches and untraditional
spiritual practices to explore the spirit, consciousness and soul and to fill the
spiritual science, “Anthroposophy” (Burton and Grandy 222). George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1872-1949)
was born in Russia and spent years searching for esoteric wisdom in Central Asia and the Middle East. Like
Helena Blavatsky (co-founder of the Theosophical Society), “Gurdjieff claims to have been much taken
with the prospect of finding an obscure school or brotherhood whose wisdom, passed down for generation,
keeps the forces of cosmic darkness at bay and unlocks the riddles of existence”; he settled in France where
he opened his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man. Gurdjieff offered his students a “method
or system of self-enlightenment presupposing the circumvention of traditional learning experiences. This
meant showing them how to wake up and then stay awake, what he sometimes called ‘esoteric Christianity’
or ‘The Fourth Way.’” Peter D. Ouspensky (1878-1947) was a Russian esoteric philosopher. He met G.I.
Gurdjieff in St. Petersberg in 1915. Ouspensky had just returned from a six-week tour of Egypt, Ceylon and
India with the Theosophist, Annie Besant. Ouspensky wrote The Fourth Dimension (1909), Tertium
Organum (1912), and A New Model of the Universe (1931). He established a school in London to teach
Gurdjieff’s ‘Fourth Way’ and attracted many of his own disciples. Following Albert Einstein’s
identification of time as the fourth dimension, Ouspensky’s teachings evolved into what he called the
‘Fourth Dimension’ (See Burton and Grandy 225-235).
During the time of the Second Great Awakening, Joseph Smith, Jr. (1805-1844) founded the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism) in 1830 in Hydesville, NY (Burton and Grandy
194). In 1879, Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science
religion) in Boston, Massachusetts. Mary Baker Eddy surfaced in 1875 as the author of Science and Health
with Key to the Scriptures, a text seven years in preparation and published with a subvention from her small
circle of students. […] In the Christian Science system, as conceived by its founder, there are two types of
thought, human and divine. The former is undesirable since physical or mortal perception is illusory,
deceitful, even evil. The latter is of God, the true stuff of creation, and is scientific law—hence the name
Christian Science. It is absolute, unchangeable, virtuous, principled, heavenly and unfailingly
demonstrable, like a mathematical formula.[…] To Eddy, the truth she taught was neither Protestant nor
social: it was an exact science. As she perceived it, Christian Science ‘truth, independent of doctrines and
time-honored systems,’ had begun to ‘twist the knife . . . into the fleshy conventionality of materialism’”
(Stuart E. Knee 9-10).
68
metaphysical void of materialism and positivism. He was perhaps one of the earliest New
Age thinkers, according to Pike’s explanation that “New Agers” criticize scientific and
religious reductionism and direct their efforts toward overcoming the false division
between matter and spirit (Pike 24).49 Giovanni Macchia describes Pirandello’s
dissatisfaction with traditional science and the failure of positivistic systems to respond to
the needs and questions of man. Macchia accounts for the author’s experimental method
as the result of his disquieted opinion of positivism:
Ma sempre resterà in lui la consapevolezza della disfatta della scienza
come regno naturalistico della certezza. La nebbia che invadeva i confini
dell’essere li rendeva incerti e indefinibili, l’allargamento di quei limiti in
forza di una coscienza divisa (e qui interveniva il suo Binet, medico e
scienzato), l’alterazione della personalità dovuta anche a disastri psichici,
una quasi definitiva sfiducia nella funzione equilibratrice e risanatrice
della logica: questi e altri motivi possono averlo spinto verso il bisogno di
scoprire altre leggi, altre forze, altra vita nella natura, sempre nella natura,
per cui dirà Séailles, che anche l’arte è la natura stessa, la quale prosegue
l’opera sua nella natura umana. Così, un metodo positivo sperimentale,
che inseguiva il fenomeno della pluralità delle anime, s’innestava in uno
spiritualismo, che esaltava la creazione individuale, e che affrontava
persone “vive, libere, operanti” per farne personaggi. (Macchia 51)
But always will remain in him the awareness of the defeat of science as
the naturalistic realm of certainty. The fog that invaded the borders of
being and made them uncertain and indefinable, the enlargement of those
limits by virtue of a divided consciousness (and here his Binet, doctor and
scientist, comes in), the alteration of the personality also due to psychic
disasters, an almost definitive lack of faith in the equilibrating and healing
function of logic: these and other reasons may have pushed him toward the
need to discover other laws, other forces, other life in nature, always in
nature, as Séailles will say, that art is nature itself, which continues its
work in human nature. Thus, a positive experimental method, which
followed the phenomenon of the plurality of souls, is grafted in a
spiritualism, which exalted the individual creation, and addressed
individuals “alive, free, working” to make them characters.
49
See Sarah M. Pike’s New Age and Neopagan Religions in America for more information
regarding New Age thought (NY: Columbia University Press, 2004).
69
The influx of spiritual paths offered Pirandello a framework to highlight alternative
systems of religion, philosophy and science and to demonstrate man’s need for a spiritual
outlet. The ghost-like phenomena of the occult, and the various teachings and scientific
investigiations regarding the reincarnation of the soul and the after-life, provided
Pirandello’s imagination with a wealth of curious ideas. He selectively integrated these
eccentric notions into his fictional pieces and his fluency with such approaches clearly
contributed to his aesthetic method. I demonstrate in this chapter that the intersection of
spirituality and science at the end of the nineteenth century—namely Spiritualism,
Theosophy, psychology and parapsychology, and the emergence of Buddhist thought in
Europe—undoubtedly fed Pirandello’s spirited imagination and significantly influenced
his artistic representation. The analysis of such approaches in Pirandello’s narratives offer
the reader a deeper understanding of and insight into his future oeuvre. This investigation
substantiates my claim that Pirandello’s theory of life versus form, his unique method of
character development, and subsequent arrested development, which would be exploded
in his 1921 masterpiece, Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore, find their basis in and should
be approached through the lens of the converging trends of alterative modes of
spirituality and the developing science of parapsychology.
70
Spiritualism
The movement that initiated modern Spiritualism began in 1848 though the
ancestry of spiritualism, including witchcraft and demonology, dates back for centuries.50
According to the definition adopted by the National Spiritualist Association of the United
States of America: “Spiritualism is the Science, Philosophy and Religion of continuous
life, based upon the demonstrated fact of communication, by means of mediumship, with
those who live in the Spirit World” (Ed. Shepard 2: 1582). Spiritualism offered an
alternative to traditional Judeo-Christian religion and aimed to reconcile science with
religion by claiming provable facts concerning survival and the after-life. Pirandello’s
contemporary, the Scottish author and physician, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859 –1930),
wrote The History of Spiritualism (1926), though it was not as well known as his crime
novels featuring the detective Sherlock Holmes. “Spiritualism,” wrote Sir Arthur Conan
Doyle, “is a religion for those who find themselves outside all religions; while on the
contrary it greatly strengthens the faith of those who already possess religious beliefs”
(Ed. Shepard 1583).51 Pirandello, an outsider to all religions and critical of traditional
science, most likely took interest in Spiritualism as it was a “religio-philosophical belief,
opposed to materialism and based on the principle of value and the reality of individual
consciousness” (Theodore Flournoy x). The séance, a forum for communication with the
dead via the guidance of a medium, was integral to the practice of Spiritualism. In
addition to Spiritualism, séances were the preferred venue for conducting scientific
research as well as an en vogue amusement at social gatherings.
50
For a throrough examination of Spiritualism, see the Encyclopedia of Occultism and
Parapsychology (Shepard, ed. 2: 1582-1599).
51
For more information regarding Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Spiritualism, see “Sir Arthur
Conan Doyle: Spiritualism and ‘New Religions’” (Homer Dialogue: A Journal of Modern Thought 1990).
71
The origin of modern Spiritualism can be traced to Hydesville, New York, where
Margaret and Kate Fox formed the first Spiritualist society in 1848. The Fox sisters
gained notoriety when they reported that spirits had contacted them repeatedly in their
Hydesville home.52 Spiritualism’s revival is also attributed to the American clairvoyant
and magnetic healer, Andrew Jackson Davis, who came forth as having prophesied a
spiritual revival and as well as claiming to have predicted the happenings at the Fox
household. With Davis’s profession of the theory and principle of communication
between man and spirit, Spiritualism in America was officially indoctrinated. American
mediums brought Spiritualism to Britain as early as 1852, and the trend spread
throughout Europe where the Spiritualist writings of Swedish scientist, Emanuel
Swedenborg, and the work of the Austrian doctor, Franz Mesmer, (1734–1815), the
father of animal magnetism, had already made an impression.53
52
David Chapin writes of the various responses to the Fox sisters’ controversial claims: “In 1848,
according to believers, [Margaret] and her sister Kate had begun to communicate with the dead by means
of mysterious knocking sounds. Two years later these pale, dark-haired, dark-eyed teenage girls were
holding séances in New York City. Hundreds of people came to see the Fox sisters and participate in their
séances in the hope that they might contact dead loved ones and thus explore the unknown regions of the
afterlife. Some excited witnesses thought that the activities of the Fox sisters heralded the beginning of a
new age of spiritual enlightenment, while observers of a more philosophcal bent believed that their séances
revealed new mysteries about the workings of the human mind and human spirit. Still others, with more
skeptical leanings, thought that the Fox sisters were con artists out to make a profit from deception. Despite
these conflicting views, the Fox sisters were a sensation, and their séances attracted both hopeful believers
and skeptical critics (David Chapin 3-4).
53
Emanuel Swedenborg, (1688–1772), “was a Swedish scientist, authority on metallurgy, mining
and military engineer, learned astronomer, reputed physicist, zoologist, anatomist, financier, political
economist, seer, and a serious Bible student. In 1734 he published his Prodomus Philosophiae
Ratiocinantrio de Infinite (The Infinite and Final Cause of Creation), in which he discusses the relation of
the finite to the infinite and of the soul to the body. In this work he sought to establish a definite connection
between the two as a means of overcoming the difficulty of their relationship. Swedenborg’s real
illumination and interaction with the spirit world in visions and dreams began in 1744. In a conscious state
he wandered in the spirit world and conversed with its inhabitants as freely as with living men. He was in a
sense, the first Spiritualist. Spiritualism owes much to Swedenborg. He was one of the first to maintain that
death means no immediate change, that the spirit world is a counterpart of this world below, that it is ruled
by laws which ensure definite progress and that our conditions in the Beyond are determined by the life we
live here” (Shepard, ed. vol. 2: 1640-1645)
Franz Mesmer, (1734–1815), an Austrian doctor, “was the originator of the technique of
mesmerism, the forerunner of hypnotism. In 1766 he took a degree in medicine at Vienna, the subject of his
inaugural thesis being De planetarum Influxu (The Influence of the Planets on the Human Body), in which
72
The French Spiritualist Allan Kardec, to whom much of the Spiritualist movement
in Italy can be attributed, diverged from Spiritualism by incorporating the belief in
reincarnation. He espoused the tenets of his new doctrine, Spiritism, in his books, Le livre
des espirits (The Book of the Spirits) (1857), and Le livre des mediums (The Book of
Mediums) (1861). These texts were translated into many languages and spread swiftly
throughout Europe and South America.54 In Sicily in 1863, La Società Spirituale di
Palermo was formed. More than one hundred “spirit-societies” were in place when the
Italian medium Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918) was discovered in Naples in 1872.
Prominent Italian scientists, including Cesare Lombroso and Enrico Morselli, founder of
“psycho-dynamic” theory, attended séances to study Palladino and confirmed her powers,
though she would later admit to occasionally pretending.55
Hopes were raised of communicating with the dead, as more and more mediums
surfaced and claimed to be able to conjure the souls of loved ones. The physical
phenomena at séances included: acoustic phenomena (raps, blows, noises, voice, music),
apports (disappearance of objects), automatism (automatic writing, drawing, painting),
chemical phenomena (psychic lights, perfumes, production of water), levitation, magnetic
phenomena, telekinesis (movement of objects, table-turning), and typtology (spelling out
he expounded his ideas of ‘animal magnetism.’ In his thesis, he identified the influence of the planets with
magnetism, and developed the idea that stroking diseased bodies with magnets would be curative. […] The
evolution of animal magnetism into hypnotism was due to James Braid in 1841” (Shepard, ed. vol. 2: 10861088). According to Magic, Mystery and Science: “For Mesmer, the magnetic fluid was a universal life
force, which, if harnessed properly, could promote healing and health. […] He moved to Paris where his
‘animal magnetism’ was readily accepted by the French. During the “healing climax” some patients fell
into trances, convulsed or had hysterical fits and the King of France ordered Mesmer to be investigated by a
committee of doctors and scientists. The committee insisted mesmerism had no scientific basis and rejected
him, forcing him to withdraw from public life, though his mesmerism would continue to flourish in Europe
and America” (Burton and Grandy 186-189).
54
In fact, during the decade of the 1940s, Brazil’s population increased 78 percent in Spiritism
membership (Conniff, Michael L., and Frank D. McCann, eds. 263).
55
For more on Spiritism, see Flournoy, T. Spiritism and Psychology (NY: Harper & Brothers,
1911).
73
messages) (Gaius Glenn Atkins 287). Such phenomena were also popular in modern
literature as evidenced, for example, by Pirandello’s Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia
Pascal), as well as Italo Svevo’s reference to hypnosis and the séance in La coscienza di
zeno (Zeno’s Conscience) (1923).56
As discussed in the following sections, Pirandello was cognizant of the
contemporary trends in spirituality. His interest in Spiritualism and Theosophy finds its
greatest expression in Il Fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (1904), via the
eccentric characters of Anselmo Paleari, a Spiritualist and enthusiastic member of the
Theosophical Society, and his medium-in-residence, the lovesick and alcoholic Signorina
Caporale, without whom Paleari would not be able to conduct his spiritualistic
experiments. Pirandello’s protagonist, Mattia Pascal, describes his new roommates:
Anselmo Paleari, quel vecchio che mi era venuto innanzi con un
turbante di spuma in capo, aveva pure così, come di spuma, il cervello.
[…] Era ascritto alla scuola teosofica.
Lo avevano messo a riposo, da caposezione in non so qual Ministero,
prima del tempo, e lo avevano rovinato, non solo finanziariamente, ma
anche perché, libero e padrone del suo tempo, egli si era adesso
sprofondato tutto ne’ suoi fantastici studii e nelle sue nuvolose
meditazione, astraendosi più che mai dalla vita materiale. […] In questi
ultimi tempi si era dato anche a gli esperimenti spiritici.
Aveva scoperto nella signorina Silvia Caporale, maestra di pianoforte,
sua inquilina, straordinarie facoltà medianiche, non ancora bene
sviluppate, per dire la verità, ma che si sarebbero senza dubbio sviluppate,
col tempo e con l’esercizio, fino a rivelarsi superiori a quelle di tutte i
medium più celebrati. Io, per conto mio, posso attestare di non aver mai
veduto in una faccia volgarmente brutta, da maschera carnevalesca, un
pajo d’occhi più dolente di quelli della signorina Silvia Caporale. […]
È vero per la piccola Adriana, che si dimostrava così instintivamente
buona e anzi troppo savvia, non v’era forse da temere: ella infatti più che
d’altro si sentiva offesa nell’anima da quelle pratiche misteriose del padre,
da quell’evocazione di spiriti per mezzo della signorina Caporale. Era
religiosa la piccola Adriana. (Tr 1: 435-437)
56
See La coscienza di Zeno (Zeno’s Conscience), Chapter 5: “La storia del mio matrimonio”
(“The Story of My Marriage”) (Milan: Feltrinelli, 51).
74
Anselmo Paleari, the old man who had appeared to me in a foam
turban, had a brain also made more or less of foam. […] Signor Anselmo
Paleari was a member of the theosophical school.
He had been prematurely retired from his position as chief clerk in an
office of I forget what Ministry, and this retirement had ruined him not
only financially, but also, since he was now free, master of his time, it had
plunged him entirely into his fantastic studies and his fuddled meditations,
separating him more than ever from real life. […] In recent times he had
also dedicated himself to spiritualistic experiments.
In his lodger, the piano teacher Signorina Silvia Caporale, he had
discovered exceptional mediumistic talents, not yet fully developed, of
course, but which would surely develop with time and practice until she
would prove superior to all the most celebrated mediums. For my part, I
don’t mind saying that never have I seen a pair of eyes sadder than those
of Signorina Silvia Caporale, in a face as vulgar and ugly as a carnival
mask. […]
Of course, for little Adriana, so instinctively good and even too kind,
there was no reason to fear; in fact, what secretly made her suffer more
than anything else were those mysterious practices of her father, who
called up spirits through Signorina Caporale. Little Adriana was religious.
(Trans. Weaver 117)
Paleari’s unconventional spiritual practices are in perfect juxtaposition with his daughter
Adriana’s Christian values. Mattia Pascal, the epitome of a lapsed Catholic, mocks
Paleri’s “fantastici studii” (“fantastic studies”), and absent-mindedly puts his cigarette out
in the holy water basin that Adriana had placed by his bed. Mattia Pascal admits that the
beliefs and practices of these curious people, however strange, induced him to think
about his life choices and his own lack of faith.57
57
Mattia Pascal says: “Ogni minimo che—sospeso come già da un pezzo mi sentivo in un vuoto
strano—mi faceva ora cadere in lunghe riflessioni. Questo dell’acquasantiera m’indusse a pensare che, fin
da ragazzo, io non avevo più atteso a pratiche religiose, né ero più entrato in alcuna chiesa per pregare,
andato via Pinzone che mi vi conduceva insieme con Berto, per ordine della mamma. Non avevo mai
sentito alcun bisogno di domandare a me stesso se avessi veramente una fede. E Mattia Pascal era morto di
mala morte senza conforti religiosi” [“Thanks to the curious emptiness in which I had been suspended for
such a long time, the slightest event now made me sink into long meditations. The matter of the holy water
stoup reminded me that since my boyhood days I hadn’t observed any religious practices, nor had I entered
any church to pray, after the departure of Tweezer, who used to take me to church with Berto, on Mamma’s
orders. I had never felt the necessity to ask myself if I really had any faith. And Mattia Pascal had died a
sinful death without the comforts of religion” (Tr 1: 438; Weaver, trans. 118).
75
During Mattia Pascal’s stay in Rome as Adriano Meis, Paleari hosts a gathering of
friends to conjure the spirit of Max through the mediumistic talents of Silvia Caporale.
Structurally, the dramatic staging of the séance scene in the dimly lit room—chaotic with
levitations, loud table raps, and the tiptological language “communicated” by Max—
provides the opportunity for a thief to enter into Mattia Pascal’s bedroom while he is
conveniently moving closer to comfort the frightened Adriana in the darkness of the
séance. Antonio Illiano, author of the seminal book Metapsichica e letteratura in
Pirandello (Metapsychics and Literature in Pirandello) (1982), comments on
Pirandello’s application of Spiritualism:
Pirandello was aware of the difference between spiritism and theosophy.
While polemically motivated against the former—the scene of the séance
in Il fu Mattia Pascal works both as a structural device and as a topical
parody of the misguided adepts whose fanatic credulity is easily
manipulated by fraud—his inquisitive mind was predictably intrigued by
the philosophical and psychological tenets of the theosophical school.
(Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 343)
Paleari’s Theosophical beliefs and spiritualistic experiments, and Pascal’s skepticism of
these unconventionalities, indeed provide Pirandello a forum for his own social
commentary concerning such trends. The application of the varying spiritualities,
however, is more than just a topical treatment. Through the illustration of Pascal’s
progression from initial skepticism, which yields to his aloof curiosity, and then to
reflective contemplation, Pirandello illustrates the existential freedom that come with
thinking laterally and challenging conventional assumptions. Thanks to “Adriano Meis’s”
exposure to new speculations on death, suicide, the spirit, and the potential immortality of
the soul, Mattia Pascal is perfectly poised to reflect on the more profound aspects of his
76
existence, and for the first time, is able to consider the different ways in which he is
capable of deceiving himself.58
The Influence of Luigi Capuana
Spiritualism and modern Theosophy, as well as the developing fields of
psychology and parapsychology,59 permeated most major European cities in the second
half of the nineteenth century, and such was the atmosphere when Pirandello moved to
Rome in 1891 after his graduation from Bonn. Shortly after arriving in Rome, Pirandello
met the writer Ugo Fleres, a fellow Sicilian from Messina, who introduced him to another
Sicilian, Luigi Capuana (1839-1915).60 Capuana, Pirandello’s mentor and confidant, had
two major effects on the young and eager writer. He encouraged Pirandello to abandon
his poetry for prose, and directly introduced him to the fashionable occult culture and
parapsychology. Capuana invited him to the séances he facilitated where Pirandello had
first-hand exposure to current spiritual practices as well as access to Spiritualist texts.
Thanks to Luigi Capuana’s encouragement and guidance, Pirandello has been called a
pioneer of the “modern” novel for Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (1904).
Capuana, author of the realist novel, Giacinta (1879), is typically recognized
alongside Giovanni Verga for his role in verismo (akin to French naturalism), though he
58
I expand upon Pirandello’s application of Theosophy in Il fu Mattia Pascal in Chapter 3 of this
dissertation.
59
The term parapsychology, coined by German psychologist Max Dessoir (1867-1947) in 1889, is
used today to indicate the scientific study of the paranormal, meaning the phenomena beyond what is
normally understood to have a cause an effect. The term metapsychics, defined as “a science dealing with
mechanical and psychological phenomena due to forces which seem to be intelligent, or to unknown
powers, latent in human intelligence,” was proposed by Professor Charles Richet (1850-1935) in 1905,
during his inaugural address as elected president of the Society for Psychical Research. This term was not
generally accepted and alternatively parapsychics was suggested by Emile Boirac (1851-1917). In modern
times the term parapsychology encompasses the terms metapsychic and parapsychic, and the term
parapsychical is favored to the term paranormal (Shepard, ed. 2: 1257).
60
Pirandello was welcomed into Luigi Capuana’s literary circle in Rome and he attended meetings
along with Giuseppe Mantica, Italo Palmarini, Salvatore Saya, and Tomaso Gnoli (Giudice 50-51).
77
has also written a great deal on the occult and spiritual phenomena. Capuana was most
likely to have been influenced by the Scapigliatura, the literary and artistic movement
begun in Italy in 1864.61 The Scapigliati (literally meaning “disheveled”), the artists of
this spirited and rebellious movement, were influenced by German Romantics, such as
E.T.A Hoffman and Heinrich Heine, as well as by the French Bohemians and the writings
of the American poet, Edgar Allan Poe. This movement precipitated the movements of
Decadentism and Symbolism in Italy and paved the way for the supernatural themed
works of writers such as Capuana, Antonio Fogazzaro and Remigio Zena.
Capuana’s initial interest in the phenomenon of magnetism led him to conduct
spiritual experimentations, and he often referred to himself as a “dilettante” in study of
the occult (Cedola 7). His research encompassed conducting séances, observing
somnambulism (sleepwalking), hypnosis, hallucination, and experimentation with
automatic writing.62 Capuana desired to uncover the mysteries of the supernatural, which
he believed to be a legitimate aspect of the natural universe. Capuana and Pirandello were
fueled by a strong criticism of traditional science that discredited such beliefs, and both
writers appealed to spiritualistic approaches to demonstrate the limitations of strictly
materialist thinking. Capuana funneled the result of his parapsychological experiments
61
The name Scapigliatura, the Italian equivalent to the French Boheme, was derived from the
novel La Scapigliatura e il 6 Febbraio by Cletto Arrighi, pen name of Carlo Righetti (1830–1906). Ugo
Tarchetti (1839-1869), one of the best-known authors of the Scapigliatura, also wrote i Racconti Fantastici
(Fantastic Stories). During this time in Milan, members of the Scapigliati, including Tarchetti, Emilio
Praga, contributed to “Luce ed Ombra” (“Light and Shadow”), the most notable spiritualistic publication,
founded by Angelo Marzorati in 1894. See Cigliana 41-42.
62
It is important to distinguish “automatic writing” from the later “automatism” of the Surrealist
Movement, initiated by André Breton in 1924. According to the Encyclopedia of Occultism and
Parapsychology: “The phenomenon of artistic expression without control of the conscious self belongs to
the same category as automatic writing, but neither necessarily involves the other (126). In his first
Surrealist Manifesto (Le Manifeste du Surréalisme), published in 1924, Breton defined Surrealism as “pure
psychic automatism by which it is intended to express, either verbally or in writing or in any other manner,
the true functioning of thought. Thought dictated in the absence of all control exerted by reason, and
outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations” (Ogilvy 500).
78
into his critical essays, “Spiritismo?” (“Spiritism?”) (1884), “Mondo occulto” (“Occult
World”) (1896), “La scienza della letteratura” (“The Science of Literature”) (1902), and
“Arte e scienza” (“Art and Science) (1904). He also wrote many short occult-themed
stories with titles such as, “Un caso si sonnambulismo” (“A Case of Somnambulism”),
“Forze occulte” (“Occult Forces”), and “Un vampiro” (“A Vampire”).63
Capuana and Pirandello both witnessed the shift in the medical profession during
the second half of the nineteenth century as neurologists and other classically trained
doctors broadened their study of the brain to encompass the mind as well.64 In his 1928
63
Pirandello had in his library the following works by Luigi Capuana: “Mondo occulto”, “Il
braccialetto,” “Gli ‘Ismi’ contemporanei,” Rassegnazione, “Le paesane,” Fausto Bragia e altre novelle, “Il
benefattore,” “Il Decameroncino,” “La scienza della letteratura,” “Coscienze,” “Arte e scienza,” “Passa
l’Amore,” “Il nemico é in noi,” Teatro Dialettale Siciliano (vols. I, IV,V). Indicative of the mutual respect
between Capuana and Pirandello, Capuana inscribed three of these works to Pirandello, “his friend and
brother in art and criticism,” and Pirandello wrote reviews of Fausto Bragia e altre novelle in 1897 and
“Coscienze” in 1906 (Barbina 94-95).
64
Carlo di Lieto writes of Pirandello’s knowledge of and interest in neurology, psychiatry and
psychology, and he describes the intersection of hypnosis and hysteria: “Pirandello partecipa, altresì, alle
sedute spiritiche in casa di Luigi Capuana, perché era noto che la tecnica dell’ipnosi disvelasse i conflitti
della personalità e portasse alla luce i disagi della nevrosi isterica. Secondo Claudio Meldolesi, “Pirandello
sapeva di neurologia, di psichiatria, e più modestamente di psicoanalisi nei limiti della cultura italiana del
tempo. Potremmo affermare, inoltre, che il suo metodo con gli attori fu di tipo psicodrammatico e con gli
amici egli usò fare delle specie di sedute, molto coinvolgente.” Nel tormentato contesto familiare, l’Autore
vuol capire qualcosa di più del grave male che afflige la sua sventurata consorte! La concezione dell’io
diviso gli deriva, senz’altro, da Binet, anche se i primi influssi partono da Lombroso o dalla nuova scienza
psichiatrica di B.A. Morel, da cui non resterà immune nemmeno lo stesso Capuana. Pirandello accetterà da
Nordeau l’idea di affidarsi “allo studio paziente della psichiatria,” perché cominciava a farsi strada in
quegli anni un certo disappunto per la speculazione positivistica. Lo psicologismo, penetrato in Italia
nell’ultimo decennio dell’Ottocento, ad opera di Paul Bourget, si consolida con Alfred Binet e Max
Nordeau. Les alterations de la personnalité di A. Binet, precursore di Freud, faranna intravedere a
Pirandello una nuova realtà di “un altro essere insospettato,” che vive nascosto nel profondo della
coscienza: (Di Lieto 21-22); [“Pirandello participates, also, at the séances at the house of Luigi Capuana,
because it was known that the technique of hypnosis uncovered conflicts of the personality and brought to
light the discomfort of hysterical neurosis. According to Claudio Meldolesi, “Pirandello knew of
neurology, psychiatry, and more modestly of psychoanalysis within the limits of Italian culture of the time.
We are able to affirm, also, that his method with the actors was a kind of psychodrama and with his friends
he used to do a kind of meeting, very co-involved.” In the context of a troubled family, the Author wants to
understand something more of this severe pain that afflicts his unfortunate wife! The conception of the
divided ego derived, of course, by Binet, even if the first influences came from Lombroso or from the new
psychiatry of B.A. Morel, from which not even the same Capuana will remain immune. Pirandello will
accept from Nordeau the idea of relying on “the study of psychiatric patients,” since a certain
disappointment for positivististic speculation was beginning to make headway in those years.
Psychologism, penetrated into Italy in the last decade of the nineteenth century, by Paul Bourget, reinforced
by Alfred Binet and Max Nordeau. The Alterations of the Personality by A. Binet, a precursor of Freud, led
79
essay, “The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man” (“Das Seelenproblem des modernen
Menschen”), Carl Jung explains the need for the study of the mind at the turn of the
century:
Whenever there exists some external form, be it an ideal or a ritual, by
which all yearnings and hopes of the soul are adequately expressed—as
for instance in a living religion—then we may say that the psyche is
outside and that there is no psychic problem. [. . .] The need [for
psychology] only arose with the enormous division of labour and the
growth of specialization in the nineteenth century. So also a spiritual need
has produced in our time the “discovery” of psychology. The psychic facts
still existed earlier, of course, but they did not attract attention—no one
noticed them. But today we can no longer get along unless we pay
attention to the psyche.
It was men of the medical profession who were the first to learn this
truth. For the priest, the psyche can only be something that needs fitting
into a recognized form or system of belief in order to ensure its
undisturbed functioning. So long as this system gives true expression to
life, psychology can be nothing but a technical adjuvant to healthy living,
and the psyche cannot be regarded as a factor sui generis. (R.F.C. Hull
trans. 79)
Doctors focused on hysteria,65 hypnotism, personality dissociation and the new concept
of the divided-ego, with pioneers such as the French psychologists Pierre Janet and
Alfred Binet, the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, and the Austrian neurologists
Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer paving the way. Freud and Breuer concentrated their
research on hysteria and they collaborated a new therapeutic method called free
association, espoused in the book, Studien über Hysterie (Studies on Hysteria), published
in 1895. In his book Pirandello, Binet e Les altérations de la personnalité, Carlo Di Lieto
Pirandello to really get a glimpse of a new reality of “another unexpected being,” that lives hidden in the
depths of the consciousness.”]
65
Webster’s Enclyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary defines hysteria as: “A psychoneurotic disorder
characterized by by violent emotional outbreaks, disturbances of sensory and motor functions, and various
abnormal effects due to autosuggestion (703). Since the 1970s, hysteria as an independent diagnostic entity
has been deleted from the official manuals of medical diagnosis.
80
explains the significance of Breuer and Freud’s findings and the impact on Luigi
Capuana, which then filtered to Pirandello:
L’isteria fu il male di fine secolo, allorquando declinavano le certezze
positivistiche e la “scena psichica” veniva esplorata nella sua sfera
inconscia, fino ad allora dominata dalle leggi scientifiche di tradizione
ippocratica.
In quegli anni, Luigi Capuana crea nei suoi Racconti la figura del
“medico-filosofo”, e Freud nelle cinque storie cliniche degli Studi
sull’isteria sostiene che la rappresentazione rimossa del sintoma isterico è
somatizzabile in una patologia fisica. Nel 1885 Freud è a Parigi e incontra
Charcot (1825-1893); essi si trovano d’accordo nel ritenere che l’isteria
sia una malattia non organica, ma di origine psichica; il “metodo catartico”
di Breuer e la “libera associazione” di Freud permisero di approfondire il
significato dei sintomi isterici e di ipotizzare l’inconscio come attività
psichica che si sottrae al dominio della coscienza. […]
Nella psicologia degli ultimi anni dell’Ottocento, le ricerche
sull’isteria e l’autoanalisi confluiranno nella formulazione dell’apparato
psichico e del sistema inconscio. (Di Lieto 20)
Hysteria was the illness at the end of the century, when the positivist
certainties waned and the “psychic scene” was explored in its unconscious
sphere, hitherto dominated by the scientific laws of the Hippocratic
tradition.
In those years, Luigi Capuana created in his Stories the figure of the
“doctor-philosopher,” and Freud in the five case histories from the Studies
on Hysteria maintains that the repressed representation of hysterical
symptoms is manifested as a physical pathology. In 1885, Freud is in Paris
and meets Charcot (1825-1893); they agree that hysteria is a not an
organic disease, but of psychic origin; the “cathartic method” of Breuer
and the “free association” of Freud allowed them to deepen the meaning of
the hysterical symptoms and to hypothesize the unconscious as psychic
activity which is not subject to the command of the conscience. […]
In the psychology of the last years of the nineteenth century, research
on hysteria and self-analysis converged in the formulation of the psychic
apparatus and the system of the unconscious.
Pirandello was particularly interested in hysteria as his wife, Maria Antonietta Portulano,
was diagnosed with this syndrome after the birth of their son, Fausto, in 1899 (Di Lieto
21). Whether his initial interest in psychology was motivated by his wife’s illness or his
own personal interest in such subjects as the consciousness and perception, Pirandello
81
immersed himself in the world of psychology and familiarized himself with
contemporary scientists and their research on the enigmatic workings of the mind.
Intrigued especially by the possibility of multiple personalities, Pirandello was attracted
to Alfred Binet’s seminal study of consciousness and his findings of “coexistant
personalities” within the individual.66 Pirandello references Binet’s Les altérations de la
personnalité in his critical essays, and the reader is able to discern Pirandello’s
transference of Binet’s work on the divided personality and fragmented consciousness of
many of his characters including, for example, Mattia Pascal and Moscarda Vitangelo.
The work of Italian psychologist, Giovanni Marchesini, was also fundamental to
Pirandello’s aesthetic—particularly his arguments concerning consciousness and how it
is affected by the soul, or multiple souls, of the individual. Marchesini wrote La crisi del
postivismo e il problema filosofica (The Crisis of Positivism and the Philosphical
Problem) in 1898, but it is his later work, Le finzioni dell’anima (The Fictions of the
Soul) (1905), to which many of Pirandello’s postulations regarding the soul can be
attributed. Marchesini addresses consciousness, the unconscious, illusions, natural logic
versus reason, morals and ethics, responsibility, will, the purification of the soul, the
collective soul, the fictions of science and suicide—all themes that Pirandello treats
throughout his oeuvre. Echoing Marchesini, Pirandello suggests that an individual may
have more than one soul vying for control of the personality, which in turn effects the
66
Binet explains his research in Les altérations de la personnalité (The Alterations of the
Personality) (1892): “This result, reached by so many different roads, and resting upon such a variety of
mental phenomena, is the “alteration of personality,” the division or dismemberment of the self. It is proved
that within a great many cases and in very diverse conditions the normal unity of consciousness is broken
up and several distinct consciousnesses are formed, each of which may have its own system of perceptions,
its own memory, and even its own moral character” (Helen Green Baldwin, trans. x)
82
individual’s consciousness. In “L’umorismo,” Pirandello writes that we are ignorant of
our inner being:
Ma se noi abbiamo dentro quattro, cinque anime in lotta fra loro: l’anima
istintiva, l’anima morale, l’anima affettiva, l’anima sociale? E secondo che
domina questa o quella, s’atteggia la nostra coscienza; e noi riteniamo
valida e sincera quella interpretazione fittizia di noi medesimi, del nostro
essere interiore che ignoriamo, perché non si manifesta mai tutt’intero, ma
ora in un modo, ora in un altro, come volgano I casi della vita. (Spsv 157)
But what if we have with in ourselves four or five different souls—the
instinctive, the moral, the emotional, the social—constantly fighting
among themselves? The attitude of our consciousness is contingent upon
whichever of these souls is dominant; and we hold as valid and sincere
that fictitious interpretation of ourselves, of our inner being—a being that
we know nothing about because it never reveals itself in its entirety, but
now in one way and now in another way, according to the turn of the
circumstances of life. (Trans. Illiano 143)
The soul is vulnerable and is easily besieged by the collective soul of society, thanks to
what Pirandello calls the “macchinetta infernale” [“devilish machine”] of logic and the
“triste privilegio di sentirsi vivere” [“sad privilege of feeling oneself alive”] (Spsv 154155). Man’s exaggerated self-consciousness and his need to control the flux of life is
directly opposed to nature, which continually and unconsciously maintains the cyclical
process of becoming.
Pirandello integrates aspects from Alfred Binet’s psychological evaluation of the
personality and Marchesini’s analysis of the fictions and plurality of the soul and
conceptualized his own philosophy concerning the fragmented consciousness and spirit,
fictitious illusions versus true reality, and man’s conflict with life and form. In Pirandello
and the Crisis of Modern Consciousness, Caputi argues that for Pirandello, consciousness
and his understanding of consciousness, is the “key issue.” He writes:
For Pirandello the mind was far from coherent and integrated; it consisted
of many faculties and strata, some of them subconscious. As individuals
83
internalized the world around them, they processed their contacts with it
by way of a consciousness that they were continuously structuring and
restructuring, even as, at the same time, another part of the mind was
monitoring this process. Culture for Pirandello was the experience, dense
and authoritative, created within the consciousness. (Caputi 2)
Pirandello postulates that consciousness, or the inner mirror, is affected by the soul,
which in turn affects behavior. Consciousness is always internally present, however,
circumstance will dictate its capacity to reflect and the result of its reflections. Through
unconscious imitation and simulation, the formerly pristine soul becomes inundated with
the flood of fictitious constructions, or forms, that humans have created for their psychic
survival. This inundation of illusions tampers with the soul, fragments the consciousness
and, ultimately, causes the isolation of the individual from his true being (the essence of
Self discussed in the following chapter). Subsequently, man experiences a disconcerting
and confusing feeling of dis-ease but he is rarely able to articulate his emotions, let alone
identify the source of the disruption. Because this division is rooted in the depths of the
consciousness, or the subconscious, the psychological crisis manifests itself as a
“breakdown” of rational mental processes and coping mechanisms, causing man to feel
depressed, frustrated, shamed, dysfunctional and helpless. In Pirandello’s time, before
psychology and psychiatry had sophisticated the diagnoses and treatments of such
emotional collapses, man believed himself to be “mad,” and therefore, deviant from
society. Pirandello often presents his characters as they experience this feeling of
“madness”; the only recourse available to them is death or a mental asylum. For
Pirandello’s characters, this lack of an outlet drives them to act erratically and
inappropriately, like the protagonist of “La carriola,” who abuses his dog in the privacy
of his office, or it leads them to renounce their former life, either by appropriating
84
fictitious personas, such as Enrico IV and Mattia Pascal, or by dissociation with reality
such as through the philosophy of distance, or they consciously choose to cloister
themselves away from the illusions of society, such as Vitangelo Moscarda in Uno,
nessuno e centomila (One, No One and One Hundred Thousand), and Tommasino Unzio
in “Canta l’Epistola” (“Sings the Epistle”), and ultimately, the Scalognati of I giganti
della montagna (The Mountain Giants).
Parapsychology
The year 1882 is considered the key date for the origins of parapsychology as it
was the year in which the Society for Psychical Research, the first learned society to
study the paranormal, was established in London (Beloff 70).67 The term parapsychology,
coined by German psychologist Max Dessoir in 1889, is used today to indicate the
scientific study of psi, or the paranormal, which embraces unusual mental phenomena
such as telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and unusual physical phenomena such as
psychokinesis (movement of objects without contact)” (Ed. Shepard 2: 1257). Professors
William McDougall and J.B. Rhine are considered the pioneers of parapsychology in
America, and the popularization of the terms “parapsychology,” “extrasensory
67
The establishment of the Society for Psychical Research is explained: “Its establishment for
organized and systematic psychical research was proposed on June 6, 1882, at a meeting by Sir William F.
Barrett, and on February 20, 1882, the society came into being. Professor Henry Sidgwick, of Cambridge,
was elected president. […] The objects of the society were summed upon the following points: 1. An
examination of the nature and extent of any influence which may be exerted by one mind upon another,
apart from any generally recognized mode of perception; 2. The study of hypnotism and the forms of socalled mesmeric trance, with its alleged insensibility to pain; clairvoyance and other allied phenomena; 3. A
critical revision of Reichenbach’s research; 4. A careful investigation of any reports, resting on strong
testimony regarding apparitions at the moment of death, or otherwise, or regarding disturbances in houses
reputed to be haunted; 5. An inquiry into the various physical phenomena commonly called spiritualistic;
with an attempt to discover their causes and general laws; 6. The collection and collation of existing
materials bearing on the history of these subjects.” In 1889 the American Society for Psychical Research
was affiliated (Shepard, ed. 2: 1543-1544).
85
perception,” and “psi” are attributed to Rhine.68 In addition to Cesare Lombroso and
Enrico Morselli in Italy, many distinguished scientists attended séances to research
spiritual phenomenon and study the personality. Scientists, including Émile Boirac,
Michael Faraday, Alfred Russel Wallace, Charles Richet, Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner,
Albert de Rochas, Pierre Janet, Jean Charcot, William James, Alfred Binet and William
Crookes, observed paranormal phenomena and conducted scientific experiments with
hopes of establishing an empirical explanation. This scientific approach also leant some
credibility to the ideas postulated by Theosophy and Spiritualism. Research of the nonphysical, spiritual world, hitherto rejected as a viable scientific pursuit, gained validation
with the foundation of the Society for Psychical Research in London, however, whereas
psychology “found an uncontested niche in the pantheon of scientific disciplines,” it is
not so for parapsychology as critics continue to debate its value (Burton and Grandy
238).69
68
The aims and successes of the Society for Psychical Research are described in the Encyclopedia
of Occultism and Parapsychology: The early activity of the society was devoted to an experimental
investigation of thought-transference. They established it to their satisfaction as a fact. Equally important to
this achievement was the finding of the authors of Phantasms of the Living (Gurney, Myers and Podmore)
that between death and apparitions a connection existed which was not due to chance alone. The report of
the committee on the “Census of Hallucinations” came to the same conclusion. It was largely attributed to
the S.P.R.’s investigation that hypnotism was officially received by the British Medical Association.
Hysteria, haunted houses, Reichenbach’s phenomena, the divining rod, multiple personality, automatic
writing and trance-speaking were other subjects taken up in due course. (Ed. Shepard 1544)
Baron Karl von Reichenbach (1788-1869): “Brilliant German scientist of the nineteenth century,
preeminent expert on meteorites, highly respected as a chemist, technologist and metallurgist, discoverer of
Kerosene. He also spent over two decades experimenting with the mysterious force which he named ‘Od’
(also known as Odic Force of Odyle in various translations). This claimed force had particular relevance to
concepts of the human aura. […] In a long series of experiments with some two hundred individuals,
Reichenback established that the sensitive person could see emanations from crystals and magnets in total
darkness and could detect alternations of electric current. They could also perceive an aura surrounding the
human body. Reichenbach studied the various manifestations of this vital force in its relationship to
electricity, magnetism and chemistry. He showed that it was connected with the phenomena of waterwitching, Mesmerism and similar psychic subjects. He demonstrated that the force could move objects
without conscious effort, as in the table-turning of the Spiritualists” (Shepard, ed. 2: 1404-1405).
69
Burton and Grand write of parapsychology: “Today, some universities offer courses in
parapsychology, though precious few (mostly in Europe) have parapsychology departments. The discipline
has its share of critics, many of whom wonder if it has brought any clarity to the issues that inspired its
86
Regardless of the credibility of parapsychology as a discipline, the establishments
of the psychical societies in London and New York at the end of the nineteenth century
allowed for the formalization and publicity of such non-physical investigations.
Pirandello, in fact, had in his personal library a French translation of the book Research
on the Phenomena of Spiritualism (Recherches sur les Phenomènes du Spiritualisme) by
English chemist and physicist William Crookes (Barbina 147). The systematic
examination of parapsychological phenomena, and the documentation of experiments
conducted by reputable scientists, offered—for the first time—a modern protoscience to
fill the spiritual void of traditional science. Pirandello was clearly interested and
knowledgeable of parapsychogy as evidenced by the novella “La casa del Granella”
(“Granella’s House”), discussed in the next section.
birth. […] Critics have tagged parapsychology an occult and unscientific pursuit for at least two reasons.
First, some say the presumed existence of psi effects has no evidential backing. […] A second reason for
questioning the scientific status of parapsychology concerns its attempt to discover capacities of the mind
historically associated with the occult dream of omniscience and total universal power (Burton and Grandy
238).
87
The Legal Implications of A Haunted House
I topi non sospettano l’insidia della trappola. Vi cascherebbero, se la
sospettassero? Ma non se ne capacitano neppure quando vi sono cascati.
S’arrampicano squittendo su per le gretole; cacciano il musetto aguzzo tra
una gretola e l’altra; girano; rigirano senza requie, cercando l’uscita.
L’uomo che ricorre alla legge sa, invece, di cacciarsi in una trappola. Il
topo vi si dibatte. L’uomo, che sta, sta fermo. Fermo col corpo, s’intende.
Dentro, cioè con l’anima, fa poi come il topo, e peggio. E così facevano,
quella mattina d’agosto, nella sala d’aspetto dell’avvocato Zummo i
numerosi clienti, tutti in sudore, mangiati dalle mosche e dalla noja. (From
La casa del Granella, TLN 2: 89)
Mice do not suspect the danger of the trap. Would they fall, if they
suspected it? But they do not even grasp when they have fallen. They
climb up the metal wire squealing; they thrust their pointed noses between
one wire and another; they turn, they turn again restlessly, looking for the
exit. The man who has recourse to the law knows, instead, about plunging
himself into a trap. The mouse will debate. Man, that is, stands still.
Motionless, naturally. Inside, that is with the soul, he is then like the
mouse, and worse. And so were the numerous clients that morning in
August, in the waiting room of the lawyer Zummo, all sweaty, eaten by
flies and by boredom.
Pirandello’s familiarity with the current activity of parapsychology is made
manifest in “La casa del Granella” (“Granella’s House”) (1905).70 In this story,
Pirandello contextualizes the anti-positivist movement away from the rigidity of material
empiricism and confronts the growing interest of conventionally trained scientists to
rationally explain the extrasensory perceptions received through channels beyond the five
senses. This novella provides fodder for Pirandello to make a social commentary on the
intersection of positivism and anti-positivism, as well as points to unexampled
entanglements between traditional science, occultism and the law. Based on an actual
judicial case in Italy in 1905, Pirandello highlights an interesting and unprecedented
70
“La casa del Granella” (“Granella’s House”) was published for the first time in “Il Marzocco”
on August 27, 1905. In 1910 it was included in the collection, La vita nuda (The Naked Life), and in 1922 it
was included in the second volume of “Novelle per un anno,” called La vita nuda (The Naked Life) (TLN
vol. 2: 927).
88
byproduct of parapsychology: the implications of paranormal phenomena for the legal
system—particularly in the area of real estate (Illiano Metapsichica 47).71 The premise of
the story stems from the question: If a house is determined to be haunted, are the tenants
or the proprietor financially responsible?
The story begins in the lawyer Zummo’s crowded and dreadfully hot waiting
room. The narrator describes the Piccirilli family—a father, mother and daughter—
waiting conspicuously among the other impatient clients. The Father and daughter are
both pale, thin and cross-eyed, and the mother is overloaded with gold jewelry. She wears
large gold earrings, a double-stranded necklace, a large brooch and rings on almost every
finger. The others in the room, closely observing this family, are curious to know why
they are there. Zummo, thinking he was finished working for the day, is irritated when
the family enters his office; he is anxious to hear their case and go home. The daughter
begins to explain why they have come but is interrupted by her mother who blurts out:
“Cose dell’altro mondo!” [“Things from the other world!] (TLN 2: 92). Serafino Piccirilli
then explains to Zummo that they have received a citation forcing them to leave their
residence. Zummo immediately assumes they have been evicted, but the father tells him
that they have always paid the rent on time, even early. He explains that the proprietor,
Granella, is ordering them to leave the house because they have caused the house to
become scandalous. Granella demands that they obey their contract and pay for damages.
Zummo, trying to understand, asks if they have been conducting illegal business there.
The father finally discloses that Granella wants them to leave because he believes that
71
Antonio Illiano writes that this rare episode is also explained in the chapter, “Case infestate
dagli spiriti” (“Houses infested by Spirits”), found in Giurisprudenza italiana sulle case infestate (Italian
Giurisprudence on Infested Houses) (Naples 1917) by F. Zingaropoli (Illiano Metapsichica e letteratura in
Pirandello 156).
89
they have brought evil spirits into the house. The father says that these infernal house
spirits have followed them for the last three months, and they have even seen them with
their own eyes. The hungry and irritated Zummo refuses to listen to such nonsense and
leaps to his feet, ready to leave. He calls them crazy and tells them to go directly to the
mental institution. The father and the daughter insist that they have both seen these
spirits, and the lawyer cruelly says that it may have appeared so because of their crossedeyes. The mother jumps up and says that she too, with her perfect eyes, has seen the
spirits—along with many other witnesses. Zummo becomes interested when he learns
that there are neighbors who have seen evidence of the spirits, such as: chairs moving by
themselves, a brooch flung from a drawer into her husband’s face, as if thrown by an
invisible hand, and the shaking of the dresser and mirror. The daughter, Titina, then tells
Zummo that her grandmother had given her a silver thimble. She explains that one day,
she reached into her pocket for the thimble, but it was not there; for three days she
searched for it without success. She says that one night while she was in bed, she saw
something thrown forcefully from the ceiling to the floor; when looked at the object, she
saw her thimble, dented. Zummo, amused, tells them to continue with their anecdotes of
these prankster spirits. The mother is angered by Zummo’s response; she calls the spirits
infernal and rants about how they pull the covers from the bed, sit on her stomach in bed,
move the furniture, ring bells—wreaking havoc as though it were an earthquake. She says
they have begged Granella to dissolve the contract because they are afraid they will die of
fear if they stay in that house. They have asked him to come to the house to see the spirits
for himself, but he refuses and continues to threaten them. The mother tells the lawyer
that they must have rights, and for this she wants him to handle the case. Zummo
90
pretends not to hear these last words, and looks at the clock; his family has been waiting
for him to eat for over an hour. Zummo says that he does not believe in their so-called
spirits but he admits that, from a legal standpoint, he is tempted by this new and strange
case. He agrees to do some research on the subject and asks them to come back tomorrow
for his decision on whether or not he will take the case.
The thought of the spirits infiltrated Zummo’s mind and he could not eat or sleep.
He had heard talk of spirits many times, and the stories told to him as a boy by his maidservant, reminiscent of Pirandello’s Maria Stella, had frightened him. Zummo then
engages in a long reflection about the soul and asks himself whether or not he believes
the soul to be immortal—as this is the basis for belief in spirits. Though in the past he
never believed in the immortality of the soul, he now admits to doubting his former
conviction. He considers that he has, at times, been afraid when alone—but he does not
know what makes him afraid. Contemplating that man fools himself out of fear of
discovering something unpleasant or unfamiliar about himself or the external world,
Zummo reasons:
Noi spesso fingiamo con noi stessi, come con gli altri. […] Noi … ecco,
noi temiamo di indagare il nostro intimo essere, perché una tale indagine
potrebbe scoprirci diversi da quelli che ci piace di crederci o di esser
creduti. Io non ho mai pensato sul serio a queste cose. La vita ci distrae.
Faccende, bisogni, abitudini. Tutte le minute brighe cotidiane non ci
lasciano tempo di riflettere a queste cose, che pure dovrebbero interessarci
sopra tutte le altre. Muore un amico? Ci arrestiamo là, davanti alla sua
morte, come tante bestie restie, e preferiamo di volgere indietro il
pensiero, alla sua vita, rievocando qualche ricordo, per vietarci d’andare
oltre con la mente, oltre il punto cioè che ha segnato per noi la fine del
nostro amico. Buona notte! Accendiamo un sigaro per cacciar via col
fumo il turbamento e la malinconia. La scienza s’arresta anch’essa, là, ai
limiti della vita, come se la morte non ci fosse e non ci dovesse dare alcun
pensiero. […] Ma ecco qua: l’anima immortale, i signori spiriti che fanno?
vengono a bussare alla porta del mio studio: “Ehi, signor avvocato, ci
91
siamo anche noi, sa? Vogliamo ficcare anche noi il naso nel suo codice
civile! Voi, gente positiva, non volete curarvi di noi?” (TLN 2: 98)
We often pretend to ourselves, as with others. [...] We ... here, we fear to
inquire into our innermost being, because such an investigation might
enable us to discover differences from that which we like to believe or
have believed. I never thought seriously about these things. Life distracts
us. Affairs, needs and habits. All the minute quotidian troubles do not
leave us time to reflect on these things, which really should concern us
above all the others. A friend dies? We stop there, in front of his death,
like so many reluctant beasts, and we prefer to turn the thought back to his
life, recalling some memory to prohibit us to go beyond the mind, that is,
beyond the point which marked the end for us by our friend. Good night!
Let’s light a cigar with smoke to chase away the disturbance and
melancholy. Science also stops, there, at the limits of life, as if death
weren’t there and we shouldn’t give it any thought. [...] But here it is: the
immortal soul, the lord-like spirits what do they do? they come knocking
at the door of my office: “Hey, sir lawyer, we are here too, you know? We
want to poke our noses in your civil code! You, positivistic people, don’t
you want to take care of us?”
Pirandello, via Zummo, argues that the majority of men refuse to believe in spirits
because this would force them to think about their own mortality. Death is as natural as
life, and it is a condition of existence that all living beings share. However, it is treated
negatively and is ignored by science. Pirandello offers this debate to bolster his argument
that men create illusions for themselves that, ultimately, cause the disunion between
one’s belief system and their true being.
After his moment of reflection, Zummo is prompted to review the civil codes
concerning the stipulations of real estate contracts. There are only two articles, 1575 and
1577, and neither addresses the issue of spirits. Excited by the challenge, Zummo agrees
to take on the case of the Piccirili family and he gathers the testimonies of the witnesses.
In trying to come up with a defense for this singular legal case of the haunted house,
Zummo passionately and thoroughly familiarizes himself with all available publications
on the subjects of Spiritualism, Occultism and Parapsychology, including a summarized
92
history of Spiritism and a book on fakirism72 by the French barrister and judge, Louis
Jacolliot.73 The narrator explains that Zummo read, “tutto quanto avevano pubblicato i
più illustri e sicuri sperimentatori, dal Crookes al Wagner, all’Aksakof; dal Gibier allo
Zoellner al Janet, al de Rochas, al Richet, al Morselli” [“everything that was published by
the most illustrious and reliable experimenters, from Crookes to Wagner, to Aksakof;
from Gibier to Zoellner to Janet, to de Rochas, to Richet, to Morselli”]; it is interesting to
note that Pirandello adds: “E con suo sommo stupore venne a conoscere che ormai i
fenomeni così detti spiritici, per esplicita dichiarazione degli scienzati più scettici e più
positivi, erano innegabili” [“And with his utmost astonishment he came to know that by
now the so-called spiritualistic phenomena, by explicit declaration of the most skeptical
and positivist scientists, were undeniable”] (TLN 2: 98). The lawyer is shocked to learn
that such highly esteemed scientists have confirmed the occurrence of such phenomena.
Zummo expresses a sentiment of skepticism shared by those, within and outside of the
scientific community, who considered Parapsychology an unsubstantiated pseudoscience.
While Zummo researches his case, he is confronted and surprised by his own
change of perspective regarding his belief in spirits. Until the Piccirilli family came into
his office, he had considered himself a “uomo serio, uomo colto, nutrito di scienza
positiva” [“a serious man, cultured man, fed on positivistic science”] (TLN 2: 98). After
initially accusing the Piccirilli’s of hallucinating, he thinks he may be hallucinating as
well. He even considers that maybe he is a medium. There is a disparity between
72
A fakir is a Moslem or Hindu religious ascetic or mendicant monk (Webster’s Encyclopedic
Unabridged Dictionary 512). According to the Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology: “fakir
literally means ‘poor man’ in Arabic. As with Hindu wandering holy men, many legends have grown up
around alleged psychic miracles of fakirs” (Shepard, ed. 1: 564-565).
73
Louis Jacolliot (1837-1890) is the author of Le spiritisme dans le monde (1875) and Voyage au
pays des fakirs charmeurs (1891), (TLN 2: 930).
93
Zummo’s postive view of the refined, intellectual and professional man and his negative
view one who believes in the spirit world. Despite the new validation by expert scientists
in 1905, there was little room to be both socially accepted as a professional and a
proponet of the spiritual realm.
At the trial, Zummo amazes the judges, his collegues and the public by his fervid
and passionate opening remarks. He argues against traditional science and spoke of Allan
Kardec, one of the founders of Spiritism, as though he were the messiah of the new
religion of humanity. Zummo presented, with dramatic eloquence, the miraculous
manifestations of the spirits, as confirmed by the most respected men of science:
physicists, chemists, psychologists, physiologists, anthropologists and psychiatrists.
Though the spectators were all in awe of Zummo and his persuasiveness, the judges—
with an air of presumption—declared that such unreliable theories of so-called spiritual
phenomena were not yet admissible in court nor accepted by modern science. In spite of
Zummo’s efforts, the Piccirilli family loses the case. As in the actual 1905 trial, the judge
discredits the tenants’ defense and he orders them, based on civil code 1577, to pay the
money owed to the proprietor, Granella. The public unanimously expressed disproval of
the ruling. Antonio Illiano writes of the decision:
L’esito del processo mette in luce la preterintenzione polemica,
sottolineata anche del sapiente impiego dell’elemento corale, nei confronti
dell’inefficienza del codice civile e dell’ottusità positivistica
dell’amministrazione giudizaria. Ma, oltre i palesi riverberi della volontà
satireggiante, l’episodio giudizario, riflettendo il fallimento di una difesa
corrobotata da prove scientifiche filosofiche e implicitamente anche
giuridiche, costituisce l’anello più importante nel compatto e serrato
evolversi della vicenda. (Illiano Metapsichica 49)
The outcome of the trial highlights the controversial element of attribution
of responsibility, emphasized also by the wise use of the choral element, in
confronting the inefficiency of the civil code and the obtuse positivistic
94
judicial administration. But, beyond the obvious reverberations of the
satirical will, the judiciary episode, reflecting the failure of a defense
corroborated by scientific and philosophical evidence and also implicitly
legal, constitutes the most important link in the compact and dense
evolution of the story.
Granella is the only person who is pleased with the outcome of the trial. He leaves the
court room, yelling to anyone who will listen, that he is going home to sleep in the house
defamed by the Piccirilli’s; he makes a point to say that he would be alone as his
blasphemous tenants ruined all chances of him ever again having a maidservant. After the
Piccirilli family abandoned the house, Granella had it rennovated and redecorated in hope
that he would be able to rent it again soon; unfortunately, no one wants to live there and
Granella fears the expenses. His neighbors note that Granella, perhaps out of fear of the
spirits, has armed himself with two pistols. As Granella walks through his empty and
dark house, his heart starts to beat rapidly and he is soaked with sweat. He is preparing
for bed when he hears what seems to be a knock at the door. This causes his hair to stand
up on end and his heart skips a beat; he grabs his pistol and goes out on his balcony.
Granella is relieved to find a bat, and assuming this was the source of the noice, he laughs
at his foolishness. But in the next moment, he hears a creaking sound coming from his
bedroom—which he assumes is from the new wallpaper. He sees a strip of paper on the
floor, stretching past the two other rooms, all the way to the open door. Baffled by this,
Granella hopes that the workers left the paper on the floor. His fear grows and he realizes
it was a mistake to sleep there. Granella, thinking no one would see him leave at this late
hour, flees his house in fear but the neighbors see him. They tell Zummo, who receives
this news happily, and he announces that he will appeal the Piccirilli case. Sometime after
eleven o’clock that night, Zummo, pouncing like a tiger, surprises Granella who, having
95
hastily left his house, is barefoot and holding his shoes and jacket in his arms. Frightened,
Granella drops one shoe and then the other; he leans against the wall petrified and
humiliated. Zummo shouts at him: “Ci credi ora, imbecille, all’anima immortale? La
giustizia cieca ti ha dato ragione. Ma tu ora hai aperto gli occhi. Che hai visto? Parla!”
[“Do you now believe, imbecile, in the immortal soul? Blind justice gave you the right.
But now you have opened your eyes. What did you see? Speak!”]; the story then ends:
“Ma il povero Granella, tutto tremante, piangeva, e non poteva parlare” [“But poor
Granella, trembling all over, was crying and he was not able to speak” (TLN 2: 107).
By the end of the story, Zummo and Granella, both originally adament
disbelievers in spirits, have experienced paranormal phenomena first-hand. Ultimately,
the Piccirilli case allows for Zummo to confront his own beliefs concerning death and
serves to alter his skepticism of the immortal soul and supernatural spirits. He says, “Per
debito di gratitudine, tuttavia, verso quei poveri Piccirilli, i quali, senza saperlo, gli
avevano aperto innanzi allo spirito alla via della luce, si risolse alla fine a esaminare
attentamente il loro caso” [“For debt of gratitude, however, to those poor Piccirilli, who
without knowing it, had henceforth opened him to the spirit to the path of light, he
decided in the end to attentively examine their case”] (TLN 2: 99). Through the process of
preparing himself for the case and opening himself up to unfamiliar practices, Zummo
acquires a metaphysical education and undergoes an unexpected spiritual metamorphosis.
Zummo’s willing conversion, as opposed to Granella’s harrowing encounter,
demonstrates that one’s approach to such spiritual matters may determine whether his
experience with the spirit world is positive or negative.
96
The Rise of Indology and Buddhism in the West
The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It will have to
transcend a personal God and avoid dogma and theology. Encompassing
both the natural and the spiritual, it will have to be based on a religious
sense arising from the experience of all things, natural and spirited,
considered as a meaningful unity. […] Buddhism answers this description
… If there is any religion that could respond to the needs of modern
science, it would be Buddhism.74
-Albert Einstein
Hindu and Buddhist religious and philosophical teachings, in existence for at
least two thousand years, were slow to enter to the West. Translations of sacred Indian
scriptures, originally written in Sanskrit, were not begun until the late eighteenth century,
and even after coming to light for the first time in the West, they were not readily
accessible. Eventually, this ancient wisdom was disseminated through the “labours of
Western Oriental scholarship”—exposing Westerners to ancient Eastern belief systems
espoused thousands of years prior. Henrik Kraemer writes:
The Eastern Invasion in the West as embodied in the Indian world of
religion and metaphysical thought happened mainly, as in the case of
Buddhism, through the labours of Western Oriental scholarship since the
beginning of the 19th century, and the many neo-spiritualist and other
movements called into existence by men and women whose minds were
stirred by the mysterious ancient Wisdom of India or its many cultural
splendours. An ever-expanding stream of writing, scholarly, popularizing
or distorting, has brought this vast world of Indian spirituality and cultural
achievement within the horizon of the West and made it, apart from the
growing possibilities of direct contact in our planetary world of today, an
important element in the welter of opinion and orientation in the modern
74
Notably, Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize winning physicist, conceded that traditionally
monotheistic religion must to yield to a universal cosmic vision. According to The Quantum and the Lotus,
this quote is found in Thinley Norbu’s “Welcoming Flowers,” from Across the Cleansed Threshold of
Hope: An Answer to the Pope’s Criticism of Buddhism (New York: Jewel Publishing House, 1997) (Ricard
and Thuan 282). For more information on Einstein’s view of science and spirituality, see Einstein’s The
World As I See It (1949) and Ideas and Opinions (1954), and Philip Frank Einstein His Life and Times
(2002).
97
West, which lived and lives through the critical period of searching for a
basis of spiritual unification, which it has lost. (Kraemer 251)75
As translations became available and the mystical wisdom of the East began to circulate,
an enthusiasm developed for Indian literature, especially the Upanishads (the early
sources of the Hindu religion), and particularly among German intellectuals. Portions of
the Sanskrit epic, the Mah"bh"rata, the most important text for the Hind" religion and
mythology written in India between 400 B.C. and 400 A.D., was translated in Indonesia
and India as early as the eleventh century, but only since 1785 was the lofty task
undertaken the West (Buitenen xxviii). In 1792, the German philosopher Johann
Gottfried Herder was the first to translate verses of the Bhagavad Gita, the sacred poem
found in the Mah"bh"rata, from Sanskrit into German. It is notable that Pirandello
owned one of the earliest Italian translations of the Mah"bh"rata (Barbina 153).76 Martin
Baumann describes the diffusion of Buddhism in Europe through texts and translations:
In contrast to the North American and the Australian experience, the first
Buddhists in Germany—and generally in Europe—had not been labour
migrants from Asia (i.e. Japan and China), but European converts. The
discovery of the teachings of the Buddha began through philosophical
treatises and philological translations in the 18th and early 19th century. In
Germany, it was particularly through the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer
(1788-1860) that artists, academics and intellectuals became interested in
Buddhist philosophy and ethics. (Baumann 274)77
75
Henrik Kraemer notes the importance of the Indian author Rabindrananth Tagore, winner of the
Nobel Prize in literature in 1913, “who is acknowledged as one of the modern world’s greatest writers”
(Kraemer 253). Pirandello was familiar with Tagore and he had a translation of Tagore’s The Garden (Il
giardiniere, Lanciano: Carabba, 1915) in his personal library. See Barbina 161.
76
According to the catalog of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome, Michele Kerbaker,
the author of the translation found in Pirandello’s library, published five volumes of Il Mah"bh"rata
between 1933-1938. Hippolyte Fauche began a French translation in 1863, but it was left incomplete due
to his death in 1870. The first complete English translation of the Mah"bh"rata was published in Calcutta
between 1883 and 1896 (Buitenen xxviii).
77
His brother Friedrich (1772-1829), author of Über die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (On the
Language and Wisdom of the Indians), was interested in a more philological interpretation of the Gita
(Herling 119). Continuing with Herder’s myth of Indian origins, “Schlegel continued to utilize an important
conception of the foundational Hindu doctrine that began to emerge in Herder’s thought: at its core,
Hinduism was pantheistic” (Herling 119).
98
In addition to Arthur Schopenhauer’s active interest in Indology, August Wilhelm
Schlegel (1769-1845), German poet and leader of the German Romantic movement,
occupied the first chair of Indology, the study of Sanskrit literature and Indian religions,
at Bonn in 1818, and translated the entire Bhagavad Gita into Latin in 1823 (Herling
157). This active interest on the part of German scholars is especially pertinent for
Pirandello as there are many parallels between his writing and Buddhistic thought—most
likely the result of his time spent in Germany—where one finds the earliest European
assessment of Buddhism by the German philosophers Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer and
Nietzsche.78 M. John Stella explains the connection between Pirandello and Buddhism:
Among the most important European novelists and dramatists of the
twentieth century, Luigi Pirandello should be of especial interest to
Buddhists. Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934, he is best
known for plays such as Six Characters in Search of an Author, Henry IV
and To Find Oneself, as well as for his major novels: The Late Mattia
Pascal, The Notebooks of Serafino Gubbio and One, No One and One
Hundred Thousand. Each of these works challenges conventional notions
of personal identity and its attributes; to date, however, readers have not
explored the similarities between Pirandello’s thought and Buddhism.
While it is well-known that our author spent some three years (1889-1891)
studying at the University of Bonn, Pirandello scholars have not taken into
account the fact that at the time Germany was the European centre for the
research into oriental philosophies. It might be assumed that a young
student of philology from a small town in Sicily, eager to broaden his
intellectual horizon, would have been fascinated by the possibility of
discovering a new world beyond the limited vistas offered by a traditional
Italian education at that time—and would therefore have seized the
78
In fact, in The Antichrist, Friedrich Nietzche writes: “Buddhism is the only genuinely positive
religion to be encountered in history, and this applies even to its epistemology (which is a strict
phenomenalism). It does not speak of a “struggle with sin,” but, yielding to reality, of the “struggle with
suffering.” Sharply differentiating itself from Christianity, it puts the self-deception that lies in moral
concepts behind it; it is, in my phrase, beyond good and evil. […] Buddhism, I repeat, is a hundred times
more austere, more honest, more objective. It no longer has to justify its pains, its susceptibility to
suffering, by interpreting these things in terms of sin—it simply says, as it simply thinks, “I suffer.” […]
The things necessary to Buddhism are a very mild climate, customs of great gentleness and liberality, and
no militarism; moreover, it must get its start among the higher and better educated classes. Cheerfulness,
quiet and the absence of desire are the chief desiderata, and they are attained. Buddhism is not a religion in
which perfection is merely an object of aspiration: perfection is actually normal” (Mencken, H.L. trans. 2124)
99
opportunity to read the translations that had aroused such interest in
intellectual centres of contemporary Germany. Further, there is hard
evidence that, even to the end of his life, Pirandello’s personal library
contained copies of the ancient Indian epic, the Mah!bh!rata, and of
Schopenhauer’s Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. (Stella “Self and
Suicide in Pirandello”)
Ernesto Monaci, Pirandello’s Romance philology professor at the university in
Rome, influenced his student to concentrate on the relatively new field of philology and
suggested that he continue his philology studies at the university in Bonn, Germany under
the guidance of his colleague, Wendelin Foerster (Giudice 34-53). Pirandello continued
with his philology studies at Bonn where he learned the German language and embraced
the intellectual culture. At the university in Bonn, Pirandello was immersed in a highly
intellectual atmosphere and exposed to a long lineage of reputable German writers and
philosophers—from Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), to G.F.W Hegel (1770-1831), to
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) to Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), who also studied
philology at Bonn.79 Anthony Caputi writes of Pirandello’s education at Bonn:
At Bonn one of [Pirandello’s] three final examinations had been in
philosophy and doubtless included extensive work in the German idealists
[. . . ] The influence on him of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, et al., was
profound: the assumption that the world exists only as idea, that we create
it, ourselves, and our lives, permeates his thought, if, as we shall see, in
idiosyncratic form. [. . . ] We must never forget that Pirandello was trained
in the German philological tradition and always saw himself, to some
extent, as a romance philologist. (Caputi 18)
Pirandello studied German philosophy, the Romantic tradition, and translated Goethe.
The influence of Goethe’s Bildungsroman, or the novels of formation, The Sorrows of
Young Werther (1774), and Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship (1795-96), can certainly be
79
In his book, Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers, John Lechte writes, “After graduating from
Pforta in 1864, Nietzsche went to the University of Bonn and studied theology and classical philology. In
1865, he gave up theology and went to Leipzig where he came under the influence of the Schopenhauer of
The World as Will and Idea (Lechte 278).
100
seen in Pirandello’s 1904 novel, Il fu Mattia Pascal, which traces the protagonist’s
journey for self-realization. It is also likely that Pirandello was familiar with the works of
the fellow Bonn alumnus, Friedrich Nietzsche, as Pirandello’s critical essays clearly echo
his critique of moral value and his evaluation of consciousness, religion and science.
Nietsche’s influence is evidenced by Pirandello’s relativism (as similar to Nietzsche’s
notion of perspectivism),80 his reference to Prometheus as the giver of light (from
Nietzsche’s The Gay Science 240), and, ultimately, his belief that “since Copernicus, man
seems to have been on a downward path,” as stated in On the Genealogy of Morals from
1887 (Nietzsche 344).
Pirandello finished his doctoral thesis, “The Phonetic Development of the
Agrigento Dialect,” and graduated from Bonn in 1891. After graduation, the twenty-four
year old Pirandello moved to Rome with aspirations of producing great poetry. Though
Pirandello addresses the limitations of the Italian language in his early essays, “it was
only with many reservations that he had envisaged a philologist’s career after his
departure from Rome” (Giudice 48). Anthony Caputi highlights, however, that
Pirandello’s early responses to the “crisis of consciousness” are manifest in these
essays.81
80
In The Culture of Time and Space, Stephen Kern writes of Nietzsche’s philosophy of
“perspectivism”: in opposition to the positivists’ belief in the truth of objective facts, he insisted that there
are no such things, only points of view and interpretations, and he urged philosophers to ‘employ a variety
of perspectives and affective interpretations in the service of knowledge’” (Kern 150).
81
The essays Anthony Caputi refers to are: “La Menzogna del Sentimento nell’Arte”
(“Dishonesty of Feeling in Art”) (1890), “Prosa Moderna: Dopo la Lettura del Mastro Don Gesualdo del
Verga” (“Modern Prose: After Reading Verga’s Mastro Don Gesualdo”) (1890), “Come si parla in Italia”
(“How We Speak in Italy”) (1895), “Come si scrive oggi in Italia” (“How we write today in Italy”) (1895),
and “Ecessi” (“Excesses”) (1896). Caputi writes: “Given his pride in his philological training, it is not
surprising that among Pirandello’s earliest responses to the crisis of consciousness were several essays on
language and the symptoms of that crisis in language. More remarkable, perhaps, is that instead of drawing
him off into narrow, specialized studies, romance philology led him to a deeper reading of the general
crisis.” (Caputi 18).
101
The effect on Pirandello of Arthur Schopenhauer’s advocacy and respect for
Buddhism and the Hindu Upanishads has been significantly under-estimated. The interest
taken by German philosophers in Hinduism and Buddhism is particularly pertinent for
Pirandello as he was clearly influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and
Idea (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung) (1819), which is rife with Buddhistic and
Vedantic parallels. According to Heinrich Dumoulin, Schopenhauer’s first exposure to
“Oriental wisdom” was in the year 1813, in Weimar, when the Orientalist Friedrich
Maier gave him a selection of the Upanishads in Latin translation—which “evoked great
enthusiasm in the young man” (Dumoulin 464). Concerning the Vedas and the
Upanishads, Schopenhauer wrote in the preface to the first volume of The World as Will
and Idea:
If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the access to which
by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this
still young century may claim before all previous centuries, if then the
reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom, and
received it with an open heart, he will be prepared in the very best way for
hearing what I have to tell him. It will not sound to him strange, as to
many others, much less disagreeable; for I might, if it did not sound
conceited, contend that every one of the detached statements which
constitute the Upanishads, may be deduced as a necessary result from the
fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate, though those deductions
themselves are by no means to be found there (Schopenhauer 1: xiii).
Though Schopenhauer claims to have been unaware of the coincidence, the core
fundamentals of his philosophical system espoused in The World as Will and Idea were
congruous with Eastern thought found in the Vedas, the Upanishads and Buddhist
scripture. Schopenhauer was amazed and excited by the similarities between his work
and Eastern thought. Though Schopenhauer denied any direct correspondence, he was
pleased with the connection made between his work and the Buddhist philosophy, in
102
which so many people had faith. He wrote in the second volume of The World as Will
and Idea:
If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I
should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. In any
case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close
agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their
own, for this numbers far more followers than any other. And this
agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me, inasmuch as in my
philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence. For up till
1818, when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a
very few accounts of Buddhism. (Schopenhauer 2: 371)
Schopenhauer believed that human suffering in the world was primarily due to man’s
insatiable cravings, which he called will (Wille). There are many similarities between
Schopenhauer’s view of suffering and Buddhism. Schopenhauer writes, for example, in
the third volume of The World as Will and Idea:
In the whole of human existence suffering expresses itself clearly enough
as its true destiny. Life is deeply sunk in suffering, and cannot escape from
it; our entrance into it takes place amid tears, its course is at bottom
always tragic, and its end still more so. There is an unmistakable
appearance of intention in this. As a rule man’s destiny passes through his
mind in a striking manner, at the very summit of his desires and efforts,
and thus his life receives a tragic tendency by virtue of which it is fitted to
free him from the passionate desire of which every individual existence is
an example, and bring him into such a condition that he parts with life
without retaining a single desire for it and its pleasures. Suffering is, in
fact, the purifying process through which alone, in most cases, the man is
sanctified, is led back from the path of error of the will to live.
(Schopenhauer 3: 462).
Pirandello’s view of craving, vanity and suffering is similar to that of the perspectives of
Schopenhauer and Buddhism. Dumoulin describes the parallel between Schopenhauer’s
philosophy and the teachings of the Buddha:
In his work, The World as Will and Idea, Schopenhauer describes human
existence as does early Buddhist literature, as a state of inextinguishable
suffering. The First of the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism, that human life
is full of sorrow laden experience, is echoed throughout Schopenhauer’s
103
writings, but the similarity with Buddhism goes even deeper, as when
Schopenhauer like Buddha sees in the insatiable covetous will the cause of
all suffering. Influenced by Kant, Schopenhauer asserts the primacy of the
blind will, thus approaching the religious teaching of the Buddha: craving
or desire is the cause of suffering. Suffering and desire are inextricable
bound up with each other, for according to Schopenhauer the appearance
of the will “is a vanishing existence, an ever decreasing, always frustrating
striving, and the world which is given to us is full of suffering.”
(Dumoulin “Buddhism and Nineteenth-Century German Philosophy” 465)
Allusions to Schopenhauer’s central work are found in Pirandello’s work as early
as 1902 in his novella, “Quando ero matto” (“When I Was Mad”), and Pirandello had in
his personal library the Italian translation, Il mondo come volontà e rappresentazione, of
both volumes of Arthur Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Idea, dated 1914-1916
(Barbina 159). Shopenhauer’s concept of will and representation is echoed in Il fu Mattia
Pascal in the ninth chapter, “Un po’ di nebbia” (“A bit of fog”):
Ogni oggetto in noi suol trasformarsi secondo le immagini ch’esso evova e
aggruppa, per cosí dire, attorno a sé. Certo un oggetto può piacere anche
per se stesso, per la diversità delle sensazioni gradevoli che ci suscita in
una percezione armoniosa; ma ben più spesso il piacere che un oggetto ci
procura non si trova nell’oggotto per se medesimo. La fantasia lo
abbellisce cingendolo e quasi irraggiandolo d’immagini care. Né noi lo
percepiamo più qual esso è, ma così, quasi animato dalle immagini che
suscita in noi o che le nostre abitudini vi associano. Nell’oggetto,
insomma, noi amiamo quell che vi mettiamo di noi, l’accordo, l’armonia
che stabiliamo tra esso e noi, l’anima che esso acquista per noi soltanto e
che è formata dai nostri ricordi. (Tr 1: 421).
Every object is transformed within us according to the image it evokes, the
sensations that cluster around it. To be sure, an object may please us for
itself alone, for the pleasant feelings that a harmonious sight inspires in us;
but far more often the pleasure that an object affords us does not derive
from the object in itself. Our fantasy embellishes it, surrounding it, making
it resplendent with images dear to us. Then we no longer see it for what it
really is, but animated by the images it arouses in us or by the things we
associate with it. In short, what we love about the object is what we see
put in it of ourselves, the harmony established between it and us, the soul
that it acquires only through us, a soul composed of our memories. (Trans.
Weaver 100)
104
Pirandello familiarized himself with both volumes of The World as Will and Idea and
was also acquainted with the modern Theosophical movement that was responsible, in
part, for spreading Buddhism in the West. Henrik Kraemer highlights the important role
the Western Theosophical Movement played in “putting India on the spiritual map”:
It is impossible to pass over in silence the great significance in general,
and the Theosophical Society and Anthroposophical Movement of Steiner
in particular, have had for putting India on the spiritual map of numberless
people in Western countries. The history of the Theosophical Society
proves that the Indian world in the proper sense of the word occupied a
warmer place in the heart of its leaders than Buddhism. India is considered
to be the most authentic guardian of the Great tradition of secret wisdom,
of esoteric science, the most understanding interpreter of the transcendent
unity of all religions, which goes back to the Primitive, Primeval Tradition
as it is called. (Kraemer 255).
It is probable that Schopenhauer and Theosophy were the strongest links between
Pirandello and Indian mysticism and the influential catalysts for Pirandello’s attraction to
the key tenets of Hinduism and Buddhism, primarily: 1) the Hindu concept of maya, the
false perception or illusion of reality, 2) the Buddhist belief of nirvana, defined literally
as “blowing out”; the state of absolute existence and absolute consciousness (similar to
the Hindu samâdhi), and 3) karma, the metaphysical law of retribution, the resultant of
moral actions, shared by Hinduism, Buddhism and Theosophy (Blavatsky 211/232/173).
In the section of The Key to Theosophy called “Theosophy is not Buddhism,” Blavatsky
clarifies that all Theosophists are not followers of Gautama Buddha, though there are in
fact many influences and similarities between Theosophy and Buddhism. In fact, cofounder of the Theosophical Society, Henry Steel Olcott published, Buddhist Catechisms
in 1881, and another member of the Society, A.P. Sinnett, wrote Esoteric Buddhism in
105
1884, in order to “reveal elements of the secret doctrine to the Western reader hitherto
limited by European philosophy” (Sinnett vi).82
As Pirandello expresses in “L’umorismo,” and also found in ancient Eastern
doctrine, it is only in rare moments of inner silence and meditation—when the soul is
“able to strip itself of all its habitual fictions”—that man is granted an intuitive vision
that enhances his understanding of life. It is an internal vision that does not require
external sight, and it is a comprehension that does not necessitate discernment or
judgment. Pirandello describes his personal experience with heightened states of
awareness, comparable to experiencing the highest truths of the universe as in the
Eastern notions of Supreme Consciousness, or Brahman, and enlightenment, or Nirvana
(Dumoulin Christianity Meets Buddhism 18). Pirandello writes of these ephemeral yet
unforgettable moments:
In certi momenti di silenzio interiore, in cui l’anima nostra si spoglia di
tutte le finzioni abituali, e gli occhi nostri diventano piú acuti e piú
penentranti, noi vediamo noi stessi nella vita, e in se stess la vita, quasi in
una nudità arida, inquietante; ci sentiamo assaltare da una strana
impressione, come se in un baleno, ci si chiarisse una realtà diversa da
quell ache normalmente percepiamo, una realtà vivente oltre la vista
umana, fuori delle forme dell’umana ragione. Lucudussumamente allora la
compagine dell’esistenza quotidiana, quasi sospesa nel vuoto di quell
nostro silenzio interiore, ci appare priva di senso, priva di scopo; e quella
realtà duversa ci pare orrida nella sua crudezza impassibile e misteriosa,
poiché tutte le nostre fittizie relazioni consuete di sentimenti e d’immagini
82
In Esoteric Buddhism, the Theosophist A.P. Sinnett devotes chapters to the Kama-loca, the
Buddha, and nirvana, and he addresses the principles of karma, reincarnation, the dissolution of the
consciousness and personality. In Key to Theosophy, Helena Blavatsky responds to the question, “But are
not the ethics of Theosophy identical with those taught by Buddha?”: “Certainly, because these ethics are
the soul of the Wisdom-Religion, and were once the common property of the initiates of all nations. But
Buddha was the first to embody these lofty ethics in his public teaching, and to make them the foundation
and the very essence of his public system. It is herein that lies the immense difference between exoteric
Buddhism and every other religion. For while in other religions ritualism and dogma hold the first and most
important place, in Buddhism it is the ethics which have always been the most insisted upon. This accounts
for the resemblance, amounting almost to identity, between the ethics of Theosophy and those of the
religion of Buddha … the schools of the Northern Buddhist Church, established in those countries to which
[Buddha’s] initiated Arhats retired after the Master’s death, teach all that is now called Theosophical
doctrines, because they form part of the knowledge of the initiates” (Blavatsky 15)
106
si sono scisse e disgregate in essa. Il vuoto interno si allarga, varca I limi
del nostro corpo, diventa vuoto intorno a noi, un vuoto strano, come un
arresto del tempo e della vita, come se il nostro silenzio interiore si
sprofondasse negli abissi del mistero. Con uno sforzo supremo cerchiamo
allora di riacquistar la coscienza normale delle cose, di riallaciar con esse
le consuete relazioni, di riconnetter le idée, di risentirci viv come
l’innanzi, al modo solito. Ma a questa coscienza normale, a queste idée
riconnesse, a questo sentimento solito della vita non possiamo più prestar
fede, perché sappiamo ormai che sono un nostro inganno per vivere e che
sotto c’è qualcos’altro, a cui l’uomo non può affacciarsi, se non a costo di
morire o d’impazzire. È stato un attimo; ma dura a lungo in noi
l’impressione di esso, come di vertigine, con la quale contrasta la stabilità,
pur cosí vana, delle cose: ambiziose o misere apparenze. La vita, allora,
che s’aggira piccola, solita, fra queste apparenze ci sembra quasi che non
sia piú per davvero, che sia come una fantasmagoria meccanica. E come
darle importanza? Come portarle rispetto? (Spsv 153)
In certain moments of inner silence, in which our soul strips itself of all its
habitual fictions and our eyes become sharper and more piercing, we see
ourselves in life, and life in itself, as if in a barren and disquieting
nakedness; we are seized by a strange impression, as if, in a flash, we
could clearly perceive reality different from the one that we normally
perceive, a reality living beyond the reach of human vision, outside the
forms of human reason. Very lucidly, then, the texture of daily existence,
almost suspended in the void of our inner silence, seems meaningless,
devoid of purpose; and that new reality appears to us dreadful in its sternly
detached and mysterious crudeness, for all our fictitious relationships,
both of feelings and images, have separated and disintegrated in it. The
inner void expands, surpasses the limits of our body, and becomes a weird
emptiness that engulfs us as if time and life had come to a stop, as if our
inner silence had plunged into the abyss of mystery. With a supreme effort
we then try to recapture the normal consciousness of things, to renew our
usual relationships with them, to reassemble our ideas and to feel alive in
the usual way. But we can no longer trust this normal consciousness, these
newly recollected ideas and this habitual sense of living because we now
know they are deceptions which we use in order to survive and that
underneath them there is something else which man can face only at the
cost of either death or insanity. It was only an instant; but its impression
last for a long time, as a sort of dizziness which contrasts with the
stability, itself so illusory, of things: ambitions or miserable appearances.
And life, the small usual life that roams among these appearances, almost
seems to us no longer to be real; it is like a mechanical phantasmagoria.
How could we give importance to it? How could we respect it? (Trans.
Illiano 138)
107
For Pirandello, the problem is returning to the meaningless and purposeless existence
after experiencing this rare and fleeting view of true reality, i.e. barren of all the fictional
constructions and created illusions. The forced return is compounded with a knowledge
and perspicacity of a more harmonious existence, foreign to and unsought by the masses,
which can never be reconciled. Eastern philosophies for centuries have offered practical
paths for attaining and maintaining higher consciousness and freedom from suffering. In
the West, these ideas have been gaining recognition beginning with the dissemination of
Hindu and Buddhist texts in the nineteenth century and also due to the new age
movement of the last two centuries.83
Unless man’s inner silence is completely detached from his personal awareness
and has disintegrated into the abyss never to see itself again—thereby transcending the
individual ego-self by and becoming conscious of the inextricable interconnectedness of
all of nature—he has no choice but to return to his contrived reality. As Darwin
postulated in 1859, species adapt to survive regardless of the mechanisms used to ensure
their survival. Maintenance of normal consciousness, and the twentieth century survival
tactic as Pirandello deems it, depends on readily available or easily created deceptions.
To go beyond this consciousness, however, is considered a risk factor for survival, and
the price is either insanity or death. Unfortunately for Western society, and clearly to
Pirandello’s disappointment, healing methods and prescriptions for living authentically
83
In The New Earth (2005), Eckhart Tolle, a contemporary German spiritual teacher and
philosopher, describes the very same moment of inner silence which Pirandello describes in “L’umorismo.”
Tolle writes: “Once there is a certain degree of Presence, of still and alert attention in human beings’
perceptions, they can sense the divine life essence, the one indwelling consciousness or spirit in every
creature, every life-form, recognize it as one with their own essence and so love it as themselves. Until this
happens, however, most humans see only the outer forms, unaware of the inner essence, just as they are
unaware of their own essence and identify only with their own physical and psychological form” (Tolle 4)
108
and harmoniously were not available—despite the advancements of modern psychology.
Robert Thurman describes the limitations of Western psychology:
Western psychology developed during the era of industrialization. Freud
and Jung lived in the wealthier societies of central Europe. Members of
the middle class finally had a little time and money to explore their
general state of being. When their interiors were maladjusted or abused or
neglected, they could find someone to work with them. So these early
psychologists began to ask themselves: How does the mind work? What
are the problems with the mind? How can these problems be fixed? But
their main purpose was only to re-adapt these misfits back into the
machinery of industrial society so that their patients could work, function
and “be normal” again. As Freud himself said, his therapy was designed to
help people get rid of neurotic suffering so they could get back to ordinary
suffering. There was never any mention of complete freedom from
suffering as the definition of health, or even a livable option. (Thurman
38)
The holistic psychology of Buddhism, made available by the Buddha 2500 years ago,
offered techniques that yielded insight and freedom from suffering and the methods are
still applicable and utilized successfully. The bridge from East to West, however, has
been difficult to build. Although comprehensive and explanatory manuals were not
available to Pirandello, he intuited Buddhist philosophy and fused its essence into his
literature.84 The day-to-day problems have differed from ancient India to the nineteenth,
twentieth, and twenty-first centuries, but the human mind has not. The ancient
psychological solutions, though generally less appreciated and practiced in the West,
continue to provide liberating insight as well as delineate the path for complete well
being. Pirandello felt strongly that both science and religion failed to fulfill the vital
needs of man, however as the reader will discern in Chapters 3 and 4 of this dissertation,
the paths of Buddhistic and Vedantic philosophy effectively fill this void, leading man to
liberation from suffering through authentic living.
84
Regarding literature, Pirandello’s view was parallel with the Transcendentalists and precursor to
Herman Hesse’s Siddhartha (1922) and the literature of the Beat Generation.
109
Theosophy
Pirandello was undoubtedly influenced by the religious-philosophical system
Theosophy, whose ancient teachings were revitalized by the Theosophical Society in
1875. Rooted in ancient Eastern theology, Theosophy is considered the, “majestic
Wisdom-Religion of the archaic ages and is as old as thinking man” (Purucker 172). The
Eclectic Theosophical system, the origin of Theosophy, dates back to the second century
A.D. and was initiated by Ammonius Saccas, a disciple of Plotinus.85 The name
Theosophy is derived from the Greek for “Divine Wisdom,” Theosophia (#$%&%'()),
from the Greek compound divine (theos) and wisdom (sophia), and comes from the
Alexandrian philosophers, the Philaletheians (Blavatsky The Key to Theosophy 1).
Antonio Illiano describes Theosophy:
In this system, man is conceived as potentially divine, for he can achieve a
mystical union with the One, the embodiment of the supreme sphere of
being, through contemplation and self-purification.Within this context,
Plotinus also suggested a theory of the education of the soul through
reincarnation. The human soul, when it allows itself to be overwhelmed by
sensible desire, may become so deeply immersed in matter as no longer to
be able to abide completely in the universal soul; yet it can rise from that
fallen state and bring back the experience of what it has suffered and
learned. (Illiano 341)
There was a considerable decline in Theosophical participation in the following centuries
due to the opposition of more orthodox doctrines. It did, however, re-emerge “under
varying guises and forms, in the writings medieval and Renaissance mystics from Meister
85
In The Key to Theosophy, Helena Blavatsky, founder of The Theosophical Society (1875),
explains the various religious philosophies of the Neo-Platonists, quoting the author of “Eclectic
Philosophy”: “The Buddhistic, Vedantic, and Magian systems were expounded along with the philosophies
of Greece at that period” (Blavatsky 1972, 4). Blavatsky defines “Theosophists” as: “A name by which
many mystics at various periods of history have called themselves. The Neo-Platonists of Alexandria were
Theosophists; the Alchemists and Kabbalists during the mediæval ages were likewise so called, also the
Martinists, the Quietists, and other kinds of mystics, whether acting independently or incorporated in a
brotherhood or society” (Blavatsky Theosophical Glossary 328).
110
Eckhart to Giordano Bruno and Jacob Böhme” along with alchemy, occultism, and
Hermeticism (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 341).
Interest in Theosophy waned from the Renaissance until Pirandello’s day, when
Helena Petrovna Blavastsky, a Russian woman, claiming to be in direct communication
with the guardians of the divine knowledge of the universe, founded the Theosophical
Society in New York in 1875 with American lawyer and military officer, Henry Steel
Olcott. Maintaining aspects of Buddhistic and Vedantic beliefs as well as the eclectic
philosophies of the Neo-Platonists, the aim of modern Theosophy was “to promote the
study of comparative religion and philosophy and to investigate the mystic powers of life
and matter” in hope that “by going deeper than modern science has hitherto done, into the
esoteric philosophies of ancient times, they may be enabled to obtain proof of the
existence of an ‘Unseen Universe’” (Shepard 1694-96). Madame Blavatsky, as she was
known, compiled her revelations from the Mahatmas and her training in Tibet in the
books, Isis Unveiled (1887), and The Secret Doctrine (1888-97), which are described as
“an extraordinary mixture of Buddhistic, Brahmanistic and Kabalistic matter with a basic
theme of religious unity and the persistence of occult and miraculous phenomena
throughout history” (Ed. Shepard 1695). In the preface of The Key to Theosophy (1889),
Blavatsky makes clear that care has been taken to distinguish Theosophy from
Spiritualism, as for Theosophy had been “the target for every poisoned arrow of
Spiritualism” (Blavatsky XII).86 Blavatsky describes the Theosophical Society, or
“Universal Brotherhood,” in the informative text, Theosophical Glossary:
86
H.P. Blavatsky responds to the question, “But do you not believe in Spiritualism?”: “If by
“Spiritualism” you mean the explanation which spiritualists give of some abnormal phenomena, then
decidedly we do not. They maintain that these manifestations are all produced by the “spirits” of departed
mortals, generally their relatives, who return to earth, they say, to communicate with those they have loved
111
Founded in 1875 at New York, by Colonel H.S. Olcott and H.P.
Blavatsky, helped by W.Q. Judge and several others.87 Its avowed object
was at first the scientific investigation of psychic or so-called
“spiritualistic” phenomena, after which its three chief objects were
declared, namely (1) Brotherhood of man, without distinction of race,
colour, religion, or social position; (2) the serious study of the ancient
world-religions for purposes of comparison and the selection therefrom of
universal ethics; (3) the study and development of the latent divine powers
in man. At the present moment [1892] it has over 250 Branches scattered
all over the world, most of which are in India, where also its chief
Headquarters are established. It is composed of several large Sections—
the Indian, the American, the Australian, and the European sections.
(Blavatsky 328)
In explaining the difference between the original Theosophy and modern
Theosophy, Blavatsky says: “The Theosophists of the current century [nineteenth] have
already visibly impressed themselves on modern literature, and introduced the desire and
craving for some philosophy in place of blind dogmatic faith of yore, among the most
intelligent portions of human-kind” (Blavatsky Theosophical Glossary 329).88 Such is
true for Pirandello and his mentor, Luigi Capuana, from whom he most likely learned of
or to whom they are attached. We deny this point blank. We assert that the spirits of the dead cannot return
to earth – save in rare and exceptional cases . . . nor do they communicate with men except by entirely
subjective means. That which does appear objectively, is only the phantom of the ex-physical man. But in
psychic, and so to say, “Spiritual” Spiritualism, we do believe, most decidedly” (Blavatsky The Key to
Theosophy 28)
87
My footnote insertion: Other prominent figures in the Theosophical Society were English
scholar Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854-1934), Annie Wood Besant (1847-1933), and French
theoretician Dr. Théophile Pascal (1860-1909).
88
A number of intellectuals, scientists and artists have been impacted by the Theosophical
Society, including but not limited to: the writers, Lyman Frank Baum (1851-1919), James Henry Cousins
(1873-1956), Robert Duncan (1919-1988), William Butler Yeats (1859-1939), George W. Russell (18671935), Lewis Carroll (1832-1898), Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), E.M.
Forster (1879-1970), James Joyce (1882-1941), D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), Kurt
Vonnegut (1922-2007), George Robert Stowe Mead (1863-1933); the painters/artists, Paul Gauguin (18481903), Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941), Paul Klee (1879-1940), Piet
Mondriaan (1872-1944); the scientists/psychologists: Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), Thomas Edison
(1847-1931), Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), Jane Goodall (b.1934), Roberto Assagioli (1888-1974),
William James (1842-1910), Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961); also: the political leader, Mohandas K. Ghandi
(1869-1948), the feminist, Gloria Steinem (b.1934), the judge and founder of the London Buddhist Society,
Travers Christmas Humphreys (1901-1893), Zen Buddhist, D.T. Suzuki (1870-1966), educator and founder
of Montessori Method, Maria Montessori (1870-1952) (See Katinka Hesselink “Inventory of the influence
of the Theosophical Society 2006-2010). See also the Theosophical Encyclopedia (Eds. Phil S. Harris,
Vincente Hao Chin Jr. and Richard Brooks).
112
Theosophy. Illiano describes the international influence of modern Theosophy on
literature and culture:
The Theosophical Society did eventually become a sort of cultural
phenomenon of international importance for the history of religious and
philosophical thinking in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
In literature this wave of theosophical interest lent new credence to the
old and well-rooted Western tradition of spiritualistic and occultistic
concerns, evolving from the Holy Grail to Novalis, Poe, James and other
modern writers. Pirandello became interested in this trend around the turn
of the century, perhaps in Capuana’s circle in Rome. (Illiano “Pirandello
and Theosophy” 342)
Capuana’s non-realist texts, pertaining to themes of the occult and parapsychology,
unquestionably allowed Pirandello to consider these notions as viable sources of material.
It is this atmosphere to which the impact of spiritual influence on Pirandello’s literary
formation can be attributed, and his tactical assimilation of these eccentric elements into
his stories contributes to the modern nature of his representation. 89 Though Theosophy
dates back many centuries, the Theosophical Society’s emphasis that the purification of
the individual soul relieves human moral and physical suffering was strikingly modern.
The shift from social to individual development is explained:
With the creation of the Theosophical Society in America in 1875, the
beginnings of a switch of emphasis from social to individual
preoccupations received an early measure of formal recognition. Not only
did the newly formed society institutionalize the growing interest in the
nature and development of the individual personality or ego; it also
stimulated the serious and systematic investigation of ‘occultism’ – all
those mystic, anti-positivist and irrational potencies of life and matter
which now, progressively as the century moved toward its turn, occupied
the attention of thinkers and writers. Deriving many of its articles of faith
from Oriental sources, especially Vedic and Buddhist, but also from Greek
and Cabbalistic ideas, theosophy was concerned to effect individual rather
than social change as the key to human advancement. […] In flat
contradiction to the statistical abstractions of the positivist view of things,
89
For further reading on Luigi Capuana’s literary application of the scientific and the occult, sew
“The Scientific and the Pseudo-Scientific in the Works of Luigi Capuana” by Hilda Norman (PMLA 1938
869-885).
113
it believed ardently in the existence of an ego-entity, the nature of which
could not only be changed by spiritual exercise but which could thus
contribute effectively to the fuller development of mankind. (Bradbury
and McFarlane 75-76)
It is unequivocal that Pirandello’s concepts of the spontaneity of life versus the stagnation
of form, illusion versus reality, and his unique method of character development have at
their core numerous aspects of Eastern mysticism as conveyed by modern Theosophy.
For a complete comprehension of the impact of Theosophy on Pirandello’s literary
collection, it is important to recognize the transformation from the topical treatment and
use of Theosophy as a narrative plot function in the early novella, “Chi fu?” (“Who was
it?”) (1898), to his characters’ passage from a mocking attitude to acceptance toward
Theosophy as demonstrated in the early works Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia
Pascal) (1904), “Personaggi” (“Characters”) (1906), and “Dal naso al cielo” (“From the
Nose to the Sky”) (1907), and finally, to his theatrical representations of the “apparenze”
(“appearances”) in All’uscita (At the Exit) and the thought-form type characters in Sei
personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Character in Search of an Author) (1921).
Pirandello integrated Theosophical concepts in his texts via references to
Theosophical publications, the settings of characters in the astral plane, the limbo region
of the Kama-loca, the etheric double, and the transmigration and spiritual evolution of
souls through reincarnation. Antonio Illiano analyzes the influence of Spiritualism and
Theosophy on Pirandello’s artistic evolution. He is specifically interested in the complex
phases of the genesis of Pirandello’s characters and the resulting dialectic tension that
constitutes the “elemento vivificante,” (the enlivened element), of his narratives. In the
last part of his essay, “Spiritismo?,” Capuana relates how his reflections enter into the
production of art. He connects the creation of a character to the vitality that an
114
unconscious element assumes when conjured via spiritual communication such as
“artistic hallucination” (Capuana 135). Capuana writes of the unconscious incarnation of
his work, “Un’incoscienza sui generis,”(“An Unconsciousness of Its Own Kind”):
Avviene non di rado che l’opera d’arte sgorghi fuori
dall’immaginazione così intimamente comprenetrata colla forma, così
completamente forma, senza preparazioni od elaborazioni di sorta, che la
quasi incoscienza del lavoro diventa una piacevolissima sorpresa.
Un’incoscienza sui generis. Non c’è propriamente un vero sviluppo,
una vera coordinazione, assimilazione, organizzazione di elementi
personali, recenti, remoti, ereditarii; ma bensì una specie di fioritura della
immaginazione nella temperatura primaverile dello spirito, sotto una luce
raggiante non si sa dove. L’analogia delle produzioni che ne risultano
colle comunicazioni spiritiche è spiccatissima. (Capuana 144)
It often happens that the art work gushes out of the imagination so
intimately intertwined with the form, so completely form, without
preparations or elaborations of any kind, that the nearly unconsciousness
of the work becomes a most pleasant surprise.
An unconsciousness of its own kind. There is not exactly a true
development, a true coordination, assimilation, organization of personal,
recent, remote, hereditary elements; rather a kind of blossoming of the
imagination in the spring temperature of the spirit, under a radiant light
from where it is unknown. The analogy of the productions that result with
the spiritualistic communications is very striking.
This notion of thought, as intertwined with form and capable of taking on a life of its
own, is very similar to that of Theosophy’s “plastic essence”—a notion featured in
Pirandello’s early works. Capuana claimed that his tale, “C’era una volta” (“Once Upon a
Time”), was the direct result of an artistic hallucination, that came from outside of him,
as though he were unconsciously assisted by, and taking dictation from, his “fantastici
personaggi” (“fantastic characters”) (145-46). Capuana’s discourse on “communicazioni
in forma artistica” (“communications in artistic form”), especially the notion of
imaginative production stemming unconsciously from the spirit, would have a strong
influence on Pirandello’s own aesthetic of character creation and his concept of life
115
versus form (Illiano Metapsichica 13). In Letteratura come anamorfosi (Literature as
Anamorphosis), Angelo Mangini writes of the ectoplasmic nature of the character born
from the author’s imagination as postulated in the Theosophical text Thought-forms
(1901), co-authored by Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater. Mangini argues that
Theosophy is one of the sources of Pirandello’s conception of “larval” characters:
La corrispondenza fra queste posizioni e quelle assunte dal Capuana
nell’elaborare, a partire dal 1884, la sua teoria dell’“allucinazione
artistica” dovrebbe ormai risultare evidente. A provare come esse abbiamo
profondamente influenzato lo stesso Pirandello si potrà citare un testo del
1906 sulla cui importanza ha molto insistito Antonio Illiano e al quale lo
scrittore volle imporre un titolo esemplare e programmatico: Personaggi.
Come nota Illiano, in questa novella compaiono per la prima volta due
elementi che Pirandello riprenderà nella celeberrima Prefazione (1924) ai
Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (1921): l’idea di rappresentarsi come
scrittore che dà udienza alle creature della propria immaginazione e
l’“imagine-personificazione della servetta Fantasia” che introduce nel suo
studio un numero ingovernabile di postulanti. Fra loro, il dottor Leandro
Scoto—diretto precursore del Fileno che sarà protagonista della Tragedia
d’un personaggio del 1911—il quale cita ancora una volta lo stesso passo
di Leadbeater che aveva suscitato l’appassionato interesse di Mattia Pascal
[l’essenza plastica]. […] La lettura di questi passi dovrebbe essere
sufficiente a dissipare ogni dubbio che l’idea teosofica della “metamorfosi
ei pensieri in forme di esseri viventi, incorporati in un’essenza plastica”
citata da mattia Pascal sia fra le fonti da cui Pirandello trasse stimolo per
elaborare quella “concezione larvale dei ‘personaggi’ che attraversa tutta
l’opera sua culminare nei Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore. Una
concezione nella quale sembra risuonare l’originaria e perduta ambiguità
semantica della parola larva che in latino significa tanto “spettro,
fantasma,” quanto “maschera indossata da un attore.” (Mangini 173-175)
The correspondence between these positions and those taken from
Capuana developed, as of 1884, from his theory of “Artistic hallucination”
should now be evident. To prove how they have deeply influenced
Pirandello one is able to cite a text of 1906, the importance of which
Antonio Illiano very much insists, and to which the writer wanted to
impose an exemplar and programmatic title: Characters. As noted by
Illiano, in this story appears for the first time two elements that Pirandello
will reproduce in the famous Preface (1924) of Six Characters in Search
of an Author (1921): the idea of representing himself as a writer who gives
audience to the creatures of his own imagination and the ‘imaginativepersonification’ of the maid-servant Fantasy” who introduces into his
116
study a number of ungovernable petitioners. Among them, Dr. Leandro
Scoto—direct precursor of Fileno that will be the protagonist of A
Character’s Tragedy of 1911—which cites once again the same
Leadbeater passage that had aroused the passionate interest of Mattia
Pascal. [...] The reading of these passages should be sufficient to dispel
any doubt that the theosophical idea of “metamorphosis of thoughts into
forms of living beings, incorporated by a plastic essence” quoted by
Mattia Pascal is among the sources from which Pirandello was stimulated
to develop the “larval concept of ‘characters’ that runs throughout all his
work and culminated in Six Characters in Search of an Author. A concept
which seems to echo the original and lost semantic ambiguity of the word
larva which in Latin means both “specter, ghost,” and “mask worn by an
actor.”
Pirandello had access to the French and German translations of the Theosophical
Society’s publications that were disseminated in various books and magazines. In fact, he
had a French translation in his personal library of The Astral Plane, a cardinal book by
Charles Webster Leadbeater (Barbina 153). Pirandello’s was strongly influenced by The
Astral Plane and he integrated many of its passages and ideas into his works. The astral
plane, also known as the etheric double stage following physical death, is at times called
the “realm of illusion.” This dimension most likely interested Pirandello because it is on
this lower plane that man must detach from his illusions in order to advance spiritually.
Leadbeater describes the astral plane:
It has often been called the realm of illusion – not that it is itself any more
illusory than the physical world, but because of the extreme unreliability
of the impressions brought back from it by the untrained seer. Why should
this be so? We account for it mainly by two remarkable characteristics of
the astral world – first, that many of its inhabitants have a marvelous
power of changing their forms with Protean rapidity, and also of casting
practically unlimited glamour over those with whom they choose to sport;
and secondly, that sight on that plane is a faculty very different from and
much more extended than physical vision. An object is seen, as it were,
from all sides at once, the inside of a solid being as plainly open to the
view as the outside; it is therefore obvious that an inexperienced visitor to
this new world may well find considerable difficulty in understanding
what he really does see, and still more in translating his vision into the
very inadequate language of ordinary speech. (Leadbeater 6)
117
Pirandello was undoubtedly impressed by Leadbeater’s descriptions, and he reproduced
the following passage of the plastic and elemental essence in “Personaggi,” “Dal naso al
cielo,” and in the fifth chapter of the first edition of Il fu Mattia Pascal, discussed in the
the following chapter.90 Leadbeater writes in The Astral Plane of the plastic essence:
I have explained that the elemental essence which surrounds us on every
side is in all its numberless varieties singularly susceptible to the influence
of human thought. The action of the mere casual wandering thought upon
it, causing it to burst into a cloud of rapidly moving, evanescent forms has
been described; we have now to note how it is affected when the human
mind formulates a definite, purposeful thought or wish. The effect
produced is of the most striking nature. The thought seizes upon the
plastic essence, and moulds it instantly into a living being of appropriate
form – a being which when once thus created is in no way under the
control of its creator, but lives out a life of its own, the length of which is
proportionate to the intensity of the thought or wish which called it into
existence. Most people’s thoughts are so fleeting and indecisive that the
elementals created by them last only a few minutes or a few hours, but an
often-repeated thought or an earnest wish will form an elemental whose
existence may extend to many days. Since the ordinary man’s thoughts
refer largely to himself, the elementals which they form remain hovering
about him, and constantly tend to provoke such repetitions, instead of
forming new elementals, strengthen that already in existence, and give it a
fresh lease of life. A man, therefore, who frequently dwells upon one wish
often forms for himself an astral attendant which, constantly fed by fresh
thought, may haunt him for years, ever gaining more and more strength
and influence over him; and it will easily be seen that if the desire be evil
the effect upon his moral nature may be of a disastrous character.
(Leadbeater 72)
This passage is cited and alluded to by Pirandello in his texts, and I argue that the notion
of the “plastic essence” is at the very core of his progressive conceptualization of
characters without an author.
90
In the fifth chapter of the first printed 1904 version of Il fu Mattia Pascal (later edited out),
Pirandello’s protagonist repeats almost verbatim Charles Leadbeater’s description of the “plastic essence.”
Mattia Pascal says, “Ho letto testé in un libro che i pensieri e i desiderii nostri s’incorporano in un’essenza
plastica, nel mondo invisibile che ne circonda, e tosto vi si modellano in forme di esseri viventi, la cui
apparenza corrisponde all’intima loro natura. E questi esseri, non appena formati, non sono più sotto il
dominio di chi gli ha generati, ma godono d’una lor propria vita, la cui durata dipende dall’intensità del
pensiero o del desiderio generatore” (TLN 2: 985).
118
Leadbeater describes Theosophy as, “At once a philosophy, a religion, and a
science that, comparatively, offer explanations of life, death, the after-life, the solar
system and the One” (Leadbeater A Textbook of Theosophy 8.) Theosophy believes in
reincarnation, “the repetitive reimbodiment of the reincarnating Human Ego in vehicles
of human flesh,” and claims that all centers of consciousness will incarnate by passing
through different planes of existence until the “earthly pilgrimage” is completed
(Purucker 172). Reincarnation is controlled by Karma, the metaphysical law of cause and
effect, and man will not achieve the seventh principle until the reincarnated Ego has been
so directed by Karma (Blavatsky Theosophical Glossary 173-174). Theosophy claims
absolute knowledge of the existence of the One eternal principle that emanates cyclically
through the universe by way of seven co-existent levels of atomic and molecular
substance. These planes comprise the ladder of evolution that regulates the progression of
man from the lower to the higher planes; a plane is not a geographic or cosmographic
dimension, but a state or condition. Pirandello was clearly interested the idea of the
progression of man from the lower to the higher planes, and he used the system of
evolution as barometer for his characters’ spiritual progress, as for example, with Mattia
Pascal and the “apparenze” (“appearances”) of All’uscita. Discussed later in the chapter,
the Theosophical planes of spiritual evolution contribute to Pirandello’s representation of
the six characters in search of an author as existing on varying levels of artistic
realization. The evolution to the next plane is achieved through a complex system of
purifications and cyclical reincarnations regulated by the law of cause and effect, called
Karma (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 343-344). The seven principles, governed
each by its own laws of time, space and motion, are defined as: 1) Rupa, the physical
119
body, is the vehicle of all the other “principles” during life; 2) Linga Sharira, the etheric
double or astral body; 3) Prana, Life or Vital principle; 4) Kama Rupa, the seat of animal
desires and passions (marks the line of demarcation which separates the mortal man from
the immortal entity); 5) Manas, Mind, Intelligence: the higher human mind; 6) Buddhi,
the Spiritual Soul, is the vehiscle of pure universal spirit; 7) Atma, the Universal Spirit or
the Supreme Soul, is One with the Absolute, as its radiation. The last principle is akin to
the Buddhist concept of nirvana, or the cessation of the endless cycles of personal
reincarnations as a result of the extinction of individual passion (Blavatsky The Key to
Theosophy 91-92).
Pirandello appropriated the Theosophical processes of reincarnation and
metempsychosis, the passing of the soul at death into another soul through the course of
evolutionary peregrinations, to script his characters in their varying levels of
consciousness—ranging from acute hyperconsciousness of personal crisis, such as Mattia
Pascal, to a general and delusory unconsciousness, as portrayed by the character of the
Fat Man in the one-act play, All’uscita (At the Exit) (Purucker 105). How fast they
progress on the ladder of spiritual evolution depends on their willingness to relinquish
their former selves who lived in created realities. Pirandello adapted the cyclical
Theosophical planes to metaphorically demonstrate the need to relinquish the illusions of
the ego-self. In staging his characters on the astral plane, as with Mattia Pascal and the
“appearances” in All’uscita, Pirandello effectively stages the need to recognize and
detach from one’s illusions and desires. Because the characters have extended vision on
this plane, they are able to access the truth by seeing the usually hidden sides of the
120
polyhedron91 —Pirandello’s symbol representing the impossibility of seeing all sides of a
person. There is also a special limbo or purgatorial dimension, called the Kamaloca, a
semi-material subdivision of the astral plane that is inhabited by “shells,” the astral forms
of humans and other beings. After death, as the physical body and its etheric double are
left to decay, the desire body will linger for an indefinite amount of time, wandering
around until all traces of human passions have dissolved, and the ego becomes free to
reincarnate. Victims of suicide and depraved humans, referred to as “spooks,” typically
reside in the Kamaloca (Ed. Shepard 2: 1694-1696). The Kamaloca is borrowed by
Pirandello to represent the ontological suspension of his characters as they come close to
experiencing true reality but have not yet relinquished all their passions, vain desires, and
illusions.92
The analysis of Theosophy in Pirandello’s narratives offers the reader a deeper
understanding and insight into the rest of his oeuvre, substantiating my claim that
Pirandello’s unique method of character development, and subsequent arrested
development, which would be exploded in his 1921 capolavoro, Sei personaggi in cerca
d’autore, find their basis in and should be approached through the lens of the converging
trends of Spiritualism, modern Theosophy, Buddhism and the developing science of
Parapsychology.
91
As described in Chapter 1 of this dissertation, Pirandello writes: “In ogni nostro atto è sempre
tutto l’essere; quello che si manifesta è soltanto relazione a un altro atto immediate; ma nello stesso tempo
si riferisce alla totalità dell’essere: è come la faccia d’un poliedro che combaci con la faccia rispettiva d’un
altro, pur non esclusendo le altre facce che guardano per ogni verso. Ogni conseguenza ricavata da questa
manifestazione è perciò necessariamente unilaterale. E da qui l’impossibilità d’abbracciar tutto l’essere,
come è impossibile abbracciare un poliedro a un tempo in tutte le sue faccie. Come dunque operare, se la
scienza ci manca e l’essere ci sfugge? (Saggi 1059). [“The whole being is always in each of our acts; that
which manifests itself is only relative to another immediate action; but at the same time refers to the totality
of being: it is like the face of a polyhedron that coincides with the respective face of another, yet not
excluding the other faces that look in other directions. Every consequence obtained from this manifestation
is therefore necessarily unilateral. And hence the impossibility to embrace the whole being, as it is
impossible to embrace all facets of a polyhedron at one time.”]
92
See Illiano, Antonio “Pirandello and Theosophy” 1977 (341-351).
121
“Chi fu?”
Pirandello references the Theosophical astral plane in his fiction as early 1896 in
the novella, “Chi fu?” (“Who Was It?”).93 The story begins in medias res, with the
protagonist Luzzi recounting his testimony in court and pleading that his friend, Andrea
Sanserra, is innocent. Sturzi tells of the ghostly encounter he had one stormy night in
Rome with his ex-fiance’s father-in-law, Jacopo Sturzi, whom he thought to be dead.
Luzzi sees Sturzi on the street and he is reasonably shocked and confused by Sturzi’s
presence. Sturzi explains to him that he really is dead, but his vices have kept him
connected to the physical world. Sturzi says:
Sì, son morto, Luzzi, ma il vizio, capisci, è più forte! Mi spiego subito:
C’è chi muore maturo per un’altra vita, e chi no. Quegli muore e non torna
più, perché ha saputo trovar la sua via; questi invece torna, perché non ha
saputo trovarla; e naturalmente la cerca giusto dove l’ha perduta. Io, per
esempio, qui, all’osteria. Ma che credi? È una condanna. Bevo, ed è come
se non bevessi, e più bevo, e più ho sete. Poi, capirai, non posso
concedermi troppe larghezze … (TLN 1: 299)
Yes, I am dead, Luzzi, but the vice, you know, is stronger! I will explain it
right away: There are those who die ripe for another life, and those who do
not. Those die and never come back, because he knew how to find his
way, but these on the other hand return, because he does not know how to
find it; and naturally he looks for it right where he lost it. I, for example,
here, at the inn. But what do you think? It is a conviction. I drink, and it is
as I hadn’t drank, the more I drink, the more I thirst. Then, you will
understand, I can not allow myself too much breadth …
Sturzi’s explanation is indicative of the detainment of deceased on the astral plane, the
stage immediately following physical death. Charles Leadbeater explains that the purpose
of the astral plane is to purify one’s consciousness after physical death. The pace of the
93
“Chi fu?” was published in “Roma di Roma” in June of 1896. Pirandello never reproduced it,
and the story was reprinted only in the Appendix of “Novelle per un anno,” published by Mondadori in
1936 (TLN 1: 1087)
122
progression through the astral plane, therefore, is determined by the life one has lived and
the quality of his thoughts:
A man has to stay upon this lowest subdivision until he has disentangled
so much as is possible of his true self from the matter of that sub-plane;
and when that is done his consciousness is focussed in the next of these
concentric shells (that formed of the matter of the sixth subdivision), or to
put the same idea in other words, he passes on to the next sub-plane. […]
Thus we see that the length of a man's detention upon any level of the
astral plane will be precisely in proportion to the amount of its matter
which is found in his astral body, and that in turn depends upon the life he
has lived, the desires he has indulged, and the class of matter which by so
doing he has attracted towards him and built into himself. It is, therefore,
possible for a man, by pure living and high thinking, to minimize the
quantity of matter belonging to the lower astral levels which he attaches to
himself, and to raise it in each case to what may be called its critical point,
so that the first touch of disintegrating force should shatter its cohesion
and resolve it into its original condition, leaving him free at once to pass
on to the next sub-plane. (Charles Leadbeater The Astral Plane 31-32)
Leadbeater then explains why some people know “the way,” as stated by Sturzi—having
died already mature for the next phase:
A man who has led a good and pure life, whose strongest feelings and
aspirations have been unselfish and spiritual, will have no attraction to this
plane, and will, if entirely left alone, find little to keep him upon it, or to
awaken him into activity even during the comparatively short period of his
stay. For it must be understood that after death the true man is
withdrawing into himself, and just as at the first step of that process he
casts off the physical body, and almost directly afterwards the etheric
double, so it is intended that he should as soon as possible cast off also the
astral or desire body, and pass into the heaven-world, where alone his
spiritual aspirations can bear their perfect fruit.The noble and pure-minded
man will be able to do this, for he has subdued all earthly passions during
life; the force of his will has been directed into higher channels, and there
is therefore but little energy of lower desire to be worked out on the astral
plane. His stay there will consequently be short, and most probably he will
have little more than a dreamy half-consciousness of existence until he
sinks into the sleep during which his higher principles finally free
themselves from the astral envelope and enter upon the blissful life of the
heaven-world. (Charles Leadbeater The Astral Plane 30)
123
A man like Sturzi, however, is not able to find the way because of the attachment he had
while living to earthly passions and vices such as alcohol. Leadbeater explains Sturzi’s
prolongment in the lower realm of the astral plane:
The only persons who normally awake to consciousness on the lowest
level of the astral plane are those whose desires are gross and brutal –
drunkards, sensualists, and such like. There they remain for a period
proportioned to the strength of their desires, often suffering terribly from
the fact that while these earthly lusts are still as strong as ever, they now
find it impossible to gratify them, except occasionally in a vicarious
manner when they are able to seize upon some like-minded person, and
obsess him. The ordinarily decent man has little to detain him on that
seventh sub-plane; but if his chief desires and thoughts had centred in
more worldly affairs, he is likely to find himself in the sixth subdivision,
still hovering about the places and persons with which he was most closely
connected while on earth. (Leadbeater The Astral Plane 33)
Thus Jacopo Sturzi, still desiring his vices, finds himself in his old haunts and cannot,
despite how much he drinks, satisfy his needs—like Tantalus grasping at the fruit
dangling above him. Pirandello applies this aspect of the astral plane to demonstrate that
the path, or the “way,” to freedom from such torment is found—not in reaching the fruit
or satisfying the desires—but in the realization that the suffering is caused by the
illusions of reality that foster such cravings. The strength of the will, as found in
Schopenhauer, determines the craving and controls man’s perception of reality. If man
were aware of this cycle, he could eradicate his delusions and, therefore, free himself of
desire. Unfortunately, as Pirandello highlights, man is unaware that he is living in and is
trapped by the, “minuscoli mondi artificiali” (“miniscule artificial worlds”), lit by
artificial lights that contradict nature and separate him from his authentic self (TLN 2:
234).
The Theosophical stratification of the planes of existence, particulary the “realm
of illusion” of the astral plane, perfectly lends itself to Pirandello’s aesthetic aim to
124
represent man as trapped by his false illusions with no recourse to the trap’s exit, or
l’uscita. A passage similar to Jacopo Sturzi’s above is found in the novella “Notizia del
Mondo” [“News of the World”]: “Perché sono nell’idea che c’è chi muore maturo per
un’altra vita e chi no, e che quelli che non han saputo maturarsi su la terra siano
condannati a tornarci, finché non avranno trovato la via d’uscita” [“Because I am of the
idea that there are those who die ripe for another life and those who do not and those who
do not know how to mature themselves on Earth are condemned to return there until they
have found the path to the exit”] (TLN 1: 582). The theme of the trap with no exit is
recurrent throughout Pirandello’s short stories and novels, and is explicitly represented in
his one-act play, All’uscita. The development of Pirandello’s motives, from the
humoristic intention of the sentiments expressed by Tommaso Averso in the early story,
“Notizia del mondo,” to those in his later theatrical works, is explained:
Qui l’intenzione è viceversa piegata alla gestione umoristica che
caratterizza l’affabulazione diaristica indirizzata dal vivo Tommaso
Aversa al morto Momino. Ma il motivo è destinato a un ulteriore e più
ambizioso sviluppo, che prende corpo in All’uscita. Nel “mistero
profano,” i non maturi per la morte lasciano il corpo nel cimitero e si
manifestono come “apparenze” che svaniranno solo quando verranno
definitivamente meno il desiderio, o il cruccio, che li hanno ritrascinati nel
mondo. In termini ulteriormente variati, il motivo dell’attaccamento alla
terra e alla vita come immaturità che vieta d’accedere a dimensioni
d’ordine superiore perverrà fino a interessare l’ultimo incompiuto “mito”
pirandelliano, I giganti della montagna. (TLN 1: 1157)
Here the intention reverts back to the humoristic conduct that characterizes
the journalistic story-directed by the living Tommaso Aversa to the dead
Momino. But the motive is destined for an ulterior and more ambitious
development, which takes shape in At the Exit. In the “mystery profane,”
the non-mature for death leave their body in the cemetery and manifest
themselves as “appearances” that will vanish only when they definitively
abstain from the craving, or the resentment, that has dragged them back in
the world. Interest will be aintained in varied conditions later on, the motif
of attachment to the land and life as immaturity that prohibits access to
125
dimensions of a higher order to the last unfinished pirandellian “myth,”
The Mountain Giants.
The themes of death and dying and mysteriously arcane forces are constant throughout
Pirandello’s writing. As Anthony Caputi explains,
Death is commonplace in Pirandello’s fiction and drama, leaping suddenly
out of the dark, calamitous. […] Pirandello wrote often about death
because it forced his characters to moments of authenticity, to tear way the
masks and social veils to reveal difficult truths. […] Everywhere death
shakes situations into clarity. But Pirandello also wrote about it because it
is there, the prime evidence of arcane forces waiting, covertly dominant.
(Caputi 74).
As I discuss in this following sections, the reader comes to identify Pirandello’s
representations of life, death and the immortality of the soul as deeply entwined with his
conceptualization of the birth, death and immortality of the character.
“Personaggi”
Tutti, oggi, sentiamo un bisogno angoscioso di credere in qualche cosa.
Un’illusione ci è assolutamente necessaria, e la scienza, Lei lo sa bene,
non ce la può dare. Così, ho letto anch’io qualche libro di teosofia.94
Everyone, today, we feel an anguished need to believe in something. An
illusion is absolutely necessary for us, and science, as you well know,
cannot give it to us. So, I read also a few books of theosophy.
In the 1906 novella, “Personaggi” (“Characters”), the reader gets his first glimpse
at Pirandello’s unique process of character development (as we saw in our discussion of
“La tragedia d’un personaggio” in the last chapter). The first-person narrator, an author,
describes how it is his method to listen to the wretched people’s claims for why they
should become a “personaggio” (“character”) in his future stories. Not present in “La
tragedia d’un personaggio”, however, is the author’s maidservant, Fantasia, who presents
94
From “Personaggi” (“Characters”) (TLN 2: 239). “Personaggi” was published in “Il Ventesimo”
on June 10, 1906 (TLN 2: 982).
126
these types to him. With this appellation Pirandello is clarifying that his ideas come from
his imagination or fantasy—a revealing nod to his spiritual influence as the root of the
word “fantasia” derives from the Latin for “illusory appearance.” Also in the preface,
Pirandello refers to a character or a creature of art, as a “fantasma,” a word with similar
etymology to “fantasia,” from the Latin “phantasma,” meaning an apparition or specter.95
Pirandello could have named his servant something less ethereal, perhaps Cervella or
Academia, as a means of indicating the origins of his concepts, however, he chose
Fantasia as his personal, domestic “medium”—the vehicle through whom his ideas are
delivered. As Pirandello explains in the 1925 preface to Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore,
Fantasia continues to assist Pirandello throughout his literary career. She can usher the
callers only so far, however, as Pirandello will always make the last judgment as to their
welcome stay or abrupt dismissal. This procedure allows him to creatively show his
readers that the potential “personaggio,” a spirit-like embryo, depending on the severity
of the thought, may either: 1) be immediately rejected as Dr. Fileno and Dr. Scoto; 2)
become formed but realized as rejected, as in the case of the six characters in search of an
author, or; 3) become immortal like the “late Mattia Pascal,” whose memoir is kept safe
and available in the library.
The protagonist of “Personaggi” is Leandro Scoto, a well-dressed doctor of
physical science and mathematics. He is escorted by Fantasia to audition as a character
for one of the writer’s stories. In response to the writer’s question of what book he is
95
According to the Etymology Dictionary, the word “fantasia” derives from the Latin phantasia,
from the Greek phantasia, meaning appearance, image, perception, imagination," from phantazesthai
“picture to oneself” from phantos “visible,” from phainesthai “appear,” in late Greek “to imagine, have
visions,” related to phaos, phos “light,” phainein “to show, to bring to light.” Sense of “whimsical notion,
illusion” is pre-1400, followed by that of “imagination,” which is first attested 1530s. Sense of “day-dream
based on desires” is from 1926 (www.etymonline.com/sources.php).
127
carrying with him, Scoto lowers his eyes and tells him that it is an English book, by
Leadbeater. At this, the writer groans back, “Il teosofo?” [“the Theosophist?”], and asks
how such a reputable doctor of physical science and mathematics could waste his time
with such “sciocchezze senza costrutto” [“pointless foolishness”]. The writer dismisses
Scoto in a condescending manner:
Ah, non voglio saperne, sa! Via, via! Se lei viene per esser preso in
considerazione con codesti titoli, se ne può andare. Ho già messo un
teosofo in un mio romanzo, e basta. So io quanto ho dovuto faticare per
non farlo parer nojoso! Basta, basta! […] Mi faccio meraviglia, che un
dottore in iscienze fisiche e matematiche, come lei pretende di essere,
uomo serio dunque, si occupi di siffatte sciocchezze senza costrutto. (TLN
2: 238)
Ah, I don’t want to know about it, you know! Away, away! If you came to
be taken into consideration with such titles, you can go away. I already put
a Theosophist in one of my novels, and that’s enough. I know how hard I
had to work to not make it seem boring! Enough, enough! [...] I find it
amazing, that a doctor in physics and mathematics, as you pretend to be,
therefore a serious man, occupies himself with such pointless nonsense.
The character of the “Theosophist” that the writer refers to above is Anselmo Paleari
from Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal), discussed in the following chapter.
My analysis of the writer’s abrupt dismissal of Theosophy concludes that Pirandello is
not disgusted by Theosophy as a foolish belief system compared to the seriousness of the
hard sciences, as it would appear superficially, but he is more interested in demonstrating
the persistent power of a thought-form. Scoto asks the writer not to judge him so
superficially and says that everyone, today, feels an anxious need to believe in
something—an illusion that science fails provide. Because of this need, Scoto explains,
he turned to Theosophy books and even admits to laughing about it at first. He explains,
however, that he found a curious passage that offers a fundamental truth in the text he
128
brought with him. He opens the book and recites a passage almost identical to that quoted
earlier by Leadbeater. Pirandello adds here that Scoto translates fluently from the English
as he reads:
Abbiamo detto che l’essenza elementale che ne circonda da ogni parte è
singolarmente soggetta, in tutte le sue varietà, all’azione del pensiero
umano. Abbiamo descritto ciò che produce su essa il passaggio del
minimo pensiero errante, cioè a dire la formazione subitanea d’una
nubecola diafana, dalle forme di continuo mobili e cangianti.
Ora diremo ciò che avviene allorchè lo spirito umano esprime
positivamente un pensiero o un desiderio ben netto. Il pensiero assume
essenza plastica, si tuffa per così dire in essa e vi si modella
istantaneamente sotto forma d’un essere vivente, che ha un’apparenza che
prende qualità dal pensiero stesso, e quest’essere, appena formato, non è
più per nulla sotto il controllo del suo creatore, ma gode d’una
vita propria, la cui durata è relativa all’intensità del pensiero e del
desiderio che l’hanno generato: dura, infatti, a seconda della forza del
pensiero che ne tiene aggruppate le parti. (TLN 2: 239)
We said that the elemental essence which surrounds us on every side is
singularly susceptible, in all its varieties, to the influence of human
thought. We described the action of the mere wandering thought upon it,
that is the sudden formation of a diaphanous cloud, of forms continually
moving and changing. Now we should note what then happens when the
human spirit positively expresses a well-defined thought or desire. The
thought incurs upon the plastic essence, plunges itself so to speak and
instantly models itself in the form of a living being, which has an
appearance that takes on qualities of the thought itself, and this being, just
formed, is not at all under the control of its creator but enjoys a life of its
own, whose duration is relative to the intensity of the thought and desire
that generated it: it continues, in fact, depending on the strength of thought
that holds together the parts.
Close examination of this passage, and its implications for the incarnation of the
character, reveal the capacity of a thought to take on a life form of its own, beyond the
control of its creator. This thought-form, whose duration is proportional to the strength of
the desire or thought that generated it, may be ephemeral or has the potential to haunt its
creator forever. The reference to the plastic essence made is critical to the understanding
129
of Pirandello’s larger study of illusion, life, form, and his intricate system of character
development as described earlier.
After reading this passage to the author, Scoto continues his plea—arguing that no
one knows better than the author himself that what he read is true. He makes an argument
similar to the description of the novelist and his creation found in the Theosophical text,
Thought-forms (1901), written by Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater. The authors
explain that the novelist conceptualizes and externalizes thoughts on paper in the same
way that a painter visualizes an image in his mind and then projects it onto the canvas:
“The novelist in the same way builds images of his characters in mental matter, and by
the exercise of his will moves these puppets from one position or grouping to another, so
that the plot of his story is literally acted out before him” (Besant and Leadbeater
Thought-Forms 27).96 Scoto says:
Ed io, per quanto ancora non sia libero e indipendente da Lei, ne sono la
prova. Ne sono una prova tutti i personaggi creati dall’arte. Alcuni han pur
troppo vita effimera; altri immortale. Vita vera, più vera della reale, sto
per dire! Angelica, Rodomonte, Shylock, Amleto, Giulietta, Don
Chisciotte, Manon Lescaut, Don Abbondio, Taratin: non vivono d’una vita
indistruttibile, d’una vita indipendente ormai dai lori autori? (TLN 2: 239)
96
This is the passage from Thought-Forms in its entirety: “When a man thinks of his friend he
forms within his mental body a minute image of that friend, which often passes outward and usually floats
suspended in the air before him. In the same way if he thinks of a room, a house, a landscape, tiny images
of these things are formed within the mental body and afterwards externalised. This is equally true when he
is exercising his imagination; the painter who forms a conception of his future picture builds it up out of the
matter of his mental body, and then projects it into space in front of him, keeps it before his mind's eye, and
copies it. The novelist in the same way builds images of his characters in mental matter, and by the exercise
of his will moves these puppets from one position or grouping to another, so that the plot of his story is
literally acted out before him. With our curiously inverted conceptions of reality it is hard for us to
understand that these mental images actually exist, and are so entirely objective that they may readily be
seen by the clairvoyant, and can even be arranged by some one other than their creator. Some novelists
have been dimly aware of such a process, and have testified that their characters when once created
developed a will of their own, and insisted on carrying the plot of the story along lines quite different from
those originally intended by the author. This has actually happened, sometimes because the thought-forms
were ensouled by playful nature-spirits, or more often because some ‘dead’ novelist, watching on the astral
plan of his fellow-author, thought that he could improve upon it, and chose this method of putting forward
his suggestions” (Besant and Leadbeater Thought-Forms 26-27).
130
And I, although not yet free and independent from you, am proof of it. All
the characters created by art are the proof of it. Some have unfortunately
an ephemeral life; others immortal. Real life, more true than real, I’m
saying! Angelica, Rodomonte, Shylock, Hamlet, Juliet, Don Quixote,
Manon Lescaut, Don Abbondio, Taratin: do they not live in an
indestructible life, a life by now independent from their authors?
Notably, a the similar list of characters is found in “L’umorismo,” and is later reproduced
by the Father in Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore, who also discusses the concept of the
character as independent from its author.97 The writer asks Scoto what point he is trying
to arrive at with his “dissertazione teosofico-estetica” [“theosophical-aesthetic
dissertation”], and Scoto melodramatically exlaims: “Voglio vivere” [“I want to live”]
(TLN 2: 239). Pirandello’s art, as he says, is un’incessante e spasmodica volontà di
‘creare la vita’ [“motivated by a ceaseless and frantic will to ‘create life’”], and his
characters want to live (Ed. Pupo 289).98 Mattia Pascal’s voice echoes, “Io, insomma,
dovevo vivere, vivere, vivere!” [“In short: I had to live, live, live!”] (Tr I: 431; Trans.
Weaver 109). They not only want to live, but they also long for immortality. This raises
speculation as to Pirandello’s desire—not for his own fame or immortality—but for that
of the eternal existence of his chosen characters.
The following dialogue between the Father and the Director is found in the third act of Sei
personaggi in cerca d’autore: Il capocomico: Io vorrei sapere però, quando mai s’è visto un
personaggio che, uscendo dalla sua parte, si sia messo a perorarla cosí come fa lei, e proporla, a
spiegarla. Me lo sa dire? Io non l’ho mai visto! Il padre: Non l’ha mai visto, signore, perché gli autori
nascondono di solito il travaglio della loro creazione. Quando i personaggi son vivi, vivi veramente
davanti al loro autore, questo non fa altro che seguirli nelle parole, nei gesti ch’essi appunto gli
propongono, e bisogna ch'egli li voglia com'essi si vogliono; e guai se non fa così! Quando un
personaggio è nato, acquista subito una tale indipendenza anche dal suo stesso autore, che può esser da
tutti immaginato in tant'altre situazioni in cui l’autore non pensò di metterlo, e acquistare anche, a volte,
un significato che l’autore non si sognò mai di dargli!
Il capocomico: Ma sì, questo lo so! Il padre: E dunque, perché si fa meraviglia di noi? Immagini per un
personaggio la disgrazia che le ho detto, d’esser nato vivo dalla fantasia d’un autore che abbia voluto
poi negargli la vita, e mi dica se questo personaggio lasciato così, vivo e senza vita, non ha ragione di
mettersi a fare quel che stiamo facendo noi, ora, qua davanti a loro, dopo averlo fatto a lungo a lungo,
creda, davanti a lui per persuaderlo, per spingerlo” (Maschere nude 2: 105).
98
This passage is quoted in its entirety in Chapter 3 of this dissertation.
97
131
The writer asks Scoto if he thinks he really has what it takes to become immortal.
Scotto replies to his potential author that in him is the making of a masterpiece: “Creda
pure che in me, ad approfondirmi bene, Lei troverebbe la stoffa per un capolavoro”
[“Believe that in me, to really know me profoundly, you will find the material for a
masterpiece”]. The author responds, “Caro dottor Leandro Scoto: per il capolavoro
ripassi domani” [“Dear Dr. Leandro Scoto: for the masterpiece come back tomorrow”]
(TLN 2: 240). In the end, Scoto’s appeal to be made into a character is denied—as the
writer is not yet convinced that he is valuable, or is perhaps apprehensive that he will not
be able to dominate him. This rejection of the writer is the ultimate presentiment for
Pirandello’s theatrical masterpiece Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore, which fifteen years
later would forge his status as an internationally revered dramatist. Perhaps followed by
the thought of this rejected ectoplasmic and embryonic chararcter, and/or having learned
how to dominate him, it is probable that Pirandello’s formation of his capolavoro was
indeed the result of his imagination—stemming from the seed planted by Theosophical
research and manifested through his characters: Dr. Scoto, Dr. Fileno, and the Father and
his family.
“L’invisibile”
Capuana’s short story, “L’invisibile” (“The Unseen”), published in 1901, opens
with a debate between the protagonist Doctor Maggioli and the Baroness Lanari. The
Baroness describes her passion for fables and science fiction stories, and she credits their
authors for creating such illusions that allow her to be carried away from reality for a few
hours at a time. Immediately, Doctor Maggioli interrupts her with his counter that such
fantasies are actually real forces found in nature and he says that he believes that the
132
authors want to tell the truth about such things. After discussing The Invisible Man by
H.G. Wells, and whether or not it is possible to become invisible, the doctor describes to
his friends the unique case of a man who came to consult him the day before; this man
claimed that he could make himself invisible and was able to teleport himself great
distances, and he needed to find a way to stop it from happening. Doctor Maggioli
explained that the man was a Theosophist: “Era un adepto teosofo, un discepolo di quella
scuola religiosa filosofica e scientifica che esiste nell’India e che la signora Blavatsky e i
suoi collaboratori cominciano a diffondere in Europa” (“He was an adept Theosophist, a
disciple of that philosophical and scientific religious school that exists in India and that
Madam Blavatsky and her collaborators are beginning to spread in Europe”) (Cedola
154). The man says that he will prove his condition to the Doctor and return in a few
days. After the Doctor recommends that the man take a series of cold showers and sends
him on his way, he does not expect to see him again. Two days later, after witnessing the
extraordinary re-appearance of his vase of roses on the table from which they had
disappeared, the Doctor realizes that this was the man’s attempt to convince him of his
situation. However, the Doctor insists that he still has not proven his invisibility. The man
agrees, explaining that he tries to avoid making himself invisible because of the sad
effects it has on him. He asks the Doctor to open the window, and after a few minutes,
the man was enveloped in a white vaporous cloud and he vanished out the window,
leaving the sidewalk below looking as though it were smoking. The Doctor, still
dumbfounded by the experience, finishes his story—consequently closing the short story
with questions indicating confusion about his client’s whereabouts and condition. This
type of story, entertaining yet abrupt in its conclusion and devoid of explicit answers or
133
closure, is a protoype for Pirandello, who often used scientist-protagonists to demonstrate
the same conflict of the materialists versus the spiritualists. This structure is apparent in
Pirandello’s novella, “Dal naso al cielo,” (“Nose to the Sky”) (1907).
“Dal Naso al Cielo”
The fairest thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the
fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and science. He
who knows it not and can no longer wonder, no longer feel amazement, is
as good as dead, a snuffed-out candle. It was the experience of mystery—
even if mixed with fear—that engendered religion. A knowledge of the
existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the
profoundest reason to the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible
to our reason in their most elementary forms. (Albert Einstein Ideas and
Opinions 11)
In the short story, “Dal naso al cielo” (“Nose to the Sky”) (1907),99 Pirandello’s
anti-positivist views are expressed via his character, Professor Vernoni, who argues that
man should follow the laws and logic of nature but that he must also consider that there
may be things, in nature, that we cannot always see and they should not be ignored or
dismissed. These things live naturally on the earth with us, like us and other beings, but
our normal state and our own defects of perception will not allow us to see them.
Following the anti-postivist argument, Pirandello argues that these unseen forces are also
natural but they have been subjected to other laws that our consciousness ignores.
The story takes place at an old hotel built on the grounds of an abandoned
convent, at the peak of Monte Gajo—similar to the setting of “Pallottoline” at Monte
Cavo. The hotel is honored to be hosting, among its few guests, the distinguished chemist
from Lincei in Rome, Romualdo Reda. Reda is there because he has been advised by his
doctors to take a break from his intense work schedule after a fainting spell in his lab, and
99
“Dal naso al Cielo” was first published in Marzocco on April 7, 1907. In 1919 it was reprinted
in the collection Il carnevale dei morti (The Carnival of the Dead) and was also part of the eight volume of
the “Novelle per un anno,” called Dal naso al cielo. See TLN 2: 1008.
134
he has yet to exchange words with anyone. He is described as very small in stature,
almost without a neck with swollen eyelids and leathery, closely shaved skin. Every
afternoon he would go to the open space in front of the hotel and sit under where he
would immerse himself in newspapers, magazines and some books for hours. The miracle
that brings Reda to speak is the new guest, Professor Dionisio Veroni, who immediately
makes a bad impression on the other guests and hotel staff. He is described by the
narrator in a negative, animal-esque light; he is said to be untidy, slovenly, dripping with
sweat, glasses slipping down his nose and with skin hard like that of pig. Vernoni, an
“incorrigible idealist,” the narrator says, perhaps suffered from the volcanic stirrings of
his many passions. Looking at his sweaty face, Vernoni is a humoristic sight as one
would not believe him to be so idealistic. In describing Vernoni, Pirandello’s echoes the
sentiments of his essay, “Rinunzia” (“Rinunciation”), discussed in the previous chapter.
The narrator says:
Il professor Dionisio Vernoni: un idealista che, anche a costo d’essere
scannato, non s’acquietava, non sapeva, non voleva aqcuietarsi all’irritante
rinunzia della scienza di fronte ai formidabili problemi dell’esistenza, al
comodo (egli diceva vigliacco) ripararsi del così detto pensiero filosofico
entro i confini del conoscibile. (TLN 2: 305).
Professor Dionisio Vernoni: an idealist who, even at the cost of being
slaughtered, did not resign himself, he did not know how, he did not want
to resign himself to the irritating renunciation of science in the face of
formidable problems of the existence, to shelter himself (he said
cowardly) in the comfortable, so-called philosophical thought within the
boundaries of the knowable.
Vernoni recognizes his old professor from University years ago and approaches Reda
sitting under the beech tree. The narrator points out that Vernoni had many former
professors because he had at least three or four degrees. Their famously contentious
debates at University were re-kindled from that moment though Vernoni alone was now
135
fervid, as Reda responded bluntly and scornfully. They continue this “intellectual duel”
every afternoon and others surround them, entertained by their discussions. The debates
are heated with Vernoni jumping up to his feet in protest. The elderly Mrs. Gilli and Miss
Green were enthralled with Vernoni’s passionate pleas for his noble and high-minded
theories while Reda grew increasingly agitated; the elder scholar had an opposing view to
Vernoni concerning the logic of nature. In one debate, Vernoni mutters with bitter
disdain, “L’erba, dunque, eh? Come se fossimo tante pecorelle…” [“Grass, then, eh?
Grass! As if we were all sheep…” (TLN 2: 306). At this, Mr. Ninì Gilli laughes
uncontrollably, and the laughter of the others follows, while Reda looks around confused
and tells Vernoni he does not understand. Vernoni explains that the grass that grows on
the ground is for sheep the only truth that really exists for them—while man can look up
and see the stars. The women nod their heads in agreement. Reda recognizes this from
Sallustio100, and Vernoni confirms this but then argues that if we also look down and look
at a mole, we are able to understand the logic of nature. Upon hearing the word ‘nature,’
Reda becomes very serious and says, “Ah no!”; he does not want to discuss it further. At
this point, in the original Marzocco version, Vernoni and Reda engage in a polemical
discussion; Vernoni argues vehemently against the positivistic views of Francis Bacon
100
In “Arte e coscienza d’oggi” (1893), Pirandello quotes the Latin historian and statesman, Gaius
Sallustius Crispus (86-34 bc), from his work, Bellum Catilinae (43-40 B.C.), which is indirectly alluded to
in the beginning of “Dal naso al cielo.” This is the passage Pirandello cites in its original Latin, in the 1893
essay: “Omnîs homines, qui sese student praestare ceteris animalibus, summâ ope niti decet, ne uitam
silentio transeant ueluti pecora, quae natura prona atque uentri oboedientia finxit.” The Italian translation
is: “Tutti gli uomini che si studiano di superare ogni altro vivente, con somma energia conviene si
adoperino per non trascorrere la vita nel silenzio, come le bestie che la natura fece chine in terra e solo
ubbidienti agli impulsi del ventre” [“It behooves all men who wish to excel beyond other animals to strive
with the utmost of their energy, so as not to pass through life in obscurity, like the beasts which nature has
made to bow down to the land and become subservient to man’s appetite”] (TLN 2: 1010)
136
and Herbert Spencer and Reda argues for them.101 Vernoni argues than man wants and
needs more from his existence than to have to adapt to the materialistic ways imposed by
science. When he asks the elder Professor what will happen if he chooses not to resign
himself to such a one-sided view of nature and logic, Reda tells him that, depending on
his level of rebellion, he will end up in a mental hospital or in prison—the two options,
recurrent throughout Pirandello’s works, for one who does not want to conform to the set
ways of society.102 Vernoni insists on the discussion, asking Reda if he doubts that nature
101
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was an English philosopher and political and sociological
theorist. He was a chief proponent of Social Darwinism. Pragmatism, studied by philosophers Charles
Peirce and William James, was a necessary departure from rigid Spencerian dogma; it bridged the gap
between nineteenth-century vision and twentieth-century achievement. Pragmatism was the philosophy of
experimentation and a departure from inflexible, Spencerian naturalism. According to its proponents there
were universal laws, but human beings could comprehend and cope with them. (Knee 4)
Anthony Caputi writes: “Pirandello set up Spencer’s and other philosophical foundations chiefly
to knock them down, to argue that like the conception of life provided by modern science, these models of
consciousness reduce what is exceedingly intricate and mysterious to abstract system. […] Consciousness
for Pirandello was a matrix for other faculties, highly inclusive. But far from reflecting a rational idea of
the world, as Herbert Spencer would have it, it suggestedits own indeterminacy in its, shifting, changing
versionof the world” (Caputi 17).
102
This passage was in the original version of “Dal naso al cielo” but later removed: “Mi avete
dimostrato la necessità,” -gridava il professor Dionisio Vernoni, con gli occhi lustri e il volto affocato da
una sorda stizza, -“la necessità di uniformarmi alle condizioni dell’esistenza, e che nell’adattamento io
debba cercare la norma direttrice della vita e nello sviluppo perfettivo l’ideale di essa. Sta bene! Sta bene! E
poi?” / Il senatore gli rispondeva con gli occhi bassi e col solito sogghignetto su le labbra, picchiando con
le dita sui bracciuoli della sedia a sdrajo: “Non le basta?” / “Nossignore; mi dispiace tanto illustrissimo
signor professore, ma non mi basta; non mi può bastare. L’adattamento…Che vuol dire? E se io non voglio
o non posso adattarmi?” / Semplicissimo,” –tornava a rispondere placidamente il senatore. “Vuol dire che
lei, caro Vernoni, non avrà norma direttrice e rischierà di finire o in un manicomio o in prigione.” / Tutti
scoppiavano a ridere all’arguta esplicita risposta, mentre il Vernoni balzava in piedi con tanto d’occhi
sbarrati e le due manacce spalmate sul petto: “Io?!” / “E già,” –confermava il senatore. “Secondo la qualità
della sua ribellione” / “Ma scusi, ma scusi, ma scusi…” –prorompeva allora il prof. Dionisio Vernoni,
congestionato dalla rabbia, scotendo in aria le mani frementi. “Questo, signor professore, è un rimpicciolire
un po’ troppo la questione, mi sembra.” / RR: “E perché?” / DV: “Perché io non Le strapperei mai la catena
dell’orologio, neanche se fossi morto di fame” / “Uùùh,” –esclamavano, a questo punto, gli ascoltatori,
come urtati da una stonatura volgare. / Ma il senatore Romualdo Reda si guardava la catena sul panciotto, e
domandava impassibile: “Come c’entra la catena del mio orologio?” / “Ma sì!”- squittiva il Vernoni. “Lei
dice che è necessità uniformarci alle condizioni dell’esistenza. E se io fossi un morto di fame? Belle
condizioni d’esistenza, scusi! E un giudice mi condannerebbe, se io Le strappassi la catena del’orologio?” /
RR: “Creda, caro Vernoni.” / “Eh,”- faceva lo Scamozzi. / “Ci provi…”-soggiungeva il Borisi. / Il
professor Dionisio Vernoni tornava a balzare in piedi: “Ah sì? Ma io gli direi: - ‘Caro signor giudice, come
fa lei a trovar nello adattamanto la norma direttrice della sua vita? Lo Stato le dà un’irrisoria mercede; le
condizioni della sua esistenza sono ben misere. Come s’adatta lei, signor giudice? Obbedisce? Si uniforma?
Capisco! Lei vende la giustizia, com’io strappo una catena d’orologio!’ No, via, signor professore: ci vuole
qualcos’altro, creda pure!” / Allora il senatore rispondeva con una certa vocetta agra di stizza: “Ma sicuro
che ci vuole, sicurissimo che ci vuole qualcos’altro! Migliorare quanto più sarà possible le condizioni
137
follows its own logic. Vernoni explains that the mole is the perfect proof: the mole has
very weak organs because he is meant to stay underground while man is endowed with
the ability to look at the stars. He exclaims that there must be a reason for this. At this
point in the original Marzocco version, but later eliminated, Vernoni launches into a
discussion of astronomy and argues, as did Mattia Pascal when he cursed Copernicus,
that the telescope ruined humanity because it made man feel like tiny specs compared to
the vastness of the infinite universe.103
d’esistenza, perbacco! Nello sviluppo perfettivo, l’ideale della vita…” / “E basta?”-tornava a domandare il
Vernoni. / “Ma che vuole di più, santo Dio!” –esclamava il senatore, accennando di spazientarsi” (TLN 2:
1011-1012).
[“You have showed me the necessity” –shouted Professor Dionisio Vernoni, with shiny eyes and
face reddened from a deepened irritation, “the necessity of conforming myself to the conditions of
existence, and that I must look for the guiding norm of life in the adaptation and the perfect ideal in the
development of that. Its good! Its good! And then?” / The senator responded to him with his eyes lowered
and his usual snicker on his lips, tapping his fingers on the arm rest of his lounge chair, “Is it not enough
for you?” / DV: “No sir; I am sorry illustrious Sir Professor, but it is not enough for me; it can not be
enough. The adaptation…what does it mean? And if I don’t want to or am not able to adapt myself? /
“Extremely simple,”- the senator placidly turned to respond. “It means that you, dear Vernoni, will not
have the guiding norm and will risk ending up in a madhouse or in prison.” / “Everybody burst out
laughing at the explicit witty response, meanwhile Vernoni leapt to his feet with his eyes opened wide and
with his palms on his chest: “Me?!” / “Indeed,” –confirmed the senator, “According to the quality of your
rebellion” / “But sorry, but sorry, but sorry…” – the Professor Dionisio Vernoni then bursted enraged,
waving his arms wildly in the air. “This, sir Professor, is making the question a bit too small, it seems to
me” / RR: “And why?” / DV: “Because I would never steal the chain of your watch, not even if I were
dying of hunger” / “Uuuuh”…the listeners exclaimed at this point, as if annoyed by a jarring, vulgar sound.
/ But the Senator Romualdo Reda looked at the chain on his belly and asked impassively, “How does the
chain of my watch enter into this?” / “But yes!” – squealed Vernoni. “You say that it is necessary to
conform ourselves to the conditions of existence. And if I were dying of hunger? Nice conditions for
existence, sorry! And would a judge condemn me, if I stole the chain of the watch? / RR: “I believe he
would, dear Vernoni” / “Eh” said Scamozzi / “Try it…”- added Borisi. / The Professor Dionisio Vernoni
turned and leapt to his feet. “Ah yes? But I would say to him: “Dear Jugde Sir, how do you find the guiding
norm of your life of adaptation? The State gives you paltry pay; the conditions of your existence are
miserable. How do you adapt yourself, Sir Judge? Do you obey? Do you conform yourself? You sell justice
like I steal a chain of a watch.’ No, way?, Sir Professor, one wants something else, believe it indeed!” /
Then the senator responded with a small voice undoubtedly bitter with anger: “But I am sure that one
wants, extremely sure that one wants something else! To improve the conditions of existence as much as
possible, by Jove! In the perfected development, the ideal of life…” / “And is it enough?” Vernoni turned
to ask. / “But what more do you want, holy God!” exclaimed the senator, beginning to lose patience.)
103
Dionisio Vernoni’s argument of the “cannochiale rovesciato” (“inverted telescope”) was
eliminated from the original 1907 version. The original text follows Vernoni’s statement: “Logica della
natura. E l’uomo? Scusi, perché deve poter videre le stelle, l’uomo/ Una ragione ci deve essere, scusi!”
Vernoni then continues: “Non certo perché possa studiare astronomia…Sarebbe ridicolo!” / RR: “E
perchè?” – domandava, sorridendo, come stordito da tante strampalerie, il senatore. / “Non per
l’astronomia, certo!” – rispondeva subito il Vernoni, sempre più infervorato e vibrante. “Perché senza
l’astronomia l’uomo potrebbe vivere benone, come visse per tanti e tanti secoli, credendo le stelle
138
Vernoni says:
Il telescopio, il telescopio, sissignore la nostra rovina! ha rovinato
l’umanità- sissignore – il telescopio! Perché mentre l’occhio guarda di
sotto, dalla lente piccola, e vede grande ciò che la natura
provvidenzialmente aveva voluto farci vedere piccolo, l’anima che fa?
lampadine, scusi. Scoperto il telescopio…” / “Che vide?” – lo interrompeva il senatore, levando un
braccino. / E allora il Vernoni con un prorompinamento d’indignazione: “La sua piccolezza, è vero?
Maledetto il telescopio! Ma ci crede che io li fracasserei tutti quanti? che spazzerei dalla faccia della terra
tutti quanti gli osservatorii astronomici? Il telescopio, il telescopio, sissignore la nostra rovina! ha rovinato
l’umanità- sissignore – il telescopio! Perché mentre l’occhio guarda di sotto, dalla lente piccola, e vede
grande ciò che la natura provvidenzialmente aveva voluto farci vedere piccolo, l’anima che fa? salta a
guardare di sopra, l’anima, dalla lente più grande; e il telescopio allora che diventa? Un terribile strumento,
un microscopio formidabile, che subissa la terra e l’uomo e tutte le nostre glorie e grandezze. Piccolo? Ma
scusi, signor professore, dice sul serio? Ma se l’uomo può intendere e concepire la infinita sua piccolezza,
vuol dire ch’egli intende e concepisce l’infinita grandezza dell’Universo. E come si può dir piccolo,
dunque, l’uomo? Lei scherza! Piccolo? Ma dentro di me dev’esserci per forza, intende? per forza qualcosa
di questo infinito, se no io non lo intenderei, come non lo intende quell’albero, putacaso, o il mio
cappello…Qualcosa che, se io affisso gli occhi nel cielo, egregio signore professore, s’apre, e diventa,
come niente, plaga dello spazio, in cui roteano mondi, dico mondi, di cui sento e compReda la formidabile
grandezza. E vuole, scusi, vuole ch’io chiuda questi occhi che la natura mi ha fatti così penetranti e così
desiderosi si vedere, di scoprire, su su, una ragione che m’appaghi e m’acquieti, per ristringermi qua allo
studio dei sassolini, dei pesciolini, dei moscherini?...Scienza, non dico di no! ma come vuole che mi
contenti, signor professore?” [“DV: “I am not certain because I am able to study astronomy…it would be
ridiculous!” / RR: “And why?”- the senator asked, smiling, as if bewildered by so many absurdities. / DV:
Certainly not for astronomy!”-Vernoni immediately responded, even more impassioned and vibrant.
“Because without astronomy man would be able to live very well, as he lived for many centuries, believing
the stars little lights. Discovered the telescope…” / RR: “What did he see?”- the senator interrupted, raising
his small arm. / DV: “His smallness, isn’t it true? Cursed telescope! Do you think I would break all of
them? that I would spit in the face of all the astronomers observing the Earth? The telescope, the telescope,
yes sir, the telescope ruined humanity! Because while the eye looks from the smaller lens and sees big that
which nature providentially had intended for us to see as small, what does the soul do? The soul jumps to
look through the bigger lens at the other end and the telescope therefore becomes a terrible instrument, a
dreadful microscope that ruins the land and man and all our greatness and glories. Small? But excuse me,
Professor, are you serious? But if man is able to understand and conceptualize the huge infinity of his
smallness, it means he can also understand and conceptualize the infinite greatness of the universe. And
how is one able to say small, meanwhile, man? You’re joking! Small? But inside me must be something of
this infiniteness, of course, understand? inside of me, if not, I would not understand it, like that tree does
not understand it, maybe, or my hat. Something that if I fix my eye in the sky, it opens itself, and becomes
like nothing, a region of space, in which world’s rotate, I say worlds, of which I feel and understand the
dreadfully great size. And you want that I should close these eyes that nature made so penetrating for me
and so desiring to see, to discover, up up, a reason that satisfies me and quiets me, to restrict myself in the
study of small rocks and small fish and gnats? Science, I would not say no! but how do you want me to be
make myself happy, Professor?” (TLN 2: 1012-1013).
Lucio Lugnani comments that Vernoni, in his opposition to Francis Bacon’s inductive reasoning
and empiricism, offers his idealistic spiritualism mixed with Theosophy and also takes from the
philosophical leanings of Blaise Pascal and his reflections on the misery and greatness of man. This
Pirandello borrows from Pascal’s Pensees (Thoughts) #169: “La grandeur de l’homme est grande en ce
qu’il se connoist misérable. Un arbre ne se connoist pas misérable. C’est donc estre misérable que de se
connoistre misérable; mais c’estre grand que de connoistre qu’on est misérable” [“The greatness of man is
great in that he knows his own misery. A tree does not know its misery. So it is misery to know one’s
misery, but to know it is to be great”] (See Pascal Pensees 85) (TLN 2: 1012).
139
salta a guardare di sopra, l’anima, dalla lente più grande; e il telescopio
allora che diventa? Un terribile strumento, un microscopio formidabile,
che subissa la terra e l’uomo e tutte le nostre glorie e grandezze. Piccolo?
Ma scusi, signor professore, dice sul serio? Ma se l’uomo può intendere e
concepire la infinita sua piccolezza, vuol dire ch’egli intende e concepisce
l’infinita grandezza dell’Universo. E come si può dir piccolo, dunque,
l’uomo? Lei scherza! Piccolo? Ma dentro di me dev’esserci per forza,
intende? per forza qualcosa di questo infinito, se no io non lo intenderei,
come non lo intende quell’albero, putacaso, o il mio cappello…Qualcosa
che, se io affisso gli occhi nel cielo, egregio signore professore, s’apre, e
diventa, come niente, plaga dello spazio, in cui roteano mondi, dico
mondi, di cui sento e compReda la formidabile grandezza. E vuole, scusi,
vuole ch’io chiuda questi occhi che la natura mi ha fatti così penetranti e
così desiderosi si vedere, di scoprire, su su, una ragione che m’appaghi e
m’acquieti, per ristringermi qua allo studio dei sassolini, dei pesciolini, dei
moscherini? …Scienza, non dico di no! ma come vuole che mi contenti,
signor professore?” (TLN 2: 1012-1013; translation in footnote 26).
It was Jacopo Maraventano from “Pallottolline!” who first suggested that if man were to
look back at the Earth from the cosmos, humans would look like tiny particles of dust but
Dionisio Vernoni goes further and makes the argument that the artificial and unnatural
viewpoint of the telescope, offered to the human eye by the invention of scientists, pushes
the human spirit to the opposite lens of the telescope, where it sees the world through the
larger lens of that “microscopio formidabile” (“wonderful microscope”).104 Vernoni,
despite the elimination from the original version, is said to be the inventor of the
“cannocchiale rovesciato” (“inverted telescope”), discussed at length in Chapter One of
104
As discussed in Chapter 1 of this dissertation, Pirandello describes in “L’umorismo,” that the
telescope was the discovery that “dealt us the coup de grâce”: “Ci diede il colpo di grazia la scoperta del
telescopio: altra macchinetta infernale, che può fare il pajo con quella che volle regalarci la natura. Ma
questa l’abbiamo inventata noi, per non esser da meno. Mentre l’occhio guarda di sotto, dalla lente piú
piccola, e vede grande ciò che la natura provvidenzialmente aveva voluta farci veder piccolo, l’anima
nostra, che fa? salta a guardare di sopra, dalla lente piú grande, e il telescopio allora diventa un terribile
strumento, che subissa la terra e l’uomo e tutte le nostre glorie e grandezze” [“It was the discovery of the
telescope which dealt us the coup de grâce: another infernal little mechanism which could pair up with the
one nature chose to bestow upon us. But we invented this one so as not to be inferior. While our eye looks
from below through the smaller lens, and sees as big all that nature had providentially wanted us to see
small, what does our soul do? It jumps to look from above through the larger lens, and as a consequence the
telescope becomes a terrible instrument, which sinks the earth and man and all our glories and greatness”]
(Spsv 156; Illiano, trans. 142)
140
this dissertation: “Se dunque Maraventano è il protofilosofo della lontananza, Dionisio
Vernoni, intertestualmente in polemica con lui, è l’inventore del cannocchiale rovesciato
che vorrebbe distrutto e che sarà recuperato e posto alla base della filosofia del lontano
dal dottor Paolo Post e dal dottor Fileno de La tragedia d’un personaggio” [“If
Maraventano then is the proto-philosopher of distance, Dionisio Vernoni, intertexually in
debate with him, is the inventor of the inverted telescope that would be layed to waste
and will be recuperated and placed at the base of the philosophy of distance of Dr. Paolo
Post and Dr. Fileno in A Character’s Tragedy”] (TLN 2: 1013). Vernoni finds comfort in
knowing that in him resides the infinite greatness of the universe, and for this, he cannot
restrict himself to the empirical and physical study of small rocks but must explore the
metaphysical, in order to understand and receive all the wonders that the universe has to
offer.
Everyone remained suspended in the moment waiting for Reda’s response to
Vernoni’s statement about the logic of nature behind the mole’s weakness and man’s
strength. With half-closed, swollen eyes and a smirking smile, Reda recites this passage,
in its original Latin, from the Novum Organum, or The New Instrument (1620), by
Francis Bacon:105 “Gestit enim mens exsilire ad magis generalia, ut acquiescat; et post
parvam moram fastidit experientiam: sed haec mala demum aucta sunt a dialectica ob
pompas disputationum” [“Indeed the mind is fond of starting off to generalities, so that it
105
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was an English philosopher, scientist, lawyer and statesman.
Asimov writes: “In 1620 came the Novum Organum, that is, the “New Organon,” the reference being to the
Organon of Aristotle in which the Greek philosopher had demonstrated the proper method of logic—of
reasoning by deduction (arriving at a conclusion by reasoning, infer from facts). Bacon’s book, as the title
implies, contains a new method of reasoning. Bacon argued strenuously that deduction might do for
mathematics but that it could not do for science. The laws of science had to be induced, to be established as
generalizations drawn out of a vast mass of specific observation” (Asimov 98). Interestingly Peter
Ouspensky wrote Tertium Organum (1912), which he subtitled “The third canon of thought,” following
Aristotle’s Organon and Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum.
141
may avoid labor, and after dwelling a little on a subject, is fatigued by the experiment.
But those evils are augmented by logic, for the sake of the ostentation of the dispute”]
(Trans. Joseph Devey 387).106 In Novum Organum, Bacon writes of his new system of
logic and inductive reasoning that he thinks is superior to the traditional Aristotelian
syllogism (deductive reasoning, or the logical argument in which the conclusion is
inferred from two other premises.) Bacon’s title refers to Aristotle’s work Organon, his
treatise on logic and syllogism based on deductive reasoning (facts determined by
constructive arguments that give a conclusion based on a set of premises), versus the new
Baconian method of inductive reasoning (reasoning based upon observances which
allows for the possibility that the drawn conclusion is false, even when the premises are
true). This method was the precursor to the scientific method. Isaac Asimov writes of
Bacon:
Bacon’s great contribution to experimental science was the respectability
he gave it. In 1605 Bacon published a book called Advancement of
Learning in which he argued against mysticism and characterized the dead
hand of tradition as the true devil threatening mankind. There was no use,
he said, in studying magic and trying to work through spirits. Science
should concern itself with the actual world that was apparent to the senses,
for its true purpose was not that of bolstering religious faith, but of
improving the human condition. […] Largely because of Bacon’s
influence, experimental science became fashionable among English
gentlemen. A group of them began to gather to discuss and practice the
new intellectual fad, in imitation of the “House of Solomon,” a community
of investigators and philosophers described by Bacon in his book The New
Atlantis. This finally developed into the Royal Society, perhaps the most
unusual collection of brilliant scientists to forgather in a single city since
the great days of Alexandria. Yet Bacon had a real-life model to draw on,
106
In Italian this passage from Bacon is translated: “La mente brama infatti, per trovar quiete di
elevarsi a cose più generali: e dopo un breve indugio, l’esperienza le ripugna. Ma quesi mali sono ora resi
più gravi dalla dialettica a causa della pomposità delle dispute”; Pirandello most likely borrowed this
passage from a note in Giovanni Marchesini’s book Le finzioni dell’anima (The Fictions of the Soul) (TLN
2: 1013)
142
too; for a similar group, “Accademia dei Lincei,” had been established in
Rome earlier by Italian physicist, Giambattista della Porta. Its membership
had included Galileo (Asimov 98-98).
Interestingly, Francis Bacon, in whose scientific method of logic and deductive reasoning
Reda whole-heartedly believes (and Pirandello vehemently rejects), is connected also to
the Accademia dei Lincei—originally exclusively dedicated to the mathematical and
natural sciences but after in the modern epoch incorporated the disciplines of philology,
history and morality (TLN 2: 1009). In “Rinunzia,” Pirandello argues against Bacon’s
principles of logic which, despite progress in science, result, more importantly, in a
“mortale malsanìa” (“spiritual sickness”) and “malessere intellettuale” (“intellectual
malaise”) (Spsv 1-2); to live a harmonious life, man must follow the laws and logic
inherent in nature and adapt, not to formulated man-made logic, but to the fluid
movement of the universe.
In the next part of the story, all of the guests are alarmed by the screams of Miss
Ninì Gilli and her mother. Earlier that day, Ninì had gone alone into the thicket of the old
convent and had bad encounter; she had come running back, yelling and disheveled. She
was now in her room, writhing in a terrible convulsion of nerves. No one understood
what had happened to her. Scamozzi calls together the other guests and hotel staff to go
down to the old convent and look around, but they are hesitant to leave; they all want to
wait to hear the opinion of Professor Reda, who was also a medical doctor. Only Vernoni
declared himself ready to follow Scamozzi. The others, having little faith in these two
men, pretend not to hear. Finally, Reda appears and tells everyone not to worry—that it is
a slight passing psychosis, a “crisi isterica” (“hysterics”). After hearing Reda’s diagnosis,
Vernoni says that he knows what happened: Ninì must have had a hallucination at the
143
convent because he too had heard melodical organ music the other day when he was there
alone. Vernoni insists that Miss Gilli must have also heard this music but the hotel owner
interrupts and dismisses him, welcoming the opinion of the illustrious Dr. Reda.
Everyone begins to laugh at Vernoni and Reda smugly returns to his lounge under the
beech tree. Ninì’s mother comes rushing out in search of the hotel owner because her
daughter had another convulsion, saying that she would die if she remained at the hotel
another night. Interestingly, Ninì tells her mother that she had heard organ music in the
small church of the convent and Vernoni is validated. The others, however, conclude that
he too suffers from hysterics. Vernoni ignores them and engages Ninì in conversation
about the music, and she tells him that all of a sudden she saw lit candles and monks in a
procession. Ninì is interrupted by her mother, who fearing another convulsion, ushers her
back into her room. Vernoni begins talking, with his usual animated fervor, about
occultism, mediums, telepathy, premonitions, and materializations. In the first two
printings of this story, materializations was followed “di piano astrale di teosofia”
[“about the astral plane of theosophy”] (TLN 2: 1014). The narrator says:
E il professor Dionisio Vernoni attaccò subito col suo solito fervore; e
cominciò a parlare di occultismo e di medianismo, di telepatia e di
premonizioni, di apporti e di materializzazioni: e a gli occhi de’ suoi
ascoltatori sbalorditi popolò di meraviglie e di fantasime la terra che
l’orgoglio umano imbecille ritiene abitata soltanto dagli uomini e da quelle
poche bestie che l’uomo conosce e di cui si serve. Madornale errore!
Vivono, vivono su la terra di vita naturale, naturalissima al pari della
nostra, altri esseri, di cui noi nello stato normale non possiamo avere, per
difetto nostro, percezione; ma che si rivelano a volte, in certe condizioni
anormali, e ci riempiono di sgomento; esseri sovrumani, nel senso che
sono oltre la nostra povera umanità, ma naturali anch’essi, naturalissimi,
soggetti ad altre leggi che noi ignoriamo, o meglio, che la nostra coscienza
ignora, ma a cui forse inconsciamente obbediamo anche noi: abitanti della
terra non umani, essenze elementali107, spiriti della natura di tutti i generi,
107
Interestingly, the 1907, 1919 and 1925 versions of “Dal naso al cielo” use the word
“elementali” but the Mondadori edition, published in 1937 (after Pirandello’s death), replaced “elementali”
144
che vivono in mezzo a noi, e nelle rocce, e nei boschi, e nell’aria, e
nell’acqua, e nel fuoco, invisibili, ma che tuttavia riescono talvolta a
materializzarsi. (TLN 2: 310)
And Professor Dionisio Vernoni immediately attacked with his usual
fervor, and began speaking about occultism and mediumship, telepathy
and premonitions, and of materializations: and to the eyes of his stunned
audience he populated the earth with wonders and phantoms that foolish
human pride maintains is inhabited only by men and the few animals
known to man and of that which serves him. Egregious error! They live,
they live on the land of natural life, the most natural compared to us, other
beings, of which we can not have in the normal state, for our failure,
perception; but which sometimes reveal themselves, in certain abnormal
conditions, and fill us with dismay; superhuman beings, in that they are
beyond our poor humanity, but they are also natural, very natural, subject
to other laws that we ignore, or better, that our consciousness ignores, but
to which perhaps unconsciously we obey even ourselves: non-human
inhabitants of the earth, elemental essences, spirits of nature of all kinds,
who live among us, in the rocks, and in the forests, and in the air, and in
the water, and the fire, invisible, but which can sometimes materialize
themselves.
Vernoni is angry that Reda would not engage in this discussion, and he tries to provoke
him, bursting into a rant against positive science and against certain so-called scientists
who did not see anything beyond their own noses. Everyone grew silent, terrified by
Vernoni’s outrage. Reda, who was lounging with his eyes closed, stood up and without
saying anything, casually started out toward the abandoned convent.
Later that evening, after Vernoni and Scamozzi escorted Mrs. Gilli and her
daughter to the train station, everyone was beginning to worry about Professor Reda
because had not yet returned from the convent and had a weak heart. The men volunteer
to look for him, and with lit torches, they set out through the thick woods. They searched
for about an hour and decided to call of the search until the next morning. The next
morning the men continued to look everywhere without any luck until they heard a
with “elementari”—which according to Lucio Lugnani, is a lectio facilior (easier reading) of the original
typography (TLN 2: 1014)
145
scream. There, under a chesnut tree about fifty steps from the convent, lay the body of
Romualdo Reda, small and supine, without any signs of violence—perhaps dead from a
heart attack. From the top of the tree was spider’s web that extended to the tip of Reda’s
nose. The story concludes: “E dal naso del piccolo senatore un ragnetto quasi invisibile,
che sembrava uscito di tra i peluzzi delle narici, viaggiava ignaro, su su, per quel filo che
pareva si perdesse nel cielo” [“And from the nose of the small senator, a spider almost
invisible, which seemed to come out from between the hairs of the nostrils, unaware
traveled up, up, through that thread that seemed to be lost in the sky”] (TLN 2: 313).
Pirandello is able to demonstrate his anti-positivist argument using the metaphor of the
music and the spider. It can be inferred that Reda’s ultimate undoing is the infinitesimal
spider which is a physical manifestation of the inverted telescope. From the perspective
of man, a spider is a tiny particle. In his failure to believe in the power and strength of
small creatures, the organ music, or that which he could not see he or hear, Reda becomes
a victim of his own ignorance. He himself did not hear the music nor was he able to see
the spider that would ultimately be his demise. Pirandello presents traditional scientists
versus those looking to Theosophy and Spiritualism to go beyond empiricism, mysterious
happenings, and occult phenomena. In the end, as in Luigi Capuana’s story “L’invisibile”
(“The Unseen”), he leaves it to the reader to decipher what really happened. Perhaps
Reda’s death was due to his inability to accept the mysterious or feel amazement, as
stated by Einstein in the beginning of this section): “The fairest thing we can experience
is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and
science. He who knows it not and can no longer wonder, no longer feel amazement, is as
good as dead, a snuffed-out candle” (Einstein Ideas and Opinions 11).
146
All’uscita
In Pirandello’s one-act play, All’uscita (At the Exit) (1916),108 the main
characters—all recently deceased souls—are staged in what can be read as the
Theosophical astral plane and its corresponding purgatorial realm, the Kamaloca. Set in a
cemetery, the dead wander the grounds in a state of confusion and uncertainty; they are
defined and confined by their own perceptions until they are able to free themselves of
their human attachments and cast off the shadow of illusion they created for themselves
in life. The main characters, called apparenze (appearances), are the Philosopher (il
Filosofo), the Fat Man (l’Uomo Grasso), the Murdered Woman (la Donna Uccisa), and
the Little Boy With a Pomegranate (il Bambino della Melagrana). They are known only
by a paired down description of their present appearance. As the title implies, these souls
must relinquish their former illusions in order to “exit” the astral plane and continue their
journey of spiritual evolution. The other minor characters, called, “Aspetti della vita”
(“Aspects of life”), are a passing peasant family and their donkey. Pirandello’s transition
from the short story and novel to the stage in All’uscita, as well as Sei personaggi in
cerca d’autore, demonstrates his growing desire to represent ghost-like and unrealized
characters. The venue of the theater allows Pirandello to make use of dramatic lighting to
increase the effect of the fantastic reality and to actualize ghost-like appearances,
suspended between worlds. According to Antonio Illiano, the central characters can be
seen as existing on three different Theosophical levels of consciousness.
108
All’uscita (At the Exit), defined by Pirandello as a “mistero profano” (“profane mystery”), was
first published in “Nuova Anthologie” in 1916, and the flowing year it was included in the volume of
novelle, E domani, lunedì … (And tomorrow, Monday…). See “I morti ritornano nel mondo in veste di
apparenze: All’uscita” (Miro d’Ajeta, Barbara de Il seme, il germoglio e il fiore 59).
147
Illiano argues that Pirandello’s apparenze suffer from an existential crisis that he
terms the Tantalus syndrome; they are suspended in a purgatorial condition between two
planes, having died to their physical selves, but they are not yet free to advance to the
next sub plane. According to Illiano, the apparenze can be read as existing on three
varying levels of Theosophical consciousness. Existing on the manas, or mental plane,
the Philosopher demonstrates the exasperated need to reason and enlighten others with
his philosophical knowledge. The Fat Man, residing in the kama state, or emotional
plane, is unaware of his condition and cannot resolve to move from the bench where he
has been sitting for many days. The character of the Murdered Woman, the wife of the
Fat Man, may be interpreted as one of the depraved dwellers or spooks of the Kamaloca,
and the Little Boy with the Pomegranate represents the life force, or the vital principle of
prana (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 348). As described earlier in this chapter, the
time each character spends on the astral plane is proportional to the strength of their
cravings and passions. This accounts for the accelerated progession of the Boy with the
Pomegranate. The boy only desires to eat his pomegranate, and he vanishes soon after.
He is still young and innocent—not yet burdened by cravings and illusions.
In the beginning of the play, the Philosopher explains to the Fat Man that in order
to progress from this dimension he must let go of his regrets, which according to the
Philosopher are all illusions anyway. The Fat Man bemoans that his regrets are real but
The Philosopher explains that he could not enjoy his beautiful garden while he was alive
because his consciousness was too entangled in the pettiness of his thoughts, such as his
disappointment over his wife’s taking of a lover. Unwilling to detach from his earthly
passions, the Fat Man continues to protest that his reality really was reality and not an
148
illusion. The Philosopher, with the aim of exposing the deceit of the Fat Man’s illusion,
elucidates man’s pattern of needing to create for himself a reality to house all his empty
ideas and sentiments. The Philosopher urges him to understand that the affair his wife
had with another man could not have had the same reality for her that it had for him,
since her betrayal caused her pleasure and him pain. The Philosopher reveals that the
source of his suffering was the vain illusion that his wife belonged solely to him. The
Philosopher counsels the Fat Man to let go of the shadow of illusion that he is clinging to
so that he can continue his spiritual evolution. At this point, the Fat Man’s wife arrives
after having been murdered by her lover who, on his own, realized that the perceived joy
of having her all to himself was truly an illusion.
The guidance of the Philosopher leads those on the astral plane to closely examine
their lives. Illiano writes of the characters’ “exasperated need for self-analysis”:
In an atmosphere of heightened emotionalism, the “appearances” tend to
evoke and confess their troubles with keen and compelling voices. This
exasperated need for self-analysis is the direct result of their search for
either evasion or self-realization, a sort of subliminal anxiety and
uncertainty that ties them to their former human condition. The habit of
indulging in piecemeal, choked-up, and often self-deprecating confession
is not merely a matter of technique; already in such an early play as
All’uscita, Pirandello’s major characters are conceived and portrayed as
locked in and consumed by a deep-seated feeling of their own existential
incompleteness. (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 348)
The apparenze are poised to either accept that they have lived in a created reality and
advance spiritually, or they can deny it and remain in the lower plane of the astral
world. The torment of the Tantalus syndrome is allievated when the apparenze come to
terms with their self-deception. As soon as the Fat Man accepts the Philosopher’s
reality/illusion theory, he vanished—leaving only his cane behind. This process is clearly
evidenced by the brief appearance of the Little Boy, who having very few earthly desires
149
and egoic attachments, disappears first. After the Murdered Woman’s emotional
encounter with the Boy with the Pomegranate and the little peasant girl, she experiences
empathy and, having been granted redemption, she vanishes as well. The Philosopher is
the only apparenze that has not vanished at the end of the story.
It is crucial to mention that the Philosopher does not continue to the next phase of
his spiritual pilgrimage, but is a fixture in the Kamaloca—albeit as a spiritual guide. In
her book Characters and Authors in Luigi Pirandello, Ann Caesar writes of All’uscita,
“It is the character of the Philosopher who, trapped at this point of transition and fearing
that he will never pass through the gates to the world beyond, will be the founding father
of Pirandello’s stage raisonneurs” (Caesar 168). At the end of the play, while finally
alone and free to express his emotional state, he says, “Ho paura ch’io solo resterò
sempre qua, seguitando a ragionare” [“I’m afraid I alone will always remain here, still
reasoning …”] (Maschere nude 10: 20; William Murrary, trans. Pirandello’s One-Act
Plays 188). I agree with Illiano’s analysis that Pirandello’s conceptual treatment of his
characters as suspended “at the exit,” and their placement in the existential limbo of the
Kamaloka, provoke the diagnosis of the Tantalus syndrome. If, according to Illiano’s
theory, the syndrome is mitigated through the spiritual evolution to the next phase, what
conclusion can one draw about the character of the Philosopher, who remains bound to
reason while the other inhabitants migrate to a higher plane? This internment of the
Philosopher evokes questions as to Pirandello’s own position regarding the role of the
philosopher in society. Caesar comments on the Pirandellian philosopher, “All his key
male characters— the philosophers, the raisonneurs who speak for the human
condition— speak as outsiders. It is not a condition they have been born into, but one that
150
by accident or design they have acquired. This often means that they are geographically
and physically set apart” (Ann Caesar 165). This marginalization is crucial for Mattia
Pascal and Vitangelo Moscarda to assess their predicament and elucidate the truth (as
will be examined in the following chapters). Similarly, the Philosopher must remain
isolated as the thinking principle, amongst the other apparenze, in order to continue to
enlighten the confounded dwellers and help guide them on their spiritual journey.
Building upon Illiano’s work, I argue that Pirandello’s character of the
Philosopher is the true embodiment of Tantalus as he is endlessly yearning to
communicate what he considers to be the truth, and can never abandon his duty as a
rational intellectual and advance spiritually. In All’uscita it is the Philosopher who is
punished most severely in the end; like Tantalus in the water, condemned to a lifetime of
futile attempts to taste the fruit that dangles above him, the Philosopher is obliged to
spend his life proselytizing and defending his philosophies. Pirandello’s philosopher does
not have the choice to abandon this fundamental role, as he would never consider his own
philosophy to be an illusory attachment that perhaps he too has created to house his vain
sentiments. I argue that Pirandello is, perhaps, the ultimate philosopher and therefore the
greatest sufferer of the Tantalus syndrome, as he clearly experienced a ceaseless yearning
that vacillated from his mind to his characters in a lifelong cycle.
151
Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore
Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore can be seen as both the breaking point
within Pirandello’s dramatic production, and as his first attempt to explore
the narrow boundaries between fiction and reality in general and on the
stage in particular. […] In this play, Pirandello explores the impossibility
of identifying a single source of discourse in an unambiguous instance of
signification of a text. Here, one finds and explicit conflict between the
author’s subjective stance and the fable that each Character believes to be
objective, so that in Sei personaggi, more than in the other texts of the
trilogy, ‘the battle of signatures explodes.’ This unresolved conflict
extends also to the supposed objectivity of the written text and the
subjectivity of author, actors, Characters, and spectators, a conflict which
never finds a true resolution in the prevailing Pirandellian text. The
absence of a dominant point of view leaves the Characters a prey to their
conflicts. (Donato Santeramo 42)
Bearing resemblance to the protagonists, Dr. Scoto and Dr. Fileno, of the short
stories “Personaggi” and “La tragedia d’un personaggio,” the six characters serve
Pirandello’s aesthetic purpose: to create art that represents the spontaneity and vitality of
life. There is a discernible evolution, however, from Pirandello’s presentation and
representation of the two doctors to the six characters. The most glaring is the transition
from the novella to the stage. Interestingly, Pirandello originally conceived Sei
personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Characters in Searchof an Author) as a novel, as
detailed in a letter to his son, Stefano.109 It is entirely plausible that his decision to write
the theatrical piece came upon Pirandello organically as his characters began to appear
before him, acting out their own drama. Pirandello writes in the Preface in 1925:
Posso soltanto dire che, senza sapere d’averli punto cercati, mi trovai
davanti, viva da poterli toccare, vivi da poterli toccare, vivi a poterne udire
perfino il respiro, quei sei personaggi che ora si vedono sulla scena. E
109
Pirandello writes of this very type of novelistic experience when describing the independence
of his characters during the scripting process of Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (Six Characters in Search
of an Author): “Il bello è questo, che hanno lasciato me e si sono messi a rappresentare tra loro le scene,
cosí come dovrebbero essere. Me lo rappresentano davanti, ma come se io non potessi in alcun modo
impedirlo” [“The nice thing is this, that they have left me and they perform the scenes among themselves,
as they should be. They represent it in front of me, but as if I could not in any way prevent it”] (Spsv 1257).
152
attendevano, lí presenti, ciascuno col suo tormento segreto e tutti uniti
dalla nascita e dal viluppo delle vicende reciproche, ch’io li facessi entrare
nel mondo dell’arte, componendo delle loro persone, delle loro passione e
dei loro casi un romanzo, un dramma o almeno una novella. Nati vivi,
volevano vivere. (Maschere nude 1: 36)
I can only say that, without having made any effort to seek them out, I
found before me, alive—you could touch them and even hear them
breathe—the six characters now seen on the stage. And they stayed there
in my presence, each with his secret torment and all bound together by the
one common origin and mutual entanglement of their affairs, while I had
them enter the world of art, constructing from their persons, their passions,
and their adventures a novel, a drama, or at least a story. Born alive, they
wished to live. (Trans. Eric Bentley 364)
The second appreciable shift from the earlier works is that, as implied
immediately by the title, the characters are represented as searching for an author whereas
the search for an author ended for both Dr. Scoto and Dr. Fileno as soon as they were
initially rejected in the author’s study. The character of Father explains in the play that
their author did not finish writing their story so they are, therefore, “rejected” characters.
Like Dr. Fileno, the Father says:
Nel senso, veda, che l’autore che ci creò, vivi, non volle poi, o non poté
materialmente, metterci al mondo dell’arte. E fu un vero delitto, signore,
perché chi ha la ventura di nascere personaggio vivo, può ridersi anche
della morte. Non muore più! Morrà l’uomo, lo scrittore, strumento della
creazione; la creatura non muore piú! E per vivere eterna non ha neanche
bisogno di straordinarie doti o di compiere prodigi. Chi era Sancho
Panza? Chi era don Abbondio? Eppure vivono eterni, perché—vivi
germi—ebbero la ventura di trovare una matrice feconda, una fantasia che
li seppe allevare e nutrire, far vivere per l’eternità! (Maschere nude 1: 59)
In the sense, that is, that the author who created us alive no longer wished,
or was no longer able, materially to put us into a work of art. And this was
a real crime, sir; because he who has had the luck to be born a character
can laugh even at death. He cannot die. The man, the writer, the
instrument of the creation will die, but his creation does not die. And to
live forever, it does not need to have extraordinary gifts or to be able to
work wonders. Who was Sancho Panza? Who was Don Abbondio? Yet
they live eternally because—live germs as they were—they had the
153
fortune to find a fecundating matrix, a fantasy which could raise and
nourish them: make them live for ever! (Trans. Bentley 218)
The Father never reveals, however, that he and his family went before the author and
asked to him to put them in a work of art. Only later in the added Preface, does Pirandello
explain that these six, like Scoto and Fileno, were also escorted to him by his
maidservant, Fantasy. Antonio Illiano writes in “Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of
an Author: A Comedy in the Making”:
It all started one day when Fantasy, the “maidservant” of Pirandello's art,
inexplicably gave birth to six characters. It is not hard to accept this basic
fact. These figures, however, have a very peculiar birth defect--one not
readily seen. They are deprived of the consciousness of their true
paternity: they know they are characters, they know they are rejected
characters, they believe they were create and then deserted by some
author, but they are completely unaware of the most crucial truth of all,
namely, that their blood is truly Pirandellian. Once deprived of their
identity, it is easy for the author to have them do whatever he likes. So he
has them knock at his door and persistently beg him to write them down,
in a play or novel. Not a chance. For a while he argues he has to find
meaning for them, a meaning that would justify their artistic existence.
Till finally, he has another spark of genius: Why not represent them just as
they are, as rejected and unfinished: This may well be their meaning! So
he grants them a fake passport, so to speak, and makes them believe that
they are free to go and search for their promised land. So the six fools
walk onto a stage, eager and desperate to achieve what they don't realize is
unattainable, that is, what has a priori been decreed as such by their
creator. On that stage, which the author has purposefully chosen for them,
because it is totally unprepared to receive them, they come to face with a
most exasperating failure. But this is not all. Not by any means. Where is
the author, while both actors and characters engage in a dialogue or cross
purposes? Hiding and unseen, the author is watching all of them perform,
and writing down his own play: The Six Characters in Search of an
Author. It turns out that the poor stooges, while trying to enact their own
suffering drama, have been used for a completely different purpose, one
they do not and cannot suspect. (Illiano “Pirandello’s Six Characters in
Search of an Author” 6-7).
Like the apparenze in All’uscita, the six characters are not given names, as were Fileno
and Scoto, but are known only by their familial roles. There is a distinct move away from
154
the storyline of the author listening to Dr. Scoto’s and Dr. Fileno’s calculated
philosophical appeals for why they should become immortal characters, and a
concentrated move toward the enlivened and spontaneous element of the family. The
author scornfully rejected the professional men—mocking Scoto for his foolish interest in
Theosophy and dismissing Fileno for his lanternosophy. Pirandello perhaps refuses the
doctors plea for immortality because of their insistence on dogmatic philosophies as the
answer to human suffering. Both men were educated and offered persuasive arguments
but unlike the six characters, Pirandello does not even grant them the opportunity to be
realized as “rejected.”
In the Preface to Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore, Pirandello explains that
because he could not find meaning or value in the story of the six characters, he
concluded there was no use in making them live. He writes, “I thought to myself: ‘I have
already afflicted my readers with hundred and hundreds of stories. Why should I afflict
them now by narrating the sad entanglements of these six unfortunates?” Pirandello then
says that he tried to put the characters away from him but, he explains, “Creatures of my
spirit, these six were already living a life which was their own and not mine any more, a
life which it was not in my power any more to deny them” (Eric Bentley, ed. Naked
Masks 365, Preface to Six Characters in Search of an Author). As discussed in the
“Personaggi” section, Pirandello’s testimony of his characters’ detachment echoes the
Theosophical supposition of the thought that takes on a form of its own and becomes
autonomous from its creator, as explained in Thought-Forms (1901) by Annie Besant and
C.W. Leadbeater. This most adequately describes Pirandello’s own description of his
unconscious artistic method of character creation. Pirandello writes of this very type of
155
novelistic experience when describing the independence of his characters—first while he
was trying to ignore them, and then again during the scripting of Sei personaggi in cerca
d’autore. Pirandello explains the process of his thoughts becoming independent form and
his highlights his enlightening moment of reconciliation:
Thus it is that while I persisted in desiring to drive them out of my spirit,
they, as if completely detached from every narrative support, characters
from a novel miraculously emerging from the pages of the book that
contained them, went on living on their own, choosing certain moments of
the day to reappear before me in the solitude of my study and coming—
now one, now the other, now two together—to tempt me, to propose that I
present or describe this scene or that, to explain the effects that could be
secured with them, the new interest which a certain unusual situation
could provide, and so forth. For a moment I let myself be won over. And
this condescension of mine, thus letting myself go for a while, was
enough, because they drew from it a new increment of life, a greater
degree of clarity and addition, consequently a greater degree of persuasive
power over me. And thus as it became gradually harder and harder for me
to go back and free myself from them, it became easier and easier for them
to come back and tempt me. At a certain point I actually became obsessed
with them. Until, all of a sudden, a way out of the difficulty flashed upon
me. “Why not,” I said to myself, “present this highly strange fact of an
author who refuses to let some of his characters live though they have
been born in his fantasy, and the fact that these characters, having by now
life in their veins, do not resign themselves to remaining excluded from
the world of art? They are detached from me; live on their own; have
acquired voice and movement; have by themselves—in this struggle for
existence that they have had to wage with me—become dramatic
characters, characters that can move and talk on their own initiative;
already see themselves as such; have learned to defend themselves against
me; will even know how to defend themselves against others. And so let
them go where dramatic characters do go to have life: on a stage. And let
us see what will happen.” That’s what I did. And, naturally, the result was
what it had to be: a mixture of tragic and comic, fantastic and realistic, in a
humorous situation that was quite new and infinitely complex, a drama
which is conveyed by means of the characters, who carry it within them
and suffer it, a drama, breathing, speaking, self-propelled, which seeks at
all costs to find the means of its own presentation; and the comedy of the
vain attempt at an improvised realization of the drama on stage. First, the
surprise of the poor actors in a theatrical company rehearsing a play by
day on a bare stage (no scenery, no flats). Surprise and incredulity at the
sight of the six characters announcing themselves as such in search of an
author. Then, immediately afterwards, through that sudden fainting fit of
156
the Mother veiled in black, their instinctive interest in the drama of which
they catch a glimpse in her and in the other members of the strange family,
an obscure, ambiguous drama, coming about so unexpectedly on a stage
that is empty and unprepared to receive it. And gradually the growth of
this interest to the bursting forth of the contrasting passions of Father, of
Step-Daughter, of Son, of that poor Mother, passions seeking, as I said, to
overwhelm each other with a tragic, lacerating fury. (Trans. Bentley 365366)110
Pirandello then explains that though the six characters appear to exist according to
varying levels of realization, which he unconsciously intuited as the way to create them,
“they are all six at the same point of artistic realization and on the same level of reality,
which is the fantastic level of the whole play”] (Trans. Bentley 367).111 Antonio Illiano
interprets the levels of existence experienced by the six characters and Madame Pace as
110
See Maschere nude 1: 37-38.
Pirandello explains the creation of his characters in the Preface: “Non tutti e sei i personaggi
stanno in apparenza sullo stesso piano di formazione, ma non perché vi siano fra essi figure di primo o
secondo piano, cioè “protagonisti” e “macchiette”—che allora sarebbe elementare prospettiva, necessaria a
ogni architettura scenica o narrativa—e non perché non siano tutti, per quello che servono, compiutamente
formati. Sono, tutti e sei, allo stesso punto di realizzazione artistica, e tutti e sei, sullo stesso piano di realtà,
che e il fantastico della commedia. Se non che il Padre, la Figliastra e anche il Figlio sono realizzati come
spirito; come natura è la madre; ma come “presenze” il Giovinotto che guarda e compie un gesto e la
Bambina del tutto inerte. Questo fatto crea fra essi una prospettiva di nuovo genere. Incosciamente avevo
avuto l’impressione che mi bisognasse farli apparire alcuni piú realizzati (artisticamente), altri meno, altri
appena appena raffigurati come elementi d’un fatto da narrare e rappresentare: i piú vivi, i piú
compiutamente creati, il Padre e la Figliastra, che vengono naturalmente piú avanti e guidano e si trascino
appreso il peso quasi morto degli altri: uno, il Figlio, riluttante; l’altro, la Madre, come una vittima
rassegnata, tra quelle due creaturine che quasi non hanno alcuna consistenza se non appena nella loro
apparenza e che han bisogno di essere condotte per mano” [“If the six characters don’t all seem to exist on
the same plane, it is not because some are figures of first rank and others of the second, that is, some are
main characters and others minor ones—the elementary perspective necessary to all scenic or narrative
art—nor is it that any are not completely created—for their purpose. They are all six at the same point of
artistic realization and on the same level of reality, which is the fantastic level of the whole play. Except
that the Father, the Step-Daughter, and also the Son are realized as mind; the Mother as nature; the Boy as a
presence watching and performing a gesture and the Baby unaware of it all. This fact creates among them a
perspective of a new sort. Unconsciously I had had the impression that some of them needed to he fully
realized (artistically speaking), others less so, and others merely sketched in as elements in a narrative or
presentational sequence: the most alive, the most completely created, are the Father and the Step-Daughter
who naturally stand out more and lead the way, dragging themselves along beside the almost dead weight
of the others—first, the Son, holding back; second, the Mother, like a victim resigned to her fate, between
the two children who have hardly any substance beyond their appearance and who need to be led by the
hand”] (Maschere nude 1: 39; Trans. Bentley Naked Masks 367)
111
157
corresponding to the Theosophical levels of consciousness. Illiano delineates the
characters according to their Theosophical levels:
The Six Characters, constantly yearning for the stage of completion and
purification, also live on three different theosophical levels of
consciousness: the two children are purely physical existence; the mother
and son exist on a purely emotional level; the stepdaughter and father are
at different stages of development between the emotional and the mental
planes. Accordingly, in the end of their tearful performance, they will
separate. The gunshot will signal the end of the bourgeois plot and their
violent return to different regions of the artistic limbo of the unrealized,
the limbo from which they will be magnetically attracted to the door of
any idle author or to any real or potential stage. The two children will
presumably return to their state of unconscious innocence; the
stepdaughter, leaving the stage with the shrieking laughter of a completed
but still unfulfilled vengeance, will presumably sink close to the sorriest
unredeemed; the father, mother and son are left as a group, on a stage
lighted in green and blue, perhaps sharing a mystical hope for redemption
through religious experience. To still another level, that of pure instinct,
belongs the seventh character, the spook of Madame Pace, the grotesque
portrayal of a sense of peace and harmony that will never be realized, for
it is not sought in earnest. Her flashy dress and vulgar behavior are in tune
with her hybrid jargon, which is not merely the trademark of her
international and intercultural profession but the true indicator and
measure of her lack of perception and moral conscience: she is a character
so grossly vulgar as to shock even the actors. (Illiano “Pirandello and
Theosophy” 349)
As Pirandello explained, the different levels of the characters’ realization serve to
emphasize the enlivened element of the Father and the Step-Daughter, who are motivated
by their passionate need to express their story. Illiano concludes:
The pathetic apparitions or ghosts of All’uscita have naturally developed
into full-fledged theatrical creations. Each character identifies with an
emotion while all of them actualize a new concept which they all
recognize as the essence of their being: the fulfillment of artistic
autonomy. The phantoms have shed all traces of their theosophical genesis
and finally attained the new and original Pirandellian status of artistic
concepts, true, alive and permanent. (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy”
350)
158
Though throughout his career Pirandello becomes more cognizant of his modus operandi,
upon reflection of his work, he himself seems awed by the miraculous way he
unconsciously intuited the way to resolve the inevitable problem of trying to represent the
realized but rejected characters. Pirandello writes that Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore
was conceived in a spontaneous illumination of fantasy that was made possible when all
elements of the spirit functioned together in divine agreement. In the preface Pirandello
states:
Il fatto è che la commedia fu veramente concepita in un’illuminazione
spontanea della fantasia, quando, per prodigio, tutti gli elementi dello
spirito si rispondono e lavorano in un divano accordo. Nessun cervello
umano, lavorandoci a freddo, per quanto ci si fosse travagliato, sarebbe
mai riuscito a penetrare e a poter soddisfare tutte le necessità della sua
forma. (Maschere nude 1: 39)
The fact is that the play was really conceived in one of those spontaneous
illuminations of the fantasy when by a miracle all the elements of the mind
answer to each other’s call and work in divine accord. No human brain,
working “in the cold,” however stirred up it might be, could ever have
succeeded in penetrating far enough, could ever have been in a position to
satisfy all the exigencies of the play’s form.112
The modality of the drama, therefore, is the perfect arena for Pirandello to present
characters that have been created and rejected by an author yet are still longing for life.
112
See Maschere nude 1: 39. The translation continues: “Therefore the reasons which I will give to
clarify the values of the play must not be thought of as intentions that I conceived beforehand when I
prepared myself for the job and which I now undertake to defend, but only as discoveries which I have
been able to make afterwards in tranquillity. I wanted to present six characters seeking an author. Their
play does not manage to get presented—precisely because the author whom they seek is missing. Instead is
presented the comedy of their vain attempt with all that it contains of tragedy by virtue of the fact that the
six characters have been rejected. But can one present a character while rejecting him? Obviously, to
present him one needs, on the contrary, to receive him into one's fantasy before one can express him. And I
have actually accepted and realized the six characters: I have, however, accepted and realized them as
rejected: in search of another author. What have I rejected of them? Not themselves, obviously, but their
drama, which doubtless is what interests them above all but which did not interest me—for the reasons
already indicated. Every creature of fantasy and art, in order to exist, must have his drama, that is, a drama
in which he may be a character and for which he is a character. This drama is the character’s raison d’être,
his vital function, necessary for his existence. In these six, then, I have accepted the “being” without the
reason for being” (Bentley, trans. 368).
159
The physicality of such characters on the stage, enhanced by their exasperated need to
find an author, offers the audience an actual representation of Pirandello’s
conceptualization of the conflict between life and form—what the critic Adriano Tilgher
called “the life-form formula.” Anthony Caputi writes:
Certainly the life-form formula is quintessentially theatrical. Flux, tension,
change: these are the conditions of life, or as Pirandello put it more
precisely in the letter to Silvio D’Amico, of the movement that is in
eternal conflict with form within life. Forms are what we need to bring
clarity and a semblance of stability to the welter of experience. They are
the roles we play and the masks we assume and then put aside: they are
the social games of courtship and marriage and duty that bring meaning to
the enveloping mystery. The struggle between form and movement is at
the heart of the idea that experience is fundamentally theatrical. (Caputi
108)
It is understandable why this play was not initially well received by the public or the
critics—as its brilliance is deeply rooted in a lifetime of conceptualizations and artistic
experimentations. The drama on stage is the characters’ drama—they were not written for
the audience and so they do not perform as such. Anne Paolucci writes of the inherent
dramatic paradox of Sei personaggi:
Like the great heroes of classical tragedy, they are doomed to an
inexorable moral compulsion to assert themselves in the one single thrust
which is the fullness of their being; but their commitment lacks the
awesome confidence of insight into necessity. They cannot explain; they
can only narrate and act out the key moment that has shaped them. They
come onstage masked; but this too is a paradox, for they are the most alive
and, in spite of their straining for precise and unambiguous terms, the most
articulate characters on the stage. In them the entire spectrum of emotional
life and the painful dialectic which it demands for expression is put forth
as the key meaning. And yet, Pirandello will not let us forget, they
embody a dramatic paradox too—for, although we may be tempted to look
upon them as “real” in the same way way that so many of us regard
Shakespeare’s Hamlet as a “real” person, they, no less than Hamlet, are
characters playing a part in a provocative and exciting play. Onstage, real
actors must play the roles and convince us that they are nevertheless roles
beyond the v=capabilities of “mere” actors! […] Those characters who
invade the stage are non an interruption, obviously, but the heart of the
160
matter. The paradox they contain is extended, through Pirandello’s
ingenious use of stage conventions, into the larger paradox of the artistic
“illusion” attempted by the actors and, beyond that, to the ultimate
confrontation with the audience. (Paolucci 46)
While the characters’ own stories are entertaining, such as the encounter between the
Step-Daughter and her Step-Father at the bordello, the vignettes are never given the space
to be completely re-enacted for the Manager and cast of actors, as well as for the actual
audience. An audience expecting a typical night of entertainment at the theater would
most likely have been disappointed by Pirandello’s modern theartrical experiment.
The chaotic intersection of the six characters and the actors, the Father’s need to
explain one side and the Manager’s insistence of the other, the dramatic lights, the
shocking deaths of the children, and the lack of a conclusive ending, all contribute to the
tension of the drama. Pirandello explains in the Preface:
And here is the universal meaning at first vainly sought in the six
characters, now that, going on stage of their own accord, they succeed in
finding it within themselves in the excitement of the desperate struggle
which each wages against the other and all wage against the Manager and
the actors, who do not understand them. Without wanting to, without
knowing it, in the strife of their bedevilled souls, each of them, defending
himself against the accusations of the others, expresses as his own living
passion and torment the passion and torment which for so many years
have been the pangs of my spirit: the deceit of mutual understanding
irremediably founded on the empty abstraction of the words, the multiple
personality of everyone corresponding to the possibilities of being to be
found in each of us, and finally the inherent tragic conflict between life
(which is always moving and changing) and form (which fixes it,
immutable). (Trans. Bentley 367)
The tension that arises indicates Pirandello’s successful representation of the conflict
between the natural movement of life and the human demands for form. As conferred by
Anthony Caputi: “Altogether, the dramatic action that Pirandello has devised here is his
most masterful embodiment of his vision of life as theater” (Caputi 118).
161
CHAPTER THREE
A CURSE ON COPERNICUS!
IL FU MATTIA PASCAL
Reincarnation, Karma & the Tantalus Syndrome
“Oh perché gli uomini,” domandavo a me stesso, smaniosamente, “si
affanano così a rendere man mano più complicato il congegno della loro
vita? Perché tutto questo sdordimento di machine? E che farà l’uomo quando
le machine faranno tutto? Si accorgerà allora che il così detto progresso non
ha nulla a che fare con la felicità? Di tutte le invenzioni, con cui la scienza
crede onestamente d’arrichire l’umanità (e la impoverisce, perché costano
tanto care), che gioja in fondo proviamo noi, anche ammirandole?” […]
La scienza ha l’illusione di render più facile e più comoda l’esistenza! Ma,
anch ammettendo che la renda veramente più facile, con tutte le sue machine
così difficili e complicate, domando io: “E qual peggior servizio a chi sia
condannato a una briga vana, che rendergliela facile e quasi meccanica?”113
-Mattia Pascal
The novel Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (1904), is in essence, the
tormented Mattia Pascal’s personal memoir detailing his journey for psychological
realization and spiritual formation. Pirandello represents the psychological crisis of the
protagonist, Mattia Pascal, and via the first-person narration, offers the reader a
privileged view of Pascal’s labored quest to understand, and ultimately heal, his
fragmented conscience and spiritual sickness. In an effort to remove the barrier that
113
From the ninth chapter of Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal), “Un po’ di nebbia” (“A
Bit of Fog”), when Pascal, feeling lost in the jostling crowds in Rome, questions the progress of industry
and science required of and perpetuated by the modern city (Tr 1: 429-430). Translation: “Oh why”… I
asked myself desperately…” does mankind toil so to make the apparatus of its living more and more
complicated? Why this clatter of machines? And what will man do when machines do everything for him?
Will he then realize that what is called progress has nothing to do with happiness? Even if we admire all the
inventions that science sincerely believes will enrich our lives (instead they make it poorer because the
price is so high), what joy do they bring us after all?” […] Science has the illusion that it is making our
existence easier and more comfortable. But even admitting that it’s easier, with all these difficult,
complicated machines, I still ask: what worse turn could they do a man condemned to futile activity than to
make it easy and almost mechanical for him? (Weaver, trans. 108)
162
conceals the individual’s interior thoughts and shields his soul from the scrutiny of the
public, just as the Naturalists removed the fourth wall and opened private domestic affairs
to public view, Pirandello penetrates the depths of Mattia Pascal’s consciousness and
illustrates his search for existential completeness. In addition to his personal interest in
the potential cathartic experience in telling one’s own story, as urged by Don Eligio, the
“late” Mattia Pascal’s re-telling of his unique story of self-analysis and soul-searching
allows for the public exposure of the inner-workings of the psyche and soul of a typical
male at the turn of the century. Going beyond the ‘modern’ removal of the internal,
psychological wall, however, Pirandello scripts this narration of the novel so that Mattia
Pascal, forced to tell his strange story from start to finish, might come to discover the
illusory walls of fiction that he had constructed by and within himself. I agree with
scholar M. John Stella’s claim that Il fu Mattia Pascal must be read through a Buddhist
lens, given the undeniable similarities between Buddhism and Pirandello’s exploration
and representation of self-identity and suffering.114 The metaphorical deaths and the
staging of Pascal in the after-life represent the pressing need to typical to Buddhist
thought to “kill” the false self within so that the soul and spirit can be reborn. Stella
writes:
What could be a more “serious purpose” than this: the total re-formation
of one’s life, of one’s character? Mattia is determined to take advantage of
his rare opportunity, to start anew with the proverbial clean slate. And in
this new identity he will take charge of his destiny, in absolute freedom,
setting out for new lands, unencumbered by the errors of the past; he alone
will be the artificer of his “self.” Significantly, the very first thing he does
is to choose a new name for himself—Adriano Meis—which he compiles
from a conversation he overhears on the train. It very much indeed
resembles a new “incarnation” for him, with the exhilaration that
114
M. John Stella explains the Buddhist term for suffering: “For our purposes, we may say that for
the first time he is compelled to confront the pervasive element of dukkha, or suffering in existence” (See
Stella ‘Self and Suicide in Pirandello”).
163
accompanies every new birth: the possibilities seem endless, and thus his
resolution to live not only a more pleasurable existence, but also a better
one, seems quite feasible. This time, it will be different. (Stella “Self and
suicide in Pirandello”)
The novel makes clear, also in accordance with Buddhist thought, that unless there is a
willing self-surrender of the ego and one’s inner silence has been completely detached
from its personal awareness, allowing him to become conscious of the inextricable
interconnectedness of the universe, he has no choice but to return to another contrived
reality which are conceptions Pirandello appropriates from Buddhist psychology.115
Because Mattia Pascal could not relinquish his need to know himself according to a
societal standard, he was never able to surmount his ontological suspension. By decreeing
that his book should only be read after his third, and final death, Mattia Pascal ensures
that as the “late” Pascal, even though he does not quite know who he is, is leaving a
legacy: “Io non saprei proprio dire ch’io mi sia” [“I can’t really say that I’m myself. I
don’t know who I am”] (Tr 1: 578; Trans. Weaver 250).
Throughout his oeuvre, Pirandello demonstrates that man’s spiritual sickness is
the result of his attachment to false perceptions and his attempts to stop the flux of life by
creating stable and determinate forms. Pirandello believed that suffering was the result of
man’s vain desires and his strong will, volontà, that drives him to create realities—which
interrupt the flux of life by trying to fix forms; therefore, he is bound to live an
inauthentic life of illusion. In an interview in 1924, Pirandello explains his conception of
the human condition as a harsh struggle between life and form. Pirandello says:
115
In Psychotherapy without the Self: A Buddhist Perspective, Mark Epstein writes: “As
mindfulness develops the ability to discriminate successive moments of awareness, the emphasis is usually
first on noting the cuccessive arising of new mind moments. These perceptions begin to shake the
foundations of what is termed “false view,” that is, the identification of the individual with the products of
his own psyche” (Epstein 31).
164
Per molto tempo sono stato creduto un pessimista, forse perché c’era nelle
mie opere un cerebralismo antiradizionale e reattivo. Ma non ero stato
capito. La mia Arte è scevra di quel pessimismo che genera la sfiducia
nella vita. E non sono neppure un negatore, perché nell’attività di spirito
che mi tormenta e che anima le mie opere c’è un’incessante e spasmodica
volontà di ‘creare la vita’. La vera morte consiste nel creare una realtà ed
adagiarvisi indefinitamente. La vita, invece, si crea e si rinnova in ogni
momento. C’è nella mia Arte quasi la voluttà di creare il terreno sotto i
piedi ad ogni passo che viene mosso dai miei personaggi; e fra un passo e
l’altro l’abisso! Io concepisco la vicenda umana come una lotta incessante
ed aspra fra la vita e la forma. La vita è dinamica, fluida, multiforme, tesa
in un inquieto moto di continueo divenire. La forma è la stasi, il dogma;
essa è circoscritta ed immobile. La forma imprigiona la vita e l’anulla …
(Ed. Ivan Pupo 289)116
For a long time I was believed to be a pessimist, perhaps because in my
work was an antirational and reactive cerebralism. But I had not been
understood. My Art is devoid of that pessimism that generates the mistrust
in life. And I am not even a denier, because in the activity of spirit that
torments me and that motivates my work is a ceaseless and frantic will to
‘create life’. The real death is to create a reality and to make oneself
comfortable in it indefinitely. Life, instead, creates and renews itself in
every moment. There is almost sensual delight in my Art to create the
ground beneath the feet and every step that is taken by my characters; and
between one step and the other the abyss! I conceive of the human story as
a harsh and relentless struggle between life and form. Life is dynamic,
fluid, multiform, stretching in a restless motion of continuing to become.
Form is stasis, dogma; it is confined and immobile. Form imprisons life
and cancels it…
Pirandello’s philosophy mirrors that of the Buddha, as described in The
Psychological Attitude of Early Buddhist Philosophy: “[The Buddha was] a genuine ‘free
thinker’ because he not only conceded to everybody the right to think independently, but
because he kept his own mind free from theories, thus refusing to base his teaching on
mere beliefs or on dogmas. As a real thinker he tried to find an axiom, a self-evident
formulation of truth, which could be universally accepted […] [He started] with [the]
universally established principle, based on an experience that is common to all sentient
116
This interview, titled “L’Arte e il pensiero di L. Pirandello,” was published in “L’Impero” from
November 11-12, 1924 (Ivan Pupo, ed. 289).
165
beings: the fact of suffering” (Govinda 48). David Galin’s description of the Buddhist
tradition echoes Pirandello’s sentiments of life versus form:
The Buddhist tradition holds that Ordinary Man’s inborn erroneous view
of self as an enduring entity is the cause of his suffering because he tries to
hold on to that which is in constant flux and has no existence outside of
shifting concepts. Therefore, a new corrective experience of self is needed.
Buddhism takes great interest in how people experience their self, rather
than just their abstract concept of it, because Buddhist practices are
designed to lead to a new (correct) experience. It takes arduous training to
modify or overcome the natural state of experiencing the self as persisting
and unchanging. There is a great literature on the theory and practice of
the three main paths leading to a changed experience of self. One path is
via meditation trainings (changing mind processes or mind controls).
Another is via theoretical argument (changing structure concepts, the
contents of mind). The third path is social-behavioral, the life of active
service. (Ed. Wallace 109)
For Pirandello, man’s spirit, soul, and consciousness—the essence of his Being—
must be in harmony with each other as well as with other beings, people and nature, as all
things are intrinsically connected and a manifestation of this universe. The belief in the
dynamic and fluid nature of life, and the macrocosmic interconnectedness of all beings
and things, are core tenets of various schools of Eastern mysticism. In The Tao of
Physics, physicist Fritjof Capra writes:
The highest aim for their followers—whether they are Hindus, Buddhists
or Taoists—is to become aware of the unity and mutual interrelation of all
things, to transcend the notion of an isolated individual self and to identify
themselves with the ultimate reality [. . .] In the Eastern view, then, the
division of nature into separate objects is not fundamental and any such
objects have a fluid and ever-changing character. The Eastern world view
is therefore intrinsically dynamic and contains time and change as
essential features. The cosmos is seen as one inseparable reality—for ever
in motion, alive, organic; spiritual and material are the same. (Capra 24)
The Buddhist tradition’s diagnosis of and remedy for human suffering, embraced by
Schopenhauer for its attribution of will and craving as the cause, overlaps Pirandello’s
166
view of the human situation. Pirandello shares in the Buddha’s refusal of dogma and he
aims to impart, via his characters, a similar wisdom concerning man’s condition.
The novel, Il fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal) (1904), is one of Pirandello’s
most successful representations of man’s suffering due to his relentless struggle with life
and form. Mattia Pascal’s spiritual sickness is representative of such causes, and his
failure to completely overcome his sickness is indicative of the inability to fully detach
from his need for logic, reason and forms and his incapacity to immerse himself into the
flux of life. In the chapter “Il lanternino” [“The little lantern”], Pirandello writes: “Noi
abbiamo sempre vissuto e sempre vivremo con l’universo; anche ora, in questa forma
nostra, partecipiamo a tutte le manifestazioni dell’universo, ma non lo sappiamo, non lo
vediamo” [“We have always lived and always will live with the universe; Even now in
our present form, we share in all the manifestations of the universe, but we don’t know it,
we don’t see it”] (Tr 1: 488; Trans. Weaver 165). Pirandello’s use of the term
“manifestations of the universe” can be compared to the use of the word Nature, as
defined by Theosophy: “When a theosophist speaks of Nature, unless he limits the term
to the physical world, he never means the physical world alone, but the vast reaches of
Universal Kosmos and more particularly the inner realms, the causal factors of the
boundless ALL” (Purucker 114). Therefore, for Pirandello, both man and nature, in the
physical sense, are manifestations of the universe. Four years after the publication of Il fu
Mattia Pascal, Pirandello writes in “L’umorismo” that man’s crisis is due to his desperate
tries to stop or prevent the movement of life, which is constantly in flux:
La vita è un flusso continuo che noi cerchiamo d’arrestare, di fissare in
forme stabili e determinate, dentro e fuori di noi, perché noi già siamo
forme fissate, forme che si muovano in mezzo ad altre immobili, e che
però possono seguire il flusso della vita, fino a tanto che, irrigidendosi
167
man mano, il movimento, già a poco a poco rallentato, non cessi. Le
forme, in cui cerchiamo d’arrestare, di fissare in noi questo flusso
continuo, sono i concetti, sono gli ideali a cui vorremmo serbarci coerenti,
tutte le finzioni che creiamo, le condizioni, lo stato in cui tendiamo
stabilirci. Ma dentro di noi stessi, in ciò che noi chiamiamo anima, e che è
la vita in noi, il flusso continua, indistinto, sotto gli argini, oltre i limiti che
noi imponiamo, componendoci una coscienza, costruendoci una
personalità. In certi momenti tempestosi, investite dal flusso, tutte quelle
norme fittizie crollano miseramente; e anche quello che non scorre sotto
gli argini e oltre limiti, ma che si scopre a noi distinto e che noi abbiamo
con cura incanalato nei nostri affetti, nei doveri che ci siamo imposti, nelle
abitudini che ci siamo tracciate, in certi momenti di piena straripa e
sconvolge tutto.
Vi sono anime irrequiete, quasi in uno stato di fusione continue, che
sdegnano di rapprendersi, d’irrigidirsi in questo o in quella forma di
personalità. Ma anche per quelle piú quiete, che si sono adagiate in una o
in un’altra forma, la fusione è sempre possible: il flusso della vita è in
tutti. E per tutti però rappresentare talvolta una tortua, rispetto all’anima
che si muove e si fonde, il nostro stesso corpo fissato per sempre in
fattezze immutabili. (Spsv 151-52)
Life is a continual flux which we try to stop, to fix in stable and
determined forms, both inside and outside ourselves, because we are
already fixed forms, forms which move in the midst of other immobile
forms and which however can follow the flow of life until the moment,
gradually slowing and becoming more rigid, eventually ceases. The forms
in which we seek to stop, to fix in ourselves this constant flux are the
concepts, the ideals with which we would like consistently to comply, all
the fictions we create for ourselves, the conditions, the state in which we
tend to stabilize ourselves. But with in ourselves, in what we call the soul
and is the life in us, the flux continues, indistinct under the barriers and
beyond the limits we impose as a means to fashion a consciousness and a
personality for ourselves. In certain moments of turmoil all these fictitious
forms are hit by the flux and collapse miserably under the barriers and
beyond the limits—that which is distinctly clear to us and which we have
carefully channeled into our feelings, into the duties we have imposed
upon ourselves, into the habits we have marked out for ourselves—in
certain moments of floodtide, overflows and upsets everything.
There are restless souls, almost in a continuous state of fusion, who are
disdainful of becoming congealed or solidified into a particular form of
personality. But even for the most peaceful souls, who have settled into
one form or another, fusion is always possible: the flux of life is in all of
us. This is why, moreover, our bodies, forever fixed as they are in
immutable features while our souls flow and change into new forms, can
sometimes be a torture for all of us. (Trans. Illiano 137)
168
Mattia Pascal is one of these “restless souls”; he is caught between the fictions of his
consciousness and the desire to be freed from such forms. The movement of his soul, as it
flows and changes, is in conflict with his instinct to stabilize what he believes are his
“fixed” forms, ie. his personality, consciousness, habits and routines. Because he does not
have a method to reconcile the flux of his soul with the determined forms, Pascal is
tortured by this healthy need, as Pirandello sees it, to fuse his life with form. In exposing
Pascal to the teachings of Theosophy and practices of Spiritualism, Pirandello aims to
demonstrate the limited view man has of the self, as separate from other beings, and his
fixed way of, what Robert Thurman calls, “terminal living.” Thurman explains the
Buddha’s method of surpassing the limited view of self and overcoming suffering:
[Buddha] discovered and proclaimed that total freedom from suffering—
exquisite, enduring joy—is extremely possible for every sensitive being. It
is only the unenlightened, self-centered and self-constricted being who is
temporarily incapable of real happiness. Most of us have a strong yet
unwarranted sense of having a fixed, unchanging, limited ‘self’ that is
totally separate from all other beings. This combines with our narrow view
that our existence is random and terminal; it only starts when we are born
and ends abruptly when we die. Fixed and alienated, random and
terminal—together these form a vicious combination. In the end, we are
left feeling bereft and slightly depressed, living a life seeming to be utterly
devoid of meaning. I call this “terminal living.” We can free ourselves
from such a terminal existence simply by becoming aware of our
misconceptions and their impact on our way of being. Once we have
accepted the fact that we ourselves may be the main cause of our own
unhappiness, we become determined to understand the problem fully and
to solve it as soon as possible [. . .] The first step toward true contentment
lies in confronting the fundamental problem of our rigid self-sense. When
we look carefully for our “self,” we cannot find it. We discover the error
that is the cause of our problem, and we begin to grasp the concepts of
selflessness, interconnectedness to others, and infinite life. Now we can
set ourselves free to experience the full satisfaction with ourselves, others,
and our world that the Buddhists call “enlightenment” or “awakening.”
(Thurman xxii)
169
Pirandello looks to spirituality as a corrective path for his protagonists and applies
fundamental tenets of Spiritualism, Theosophy and Eastern mysticism to Il fu Mattia
Pascal as both a plot device and as a framework for the psychological and spiritual
development of the protagonist, Mattia Pascal, as he attempts to overcome his existential
crisis. Initially, it appears that Pascal’s unhappiness is conditional, due to what he calls
the “oppressione intollerabile” [“intolerable oppression”] and the “immobility” of his
existence, in describing his situation in Miragno, especially the “inferno” of his
household (Tr 1: 368, 354; Trans. Weaver 48, 36). In the first five chapters of Il fu Mattia
Pascal, Mattia Pascal conveys to the reader that he feels dissatisfied, frustrated, confined
and miserable. As described by Douglas Radcliff-Umstead: “It is disgust with a wretched
existence in a small Ligurian town that impels the novel’s protagonist, Mattia Pascal, to
create a new identity for himself” (Radcliff-Umstead 163). Throughout the novel,
however, Pirandello presents Pascal, as well as the reader, with different spiritual
philosophies in order to demonstrate Pascal’s need to move—not geographically—but
spiritually.
Pirandello’s view of suffering as controlled by the unending cycle of longing to
fix forms and create realities, followed by his imprisonment in this illusive realm of
unfulfilled desires and disappointments, is in accordance with the Buddhist notion of
suffering of bondage: “The Suffering which Buddhism is essentially concerned with is
cosmic suffering, the suffering implicit in the cosmic law which chains us to our deeds,
good as well as bad, and drives us incessantly round in a restless circle from form to
form” (Govinda 51-52). Govinda goes on to explain that the Holy Path offered by the
Buddha aims to change one’s perspective of and approach to suffering: “Suffering is no
170
longer felt as coming from outside, from a hostile world, but as coming from within. It is
no longer something foreign or accidental, but a part of one’s own self-created being”
(Govinda 52). Mattia Pascal ignorantly thinks that his suffering is due to his miserable
situation in the hostile world of Miragno and does not realize, or will not accept, that it is
coming from within his own “self-created” being.
To live an authentic life, free of all illusions, Pascal must subjugate his personal
ego117 in order to resolve the profound conflicts of his spirit, consciousness and soul.
Pirandello affects this experiment of spiritual advancement by integrating aspects of the
current trends of Spiritualism and Theosophy, both of which share the belief that the soul
continues to exist after physical death. Specifically, Pirandello allocates Theosophy’s
seven planes of existence,118 denoting the stages of spiritual evolution, and Spiritualism’s
practice of the séance, to frame Pascal’s metaphysical journey as well as to provoke him
to consider alternative theories of human existence. The systems of Spiritualism, “the
117
The word ego, from the Latin pronoun, meaning “I,” has varying definitions depending on the
context. Ego is defined by Webster’s as: “1. The “I” or self of any person; a person as thinking, feeling,
willingn and distinguishing itself from the selves of others and from objects of its thought. 2. Philosophy a.
the enduring and conscious element that knows experience. b. Scholasticism. the complete man comprising
both body and soul. 3. Psychoanalysis. The part of the psychic apparatus that experiences and reacts to the
outside world and thus mediates between the primitive drives of the id and the demands of the social and
physical environment. 4. egotism, or self-importance. 5. self-esteem or self-image; feelings (Webster’s
Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary, 456)
According to Theosophy, ego is defined as: “the consciousness in man, ‘I am I’—or the feeling of
‘I-am-ship.’ Esoteric philosophy teaches the existence of two Egos in man, the mortal or personal, and the
Higher, the Divine and the Impersonal” (Blavatsky Theosophical Glossary 111).
118
According to Theosophy, the seven planes of existence, governed each by its own laws of time,
space and motion, are defined as: (1) the physical body, or gross matter; (2) the etheric double, or astral
man; (3) prana, the life force; (4) kama, the principle of all feelings, desires, emotions and passions; (5)
manas, the universal thinking principle; (6) buddhi, the vehicle of universal spirit: and (7) atman, pure
consciousness of the Universal Selfhood beyond the individual self. The last principle is akin to the
Buddhist concept of nirvana, or the cessation of the endless cycles of personal reincarnations as a result of
the extinction of individual passion. There is also a special limbo or purgatorial dimension, called the
Kamaloca, a semi-material subdivision of the astral plane that is inhabited by ‘shells’, the astral forms of
humans and other beings. After death, as the physical body and its etheric double are left to decay, the
desire body will linger for an indefinite amount of time, wandering around until all traces of human
passions have dissolved, and the ego becomes free to reincarnate. Victims of suicide and depraved humans,
referred to as ‘spooks’, typically reside in the Kamaloca. See “Theosophy” in Shepard 2: 1694-96.
171
state or condition of the mind opposed to a material conception of thing, and Theosophy,
“a doctrine which teaches that all which exists is animated or informed by the Universal
Soul119 or Spirit,” (Blavatsky Theosophical Glossary 307), equip Pirandello with the
blueprints for the protagonist’s design and destiny. The application of the cyclical
reincarnations of Theosophy, and the notion of the mobility of the soul driven by karma,
not only allow for Pirandello to challenge the authority of traditional Judeo-Christian
religions and the positivist and materialist approach to science, but also grant him the
artistic space to propose that man, despite his religious affiliation or non-affiliation, is an
inherently spiritual as well as physical being.
The Tantalus Syndrome
In “Pirandello and Theosophy” (1977), Antonio Illiano discusses Pirandello’s
application of Theosophy’s stages of reincarnation as a model for Mattia Pascal’s
existential journey:
Pirandello has compressed the scheme of theosophical reincarnation into a
short span of human existence. This genial and ingenious application—in
addition to providing unity, structural coherence and dramatic tension for
his narrative—allows him to realize or stabilize one of the essential trends
and patterns in the psychological configuration of his fictional and
dramatic characters: what might be called the Tantalus syndrome, a chronic
condition of existential incompleteness, yearning without attaining,
ontological suspension. (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 346)
In light of Illiano’s analysis, and his appropriation of the Tantalus syndrome to describe
the typical Pirandellian protagonist in his state of ontological suspension, I contribute a
new discourse regarding Mattia Pascal’s condition at the conclusion of the novel and his
inability to achieve freedom from his suffering. While the varying levels of
119
For clarification, Théosphile Pascal writes: “We shall set up no distinction between this Soul,
which may be called the universal Soul, and the individual soul, which has often been defined as a ray, a
particle of the total Soul” (Pascal Reincarnation: A Study in Human Evolution 4).
172
Theosophical evolution serve Pirandello in staging Mattia Pascal as he moves between
his different incarnations, the non-theistic philosophy and psychology of Buddhism (one
of the many beliefs systems from whose wisdom Theosophy borrows and integrates),
provides the desperately needed rehabilitative course for the psychological as well as
spiritual evolution of his spiritually sick protagonists. In this chapter, using Illiano’s
evaluation of Theosophy and Spiritualism in Il fu Mattia Pascal as a springboard, I
delineate Pirandello’s application of methods and concepts that clearly parallel practices
and beliefs of Buddhism, the spiritual tradition based on the teachings of the Buddha, or
the “Awakened” one, and its essential doctrine, the Four Noble Truths. My analysis
reveals that the spiritual sickness, or Tantalus syndrome, suffered by Pirandello’s
protagonist, is not a fundamentally “modern” problem that requires a modern solution
but is an ancient conflict between life and form that has been approached and
documented by the major Eastern spiritual traditions. The existential crisis is a crisis of
consciousness and one gains an understanding of suffering, and finds the recourse to
freedom from this suffering, in the core tenets of Buddhism, and its concepts gleaned
from Hinduism and manifested in Theosophy, specifically: 1) maya, “the fabrication of
man’s mind of ideas derived from interior and exterior impressions, hence the illusory
aspect of man’s thoughts as he considers and tries to interpret and understand life and his
surroundings (Purucker 100); 2) Atman, “the highest part of man—Self; pure
consciousness per se (similar to anatman, the Buddhist concept of no self (Purucker 11);
3) nirvana120, defined literally as “blown out,” is “a state of utter bliss and complete,
120
To define nirvana, (literally “blowing out”), Helmuth Von Glasenapp cites the Pali Canon, the
earliest intact Buddhist doctrine: “The Pali Canon defines ‘Nirvana’ (Sanskrit), or Nibbana (Pali), as the
complete and utter dissolution of the three unwholesome roots of greed, hate, and delusion. It is said of the
tathagata that on entering Nirvana the skandhas (bundles) are completely dissolved, and are rooted out, so
173
untrammeled consciousness, a state of absorption in pure kosmic Being, and is the
wondrous destiny of those who have reached superhuman knowledge and purity and
spiritual illumination. It really is personal-individual absorption into or rather
identification with the Self—the Highest Self” (similar to the Hindu samâdhi) (Purucker
115); and 4) Brahman, “the impersonal, Supreme, and unrecognizable Soul of the
Universe, ultimate reality or Being, from the essence of which all emanates and into
which all returns; which is incorporeal, immaterial, unborn, eternal, beginning-less and
endless” (Blavatsky The Key to Theosophy 322).
The Relativity of Truth and Cosmological Displacement
Moving beyond the confines of the individual mind, Pirandello shows Pascal’s
ontological suffering is caused by an internal as well as a cosmological crisis. In the
“Second Forward” of the novel, Pascal tells Don Eligio, his colleague at the Boccamazza
library (tellingly situated in a deconsecrated church), that Copernicus, by discovering the
true order of the solar system, ruined humanity forever by making man aware of his
smallness in the cosmos—despite all his inventions and discoveries. This discovery,
opposing the earth-centered view believed by men and propagated by the Church since
the second century A.D., caused him to feel that he is less than nothing in the infinite
universe. Man’s devaluation of humanity has been a common source of personal distress
and philosophical discourse since Copernicus made his discovery:
they can never arise again. The five skandhas are: rupa, vedanam samjna, samskara and vijnana, or
respectively physical form, feeling, perception (both physical and mental), drives, and consciousness […] It
is without foundation, without beginning and without end. It is peace without movement or desire, the end
of all suffering […] It is without a substantial self (anatta), the perfect peace, a ‘nothing’ as compared with
all visible configurations. It is something that can be expressed in the negative only, for it possesses no
specific marks that language can encompass. The Pali Canon even employs the paradox that Nirvana is
‘bliss’ though there is neither a subject to enjoy it, nor the skanda vedana (feeling); the bliss of Nirvana
consists indeed in not feeling anything”) (Von Glasenapp 106).
174
Since the sixteenth century, the place of humanity in the universe has
gotten smaller. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish priest, knocked the
Earth off its pedestal as the center of the universe and discovered it was
just another planet revolving around the Sun. Ever since, the ghost of
Copernicus has continued to haunt us. If our planet wasn’t at the center of
the universe, then, our ancestors thought, the Sun must be. But along came
an American astronomer, Harlow Shapley, who discovered that our sun is
just a suburban star among the hundreds of billions of stars that make up
our galaxy. We now know that the Milky Way is only one of the hundred
billion or so galaxies in the observable universe. Humanity is just a grain
of sand on this vast cosmic beach.
This shrinking of our place in the world led to [Blaise] Pascal’s cry of
despair in the seventeenth century: “The eternal silence of endless space
terrifies me.” Pascal’s words were echoed three centuries later by the
French biologist Jacques Monod: “Man knows at last that he is alone in
the unfeeling immensity of the universe, out of which he has emerged by
chance.” And the American physicist Steven Weinberg remarked, “The
more the universe seems comprehensible, the more it also seems
pointless.” (Ricard and Thuan 38).
Mattia Pascal shares in Blaise Pascal’s and the other scientists’ pessimistic outlook. In the
“Second Forward,” Mattia Pascal repeats “his usual motto” to Don Eligio “Maledetto sia
Copernico!”[“A curse on Copernicus!”], and continues to explain his contempt:
Siamo o non siamo su un’invisibile trottolina, cui fa da ferza un fil di sole,
su un granellino di sabbia impazzito che gira e gira e gira, senza saper
perché, senza pervenir mai a destino, come se ci provasse gusto a girar
così, per farci sentire ora un po’ più di caldo, ora un po’ più di freddo, e
per farci morire—spesso con la coscienza d;aver commesso una sequela di
piccole sciocchezze—dopo cinquanta o sessanta giri? Copernico,
Copernico, don Eligio mio, ha rovinato l’umanità, irrimediabilmente.
Ormai noi tutti ci siamo a poco a poco adattati alla nuova concezione
dell’infinita nostra piccolezza, a considerarci anzi men che niete
nell’Universo, con tutte le nostre belle scoperte e invenzioni; e che valore
dunque volete che abbiamo le notizie, non dico delle nostre miserie
particolari, ma anche delle generali calamità? Storie di vermucci ormai, le
nostre. (Tr 1: 322-324)
Are we or are we not on a kind of invisible top, spun by a ray of sunshine,
on a little maddened grain of sand, which spins and spins and spins,
without knowing why, never reaching an end, as if it enjoyed spinning like
this, making us feel first a bit of heat, then a bit of cold, making us die—
often in the awareness that we have committed only a series of foolish
acts—after fifty or sixty spins? Copernicus, my dear Don Eligio,
175
Copernicus has ruined humanity forever. We have all gradually become
used to the new idea of our infinite smallness, and we even consider
ourselves less than nothing in the universe, despite all our fine discoveries
and inventions. What value can information about our private troubles
have, when even mass disasters count for nothing? Our stories are like the
biographies of worms. (Trans. Weaver 4-6)
He asks: “[…]?” He goes on to explain that we are left in the dark on the nights when,
according to the dates indicated by the city authorities, the street lamps are not lit and it is
particularly cloudy. In accordance with the “anthropic principle,” Pascal says:
Il che vuol dire, in fondo, che noi anche ogi crediamo che la luna non stia
per altro nel cielo, che per farci lume di notte, come il sole del giorno, e le
stelle per offrirci un magnifico spettacolo. Sicuro. E dimentichiamo spesso
e volontieri di essere infinitesimali per ripettarci e ammirarci a vicenda, e
siamo capaci di azzuffarci per un pezzettino di terra o di dolerci di certe
cose, che, ove, fossimo veramente compenatrati di quello che siamo,
dovrebbero parerci miserie incalcolabili. (Tr 1: 324).
This means that basically even today we believe that the moon is in the
sky only to give us light at night, like the sun in the daytime, and the stars
are there to afford us a magnificent display. Naturally. And we often
gladly forget that we are infinitesimal atoms; instead we respect and
admire one another and are even capable of fighting for a scrap of land or
of grieving over certain things which, if we were really aware of what we
are, would seem incalculably trivial. (Trans. Weaver 6)
Reality for Pirandello, in the truest sense of the word, reveals itself when one
discards their constructed and fictitious determinations and realizes that there is no
separation between man’s vitality and the totality of the cosmos. The problem for Pascal,
as the reader learns early on in the novel, is that he agrees with Don Eligio’s observation
that, “per quanti sforzi facciamo nel crudele intento di strappare, di distruggere le
illusioni che la provvida natura ci aveva create a fin di bene, non ci riusciamo” [“no
matter how hard we try to uproot and cruelly destroy the illusions that Nature has
generously provided for our own good, we never succeed”] (Tr 1: 324; Trans. Weaver 6).
176
Radcliff-Umstead comments on Pascal’s argument of the relativity of truth and
cosmological displacement:
Early in the novel, during one of his many polemical discussions with Don
Eligio, the protagonist asserts the temporal relativity of truth. Mattia
declares that truth is not absolute and unchanging but is modified
according to attitudes prevailing at a specific time in history […]
The protagonist is truly not so ignorant as to deny the new realities of
Copernican astronomy, but he would like to possess the serenity and the
feeling of self-importance that he encounters in ignorant peasants who
unquestionably hold on to the Ptolemaic system. For Mattia man’s
recognition of his own worth is at the most illusory if it is not founded on
a cosmology that places human affairs at the center of the world.
(Radcliff-Umstead 190).
This paradox is indeed difficult to surmount and that is why the humorist is
needed. As Pirandello explains in “L’umorismo,” reflection and intuition are the
necessary tools for the humorist so that he can disassemble the superficial situation and
reveal the feeling of the opposite.121 Because so many men believe in the web of
illusions, the humorist must penetrate the truth for them. Man’s curse, according to
Pirandello, is that we are able to watch ourselves live—as opposed to things in nature,
such as the tree which just lives without feeling itself live, just like the rain, wind, air, etc.
Because logic abstracts ideas from emotions and attempts to fix what is fluid and
changeable, Pirandello argues that the main problem with logic is that it, “tends to give
an absolute value to what is relative, and thus it aggravates an ill which is already serious
in itself since the prime root of our ills consists precisely in this feeling that we have of
121
Pirandello explains in “L’umorismo”: Man does not have an absolute idea or conception of life,
but rather a feeling that changes and varies depending on the times, the circumstances and luck. Now logic,
by abstracting ideas from emotions, tends precisely to fix what is changeable and fluid. It tends to give an
absolute value to what is relative, and thus it aggravates an ill which is already serious in itself since the
prime root of our ills consists precisely in this feeling we have of life. The tree lives and does not feel itself
alive; from its standpoint, the earth, the sun, the air, the light, the wind, and the rain are not things it differs
from. Man, instead, is given at birth the sad privilege of feeling himself alive, with the fine illusion that
results from it: that of taking this inner feeling, changeable and varying, as something that really exists
outside of himself” (Illiano, trans. 140). See Spsv 154-155.
177
life” (Trans. Illiano 140). Thus, man becomes convinced that the “relative truth” is the
“absolute truth,” and not the opposite. This false belief system naturally causes suffering
but man, easily distracted (as Don Eligio attests), and a victim of the comfort of the status
quo, is not conscious of or does not know how to get out of this darkness, the abyss, the
void, the labyrinth, the shadow, as Pirandello so frequently describes this state.
The Quest for Freedom from Suffering
The novel offers a privileged view of Pascal’s inner conflict as he attempts to
liberate himself from the oppression of his wife, his mother-in-law, his job and his
financial responsibilities as a husband and father. Burdened with debt and saddened by
the recent deaths of both his mother and baby, Pascal decides to leave his home in
Miragno and “escape from the depression that was stifling, crushing [him]” (Trans.
Weaver 52).122 After a lucky winning streak at the roulette table in a Monte Carlo casino,
Mattia Pascal is debating whether or not he should return home, and be forced to turn his
winnings over to his creditors, when he reads in the newspaper that a body was
discovered in the waters of a millrace near his home in Miragno. He is shocked to learn
that his wife has positively identified the body as his own, and that the death was
concluded to be a suicide—the result of financial pressure. Considering this mistaken
identity a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for liberation from his misery, Pascal decides
not to return home but to embrace the freedom of a new life, a life that is free from the
122
In Chapter VI: “Tac tac tac…” (“Click click click…”), Mattia Pascal decides not to return to
Miragno and says: “Che avrebbe potuto capitarmi di peggio, alla fin fine, di ciò che avevo sofferto e
soffrivo a casa mia? Sarei andato incontro, sì, ad altre catene, ma più gravi di quella che già stavo per
strapparmi dal piede non mi sarebbero certo sembrate. E poi avrei veduto altri paesi, altri genti, altra vita, e
mi sarei sottratto almeno all’oppresione che mi soffocava e mi schiacciava” [“After all, could anything
worse befall me than what I had suffered and was still suffering at home? No doubt, I was only heading for
new chains, but surely they wouldn’t seem heavier than the ones I had just ripped from my ankles. And in
addition, I would see other countries, other peoples, another life, and I would at least escape from the
depression that was stifling, crushing me”] (Tr 1: 372; Weaver, trans. 52)
178
stifling factors of his past. Disembarking the Miragno-bound train Pascal says, “Il salto
che spiccai dal vagone mi salvò […] intravidi in un baleno…ma sì! La mia liberazione la
libertà una vita nuova! Avevo con me ottantaduemila lire, e non avrei più dovuto darle a
nessuno! Ero morto, ero morto: non avevo più debiti, non aveva più moglie, non avevo
più suocera: nessuno! libero! libero! libero! Che cercavo di più?” [“My leap from the
train saved me […] In a flash I glimpsed . . . of course! My liberation, the freedom of a
new life! I had eighty-two thousand lire with me, and now I wouldn’t have to give the
money to anyone! I was dead, dead! I had no debts now, no wife, no mother-in-law.
Nobody! Free! Free! What more could I ask for?”] (Tr 1: 396; Trans. Weaver 75). M.
John Stella writes of Pascal’s decision to take advantage of this unforeseen opportunity
for the “total re-formation” of his life:
Up to the point where Mattia flees Miragno, we may say there has
been no real “action” in the novel; like many, during his youth, he
accomplishes little, without foreseeing the consequences of his ways.
Suddenly, life intervenes with its ennui and suffering, he looks back with
regret, and rather than go ‘on and on like that until he dies,’ he absconds to
Monte Carlo. At first his action is precipitated solely by the desire to
escape the domestic hell of life with Romilda and her mother; hence, after
he is blessed by a run of good luck at the casino he entertains the notion of
returning home. But his plans take on far greater dimensions after
astounding news reaches him in Chapter VII. While on the train, Mattia
buys a newspaper and reads an account of his own death: a body found in
a millrace had been identified as his own.
After he recovers from the initial shock, it occurs to him that since
everyone he knows believes him to be dead, he does not have to return
home to resume his previous life. Instead, he can start an utterly different
one. Thus, he can continue his pilgrimage, not just in better circumstances,
but as a completely new man. What could be a more “serious purpose”
than this: the total re-formation of one’s life, of one’s character? Mattia is
determined to take advantage of his rare opportunity, to start anew with
the proverbial clean slate. And in this new identity he will take charge of
his destiny, in absolute freedom, setting out for new lands, unencumbered
by the errors of the past; he alone will be the artificer of his “self.”
Significantly, the very first thing he does is to choose a new name for
himself—Adriano Meis—which he compiles from a conversation he
179
overhears on the train. It very much indeed resembles a new “incarnation”
for him, with the exhilaration that accompanies every new birth: the
possibilities seem endless, and thus his resolution to live not only a more
pleasurable existence, but also a better one, seems quite feasible. This
time, it will be different. (M. John Stella “Self and Suicide in Pirandello)
Pascal considers the implications and risks of his newly acquired freedom, but he is
immediately gripped by a sense of paranoia and displacement. In this moment of
uncertainty, post-Pascal’s first “death,” Pirandello commences to associate his
ontological displacement with the unknown territory of the afterlife. Pascal explains his
new ghost-like sensation:
Avevo da pensare a tante cose; pure, di tratto in tratto, la violenta
impressione ricevuta alla lettura di quella notizia che mi riguardava così
da vicino mi si ridestava in quella nera, ignota solitudine, e mi sentivo,
allora, per un attimo, nel vuoto […] mi sentivo paurosamente sciolto dalla
vita, superstite di me stesso, sperduto, in attesa di vivere oltre la morte,
senza intravedere ancora in quell modo.
I had many things to ponder, and yet the violent reaction I had felt at the
news so closely concerning me now revived in me the same black,
unfamiliar loneliness; and for a moment I felt myself plunged into the void
again […] I seemed frighteningly cut off from life, my own survivor, lost
now, waiting to live beyond death, but still unable to glimpse the way
ahead. (Trans. Weaver 77)
He calms his nerves by focusing his thoughts toward choosing a name for himself,
though finding it is a difficult task. After reading his official obituary in the newspaper,
Pascal heaves a sigh of relief and resigns to begin his new life, and “mi posi a far di me
un altr’uomo” [“make a new man of himself”] but clarifies, “non tanto per ingannare gli
altri, che avevano voluto ingannasri da sé, con una leggerezza non deplorabile forse nel
caso mio, ma certamente non degna d’encomio, quanto per obbedire alla Fortuna e
soddisfare a un mio proprio bisogno” [“not so much to deceive the others, who had
chosen to deceive themselves with a carelessness perhaps not deplorable in my case, but
180
certainly not praiseworthy. No, this next step was taken rather to obey Fortune and to
fulfill my own personal need”] (Tr 1: 404; Trans. Weaver, 83). Pascal is quick to point
out other people’s need to deceive themselves, but at this point, believing that he is
following the dictates of Fortune, he is still far from realizing his own vain need for selfdeception.
Nervous and excited to be reborn, Pascal wants to remove every trace of his
former self. He shaves his beard, changes his hairstyle, and dons glasses to hide his
wandering eye. Pascal overhears a conversation on the train between two men talking
about Christian iconography and a statue of the Emperor Hadrian, one of which keeps
repeating the name Hadrian. When the other man retorts something about Camillo de
Meis123, Pascal’s new name comes to him and he is reincarnated as Adriano Meis:
“Adriano Meis! Benone! M’hanno battezzato” [“Adriano Meis! Excellent! They’ve
baptized me”] (Tr 1: 408; Trans. Weaver 87). Clearly naïve to the fact that his joyous
“rebirth” as Meis is temporary, as he will again fall prey to the cycle of craving, Pascal
celebrates his happiness and the renewal of his soul, spirit and consciousness. He says:
Recisa di netto ogni memoria in me della vita precedente, fermato l’animo
all deliberazione di ricominciare da quel punto una nuova vita, io ero
invaso e sollevato come da una fresca letizia infantile; mi sentivo come
rifatta vergine e trasparente la coscienza, e lo spirito vigile e pronto a trar
profitto di tutto per la costruzione nel mio nuovo io. Intanto l’anima mi
tumultuava nella gioja di quella nuova libertà […] Oh levità deliziosa
dell’anima; serena, ineffabile ebbrezza! […] Sorridevo. Mi veniva di
sorridere così di tutto e a ogni cosa. (Tr 1: 409)
Now that I had cut off any memory of my previous existence, now that my
spirit was firmly determined to begin a new life from this point, I was
filled and uplifted by a fresh, infantile happiness. My consciousness
seemed to have become a virgin, transparent again, and my spirit was
alert, ready to use everything to the best advantage in the construction of
123
Angelo Camillo De Meis (1817-1891), author of Dopo la laurea (1868) was a patriot,
philosopher and political Italian. (See Illiano Metapsichica 12)
181
my new self. At the same time my soul was running riot, in the joy of this
new freedom […] Oh, that delicious light heartedness! Serene,
indescribable bliss! […] I smiled. I had a way of smiling at everything
now. (Trans. Weaver 87)
With the turn of the page, however, everything turns black for Pascal when he
notices his wedding band. He is reminded that, though he has left home and changed his
name and appearance, his past will always remain. He stops himself from throwing the
ring out of the window of the train, because now his situation obliged him to believe
anything possible [“tutto ormai dovevo creder possible”], his mind allowed him to
consider the potential repercussions of his actions; a peasant could find the ring and trace
it back to him (Tr 1: 410). Discarding this last vestige of his former self, however, does
not relieve him of his irritating reflections that plunge him into the past. He is again able
to distract himself away from his negative thoughts by creating a back-story for Adriano
Meis. This “costruzione fantastica d’una vita” [“imaginative construction of a life”] (Tr
1: 413; Trans. Weaver 92), Pirandello’s metaphor for the illusory fiction that man creates
and the inauthentic life this causes him to live, thrusts Pascal (as Meis) into reality, yet
forces him to remain apart.
In a state somewhere between the “strange joy” of independence and boundless
freedom and a “certain sadness” of being a “walking invention” without roots [“una gioja
strana e nuova, non priva d’una certa mestizia” [Tr 1: 413), Pascal wanders listlessly
through Europe, witnessing the lives of others and trying to create one for himself. When
he is able to remain in the present moment, however, he experiences the sudden
happiness of his boundless freedom that uplifts his whole spirit: “Ma io volevo vivere
anche per me, nel presente. M’assaliva di tratto in tratto l’idea di quella mia libertà
sconfinata, unica, e provavo una felicità improvvisa, così forte, che quasi mi ci smarrivo
182
in un beato stupore; me la sentivo entrar nel petto con un respiro lunghissimo e largo, che
mi sollevava tutto lo spirito” [“But I also wanted to live for myself, in the present. From
time to time I would be gripped by the thought of this unique, boundless freedom of mine
and I would feel a sudden happiness, so strong I was almost lost in a blissful daze; I felt
freedom fill my chest with a long, broad breath which uplifted my whole spirit”] (Tr 1:
415; Trans. Weaver 93). Radcliff-Umstead writes:
During a few moments, especially at the ebullient time of his first flight,
Adriano Meis does experience intimations of a higher life beyond the
barriers of routine social relationships, but he never fully appreciates the
possibility of a genuine spiritual liberation. One evening at dusk, when he
was traveling through Turin, he came closest to going beyond the false
self of the Other as he watched the play of the dying daylight on the
waters of the Po. [. . .] In the evanescent flux of sensations that moved
across the stream of flickering impressions on the river’s surface, Adriano
Meis almost ceased to be a fictitious reality. At one moment it seemed that
he might succeed in piercing that armor plate with which the “ego” shields
the true “I,” through identification with the identification with the image
of the Other. There is no complete breakthrough in Pirandello’s third
novel, and it is not until his final novel, Uno, nessuno e centomila, that the
repressed “I” displaces the Other on the mirror of identification. (RadcliffUmstead 191-192)124
But it is not long before his mystical moment fades and he begins to feel the isolation of a
foreigner—alienated even from himself, having undertaken a new identity and
experiencing the “painful precariousness that keeps the traveler’s spirit in a state of
suspense” (Weaver 1995 100). The initial crisis that Pascal experienced when he felt
trapped at home is compounded as he faces the reality that, as Adriano Meis, he is
marginalized from society and extremely lonely. Radcliff-Umstead describes Meis:
124
In the passage I am quoting, Radcliff-Umstead condenses a quotation from Il fu Mattia Pascal.
I am providing the full quotation here: “Ah, I remember the sunset in Turin, in the first months of that new
life, near the bridge over the Po where a dam checks the rush of the water and makes it churn there angrily.
The air was marvelously transparent; everything in the shadows seemed enameled in that transparence; and
I, while I stood there looking on, I felt so intoxicated with my freedom that I feared I would go mad”
(Weaver, trans. 94).
183
“Unable to soar beyond his conventional being, the protagonist gradually recognized the
narrow bounds of his social prison” (Radcliff-Umstead 192). Longing for company,
Pascal sadly discovers he is unable to do or own anything that requires proof of
identification, even purchase a dog off the street. Walking away from the puppy, he
thinks for the first time that his boundless freedom was “no doubt beautiful but that it was
also something of a tyrant” (Weaver 1995 97). The problem for Mattia Pascal is that he is
ignorant of the cycle of craving that causes suffering. M. John Stella explains the
Buddhist view, which is curiously similar to the Schopenhauer’s philosophy of craving:
The reasons are deeply imbedded in the very nature of identity, of
“being” itself. According to Buddhism, chief among them is ta*h", which
is normally translated as “hunger” or “craving”; but much of the time the
craving is so subtle that we are often unaware of it. ta*h", we may recall,
has three distinct aspects to it: k"mata*h", the desire for pleasure and
comfort; bhavata*h", the desire to be, to continue personal existence; and
vibhavata*h", the desire for “unbeing”, the undoing of present
circumstances. […]
According to paticcasamupp"da, being and death are inextricably
linked to craving: they are all conascent. The formula runs as follows:
“With ignorance, [there arise] the determinations, with determinations,
consciousness; with consciousness, the senses; with the senses, contact;
with contact, feeling; with feeling, craving; with craving, grasping,
[“holding onto experience”]; with grasping, being; with being, birth; with
birth, aging-and-death, sorrow-lamentation-suffering-grief-and despair
come into being.” […] Usually we understand craving in only one of its
aspects, as k"mata*h" or the desire for pleasure. This desire includes not
just the erotic, but also those of freedom, comfort, excitement and so on
which Adriano mentions at the beginning of Chapter VIII.
For the Buddhist, then, pleasure is pleasure, and desire is desire—
wanting a beautiful woman is not substantially different from wanting a
beautiful panorama or some other sensual pleasure considered “more
refined.” The drive of k"mata*h" is so latent in us that it is extremely
difficult to perceive, let alone abandon, and it becomes even more subtle
when it operates in conjunction with the other two aspects of ta*h". For
craving is the very foundation of existence, as Schopenhauer contends:
“Therefore what is always to be found in every animal consciousness … in
fact what is always its foundation, is the immediate awareness of a
longing, and of its alternate satisfaction and non-satisfaction … Thus we
know that the animal wills, and indeed what it wills, namely existence,
184
well-being, life, and propagation.” Thus whenever there is k"mata*h", the
craving for sensual pleasures, there are also bhavata*h" and
vibhavata*h", or craving for being and also craving for “unbeing” (we
hasten to say that the latter is not necessarily a death-wish). That is, when
we crave pleasure, we also crave the continuance of att", or our
(imagined) “self” in a pleasant state.
The gratification of a sensation or experience reinforces desire and
consequently the ego-conceit, as the “I” tries to hold on to the pleasurable
as long as possible. In the process of “grasping” there is … [a]
“projection” of desire … whereby the split in experience widens into a
definite gap between a subject and an object. “Becoming” or “existence”
is the make-believe attempt to bridge this gap, which, however, remains
forever unbridged, for the material on which it relies is perpetually
crumbling underneath. Yet it somehow props up the concept of an ego—
the conceit “I am” (asmim"na) … The ego now finds itself “born” into a
world of likes and dislikes, subject to decay-and-death, sorrow,
lamentation, pain, grief and despair. (Stella “Self and Suicide in
Pirandello”)
Therefore, Mattia Pascal—if he truly wants to find lasting happiness and bliss
(nirvana)—he cannot look to the external world for objects to gratify him or for a
scapegoat to place blame. He must reflect internally to gain awareness of the cycle of
craving (ta*h") and suffering (dukkha), and overcome his imagined self (att") in order to
find liberation from the actual oppressor, the ego (asmim"na).
In the ninth chapter, “Un po’ di nebbia” (“A Bit of Fog”), Pirandello returns to the
metaphor of the fog as an indication of Pascal’s hazy uncertainty as Adriano Meis. In a
restaurant, Pascal meets the “ingegnoso” [“ingenious”] Cavalier Tito Lenzi, and it is his
open conversation concerning the tendencies of “la coscienza” (“consciousness”) that
liberates Pascal from recent bout of depression (Tr 1: 419; Trans. Weaver 102). Lenzi
explains the relativism of one’s consciousness and its insufficiency to serve as a personal
guide because of all the inclinations of others that become reflected in our own individual
conscience. Unable to confide his secret in this stranger, Pascal returns to his hotel room
and, because he could not converse with others, he began to talk to a canary. Imitating
185
bird sounds, the canary welcomed the communication; he excitedly began to flit about his
cage, and then would grow quiet, waiting for a response. Pascal was moved by the
interaction with the bird though he admits that he did not know what he had
communicated to him. Pascal says:
Ebbene, a pensarci, non avviene anche a noi uomini qualcosa di simile?
Non crediamo anche noi che la natura ci parli? E non ci sembra di cogliere
un senso nelle sue voci misteriose, una risposta, secondo i noi desiderii,
alle affannose domande che la rivolgiamo? E intanto la natura, nella sua
infinita grandezza, non ha forse il più lontano sentore si noi e della nostra
vana illusione. (Tr 1: 430)
And yet, when you think about it, doesn’t something similar happen
among us humans? Don’t we also believe that nature speaks to us? And
don’t we think we find a meaning in her mysterious voices, an answer—
according to our desires—to the anxious questions that we ask her? And
nature, in her infinite greatness, perhaps hasn’t the faintest idea of us and
our vain illusions. (Trans. Weaver 109)
Caught between logic and nature, Pascal fears that spending so much time alone with his
thoughts is turning him into philosopher. Here is an early glimpse of the interaction with
nature that Pirandello will emphasize in Uno, nessuno, e centomila. Vitangelo Moscarda,
having relinquished all need for logic and reason, will immerse himself into the flow of
nature, but Pascal, anxiously questioning, dismisses such musings and continues to live
as though he were separate from nature. Desperate for revivification, decides that it is
time to start living: “Io, insomma, dovevo vivere, vivere, vivere!” [“In short: I had to live,
live, live!” (Tr 1: 431; Trans. Weaver 109).
186
Buddhist Psychology
Continuing with our discussion in the previous section, Mattia Pascal clearly
wants “to live.” Unfortunately he will not attain authentic existence because he craves a
life that is motivated by the perception of his ego. M. John Stella comments:
After a period of relative freedom, represented by peregrinations
throughout Europe and the absence of relationships and attachments, he is
bored with it all, and wants to end his existence as a ‘foreigner to life’.
Therefore, he ceases his travels and settles in Rome. But this “rebirth”
leads him to establish a new persona and to involve himself in a new set of
“karmic entanglement”, which, despite his best intentions, necessarily
incurs sorrow and death. Thus the irony at the end of Chapter IX, which
concludes with the asseveration ‘In sum, I had to live, live, live.’ (Stella
“Self and Suicide in Pirandello”)
In The Psychological Attitude of Early Buddhist Philosophy, Lama Govinda explains the
source of mental disharmony, which Pascal clearly exhibits, called avijja, or ‘Self’delusion, and its influence on the individual:
Under the influence [of] avijja everything will be valued from the
egocentric standpoint of desire (tanha). According to the preconceived
idea of a permanent ego-entity there arises longing for a lasting world with
lasting pleasures, and as such a one cannot be found, the result is
disappointment, suffering, despair. The sankharas, or mental tendencies
which are conditioned by the illusion of self-hood (‘Ego’-ism) produce a
consciousness (vinnana) and a psycho-physical organism (nama-rupa)
which uses its senses (salayatana) as instruments of craving (tanha). As
far as this craving is satisfied it results in clinging (udhana) to the objects
of satisfaction. As far as it is not satisfied it results in an intensified
longing (lobha) for such objects and in aversion (patigha, dosa) against
the obstacles on the way towards its fufillment. […] It is on account of our
clinging to these forms of life that again and again we produce them. This
is the law of Karma, namely the law of action. It is our will, our ardent
desire which creates the world in which we live, and the organism which
corresponds to it. (Govinda 54)
Buddhism, as well as Theosophy, postulates that the law of karma accounts for an
individual’s will, desires, creations, and suffering or joy. The dictates of karma are
removable, however, the individual must be willing to change profoundly his egocentric
187
perception of himself and the world around him. Govinda explains, “If this world were
an absolute, static world and if this our life would remain the same for ever, there would
be no possibility of liberation. It is therefore not the ‘world’ or its transitoriness which is
the cause of suffering but our attitude towards it, our clinging to it, our thirst, our
ignorance” (Govinda 55). In order to change one’s karma and overcome suffering, the
result of individual desire in conflict with the laws of existence, the Buddha devised the
Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path in order to help people revaluate themselves
and change their desires by reorienting their self-perception and learning to alter states of
consciousness. It is therefore required of Mattia Pascal, if he genuinely wants to be free
from suffering, that he must change much more than his external surroundings and his
physical appearance and name. To achieve freedom from his suffering, Pascal must
redirect the law of karma by gaining a new awareness of the world—starting first with
his relationship to his own being. To truly change his emotional unhappiness he must
overcome the mental tendencies and obstacles of the ego-self and learn to quell his
desires and longings.
Mattia Pascal’s existential crisis, like many other Westerners, is due to the
conflict between the “anthropic principle,” espoused by Western cosmologists and
Buddhism’s notion of “relative truth” versus the “absolute truth.” The “anthropic
principle,” from the Greek anthropos, meaning “person,” is the argument put forth by
cosmologists that: “the universe was so finely tuned in order to allow it to produce life,
consciousness, and finally an intelligent observer capable of appreciating its beauty and
harmony […] According to this view, humanity has gained pride of place in the world
once more—not at the center of the universe, but by being the very reason the universe
188
was designed as it is” (Ricard and Thuan 41).125 Relative and absolute truth, according to
Buddhism, are explained as such:
Buddhism considers that phenomenon aren’t really “born,” in the sense
that they pass from nonexistence into existence. They exist only in terms
of what we call “relative truth,” and have no actual reality. Relative, or
conventional, truth comes from our experience of the world, from the
usual way in which we perceive it—that is, by supposing that things exist
objectively. Buddhism says that such perceptions are deceptive.
Ultimately, phenomena have no intrinsic existence. This is the “absolute
truth.” […] In terms of absolute truth, there is no creation, no duration,
and no end. This paradox is a good illustration of the illusory nature of the
world of phenomena. It can reveal itself in an infinite number of ways
because its final reality is emptiness. In terms of the relative truth of
appearances, we say that the conditioned world, called samsara, is
“without beginning” because each state must have been caused by the
previous one. (Ricard and Thuan 29)
The hindrance for Mattia Pascal in his quest for freedom from suffering is that he
continues to believe in and attach to the “relative truth”; he is incapable of sustaining
inner peace because he cannot separate his emotional states from objects and people. He
has to convince himself that he is fortunate to be free the life he abandoned—his wife, his
mother-in-law, his debts, and the “humiliations of his first life.”126 Though “free” of all
the negative aspects of his former life, Pascal does not know who he is as a person with
out their presence. Pascal, though perhaps unaware, is granted the opportunity to hone his
intuition and develop his true self. Unencumbered by external obstacles, he is poised for a
spiritual transformation, as according to the Buddhist theory of non-ego (anatta), “man
must undergo a conversion, a breakthrough or awakening, in order to become his true self
and gain access to what is authentically real” (Dumoulin 82). The teachings of Buddhism
125
This idea can also be discussed in terms of Post-Human Thought. See Lechte (332-364) for
further information regarding Posthumanism.
126
Mattia Pascal says “La mia fortuna—doveva convincermene—la mia fortuna consisteva
appunto in questo: nell’essermi liberato della moglie, della suocera, dei debiti, delle afflizioni umilianti
della mia prima vita. Ora, ero libero del tutto. Non mi bastava?” (Tr 1: 422).
189
induce man to, “break through the categories of logical thinking” (Dumoulin 18); but
Pascal, easily influenced, is confronted with a contrary opinion when he meets Cavalier
Tito Lenzi who tells him that an individual’s consciousness alone is an insufficient guide
that depends on external ideas.127 It is not until Pascal meets Anselmo Paleari in Rome
that he is exposed to unconventional spiritual practices and mysticism. Whether or not
Pascal fully breaks through his own barriers, the reader shares the experience of the
protagonist as he realizes the complexity of the consciousness, spirit and soul and
witnesses the disconnect between man and his true being. A.L. Castris eloquently
describes this new breed of Pirandellian protagonist:
Pirandello’s man, who has acquired the responsibility of a new
dimension, i.e., of a consciousness mirroring and dramatizing himself,
forced as he is from now on to experience the crisis personally, replaces
the choral testimonial of the first Pirandellian “crowd.”
The different fictional perspective is rendered by style, by the
humorous detatchment which renews the narrative’s tone and structure. A
deep decoloration of the milieu, to purge it of earlier violent and distorting
traits which imbued its figures and outlines with grimness, takes place
here, in the new novel, through direct narration. Now consciousness sees
itself live and confesses itself, and at the outset claims its wants to reduce
the proportion of drama, as befits a perspective shaped by awareness of
the petty scope of the human adventure [. . .]
Thus, in the petty-bourgeois milieu of a Roman boarding house, that
sense of an elusive something, of a life worn out in an ambiguous silence,
stylistically signals the occasional nature of situations and persons vis-àvis the subtle, inward and atomistic process of consciousness.(Ed. Glauco
Cambon 92)
Integrating aspects of mysticism and religion, Western as well as Eastern, Pirandello
illustrates the exigency of gaining spiritual awareness and detaching from all so-called
“realities,” or “relative truths”—created by science, philosophical systems or the
individual himself—essentially creations stemming from, and insisted upon, by the
skewed perceptions of man’s mind.
127
See also Pirandello’s L’esclusa (1901) and Caputi’s The Crisis of Modern Consciousness 26.
190
Theosophy
Theosophy, maintaining the Hindu and Buddhist beliefs in karma, reincarnation
and spiritual purification, as well as offering its own theories of the personality and the
ego, provided Pirandello with ample ideas for the staging of Pascal’s two metaphorical
“deaths” and subsequent rebirths. Pirandello appropriates the Theosophical processes of
metempsychosis, the passing of the soul at death into another soul through the course of
evolutionary peregrinations, and reincarnation128, the belief that all centers of
consciousness will incarnate by passing through different mental purifications and planes
of existence, until the spiritual evolution is completed, to script Pascal in his varying
psychological states—ranging from acute hyperconsciousness of and attachment to his
personal crisis (astral plane), to an intellectual search for understanding (manas) to a
peaceful awareness (buddhi) (Purucker 105, 142). Theosophy’s astral plane, the stage
immediately following physical death, at times called the “realm of illusion” (Leadbeater
8), serves as a perfect holding place for Pascal on his journey. Pirandello parallels the
astral plane, and its purgatorial subdivision, the Kamaloca, with Mattia Pascal’s limbolike condition after his mistaken suicide and during his transformation to Adriano Meis.
Pirandello applies the tenets of reincarnation, controlled by karma, to Mattia Pascal’s
reincarnation as Adriano Meis, and subsequent reicarnation as the “late” Mattia Pascal.
Theosophy’s untraditional system of evolution offers Pirandello a forum for
experimenting with the ontological crisis of his protagonist. Illiano highlights the role of
karma:
128
As discussed in Chapter Two of this dissertation, Plato most likely learned of reincarnation and
transmigration from Pythagoras —who, it is assumed, gained access to these beliefs in his travels to India.
Transmigration and reincarnation are core tenets of Theosophy so it quite plausible that these beliefs were
passed from Plato to Plotinus and the Neo-Platonists and early Theosophists.
191
Nell’ambito della complessa visione teosofica la monade umana,
microcosmo dell’universo creato come manifestazione dell’assoluto, non
si evolve secondo un sistema tradizionale di retribuzione emesse o
legittimate da esseri, entità o istituti trascendenti. La morale teosofica
postula invece che ogni uomo subisca le conseguenze delle proprie azioni.
La legge che regola il progresso etico e spirituale è il principio della
causalità, karma, la norma inflessible secondo cui ognuno raccoglie ciò
che ha seminato. L’ignoranza induce a definire accidentali gli eventi le cui
cause non sono ovvie, mentre l’esperienza insegna che ogni pensiero e
ogni azione costituisce un anello che lega il passato al futuro in un
ininterrotto e insolubile rapporto di causa-effetto. È, naturalmente, nel
comportamento umano che tale rapporto si esplica in tutta la sua varia e
complessa casistica. Quale particella del creato l’uomo deve ubbidire alle
leggi che regolano la vita dell’universo. Quale microcosmo indipendente,
compreso di senso vitale e di tutte le facoltà volitive e intellettive, egli può
– se ha chiara cognizione delle funzioni delle legge karmica e chiara
coscenza del proprio io – darsi un destino, crearsi e ricrearsi, e persino
trascendere il rapporto antitetico tra forze deterministiche e libero arbitrio,
tra fortuna e volontà, tra l’imprevedibile e ciò che è presumibile e quindi
anche realizzabile: può cioè impegnarsi in un esercizio esistenziale che
comporta notevoli rischi e che richiede, oltre ad eccezionali doti di
spregiudicatezza e presenza di spirito, ingegno non commune e salda
fiducia nelle proprie forze. (Illiano Metapsichica 30)
Within the complex theosophical view the human monad, the created
microcosm of the universe as a manifestation of the absolute, does not
evolve according to a traditional system of payment issued or
legitimatized by beings, entities or transcendent institutions. The
Theosophical moral postulates instead that every man submits to the
consequences of their own actions. The law governing the ethical and
spiritual progress is the principle of causality, karma, the unyielding law
according to which each reaps what he has sown. Ignorance leads to
define accidentally events whose causes are not obvious, but experience
teaches that every thought and every action forms a ring that links the past
to the future in an uninterrupted and insoluble relationship of cause-effect.
It is, naturally, in human behavior that such a relationship expresses itself
in all of its various and complex surveys. That God’s particle, man, must
obey the laws that govern the life of the universe. Such an independent
microcosm, comprised of vital sense and all intellectual and volitional
faculties, he can – if he has a clear understanding of the functions of the
karmic laws and clear consciousness of the self – give himself a destiny, to
create and recreate himself, and even transcend the antithetical
relationship between deterministic forces and free will, between luck and
will, between the unpredictable and what is expected and therefore also
feasible: he can, that is, engage in an existential exercise that imposes
serious risks and that requires, in addition to exceptional qualities of
192
ruthlessness and presence of mind, unique intelligence and firm
confidence in its strength.
Pascal’s perspective of distance from his own story, and his need to find the appropriate
language to explain the gamut of his psychological and spiritual states, adds to the
original crisis of representing man’s inner thoughts. To overcome this added layer of
crisis, Pirandello transforms Mattia Pascal, the character, into an open book—not only for
the reader’s entertainment, but to allow Pascal the opportunity to analyze his past
thoughts and to uncover and contemplate facets of his consciousness that he did not
recognize, or could not access, during the real-time span of his story. The notion of
karma and the Theosophical planes of existence, demonstrating the varying degrees of
the soul’s maturity dependent one’s personal actions, become a pedagogical tool for
Pirandello to show the consequences and negative effects of living falsely, according to
constructed illusions. Pirandello aims to enact a new way of thinking about the norms of
society, and expresses the need for man to reflect on his consciousness—lest his
ignorance continue to follow the same course of action with the same negative outcomes.
As stated by Radcliff-Umstead: “Pirandello’s novel Il fu Mattia Pascal (1904) is
generally regarded as the ‘point of arrival’ where the author for the first time fully
worked out the tragic dichotomy between an individual’s longing for complete freedom
and the forms of life which society imposes upon him” (Radcliff-Umstead “Pirandello
and the Puppet World” 16).
In the original 1904 version of Il fu Mattia Pascal,129 in the chapter called
129
The first version of Il fu Mattia Pascal was issued in segments between April 16 and June 16,
1904, in the “Nuova Antologia” (a magazine of science, letters, and art) in Rome. This version was later
modified and published in 1910 by Fratelli Treves, and issued again by the same publishing house in 1918,
which is considered the definitive version. In 1921, an edition of Il fu Mattia Pascal, which included the
addition of the preface and the “Avvertenza sugli scrupoli della fantasia” at the end, was published by
193
“Maturazione” (“Maturation” or “Ripening”), the “late Mattia Pascal” recalls a certain
passage that he says he will paraphrase. Pascal summarizes for the reader the passage
regarding the “plastic essence” from Theosophist Charles W. Leadbeater’s book, The
Astral Plane.130 In the beginning of the chapter, Pascal offers the reader a modified
version of Leadbeater’s text from the section titled “Artificial,” in which the third type of
inhabitants on the astral plane are described:131
Ho letto testé in un libro che i pensieri e i desiderii nostri s’incorporano in
un’essenza plastica, nel mondo invisibile che ne circonda, e tosto
Bemporad in Florence. This version from 1921 was reproduced by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore in Luigi
Pirandello: Tutti i romanzi (1973) (Tr 1: 1001). I use the A. Mondadori (1973) reproduction of Il fu Mattia
Pascal in this dissertation.
130
Though Pirandello does not cite the name of the book nor the author, the passage is clearly
taken from The Astral Plane (1896) by Charles Webster Leadbeater. Pirandello had the French translation,
Le plan astral (1899), of Leadbeater’s The Astral Plane in his personal library (Barbina 153).
Pirandello reproduces the same passage of the “plastic essence” (not paraphrased but verbatim) two years
later in the novella, “Personaggi” (“Characters”). The passage is read by Dr. Scoto who claims that “in it he
has found a fundamental truth.”
131
In The Astral Plane, Leadbeater writes in Section III. Artificial (from Chapter III. Inhabitants):
“I have explained that the elemental essence which surrounds us on every side is in all its numberless
varieties singularly susceptible to the influence of human thought. The action of the mere casual wandering
thought upon it, causing it to burst into a cloud of rapidly moving, evanescent forms has been described; we
have now to note how it is affected when the human mind formulates a definite, purposeful thought or
wish. The effect produced is of the most striking nature. The thought seizes upon the plastic essence, and
moulds it instantly into a living being of appropriate form– a being which when once thus created is in no
way under the control of its creator, but lives out a life of its own, the length of which is proportionate to
the intensity of the thought or wish which called it into existence. Most people’s thoughts are so fleeting
and indecisive that the elementals created by them last only a few minutes or a few hours, but an oftenrepeated thought or an earnest wish will form an elemental whose existence may extend to many days.
Since the ordinary man’s thoughts refer largely to himself, the elementals which they form remain hovering
about him, and constantly tend to provoke such repetitions, instead of forming new elementals, strengthen
that already in existence, and give it a fresh lease of life. A man, therefore, who frequently dwells upon one
wish often forms for himself an astral attendant which, constantly fed by fresh thought, may haunt him for
years, ever gaining more and more strength and influence over him; and it will easily be seen that if the
desire be evil the effect upon his moral nature may be of a disastrous character. […] If the wish be merely
indefinite, for his general good, the elemental essence in its wonderful plasticity will respond exactly to that
less distinct idea also, and the creature formed will expend its force in the direction of whatever action for
the man's advantage comes most readily to hand. In all cases the amount of such force which it has to
expend, and the length of time that it will live to expend it, depend entirely upon the strength of the original
wish or thought which gave it birth; though it must be remembered that it can be, as it were, fed and
strengthened, and its life-period protracted by other good wishes or friendly thoughts projected in the same
direction. Furthermore, it appears to be actuated, like most other beings, by an instinctive desire to prolong
its life, and thus reacts on its creator as a force constantly tending to provoke the renewal of the feeling
which called it into existence. It also influences in a similar manner others with whom it comes into
contact, though its rapport with them is naturally not so perfect” (Leadbeater 72-74).
194
vi si modellano in forme di esseri viventi, la cui apparenza corrisponde
all’intima loro natura. E questi esseri, appena formati, non sono più sotto il
dominio di chi gli ha generati, ma godono d’una lor vita propria, la cui
durata dipende dall’intensità del pensiero o del desiderio generatore. / Per
fortuna, i pensieri della maggior parte degli uomini son così vaghi e
indeterminati, che gli esseri che ne risultano han labilissima vita e
momentanea: bolle di sapone. Ma un pensiero che spesso si riproduca o un
desiderio vivo e costante formano un essere che può vivere anche parecchi
giorni. E poiché naturalmente i nostri pensieri e i nostri desiderii
spessissimo son per noi stessi, avviene che attorno a noi dimorino tanti di
questi esseri, che tendono a provocare di continuo la ripetizione dell’idea,
del desiderio ch’essi rappresentano, per attingere forza e accrescimento di
vita. / Chi dunque insista e batta costantemente su un desiderio, viene a
crearsi come un camerata invisibile,* legato a lui dal proprio pensiero,
quasi un cagnolino incantenato, senz’obbligo di muserola ed esente di
tassa. Questo camerata, però, potrà anche essere un canaccio che morde,
un vile mastino; e allora son guaj! Ma dipende da noi. E dunque, fin qui,
nulla di male. / Ho letto però nel medesimo libro che, quando i pensieri e i
desideri nostri non riguardino più noi stessi ma s’indirizzino altrui, gli
esseri che ne resultano vanno a lor destino, come saette, ad esercitare quel
potere di cui gli abbiamo investiti, rafforzato per giunta da quella
tremenda ripetizione, a cui ho accennato più su, suggerita da loro stessi per
il desiderio istintivo di prolungar la vita.** / Ma si drizzano ora i capelli su
*
My insertions for clarification: In the notes accompanying this passage, Giovanni Macchia
explains that because Pirandello translated directly from the French version of The Astral Plane, the Italian
word “camerata” comes from the French translation, “compagnon astral” which in the original English is
termed the “astral companion” (Giovanni Macchia, ed. Tr 1: 1012).
**
At this point, Pascal begins to interject his own thoughts regarding his mother-in-law, applying
ideas from the same section III. Artificial, in which Leadbeater writes: “A feeling of envious or jealous
hatred towards another person sends an evil elemental to hover over him and seek for a weak point through
which it can operate; and if the feeling be persistent, such a creature may be continually nourished by it and
thereby enabled to protract its undesirable activity for a long period. It can, however, produce no effect
upon the person towards whom it is directed unless he has himself some tendency which it can foster –
some fulcrum for its lever, as it were. From the aura of a man of pure thought and good life all such
influences at once rebound, finding nothing upon which they can fasten, and in that case, by a curious law,
they react in all their force upon their original creator. In him by the hypothesis they find a congenial
sphere of action, and thus the karma of his evil wish works itself out at once by means of the very entity
which he himself has called into existence. It occasionally happens, however, that an artificial elemental of
this description is for various reasons unable to expend its force either upon its object or its creator, and in
such cases it becomes a kind of wandering demon. It is readily attracted by any person who indulges in
feelings similar to that which gave it birth, and equally prepared either to stimulate such feelings in him for
the sake of the strength it may gain from them, or to pour out its store of evil influence upon him through
any opening which he may offer it. If it is sufficiently powerful to seize upon and inhabit some passing
shell it frequently does so, as the possession of such a temporary home enables it to husband its dreadful
resources more carefully. In this form it may manifest through a medium, and by masquerading as some
well-known friend may sometimes obtain an influence over people upon whom it would otherwise have
little hold. What is written above will serve to enforce the statement already made as to the importance of
maintaining a strict control over our thoughts. Many a well-meaning man, who is scrupulously careful to do
his duty towards his neighbour in word and deed, is apt to consider that his thoughts at least are nobody's
195
la fronte a pensare che razza di demonii, di terribili creature deve avermi
portato in casa e avventato addosso quella donna esecrabile che fu mia
suocera. Credo che, se avessi letto allora questo libro, io mi sarei messo a
girare tutto il giorno, come un trottolone, sur un piede, per non dar presa a
tutti quei ceffi d’inferno che dovevano essere le idée inique, i feroci
desiderii di colei, stretti attorno a me. Non li vedevo; ma vedevo lei,
purtroppo, diventata, dopo il mio matrimonio, più brutta di prima (non
l’avrei creduto possible!) più gialla, più magra; e ne so ora la ragione:
sfido! Doveva nutrir di sé tutti quegli esseri orrendi che m’assedievano e
mi toglievano il respiro. (Tr 1: 1010-1013)
I have just read in a book that our thoughts and desires are incorporated in
a plastic essence, in the invisible world that surrounds them, and soon they
are molded into forms of living beings, whose appearance corresponds to
their intimate nature. And these beings, newly formed, are no longer under
the domination of those who generated them, but they possess their own
life, the duration of which depends on the intensity of the thought or the
desire of the generator. / Fortunately, the thoughts of most men are so
vague and indeterminate, that the beings that result have a fleeting and
momentary life: bubbles of soap. But an often-repeated thought or a living
and constant desire form a being that can live for several days. And since
naturally our thoughts and our desires are usually for ourselves, it often
happens that around us dwell so many of these creatures, that tend to
provoke the continuous repetition of the idea, of the desire that they
represent, to draw strength and growth of life. / Who then insists steadily
on a desire, creates for himself an invisible comrade,* bound to him by his
own thought, almost a chained puppy, without the need of a muzzle and
free of charge.132 This comrade, however, can also be a nasty dog that
bites, a mean mastiff; and then troubles! But it depends on us. And so, so
far, nothing bad. / But I read in the same book that, when our thoughts and
desires no longer hold us in regard but direct themselves toward others,
the beings that result go to their destiny, like arrows, to exercise that
power to which we have invested, moreover, reinforced by that terrible
repetition, which I mentioned above, as suggested by themselves for the
instinctive desire to prolong life.** / But now the hair stands on end to
think what kind of demons, what kind of horrific creatures must have
brought me to that house and hurled me on the woman who was my
abhorrent mother-in-law. I think that if I had read this book then, I would
have set myself spinning all day, like a top, upon one foot, to not give
power to all those thugs in hell that must have been wicked ideas, the
fierce desires of that woman, tight around me. I did not see them; but I
saw her, unfortunately, become, after my marriage, uglier than before (I
business but his own, and so lets them run riot in various directions, utterly unconscious of the swarms of
baleful creatures which he is launching upon the world” (Leadbeater The Astral Plane 74).
132
See footnote on previous page for explanation.
196
would not have believed it possible!) more yellow, thinner, and now I
know the reason why: I am certain! She had to nourish all these horrible
beings that surrounded me and took my breath away.
With this passage Pascal demonstrates his knowledge of the astral plane while
highlighting the animosity he feels toward his mother-in-law, who he feels has unleashed
horrible demons on him. He shares how if he had known about the potency of one’s
thoughts and desires before that time, he would have conducted himself differently so as
to avoid Marianna Pescatore’s wickedness. Immediately following, and in keeping with
the tone of the above passage, Pascal describes his antagonistic relationship with his
jealous mother-in-law and laments that his poor mother was forced to live in the
“inferno” of his household.
The reader will come to learn later, in the tenth chapter, “Acquasantiera e
portacenere” (“Holy Water Stoup and Ashtray”), that Pascal becomes familiar with the
Theosophical astral plane and its features after renting a room (as Adriano Meis) from
Anselmo Paleari in Rome. Pascal/Meis recognizes the book, The Astral Plane, on his
landlord’s bookshelf as a Theosophical text, and he later consults this book to learn about
the dead. In it he identifies his condition with that of the “shells”133 who dwell in the
133
In his description of the different inhabitants (living, dead, or artificial) on the astral plane,
Charles Leadbeater explains the two types of shells that fall into the “dead” category. He clarifies: “This
very word "dead" is an absurd misnomer, as most of the entities classified under this heading are as fully
alive as we are ourselves – often distinctly more so; so the term must be understood simply as meaning
those who are for the time unattached to a physical body.” He describes the Shell: “This is absolutely the
mere astral corpse in the later stages of its disintegration, every particle of the mind having left it. It is
entirely without any kind of consciousness or intelligence and drifts passively about upon the astral currents
just as a cloud might be swept in any direction by a passing breeze; but even yet it may be galvanized for a
few moments into a ghastly burlesque of life if it happens to come within reach of a medium's aura. Under
such circumstances it still exactly resembles its departed personality in appearance, and may even
reproduce to some extent his familiar expressions or handwriting, but it does so merely by the automatic
action of the cells of which it is composed, which tend under stimulation to repeat the form of action to
which they are most accustomed. Whatever amount of intelligence may lie behind any such manifestation
has no connection with the original man, but is lent by the medium or his "guides" for the occasion.
It is, however, more frequently temporarily vitalized in quite another manner, which will be described
under the next head. It has also the quality of being still blindly responsive to such vibrations – usually of
197
limbo-like region of the astral plane called the Kamaloka.134 Because of his situation of
mistaken identity as a victim of suicide, Pascal is specifically interested in the placement
on the Kamaloka of those who commit suicide, or have been the victim of a sudden or
accidental death. Leadbeater explains in The Astral Plane: “It will be readily understood
that a man who is torn from physical life hurriedly while in full health and strength,
whether by accident or suicide, finds himself upon the astral plane under conditions
differing considerably from those which surround one who dies either from old age or
the lowest order – as were frequently set up in it during its last stage of existence as a shade, and
consequently persons in whom evil desires or passions are predominant will be likely, if they attend
physical séances, to find these intensified and as it were thrown back upon them by the unconscious shells.
There is also another variety of corpse which it is necessary to mention under this head, though it belongs
to a much earlier stage of man's post-mortem history. It has been stated above that after the death of the
physical body the astral vehicle is comparatively quickly rearranged, and the etheric double cast off – this
latter body being destined to slow disintegration, precisely as is the astral shell at a later stage of the
proceedings. This etheric shell, however, does not drift aimlessly about, as does the variety with which we
have hitherto been dealing; on the contrary, it remains within a few yards of the decaying physical body,
and since it is readily visible to any one even slightly sensitive, it accounts for many of the commonly
current stories of church-yard ghosts. A psychically developed person passing one of our great cemeteries
may see many of these bluish-white, misty forms hovering over the graves where are laid the physical
vestures which they have recently left; and as they, like their lower counterparts, are in stages of
disintegration, the sight is by no means pleasant. This also, like the other kind of shell, is entirely devoid of
consciousness and intelligence; and though it may under certain circumstances be galvanized into a horrible
form of temporary life, this is possible only by means of some of the most loathsome rites of one of the
worst forms of black magic, about which the less said the better. It will thus be seen that in the successive
stages of his progress from earth-life to the heaven-world, man casts off and leaves to slow disintegration
no less than three corpses – the dense physical body, the etheric double, and the astral vehicle – all of
which are by degrees resolved into their constituent elements and their matter utilized anew on their
respective planes by the wonderful chemistry of Nature”; and the Vitalized Shell: “This entity ought not,
strictly speaking, to be classified under the head “human” at all, since it is only its outer vesture, the
passive, senseless shell, that was once an appanage of humanity; such life, intelligence, desire, and will as it
may possess are those of the artificial-elemental animating it, and that, though in truth a creation of man's
evil thought is not itself human. It will therefore perhaps be better to deal with it more fully under its
appropriate class among the artificial entities, as its nature and genesis will be more readily comprehensible
by the time that part of our subject is reached” (Leadbeater The Astral Plane 42-43).
134
According to the Theosophical Glossary, the Kamaloka is defined as: “The semi-material
plane, to us subjective and invisible, where the disembodied “personalities,” the astral forms, called
Kamarupa remain, until they fade out from it by the complete exhaustion of the effects of the mental
impulses that created these eidolons of human and animal passions and desires. It is the Hades of the
ancient Greeks and the Amenti of the Egyptians, the land of Silent Shadows” (Blavatsky 171-172).
198
from disease” (Leadbeater 44).135 After learning this, Pascal begins to consider and
examine his existence in a different light.
Though the passage from The Astral Plane recited by Pascal was eliminated from
all subsequent versions of the novel, the book from which it came remains as one of the
texts in Anselmo Paleari’s library. It is not clear why this passage is eliminated in the
following editions and all other Theosophical references were maintained. However, the
knowledge that it was included in the first version confirms the influence of modern
Theosophy on Pirandello at that time, especially the concept that a thought could become
a form (a thought-form),136 or an etheric double (astral companion), that will surface and
Concerning the placement of suicides on the astral plane, the Theosophist W.Q. Judge writes:
“The fate of the suicide is horrible in general. He has cut himself off from his body by using mechanical
means that affect the body, but cannot touch the real man. He then is projected into the astral world, for he
has to live somewhere. There the remorseless law, which acts really for his good, compels him to wait until
he can properly die. Naturally he must wait, half dead, the months or years which, in the order of nature,
would have rolled over him before body and soul and spirit could rightly separate. He becomes a shade; he
lives in purgatory, so to say, called by the Theosophist the “place of desire and passion,” or “Kama Loka.”
He exists in the astral realm entirely, eaten up by his own thoughts. Continually repeating in vivid thoughts
the act by which he tried to stop his life's pilgrimage, he at the same time sees the people and the place he
left, but is not able to communicate with any one except, now and then, with some poor sensitive, who
often is frightened by the visit. And often he fills the minds of living persons who may be sensitive to his
thoughts with the picture of his own taking off, occasionally leading them to commit upon themselves the
act of which he was guilty” (W.Q. Judge 366-370).
135
136
In the book, Thought-Forms, Charles Leadbeater and Annie Besant explain thought-forms as
belonging to either the mental plane or the higher or lower region of the astral plane (the second type on the
astral plane being the “artificial” kind referred to in the passage cited by Pascal from Leadbeater’s, The
Astral Plane): “The mental and the desire (astral) bodies are those chiefly concerned with the appearance of
what are called thought-forms. Man, the thinker, is clothed in a body composed of the subtle matter of the
mental plane, this body being more or less refined in its constituents and organized more or less fully for its
functions, according to the stage of intellectual development at which the man himself has arrived. The
mental body is an object of great beauty, the delicacy and rapid motion of its particles giving it an aspect of
living iridescent light, and this body becomes an extraordinarily radiant and entrancing loveliness as the
intellect becomes more highly evolved and is employed chiefly on pure and sublime topics. […] When the
man’s energy flows outward toward external objects of desire, or is occupied in passional and emotional
activities, this energy works in a less subtle order of matter than the mental, in that of the astral world. [...]
A man of a higher type has his desire-body composed of the finer qualities of astral matter . . . while less
delicate and less radiant than the mental body, it forms a beautiful object, and as selfishness is eliminated
all the duller and heavier shades disappear. The desire (or astral) body gives rise to a second class of
entities, similar in their general constitution to the thought-forms already described, but limited to the astral
plane, and generated by the mind under the dominion of the animal nature. […] Such a thought-form has
for its body this elemental essence, and for its animating soul the desire or passion which threw it forth;
according to the amount of mental energy combined with this desire or passion will be the force of the
199
persist according to its own will, depending on the severity of the thoughts and desires of
the individual. Giovanni Macchia points to Leadbeater’s concept of the plastic essence
when describing Pirandello’s arrival at his experimental method that, “inseguiva il
fenomeno della pluralità delle anime,137 s’innestava in uno spiritualismo, che esaltava la
creazione individuale, e che affrontava persone ‘vive, libere, operanti’ per farne
personaggi” [“followed the phenomenon of the plurality of souls, grafted itself in
spiritualism, that exalted the individual creation, and that confronted ‘alive, free,
working’ individuals to make them characters (Macchia 51). Macchia writes:
Penso che sia giunto all’idea dello “spirito,” come di un agente personale,
un doppio, o un ausiliare. Gli “spiriti” invadevano il nostro spazio come
forme, modellate plasticamente, dei nostri pensieri e dei nostri desideri:
prima concezione larvale di “personaggi.” E il testo che in tal senso
forniva a Pirandello pasto abbondante era il libro di Leadbeater, The Astral
Plane, del 1897, tradotto in francese sotto il titolo di Le Plan Astral due
anni dopo. (Macchia 51)
I think that it was reached by the idea of the “spirit” as a personal agent, a
double, or an auxiliary. The “spirits” invaded our space as form, molded
of plastic material, of our thoughts and our desires: the first larval
conception of “characters.” And the text that in this sense provided
Pirandello an abundant meal was the book by Leadbeater, The Astral
Plane, of 1897, translated in French under the title Le Plan Astral two
years later.
thought-form. These, like those belonging to the mental plane, are called artificial elementals, and they are
by far the most common, as few thought of ordinary men and women are untinged with desire, passion or
emotion” (Besant and Leadbeater 7-10).
137
My footnote insertion: Here Giovanni Macchia is referencing Giovanni Marchesini’s
conception that an individual may have more than one soul. Helena Blavatsky also writes of the plurality of
souls: “The doctrines of Theosophy are simply the faithful echoes of Antiquity. Man is a Unity only at his
origin and at his end. All the Spirits, all the Souls, gods and demons emanate from and have for their rootprinciple the SOUL OF THE UNIVERSE--says Porphyry (De Sacrifice). Not a philosopher of any
notoriety who did not believe (1) in reincarnation (metempsychosis), (2) in the plurality of principles in
man, or that man had two Souls of separate and quite different natures; one perishable, the Astral Soul, the
other incorruptible and immortal; and (3) that the former was not the man whom it represented—‘neither
his spirit nor his body, but his reflection at best.’ This was taught by Brahmins, Buddhists, Hebrews,
Greeks, Egyptians and Chaldeans; by the post-diluvian heirs of the prediluvian Wisdom, by Pythagoras and
Socrates, Clemens Alexandrinus, Synesius, and Origen, the oldest Greek poets as much as the Gnostics,
whom Gibbon shows as the most refined, learned and enlightened men of all ages” (Blavatsky, “Theories
About Reincarnation and Spirits” 14).
200
Concerning Pirandello’s application of the “double” in Il fu Mattia Pascal, Antonio
Illiano notes the author’s addition of an unknown “I” in the 1918 version. Illiano writes:
Shortly after his arrival in Pisa, Mattia Pascal/Adriano Meis, by now
caught in his own scheme, not knowing what to do, as he puts it, and
hoping to find some distraction from so many problems, decides to take
the two “dead” out for a stroll. It is worth noting that in the revised edition
(1918) the author should have felt obliged to add a few touches and bring
into the open a new active principle that was not so readily discernible in
the original edition: “Il meglio era non dar confienza a nessuno dei due. O
bianco campanile, tu potevi pendere da una parte, io, tra quei due, né di
quà né di là.” The reader has by now acquired a reasonably clear
understanding as to who the two “dead” are, or think they are; but who is
this new “I” stuck between them, resolved to ignore them, and unable to
lean to either side? Is it a third fleeting personality suddenly emerging, or
is it rather the thinking principle [Manas], the noumenal sense of
individuality that has been implicitly operative from the beginning and
explicitly suggested by such revealing elements as Mattia Pascal’s
features, particularly his beard and squinting eye, and by the other hints as
the names Pascal-Meis, both closely connected to philosophical thinking?
Or is it possibly a transitory form of non-personality that will soon have to
settle for the shell of what once was Mattia Pascal? The protagonist
himself does not know. All [the “late Mattia Pascal”] can do now is to take
Pelligrinotto’s advice and turn writer, a choice warranted by his talent and
apprenticeship as a librarian, reader and intellectual. This may also imply
that his writing is a kind of report-memoir drafted while he was still in
Kama-loca, a ledger-record of experience for safekeeping and possible
future use. After all, if we choose to overlook the projected eventuality of
a continuing education through rebirth, what is left worth existing for, for
the late Mattia Pascal? (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 346)
Illiano raises some interesting questions regarding the spiritual and intellectual
development of Mattia Pascal throughout the novel. Because all knowledge is not equally
beneficial, however, the student of Theosophy must be able to distinguish between the
knowledge gained by the terrestial and egoic “I” versus the spiritual and Higher Ego “I”
(Blavatsky The Key to Theosophy 158). At the end of the novel, the “late Mattia Pascal”
is not a part of life but lives as an outsider; he has become, in essence, another zombielike incarnation—a “living” dead—similar to that of Pascal as Meis. Pascal’s choice to
201
return to the library and the suggestion offered by Illiano that his report-memoir was
drafted in the Kama-loca, has notable implications for the role of the writer and the virtue
of literature. Macchia indicates that even more important for Pirandello was the book
Thought-Forms (1901) by Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater (discussed in Chapter Two
of this dissertation), as it treats the novelist on the mental plane.138 This could plausibly
account for the “late Mattia Pascal’s” novelistic endeavor—perhaps as the double of
Pirandello, the novelist.
It is precisely in the fifth chapter of the novel, aptly called “Maturazione”
(“Maturation” or “Ripening”), that Mattia Pascal, as narrator, begins to describe the
initial stage of his spiritual conversion. The comical episode of the flour fight between
Pascal, Aunt Scolastica and his mother-in-law, the widow Pescatore, marks the initial
moment in which Pascal consciously notices, and reports to the reader, that his
perspective of himself started to change and even mature. In true Pirandellian humoristic
fashion, Pascal examines himself in the mirror, and says: “Posso dire che da allora ho
fatto il gusto a ridere di tutte le mie sciagure e d’ogni mio tormento. Mi vidi, in
quell’istante, attore d’una tragedia che più buffa non si sarebbe potuta immaginare […]
Ero ancora come’ebbro di quella gajezza mala che si era impadronita di me quando m’ero
guardo allo specchio” [“I may say that, from that day on, I have made a habit of laughing
at all my misfortunes and torments. At that moment I saw myself as an actor in tragedy
that could hardly have looked more comical. […] I was drunk on bitter hilarity that had
138
Macchia writes: Ma è ancor più importante che in un altro saggio scritto in collaborazione con
Annie Besant lo stesso Leadbeater trascini sul palcoscenico mentale un essere che fino allora nessuno
aveva toccato, tranquillo nel docile sopore della coscienza: il romanziere” [“But it is even more important
that in another essay written in collaboration with Annie Besant, the same Leadbeater dragged onto the
mental stage a being that until now nobody had touched, quiet in the docile stupor of consciousness: the
novelist”] (Macchia 53). Macchia is referring to the book Thought-Forms (1901).
202
seized me when I looked at myself in the mirror”] (Tr 1: 360-363; Trans. Weaver 41-42).
Pascal looks at his reflection in the mirror, and seeing his beard full of flour and his face
scratched and wet, he barely recognizes himself; it is as though he were looking at an
actor playing the tragic role of his life. Pascal admires his wandering eye that he says had
begun, out of sheer desperation and on its own account, to look off more than ever in the
wrong direction. Radcliff-Umstead describes Pascal’s experience at the mirror as, “his
first genuine flash of illumination” (179). Radcliff-Umstead continues:
His experience is to see himself living (vedersi vivere), which actually
results in the momentary detachment of the conscious self from the stream
of life’s turbulent events. Not only does the mirror reveal his abject
condition, but it also attests to the constantly distorted vision caused by
Mattia’s cockeye, which asserts its independence even at times of the most
intense anguish. Mattia Pascal has been permitted to see the ridiculousness
of his roles as husband and son. The earlier Pascal was in effect blind to
everything around him. This glimpse of truth marks the first step in the
protagonist’s conversion. (Radcliff-Umstead 180).
Desperation has forced Pascal’s consciousness, for the first time, to separate his ego-self
from his true Self. In Buddhism & Science, David Galin explains the Buddhist view of
the Self:
In the Buddhist “correct view” the Self is seen not as an entity, or as a
substance, or as an essence but as a dynamic process, a shifting web of
relations among evanescent aspects of the person such as perceptions,
ideas, and desires. The Self is only misperceived as a fixed entity because
of the distortions of the human point of view. Ultimately, no separation is
to be found between these dynamic processes and the universal frame of
reference or ground of being; all is interdependent and changing. Thus, in
this sense, there is no Self separable from a Nonself. (Ed. Wallace 109).
Pirandello was interested in the power of self-consciousness and he himself experienced
the sensation of having a greater and a lower self. Anthony Caputi writes: “Pirandello
was acutely aware of this dimension of consciousness [its reflexive capacity] throughout
203
his life and career, beginning at least with his letter to Antonietta of 5 January 1984,
where he traced the relations between his great self and his little self” (Caputi 49).
Like his eye that wanders without instruction from Pascal, Pascal’s spirit is thrusting
upon him a new view of himself; it is as though he were looking at himself from outside
of himself. In this moment, Pascal is more connected to the reflection of himself as the
tragic actor in the mirror, and is becoming less attached to the man who is looking at the
reflection. Pascal’s experience at the mirror, Pirandello’s ultimate symbol of the inner
mirror of consciousness that reflects upon its thoughts, stimulates the awareness that he is
not just one Pascal and shows him that he has the ability to manipulate his perspective
and correct his distorted vision. Pirandello later commented on the functionality of the
mirror: “I have had the audacity of placing a mirror at the centre of the stage. It is the
mirror of intelligence. Man, while alive, lives, but does not see himself. Sentiment by
itself is blind; I have therefore so managed that this blind man at a certain point should
open his eyes and should see himself in that mirror and should stand as if frozen by the
unthought-of image of his own life” (Caputi 50).
Pascal’s “disperate condizioni” [“desperate conditions”] force him to find a better
way to support his family. Thanks to his friend Pomino’s father’s connection with the
City Councilor for Education, Pascal is offered a job as a librarian in the Boccamazza
library, where he will help the aging and senile Romitelli organize the rotting books in
the damp and rat-infested deconsecrated little church, Santa Maria Liberale. Fleeing from
his house as though it were a prison, Pascal takes refuge in the library where “mangiato
dalla noja” [“devoured by boredom”], he works alone after Romitelli’s death (Tr 1: 367;
Trans. Weaver 48). In the library Pascal reads a bit of everything, but mostly philosophy,
204
which he says made his already confused brain spin and distract him even more. He
describes how in these spells of frustration he would try to calm his nerves down by
leaving the library and laying on the sand at the beach, but the sight of the sea plunged
him into a “kind of dazed horror, which gradually turned in intolerable oppression” [“La
vista del mare mi faceva cadere in uno sgomento attonito, che diveniva man mano
oppressione intollerabile”] (Trans. Weaver 48; Tr 1: 368). Angrily shouting, “Why?” at
the strange thoughts inspired by his fear of the immobility of his existence, Pascal’s shoes
get wet and receives what he believes to be a warning, sent to him from the waves, that
he should ask the “why” of certain things and that he should avoid philosophy books—
lest he ruin his shoes and hurt his brain. When he is told that his wife is in labor, Pascal
runs home but he says: “Ma più sfuggire a me stesso, per non rimanere neanche un
minuto a tu per tu con me, a pensare che io stavo pere avere un figliulo, io, in quelle
condizioni, un figliulo!” [“It was more to flee from myself, to avoid being left alone even
for a moment to reflect that I was about to have a child—in my situation—a child!” (Tr 1:
369; Trans. Weaver 49). Though Pascal recognizes that his existential situation is clearly
unstable, his first mistake is in thinking that it is ever possible to flee from oneself,
especially one’s subconscious. Pascal’s consciousness, like his wandering eye, will direct
Pascal’s thoughts. What Pascal has yet to learn is that, although one can never stop the
mind’s activity, one can learn to detach from the mind and quiet its thoughts. Pascal’s
grief over the death of his twin baby girls and his mother practically drive him to
madness. At the very end of the chapter “Maturazione,” however, Pascal’s tone changes
as he tells the reader that he spent the money, sent to him by his brother for his mother’s
burial, on himself and that it was the occasion of his “first” death: “Poi servirono per me;
205
e furono – come dirò – la cagione della mia prima morte” (Trans. Weaver 47; Tr 1: 371).
Mattia Pascal quotes Giovan Vittorio Soderini’s explanation of “the first cause of
ripening” of fruit (through part heat and part cold), found in Trattato degli Arbori
(Treatise on Trees)—a book that Pascal probably picked up from the floor of the library.
Pascal goes on to state that Giovan Vittorio Soderini was unaware that fruiterers had
invented, in addition to heat, another first cause of ripening. Pascal explains: “Per portare
la primizia al mercato e venderla più cara, essi colgono i frutti, mele e pesche e pere,
prima che sian venuti a quella condizione che li rende sani e piacevoli, e li maturano loro
a furia d’ammaccature” [“In order to carry early fruit to the market and sell it at high
prices, they gather apples or peaches or pears before they have reached the stage which
makes them sound and flavorsome, and the vendors ripen them by the simple expedient
of bruising them”]. Pascal’s explanation of this other first cause of ripening, though
subtle, is extremely telling as he follows this explanation with the statement, “Ora così
venne a maturazione l’anima mia, ancora acerba” [“And this was how my spirit, still
green, ripened to its maturity. In a short time I became a different man” (Tr 1: 367; Trans.
Weaver 47). In his description of the fruits that do not ripen naturally but are prematurely
ripened by the vendors, Pascal foreshadows his incomplete spiritual transformation.
Attempting to find consolation in settling down, Pascal chooses Rome as his new
home as the city seemed suited to receive foreigners with indifference. He rents a room
from the eccentric Anselmo Paleari who lives with his daughter Adriana, his son-in-law
Terrenzio Papiano, and another tenant, Silvia Caporale, described by Paleari to have
excellent mediumistic talents that he was helping her develop. Paleari, recognized by
Pascal as a member of the Theosophical School, takes an instant liking to Meis (as Pascal
206
is known to Paleari), and during Pascal’s stay, Paleari passionately tries to enlighten his
new tenant with teachings of Theosophy and exposure to Spiritualist séances. Paleari
shows Meis his library which is filled with French translations of texts by key figures of
the Theosophical Society: ‘La Mort et l’au-delà – L’homme et ses corps – Les sept
principes de l’homme – Karma – La clef de la Théosophie – A B C de la Théosophie –
La doctrine secrète – Le Plan Astral—ecc., ecc’ (Tr 1: 435). These texts are: Death and
After, Man and His Bodies, The Seven Principles of Man, and Karma by Annie Besant,
The A B C of Theosophy by Théophile Pascal, The Key to Theosophy and The Secret
Doctrine by Helena P. Blavatsky, and The Astral Plane by C. W. Leadbeater. Despite
Paleari’s enthusiasm, Pascal is neither interested in the “fantastici studii” [“fantastic
studies”] of the proprieter who “aveva pure così, come di spuma, il cervello,” [“had a
brain made more or less of foam,”] like his turban, nor in his collection of Theosophical
treatises (Tr 1: 435; Trans. Weaver 114-15). Pascal is immediately presented with the
dichotomy of spiritual beliefs in the Paleari residence: Anselmo Paleari, a
Spiritualist/Theososophist, his daughter Adriana, a devout Catholic, Silvia Caporale, a
drunk medium, and Pascal himself, who has not observed any religious practices since
his boyhood days.
Instantly attracted to Paleari’s daughter, Adriana, Pascal is suddenly confronted
with his “condizione assai speciosa” [“very singular situation”] of having been mistaken
as a victim of suicide and claiming a new identity (Tr 1: 101, Trans. Weaver 118).
Though Pascal initially felt Paleari’s spiritual studies and meditations on death separated
Paleari from reality, he turns to the philosophies he had originally dismissed to help him
understand his complicated existence. Paleari’s rants about death, and the other lodgers in
207
the house, help to ground Pascal by sending him into long meditations, bringing him back
from his feeling of suspension in the void: “Ogni minimo che – sospeso come già da un
pezzo mi sentivo in un vuoyo strano – mi faceva cadere in lunghe riflessione” [“Thanks
to the curious emptiness in which I had been suspended for such a long time, the slightest
event now made me sink into long meditations”] (Tr 1: 438; Trans. Weaver 118).
Realizing he has solved nothing concerning his problem of death, Pascal retreats to
Paleari’s library:
Mi trovavo ora coi libri d’Anselmo Paleari tra le mani. Questi libri
m’insegnavano che i morti, quelli veri, si trovavano nella mia identical
condizione, nei “gusci” del Kâmaloka, specialmente i suicidi, che il signor
Leadbeater, autore del Plan Astral [. . .] raffigura come eccitati da ogni
sorta d’appetiti umani, a cui non possono soddisfare, sprovvisti come sono
del corpo carnal, ch’essi però ignorano d’aver perduto.” (Tr 1: 101)
Now I found myself with Anselmo Paleari’s books in my hands, and these
books taught me that the dead— the really dead— were in my very same
condition, the “husks” of the Kamaloka, suicides especially, whom Mr.
Leadbeater, author of the Plan Astral, depicts as ravaged by all human
appetites but unable to satisfy them, since these spirits are without their
carnal body, but are unaware that they have lost it. (Trans. Weaver 118)
Instead of gaining the relief he was looking for, Pascal feels a sense of madness
infecting him as he processes this new information. He considers that perhaps he really
did drown in the millrace, and questions whether he is merely deceiving himself with the
notion that he is still alive. Pascal says:
Si sa che certe specie di pazzia sono contagiose. Quella di Paleari, per
quanto in prima mi ribellassi, alla fine mi s’attacò. Non che credessi
veramente di esser morto: non sarebbe stato un gran male, giacché il forte
è morire, e, appena morti, non credo che si possa avere tristo desiderio di
ritornare in vita. Mi accorsi tutt’a un tratto che dovevo proprio morire
ancora: ecco il male! (Tr 1: 439)
It’s well known that certain kinds of madness are contagious. Paleari’s,
though I rebelled against it at first, ended up by infecting me. Not that I
really believed I was dead, though it would have done no harm if I had:
208
the hard thing is dying; once you’re dead, I don’t believe you can harbor
the sorry desire of returning to life. No, I suddenly realized that I would
have to die again: that was the trouble! (Trans. Weaver 119)
Paleari’s impetuous talk of death begins to shed light on the bizarre reality of Pascal’s
situation and provides him with some comfort. Pascal says, “Del resto, la dottrina e la
fede del signor Paleari, tuttoché mi sembrassero talvolta puerili, erano in fondo
confortanti; e, poiché purtroppo mi s’era affacciata l’idea che, un giorno o l’altro, io
dovevo morire sul serio, non mi dispiaceva di sentirne parlare a quel modo” [“Besides,
though Signor Paleari’s faith and doctrine sometimes seemed puerile to me, they were at
least comforting; since I now realized that one of these days I would have to die properly,
I wasn’t sorry to hear death spoken of in this way”] (Tr 1: 440; Trans. Weaver 119). As
discussed in the next section, Paleari continues to enlighten Mattia Pascal. Though Pascal
is physically blind, Paleari helps him access his inner vision.
Lanternosophy
Paleari takes the opportunity to give Pascal a lecture on “lanternosofia,”
(“lanternosophy”) while he is recovering from eye surgery and is trapped in the darkness,
as both eyes are bandaged for forty days. Paleari’s lanternosophy is Pirandello’s modern
fusion of Western as well as Eastern mystical and philosophical concepts ranging from
aspects of Hinduism and Buddhism, to Plato’s allegory of the cave,139 to the postulations
139
In Eastern Religions and Western Thought, S. Radhakrishnan explains the similarities between
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and the Hindu doctrine of m"y": “The dominating thought in Plato is that the
ordinary man is not truly awake but is walking about like a somnambulist in pursuit of phantoms. So long
as we are subject to passions, dreams are taken for reality. When the truth is realized, the shadows of the
night pass away and in the dawn of another sun we see no longer in signs and symbols enigmatically, but
face to face as the gods see and know. The simile of the cave reminds us of the Hindu doctrine of m"y", or
appearance. Plato compares the human race to men sitting in a cave, bound, with their backs to the light
and fancying that the shadows on the wall before them are not shadows but real objects. We live in the
darkness of the cave and require to be led out of it into the sunlight. Again, to the ordinary Greek the body
counted for a good deal. To Plato it is a fetter to which we are chained. Our affections must be fixed on a
future world in which we will be freed from the body. ‘If we would have pure knowledge of anything, we
209
by the French philosopher Blaise Pascal,140 that unlike the trees that do not consciously
watch themselves live, man’s greatness lies in that he is able to recognize his own
wretchedness. Paleari explains to Mattia Pascal that because humans, unlike the trees, are
born with the sad privilege of feeling themselves alive and the illusion results, causing
man to: “insistently mistake our external reality for our inner feelings of life, which
varies and changes according to the time, or chance, or circumstances” [A noi uomini,
invece, nascendo, è toccato un triste privilegio: quello di sentirci vivere, con la bella
illusione che risulta: di prendere cioè come una realtà fuori di noi questo nostro interno
sentimento della vita, mutabile e vario, secondo i tempi, i casi e la fortuna”] (Trans.
Weaver 165, Tr 1: 484). This false sense of life, according to Paleari, acts like a little
lantern that each person carries with him:
E questo sentimento della vita per il signor Anselmo era appunto come un
lanternino che ciascuno di noi porta in sé acceso; un lanternino che ci fa
vedere sperduti su la terra, e ci fa vedere il male e il bene; un lanternino
che projetta tutt’intorno a noi un cerchio più o meno ampio di luce, di là
dal quale è l’ombra nera, l’ombra paurosa che non esisterebbe, se il
lanternino non fosse acceso in noi, ma che noi dobbiamo pur troppo creder
vera, fintanto ch’esso si mantiene vivo in noi. Spento alla fine a un soffio,
ci accoglierà la notte perpetua dopo il giorno fumoso della nostra illusione,
o non rimarremo noi piuttosto alla mercé dell’Essere, che avrà soltanto
rotto le vane della nostra ragione? (Tr 1: 485)
And for Signor Anselmo this sense of life was like a little lantern that each
of us carries with in him, alight; a lantern that makes us see how lost we
are on the face of the earth, and reveals good and evil to us. The lantern
must be quit of the body--the soul in herself must behold things in themselves: and then we shall attain the
wisdom which we desire and of which we say that we are lovers: not while we live but after death.’ The
senses belong to the flesh. When the spirit withdraws from the flesh to think by itself untroubled by the
senses, it lays hold upon unseen reality. The pursuit of wisdom is a ‘loosing and separation of the spirit
from the body.’ We have here the possibility of a complete detachment of the thinking self from the body
and its senses and passions, and it implies as a consequence the separate existence of the Forms. Such is the
view to be found in the earlier Dialogues. They assert that the Forms have an existence separate from
things even as the spirit has an existence separate from the body” (Radhakrishnan 146).
140
Blaise Pascal wrote in Pensées: “Man’s greatness lies in his capacity to recognize his
wretchedness. A tree does not recognize its wretchedness. So it is wretched to know one is wretched, but
there is greatness in the knowledge of one’s wretchedness” (Honor Levi, trans. 37).
210
casts a broader or narrower circle of light around us, beyond which there is
a black shadow, the fearsome darkness which would not exist if our
lanterns were not lighted. And yet, as long as our lantern is kept burning,
we must believe in that shadow. When at the end the light is blown out,
will the perpetual night receive us after the brief day of our illusion? Or
won’t we remain at the disposal of Existence [Being], which will merely
have shattered our trivial modes of reasoning? (Trans. Weaver 163)
Paleari’s lanternosophy mirrors the Hindu and Buddhist concepts of maya, Brahman,
nirvana and rebirth. Particularly notable is similarity between Pirandello’s conception of
“l’Essere” [“Existence/Being/Essence”],141 and the concept of Nirguna Brahman, or nondual brahman (signified by the unity of Brahman and Atman), from the Advaita Vedanta
school of Hindu philosophy.142 As Buddhism is deeply rooted in Hindu philosophy,
lanternosophy can also easily be read in terms of the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths,
described as such:
The First Noble Truth states the outstanding characteristic of the human
situation is duhka, which is suffering or frustration. This frustration comes
from our difficulty in facing the basic fact of life, that everything around
us is impermanent and transitory. ‘All things arise and pass away,’ said the
Buddha, and the notion that flow and change are the basic features of
nature lies at the root of Buddhism. Suffering arises, in the Buddhist view,
whenever we resist the flow of life and try to cling to the fixed forms
which are all maya, whether they are things, events, people or ideas [...]
141
The noun is defined as both “being” and “existence” according to the context: “Essere: 1.
(organismo vivente): being; ~ umano, human being; ~ vivente, living being 2. (esistenza): being, existence”
(Concise Oxford Paravia Italian Dictionary 2009).
142
S. Radhakrishnan writes: “Brahman, which is the Sanskrit word for the Absolute, is the
principle of search as well as the object sought, the animating ideal and its fulfilment. The striving of the
soul for the infinite is said to be Brahman. The impulse that compels us to raise the question of the true, the
divine, is itself divine. Brahman stands for the breath, ‘the breath of the power of God,’ as it is said in the
Wisdom of Solomon. It is man's sense of the divine as well as the divine, and the two meanings coalesce.
The transcendent self stoops down as it were and touches the eyes of the empirical self, overwhelmed by
the delusion of the world's work. When the individual withdraws his soul from all outward events, gathers
himself together inwardly and strives with concentration, there breaks upon him an experience, secret,
strange, and wondrous, which quickens within him, lays hold on him, and becomes his very being. Even if
God be an idea and has no reality apart from one’s ideation, that which frames the idea of God and strives
to realize it is itself divine. Our longing for perfection, our sense of lack, our striving to attain
consciousness of infinity, our urge to the ideal, are the sources of divine revelation. They are to be found in
some measure in all beings. The very fact that we seek God clearly proves that life cannot be without Him.
God is life. Recognition of this fact is spiritual consciousness” (Radhakrishnan 22).
211
The Second Noble Truth deals with the cause of all suffering, rishna,
which is clinging, or grasping. It is the futile grasping of life based on a
wrong point of view which is called avidya, or ignorance, in Buddhist
philosophy. Out of this ignorance, we divide the perceived world into
individual and separate things and thus attempt to confine the fluid forms
of reality in fixed categories created by the mind [...] This vicious circle is
known as Buddhism as samsara, the round of birth-and-death, and it is
driven by karma, the never-ending chain of cause and effect. The Third
Noble Truth states that the suffering and frustration can be ended. It is
possible to transcend the vicious circle of samsara to free oneself from the
bondage of karma, and to reach a state of total liberation called nirvana. In
this state, the false notions of a separate self have forever disappeared and
the oneness of all life has become a constant sensation [...] To reach
nirvana is to attain awakening, or Buddhahood. The Fourth Noble Truth is
the Buddha’s prescription to end all suffering, the Eightfold Path of selfdevelopment which leads to the state of Buddhahood [and gives] the rules
for the Buddhist way of life, which is a Middle Way between opposite
extremes (Capra 95-96).
In terms of The Four Noble Truths, Paleari explains that each person carries within
himself a lantern (our inner sense of life) that casts a shadow (maya, the illusion of
reality) around us. Surrounded by the shadow cast by the light from our individual
lanterns, we begin to perceive it and the darkness that extends beyond as real darkness,
and this perception causes us to feel lost and afraid. Logically, Paleari explains, if the
lantern were not there to make us conscious of the shadow and darkness, our fear would
not exist. Paleari then asks Pascal to imagine what would happen if our lanterns were
blown out, and to consider whether we would then be surrounded by fictional darkness
(maya), and left to exist in a perpetual night. Or, he asks, would we really be at the mercy
of ‘Essere’, (Existence/Being/Essence or Brahman), which has broken down the
insubstantial forms of our Reason (maya). In a language reflective of Pirandello’s critical
essays, Paleari asks: “E se tutto questo bujo, quest’enorme mistero, nel quale indarno i
filosofi dapprima specularono, e che ora, pur rinunziando all’indagine di esso, la scienza
non esclude, non fosse infondo che un inganno come un altro, un inganno della nostra
212
mente, una fantasia che non si colora?” [Supposing all this darkness, this great engulfing
mystery in which the philosophers of the ages have speculated in vain and which Science,
though it refuses to investigate it, does not preclude, were, after all, only a delusion, a
fiction of our minds, a fancy we are somehow unable to brighten with gay colors?’ (Tr 1:
487; Trans. Weaver 165).
Paleari asks Mattia Pascal to consider that, perhaps, the concept of death is a false
construction that man created and has assigned to mean ‘the extinction of life.’ He
suggests that death should not be construed as a frightening passage from living to the
end of life, but should be embraced as a gust of wind which blows out the light in our
lanterns, extinguishes our painful and terrifying sense of life, and frees us from suffering
(nirvana); [“un soffio che spegne in noi questo lanternino, lo sciagurato sentimento che
noi abbiamo di essa, penoso, pauroso”] (Tr 1: 487, Trans. Weaver 158).143 Because we
mistake our inner feeling of life for external reality, this false light of the lantern that
resides within us must be extinguished. This ‘blowing out’ of the lantern, or the
extinction of maya, allows us to return to Brahman, our ultimate reality: living as one
with the Universe. Using an approach akin to The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism,
143
From “Lanternino”: “And, when it is at last extinguished by the blow of death, will we really
be received by that fictitious shadow, will be received by the eternal night following the misty day of our
illusion, or is it not more likely that we will be left to the mercy of Being, which will have shattered only
the vain forms of human reason? All that shadow, that enormous mystery, which so many philosophers
have vainly speculated about and which now science, even though it refuses to investigate it does not
exclude- could it perhaps not be after all, a deception like any other, a deception of our minds, a fantasy
which does not acquire any coloration? What if all this mystery, in short, did not exist outside of us, but
only in us, and unavoidably so on account of the famous privilege, the feeling that we have of life? What if
death were only the breath that extinguished this feeling in us, a feeling so painful and terrifying because it
is limited and defined by that ring of fictitious shadow beyond the slight circle of faint light which we
project around us and in which our life remains imprisoned, as if excluded for some time from eternal and
universal life, which it seems to us that we shall someday rejoin, whereas we are already in it and shall
forever remain in it, but without this sense of exile that grieves us? […] But we have always lived and
always will live with the universe; Even now in our present form, we share in all the manifestations of the
universe, but we don’t know it, we don’t see it because, alas, this was unfortunately the spark that
Prometheus chose to give us enables us to see only within the small sphere of light that it casts. (Weaver,
trans. 158)
213
Paleari prescribes the path to acquiring knowledge of true and freedom from suffering:
(1) gaining the awareness of lantern light of misguided reasoning (avidya) and
recognizing the fictitious reality of fixed forms (maya) that separates the individual from
its authentic existence, or Being (Brahman); (2) detaching oneself from the illusion of the
shadow (maya) and viewing all things as connected and in a constant state of becoming;
(3) maintaining the ability to recognize that one’s suffering (duhka) is caused by the
creation of and futile grasping at false constructions (rishna); and (4) extinguishing the
lantern, thereby, annihilating all false notions of being a separate self and freeing oneself
from the cycle of reincarnation (samsara). Paleari’s way, akin to the Middle Way
proffered by the Buddha, requires that the individual gain the perspective of seeing
himself from the outside, as though looking through the eyes of another—disconnected
from the false sense of self yet not attached to the view of the observer. Once freed from
the boundary of illusion that the shadow imposes, man is able to live naturally and
authentically—not as an individual, vain entity but as a manifestation of the
interconnected universe: a spiritual being in the form of a human body.
Pirandello demonstrates how the consequences of trusting the light too much, or
placing one’s faith in constructed enterprises, can cause turmoil and further the separation
between man and the universe—completely denying the interconnectedness of the all
things in the universe. Pirandello wants the reader to recognize that death is not the
unknown darkness, but something that is already a part of us. It is not a matter of light as
good and dark as bad, but of positioning oneself at the right angle to understand that that
the shadow cast from the light is not the truth. In The Astral Plane, Leadbeater writes of
this ancient belief:
214
For the seventh or lowest subdivision of the astral plane also, this physical
world of ours may be said to be the background, though what is seen is
only a distorted and partial view of it, since all that is light and good and
beautiful seems invisible. It was thus described four thousand years ago in
the Egyptian papyrus of the Scribe Ani: “What manner of place is this
unto which I have come? It hath no water, it hath no air; it is deep,
unfathomable; it is black as the blackest night, and men wander helplessly
about therein; in it a man may not live in quietness of heart.” For the
unfortunate human being on that level it is indeed true that “all the earth is
full of darkness and cruel habitations”, but it is darkness which radiates
from within himself and causes his existence to be passed in a perpetual
night of evil and horror – a real hell, though, like all other hells, entirely of
man’s own creation. (Leadbeater The Astral Plane 20)
We must understand that the dark is a natural state but we are frightened because we only
see the dark shadow. This is one place where relativism should not pertain because,
though the shadow may be perceived as different shades of dark, the shadow itself is an
imaginary construction created from the false perception of the light.
Still skeptical of Paleari’s methods and not willing to indulge Paleari with a
conversation beyond the literal instrument of the lantern, Mattia/Meis’s only response is
to question why Paleari would put a lantern with red glass in his room for spiritualistic
experiments—seeing as though he is so critical of the lantern each of us carries within.
Always ready with an answer, Paleari says that it’s a “corrective”—to help see beyond
the harmful electric light. He concludes his diatribe saying, “Noi vogliamo scoprire altre
leggi, altre forze, altra vita nella natura, sempre nella natura, perbacco! oltre la
scarsissima esperienza normale; noi vogliamo sforzare l’angusta comprensione, che i
nostri sensi limitati ce ne dànno abitualmente,” [“We want to discover other laws, other
forces, other life in nature, but always in nature, outside our restricted normal experience.
We want to break out beyond the narrow scope of our habitually limited senses”] (Tr 1:
488; Trans. Weaver 166).
215
Pirandello demonstrates, via Paleari’s “lanternosophy,” that there is a remedy for
the “spiritual sickness”: One must gain awareness of his misconceptions and experience
the fragmentation of self-alienation in order begin the process that will heal his plagued
psyche and mend the disconnect between his perception of himself, other people, nature
and ultimately, his own soul and consciousness. The realization that one is not the rigid
and fixed self he believed himself to be is indeed frightening, but this awakening of
consciousness is the necessary first step toward returning to a state of wholeness and selfsatisfaction for those who wish to overcome their suffering. Man may acknowledge that
his personal perception of the world is faultily based on his subjective belief system, but
to achieve true lasting inner peace he must be willing to completely detach from his prior
way of sensing the world—his view of himself included.
Tantalus’s Unforgiving Karma
A few evenings after the night of the séance, Pascal wonders whether Paleari ever
suspects that Signorina Caporale and Papiano might be deceiving him but concludes that
Paleari’s faith does not waver. With a hint of sarcasm Pascal says:
Quanto alla meschinità affliggente e puerile dei resultati, la teosofia
s’incaricava di dargliene una spiegazione plausibilissima. Gli esseri
superiori del Piano Mentale, o di più sù, non potevano discendere a
communicare con noi per mezzo di un medium; bisognava dunque
contentarsi delle manifestazioni grossolane di anime di trapassati inferiori,
del Piano Astrale, cioè del più prossimo al nostro: ecco. (Tr 1: 489)
As to the melancholy wretchedness and childishness of the results,
theosophy itself was ready to give a plausible explanation. The superior
beings on the Mental Plane, or those still higher, couldn’t come down and
communicate with us through a medium; so we had to be content with the
coarser manifestations of the spirits of inferior beings on the Astral Plane,
the plane nearest us”] (Trans. Weaver 160).
216
The séance calls forth Max and his “exploits” and in the confusion Pascal kisses Adriana
for the first time. Right after, there is a thunderous rap on the table and, to everyone’s
surprise, the table began to levitate; even Pascal is amazed. He confesses that the memory
of Adriana’s kiss was momentarily erased by his amazement of the mysterious force that
came from an invisible spirit. Pascal’s mind becomes filled with things he had read in
Paleari’s books and, shuddering, he thinks of the unknown man who drowned in the
millrace. He is unable to sleep that night because he is plagued by thoughts of the man
buried in Miragno under his name. Pascal worries that he had exploited the man’s
intentions for his own good, and was afraid that he his ghost had come to haunt him.
Instead of reveling in the kiss with Adriana, Pascal has horrifying dreams.
Mattia Pascal recognizes that as Meis he is but “un’ombra d’uomo” [“a shadow of
a man”] (159) and that he can no longer maintain his illusory existence with out suffering
emotionally to the point of madness. Pascal comes to the realization that he will have to
die again if he wanted to retain his sanity. The disheartening truth for Pascal/Meis is that
it was his wife who remained free of him, and not he from his wife. Though he believed
his mistaken death to be an opportunity to create a better life with a fresh start, Pascal
unknowingly sets himself up for an even more detrimental identity crisis than he suffered
in Miragno. Pascal realizes that he needs to relinquish his second incarnation in order to
be free of his intense passions. He quickly comprehends the deceit of his illusions, and
recognizes that his new identity as Adriano Meis is limited and uncompromising. He has
fallen in love with Paleari’s daughter Adriana, but he cannot act on his emotions unless
he exposes himself as a liar. Confronting the devastating fact that the only way to prolong
his illusion is to remain silent and alone in exile. Pascal, having presumably read
217
Paleari’s copy of The Seven Principles of Man by Théophile Pascal144 and The Astral
Plane by C.W. Leadbeater, both texts that compare the man on the stage of the astral man
with Tantalus, says:
Io mi vido escluso per sempre dalla vita, senza possibilità di
rientrarvi. Con quel lutto nel cuore, con quell’esperienza fatta, me ne sarei
andato via, ora, da quella casa, a cui mi ero già abituato, in cui avevo
trovato un po’ di requie, in cui mi ero fatto quasi il nido; e di nuovo per le
strade, senza meta, senza scopo, nel vuoto. La paura di ricader nei lacci
della vita, mi avrebbe fatto tenere più lontano che mai dagli uomini, solo,
solo, affatto solo, diffidente, ombroso; e il supplizio di Tantalo si sarebbe
rinnovato per me. (Tr 1: 168)
I saw myself excluded from life forever, with no possibility of returning to
it. With this mourning in my heart, with this experience behind me, I
would now leave that house to which I had become accustomed, where I
had found a little peace, where I had almost settled down. And again I
would be on the streets, aimless, without a destination, in the void. The
fear of falling again into life’s trap would make me stay farther than ever
from mankind; alone, utterly alone and distrustful, gloomy; and Tantalus’s
torment would be renewed for me. (Trans. Weaver 199)
In “Arte e coscienza d’oggi,” Pirandello aptly referenced Tantalus145 from Greek
mythology, a son of Zeus, whose punishment of being eternally hungry and thirsty yet
unable eat or drink the fruit or water that tempts him, has made him the archetype for the
tantalizing experience of fruitlessly grasping at an elusive desire. Pirandello explained
the frustrating cycle of constant yearning and temporary relief:
144
In Antonio Illiano’s chapter on Theosophy in Metapsichica e letteratura in Pirandello, he
quotes the original French from Les sept principes de l’homme by Théophile Pascal: Lorsqu’un homme a
passé sa vie dans la jouissances materièlles, son “Corps des désirs,” nourri à profusion et intensément
vitalizé persiste très longtemps après la mort e jouit d’une conscience considérable. Il souffre alors plus ou
moins, selon l’intensité de ses desires, car le corps physique n’est plus là pour lui permettre de les satisfaire
e il subit ce que l’antiquité a symbolisé par le “Supplice de Tantale e de Sisyphe.” Illiano continues to
explain, “Il titolo stesso può essere interpretato come risultanza del convergere dei nomi di Blaise Pascal,
del quale Pirandello conosceva i pensieri sul relativismo psicologo e di Théophile Pascal, moderno teosofo
francese e autore di un volume sui sette principi dell’uomo…” (Illiano 33)
145
According to Greek legend, Tantalus is the son of Zeus and reigned as the king of Sipylis. He
was the intimate friend of Zeus and the other gods but he abused the divine favor by revealing the secrets
he had learned in heaven to mankind. Tantalus’s punishment entailed that he stand up to his neck in water,
which flowed away from him when he tried to drink it. Hungry, he attempted to eat the fruit that dangled
over his head, but the wind wafted it away whenever he tried to grasp it (Webster 401).
218
Non vogliamo soffir sempre in una stessa posizione. Cangiando, le nostre
smanie s’acchetano un po’. – Ah! Si trae un gran sospiro. Cosí sto bene! E
ci par di sedere sul trono di Giove. Ma presto le nostre smanie
ricominciano. Cerchiamo questo, vogliam quest’altro…E c’è sempre
qualcosa, che ci sta dinnanci e che non possiamo ghemire. È l’eterna
Tantalide! Libertà? Retorica! Siamo alla discrezione della vita! (Spsv 903)
We don’t want to suffer any longer in the same position. Changing, our
yearnings accept themselves for a bit. —Ah!— one heaves a big sigh. Like
this I am ok! And we seem to be seated at the throne of Zeus. But soon our
yearnings begin again. We look for this, we want the next… And there is
always something, that is there in front of us and that we are not able to
seize. It is the eternal torture of Tantalus! Freedom? Rhetoric! We are at
the discretion of life.
Pirandello’s reference to Tantalus in “Arte e coscienza d’oggi” and Il fu Mattia Pascal
was most likely influenced by Theosophy’s application of the Tantalus myth to
demonstrate man’s placement in the astral plane.146 In The Astral Plane, Pirandello’s
number one Theosophical reference manual, in the section called “The suicide and victim
of sudden death,” Charles Leadbeater describes how one with insatiable appetites in his
physical life, will be directed after death, by karma, to remain in the astral plane until he
is able to detach from the persisting desire-body. Leadbeater explains:
Though if men's earth-lives have been low and brutal, selfish and sensual,
they will be conscious to the fullest extent in this undesirable region; and
it is possible for them to develop into terribly evil entities. Inflamed with
all kinds of horrible appetites which they call no longer satisfy directly
now they are without a physical body, they gratify their loathsome
passions vicariously through a medium or any sensitive person whom they
can obsess; and they take a devilish delight in using all the arts of delusion
which the astral plane puts in their power in order to lead others into the
same excesses which have proved so fatal to themselves. (Leadbeater 45)
146
Interestingly, Blaise Pascal also references Tantalus, as well as a labyrinth, in his Le Progrès
Selon Mme De Stael. Please see De L’autorité & Du Progrès en Philosophie by Blaise Pascal in which
Pascal writes: “Nous errons dans un labyrinthe dont notre vie parcourt à piene quelque pas, et peu nous
importe qu’il y ait une entrée et une issue dans ses inextricables detours. Triste destinée du genre humain!
Pour jamais enchaîné malgré ses longs efforts, à la roue d’Ixion ou au rocher de Sisyphe, ou condamné au
supplice de Tantale!” (Pascal 303) [We wander in a labyrinth in which our life traverses with full steps, and
it matters little to us that there is an entry and an exit in its inextricable turnings. Sad destiny of mankind!
Forever connected in spite of its lengthy efforts, to the wheel of Ixion or the rock of Sisyphus, or
condemned to the torment of Tantalus!]
219
In his book The Inner Life, Leadbeater illustrates the Tantalus myth to describe the
desiring man’s prolongment in the astral plane after death. He explains the cycle of desire
and yearning:
You probably know the myth of Tantalus. He was a man condemned to
suffer in hell eternal thirst, while water surrounded him on all sides, but
receded from his lips as soon as he tried to drink. The meaning of this is
not difficult to see, when once we know what the astral life is. Every one
who leaves this world of ours full of sensual desires of any kind-- as, for
example, a drunkard, or some one who has given himself up to sensual
living in the ordinary meaning of the word-- such a man finds himself on
the astral plane in the position of Tantalus […] Remember that when a
man dies he does not change at all. His desire is still as powerful as ever.
But it is impossible to gratify it, because his physical body, through which
only he could drink, is gone. There you have your Tantalus, as you see,
full of that terrible desire, always finding that the gratification recedes as
soon as he thinks he has it. (Leadbeater 81)
The application of the Tantalus myth to depict the arrested “spiritual”
development of man on the astral plane was is also found in the book The Seven
Principles of Man (Les sept principes de l’homme), written in 1895 by the French
Theosophist, Théophile Pascal. In the chapter on Theosophy in Antonio Illiano’s
Metapsichica e letteratura in Pirandello, he quotes from Les sept principes de l’homme
by Théophile Pascal:
When a man has passed his life in the material pleasures, his “Desirebody,” nourished profusely and intensely vitalized, persists for a very long
time after death and he enjoys a considerable conscience. He suffers then
more or less, according to the intensity of his desires, because the physical
body is no longer there to enable him to satisfy them and he undergoes
what antiquity has symbolized by “The Torment of Tantalus and Sisyphus.
Pirandello evokes the mythological figure Tantalus to illustrate the frustration and
existential suspension between two incarnations that Pascal/Meis experiences—having
renounced his old identity as Mattia Pascal, yet not fully realized in his new persona as
220
Adriano Meis. Like Tantalus, Mattia Pascal experienced the dissatisfaction of his
unfulfilled desires. He yearned for liberation from his life in Miragno, and as Adriano
Meis, he experienced a brief taste of freedom. However, he soon finds himself longing
for Adriana and tormented by another hunger that can never be satisfied. His desperation
inevitably returns because he merely eclipses one illusion with another. Pascal’s inner
lantern is still burning; though at times the shadow retracts, it never completely
vanishes. Overcome with anguish, he realizes that Adriano Meis must disappear forever.
Mattia Pascal, reborn as Adriano Meis, was liberated from his former life but was equally
burdened by his new one. In a moment of either madness or revelation, Pascal resolves to
‘kill’ Meis in a manner much like Mattia Pascal’s mistaken suicide.
After a two-year period of crushing unhappiness as Adriano Meis, roaming like a
shadow in that illusion of life beyond death [“essermi aggirato due anni, come un’ombra,
in quella illusione di vita oltre la morte”], Pascal resolves to kill off his persona as
Adriano Meis, and avenge himself by coming alive again as Mattia Pascal (Trans.
Weaver 220; Tr 1: 546). Unable to fight a duel and avenge his honor in front of Adriana,
as a dead man has no recourse to the code of chivalry, Pascal runs away without knowing
where to take refuge. In a moment similar to that of Pascal’s experience of detachment
while looking at his reflection in the mirror in the chapter, “Maturazione,” Pascal says:
E andai, andai all’impazzata; poi, man mano rallentai il passo e alla fine,
arrangolato, mi fermai, come se non potessi più trascinar l’anima. […]
rimasi un pezzo attonito; poi mi mosso di nuovo, senza più pensare,
alleggerito d’un tratto, in modo starno, d’ogni ambascia, quasi istupido; e
ripresi a vagare, non so per quanto tempo, fermandomi qua e là a guardar
nelle vetrine delle botteghe, che man mano serravano, e mi pareva che si
serrassero per me, per sempre; e che le vie a poco a poco si spolassero,
perché io restassi solo, nella notte, errabondo, tra case tacite, buje, con
tutte le porte, tutte le finestre serrate, serrate per me, per sempre: tutta la
vita si rinserrava, si spegneva, ammutoliva con quella notte; e io già la
221
vedevo come da lontano, come se essa non avesse più senso né scopo per
me. Ed ecco, alla fine, senza volerlo, quasi guidato dal sentimento oscuro
che mi aveva invaso tutto, maturandomisi dentro man mano, mi ritrovai
sul Ponte Margherita, appogiato al parapetto, a guardare con occhi sbarrati
il fiume nero nella notte. […] Restai, come abbagliato da una strana luce
improvvisa. Vendicarmi! Dunque, ritornar lì, a Miragno? uscire da quella
menzogna che mi soffocava, divenuta ormai insostenibile? (Tr 1: 547)
I walked on and on, heading nowhere; then gradually I slowed my pace
and finally stopped, breathless, as if I could drag my soul no farther. […]
For a while I stood there in a daze, then began to move again, my mind
blank, suddenly, strangely relieved of all my woe, almost stupefied. And I
began to wander once more, I don’t know for how long, stopping here and
there to look in the windows of shops, which were gradually closing. They
seemed to be shutting me out, forever. Little by little the streets became
deserted, so that I was left alone in the night, wandering among silent,
dark houses, all the doors and windows shut, locked against me. Locked
out forever. Life was being locked up, extinguished, falling silent with the
night; and I already saw it as from afar, as if it no longer had any sense or
purpose for me. And then, finally, unconsciously, as if led by the dark
emotion that had invaded me, ripening slowly within me, I found myself
again on the bridge, the Ponte Margherita, leaning on the railing, staring at
the river, black in the night. […] I stood there, as if dazzled by a strange,
sudden light. Avenge myself! Return there, to Miragno? Free myself from
the lie that was stifling me, which had become unbearable now? (Trans.
Weaver 219-220).
Pascal’s spirit, once again ripening, urges him to detach from his “assurda finzione”
[“absurd fiction”] as Meis that had tortured him for two years. As in the episode in front
of the mirror, Pascal views his created reality as Adriano Meis from the distanced
perspective of afar (a return to the “da lontano” of the Filosofia della distanza). He has a
moment of liberation when he detaches from his illusions and allows his mind to go
completely blank. He knows that he needs to relinquish his identity as Meis, as it no
longer serves his purpose—if it ever did. The quietness and darkness of the night
especially allow Pascal to consider himself as separate from the life he created for
himself in Rome. Relieved that he does not have to commit actual suicide, Pascal is
uplifted by a sudden joy and, despite trembling as if were actually going to killing
222
someone, Pascal says: “Ma il cervello mi s’era d’un tratto snebbiato, il cuore allegrerito,
e godevo d’una quali ilare lucidità di spirito” [“But [my] brain was suddenly clear, my
heart light, and I felt an almost joyous lucidity of spirit”] (Tr 1: 547; Trans. Weaver 221).
Pascal’s spirit, once again ripening, urges him to detach from his “assurda finzione”
[“absurd fiction”] as Meis that had tortured him for two years. As in the episode in front
of the mirror, Pascal views his created reality as Adriano Meis from the distanced
perspective of afar (a return to the “da lontano” of the Filosofia della distanza). He has a
moment of liberation when he detaches from his illusions and allows his mind to go
completely blank. He knows that he needs to relinquish his identity as Meis, as it no
longer serves his purpose—if it ever did. The quietness and darkness of the night
especially allow Pascal to consider himself as separate from the life he created for
himself in Rome. Relieved that he does not have to commit actual suicide, Pascal is
uplifted by a sudden joy and, despite trembling as if were actually going to killing
someone, Pascal says: “Ma il cervello mi s’era d’un tratto snebbiato, il cuore allegrerito,
e godevo d’una quali ilare lucidità di spirito” [“But [my] brain was suddenly clear, my
heart light, and I felt an almost joyous lucidity of spirit”] (Tr 1: 547; Trans. Weaver 221).
Reincarnation
In the chapter entitled “Rincarnazione” (“Reincarnation”), Pascal expresses his
joy at returning to life again as ‘Mattia Pascal’ and he excitedly boards a train to
Miragno. He needed to relinquish his second incarnation as Adriano Meis to be free of
his intense passions; he was bound by the desire to be with Adriana and live within
society and all that it offers. Believing that he had overcome his mental suffering (or,
spiritually, his karmic cycle of reincarnations) by returning to Miragno as the resurrected
223
Mattia Pascal, he is surprised at his still feeling as though lost and homeless, “solo, senza
casa, senza mèta” [“alone, without a home or a destination”] (Tr 1: 575; Trans. Weaver
248). Irritated and sad that people do not recognize him, Pascal feels that he had never
existed; he says, “Nel disganno profondo, provai un avvilimento, un dispetto,
un’amarezza che non saprei ridire” [‘Profoundly disillusioned, I was annoyed, depressed,
embittered more than I can say’] (Tr 1: 575; Trans. Weaver 248). Though Pascal says he
lives peacefully with his aunt, he sleeps in the bed his mother died in, and spends most of
his day in the dusty library. He concedes his legal position is complicated, and he
considers himself as living ‘outside’ of life. Despite don Eligio’s encouragement that
writing the confessional will be beneficial, Pascal laments: “Ma io gli faccio osservare
che non sono affatto rientrato né nella legge, né nelle mie particolarità. Mia moglie è
moglie di Pomino, e io non saprei proprio dire ch’io mi sia” [“But then I point out to him
that I am far from being in a sound legal position, nor have I regained my individual
characteristics. My wife is the wife of Pomino, and I can’t really say that I’m myself. I
don’t know who I am”] (Tr 1: 578; Trans. Weaver 250). Instead of achieving the hoped
for reincarnation as a new and improved Mattia Pascal, he becomes the “late Mattia
Pascal,” remaining alive but dead according to the law—clinging to the concepts of
identity and death. In search of a happier existence, Pascal fails to overcome his limited
perception and illusions of his self-hood. As subtly alluded to by Pascal’s description of
his still green spirit, and revealed to the reader at the end of the novel, Pascal’s spiritual
sojourn allows him to learn some new things but he does not attain the freedom from
suffering he sought out to attain.
224
It is here that my analysis intersects with that of Antonio Illiano’s. Illiano writes
of Mattia Pascal’s accelerated spiritual progression:
The working of karmic law is a cardinal factor in the development of selfknowledge in all human beings at a stage of advanced intelligence and
perception. This is precisely the stage reached by Mattia Pascal, a genial
character whose charismatic nature is consistently attuned to his
enterprising quest for self-knowledge through a forcibly stepped-up pace
of maturazione which would normally require several lives. (Illiano
“Pirandello and Theosophy” 344-345)
Illiano argues that Pascal/Meis evolves from the lower plane of the astral world to higher,
fifth principle, Manas,147 (from the Sanskrit for mind), because of his “enterprising quest
for self-knowledge.” He explains that Pascal distinguishes himself as having evolved
from the astral plane of desires to the plane of intelligent and moral beings because:
“Mattia Pascal/Adriano Meis is constantly reflecting on, or confronting himself with, the
wisdom of his decisions and the value of the outcome of his actions”; and in the chapter
“Reincarnazione” (“Reincarnation”), when Pascal admonishes himself for believing the
delusion that a tree trunk could live when cut off from its roots, Illiano claims: “The
protagonist is not only questioning the soundness of his original plan but finally waking
up to his own fundamental ignorance of himself” (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy”
345). I argue, however, that Mattia Pascal advances from the lower realms of the astral
plane and achieves his highest levels of spiritual evolution (whether Pascal ever ascends
to Mansas is debatable) in the moments preceding his two incarnations: First, when
Mattia Pascal was to become Adriano Meis, and second, when Pascal decides to “kill”
Adriano Meis and “resurrect” the original Mattia Pascal. These instances of lightness of
147
Manas is defined as: “The mental faculty which makes the man an intelligent and moral being,
and distinguishes him from the mere animal. Esoterically, however, it means, when unqualified, the Higher
Ego, or the sentient reincarnating Principle in man. When qualified it is called by Theosophists BuddhiManas or the Spiritual Soul in contradistinction to its human reflection—Kama-Manas (literally, “the mind
of desire”) (Blavatsky Theosophical Glossary 202).
225
spirit, clarity and detachment from egoic illusions demonstrate the strongest moments of
the protagonist’s spiritual growth as Mattia Pascal is more strongly connected to the
sentiments of his spirit and soul than to his identity and personal desires. The moments
are unfortunately transitory, as Mattia Pascal cannot relinquish his thoughts, passions and
desires. It is his clinging to mental and physical desires that prevents Pascal from
evolving to the higher planes, as Helena Blavatsky explains, “The future state and the
Karmic destiny of man depend on whether Manas gravitates more downward to Kama
rupa, the seat of animal passions, or upwards to Buddhi, the Spiritual Ego. In the latter
case, the higher consciousness of the individual Spiritual aspirations of mind (Manas),
assimilating Buddhi, are absorbed by it and form the Ego, which goes into Devachanic
bliss”148 (Blavatsky The Key to Theosophy 92). Pascal experiences small doses of higher
consciousness but they do not persist long enough to advance him to Atman,149 the
highest level of the spiritual ladder, and stop the karmic cycle of reincarnation. Illiano
148
The following terms are defined in The Key to Theosophy: Kama Rupa: Metaphysically and in
our esoteric philosophy it is the subjective form created through the mental and physical desires and
thoughts in connection with things of matter, by all sentient beings: a form which survives the death of its
body. After that death, three of the seven “principles”–or, let us say, planes of the senses and consciousness
on which the human instincts and ideation act in turn—viz., the body, its astral prototype and physical
vitality, being of no further use, remain on earth; the three higher principles, grouped into one, merge into a
state of Devachan, in which state the Higher Ego will remain until the hour for a new reincarnation arrives,
and the eidolon of the ex-personality is left alone in its new abode. Here the pale copy of the man that was,
vegetates for a period of time, the duration of which is variable according to the element of materiality
which is left in it, and which is determined by the past life of the defunct. Bereft as it is of its higher mind,
spirit and physical senses, if left alone to its own senseless devices, it will gradually fade out and
disintegrate. But if forcibly drawn back into the terrestrial sphere, whether by the passionate desires and
appeals of the surviving friends or by regular necromantic practices—one of the most pernicious of which
is mediumship—the “spook” may prevail for a period greatly exceeding the span of the natural life of its
body. Once the Kama Rupa has learnt the way back to living human bodies, it becomes a vampire feeding
on the vitality of those who are so anxious for its company. In India these Eidolons are called Pisachas,-and are much dreaded” (340); Devachan: “The ‘Dwelling of the Gods.’ A state intermediate between two
earth-lives, and into which the Ego (Atma-Buddhi-Manas, or the Trinity made one) enters after its
separation from Kama Rupa, and the disintegration of the lower principles, after the death of the body, on
Earth” (328); Buddhi: “The ‘Universal Soul or Mind.’ also the Spiritual Soul in man (the sixth principle
exoterically), the vehicle of Atma, the seventh, according to the exoteric enumeration” (323) (See
Blavatsky The Key to Theosophy).
149
Atman, or Atma is defined: “The Universal Spirit, the divine monad, ‘the seventh Principle,’ so
called, in the exoteric ‘septenary’ classification of man. The Supreme Soul” (Blavatsky The Key to
Theosophy 319).
226
concedes that Pascal/Meis returns to the lower realm, adding: “Whatever the case may
be, the late Mattia Pascal, after his unusual journeying, is back in the limbo of Kamaloka, still alive but unable to live—a true outsider” (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy”
346). As Mattia Pascal does not recover from the Tantalus syndrome at completion of the
novel, I challenge Illiano’s claim that Il fu Mattia Pascal is “the first, and most
sophisticated Bildungsroman of the twentieth century” (Illiano 345).150 Perhaps looking
to the Bildungsroman as a point of departure, Pirandello manipulates the genre’s
traditional representation of the protagonist’s maturation from youth to adulthood, and
instead concentrates on the adult protagonist’s psychological and spiritual development.
Pirandello’s novel is a retrospective analysis of an intense period of change in the life of
Mattia Pascal, however, the protagonist does not undergo the positive transformation that
he sets out to achieve by leaving Miragno. According to Illiano’s analysis, Pascal (as
Adriano Meis) reaches Manas, the Theosophical stage of advanced intelligence and
perception, thereby gaining the self-knowledge representative of the typical protagonist
of the Bildungsroman. Illiano goes on to say, however, that: “The ‘late Mattia Pascal,’
after his unusual journeying, is back in the limbo of Kama-loca, still alive but unable to
live—a true outsider. All he can do now is to take Pelligrinotto’s advice and turn writer, a
choice warranted by his talent and apprenticeship as a librarian, reader and intellectual”
(Illiano 1977, 346). Though Pascal has undergone a spiritual journey, he does not have a
spiritual transformation, and according to Illiano, he remains paralyzed in the Kamaloca
until his third and final death.
150
Antonio Illiano goes on to explain: “The name itself suggests a convergence of the names of
Blaise Pascal, whose thoughts on human personality Pirandello knew, and Dr. Théophile Pascal, the French
theosophist whose book on the seven principles pointed, with a telling Socratic epigraph (connais-toi)
printed on the title page, to the complexities of the problem of man’s self-determination” (Illiano
“Pirandello and Theosophy” 345).
227
Given Pirandello’s familiarity with The Astral Plane, it is reasonable that he knew
the karmic outcome of men who die by their own hand. Mattia Pascal’s mistaken
“suicide,” as well as the fabricated suicide of Adriano Meis, provided Pirandello a
sophisticated framework to demonstrate Mattia Pascal’s desire and need for change and
his failure to transcend the realm of illusion represented by the astral world. Notably, in
the section concerning suicides in The Astral Plane that so interested Mattia Pascal at
Paleari’s boardinghouse, a comparison is made between tearing the stone from an unripe
fruit and the withdrawal experienced by the victim of suicide or accidental death.
Leadbeater explains:
In the case of the accidental death or suicide none of these preparations
have taken place, and the withdrawal of the principles from their physical
encasement has been aptly compared to the tearing of the stone out of an
unripe fruit; much of the grossest kind of astral matter may still cling
round the personality, which will consequently be held in the seventh or
lowest subdivision of the plane. This has already been described as
anything but a pleasant abiding-place, yet it is by no means the same for
all those who are compelled for a time to inhabit it. (Leadbeater 44)
According to Theosophy, it is plausible that Mattia Pascal does not fully
spiritually evolve due to the premature and inauthentic undertaking of his maturation
process. However, this Theosophical strata of reincarnation is meant to delineate the
spiritual progression of man after the actual death of his physical and do not account for
the man who is actually alive—as is Mattia Pascal. This is why the Buddhist concept of
the rebirth of the consciousness, as parallel to Paleari’s concept of death as blown out
lantern in ‘lanternosophy,’ is a more applicable for the living Mattia Pascal than the
Theosophical view of reincarnation after physical death. Illiano explains that Pascal’s,
“evident limitations and character defects—impressionability, caution, shrewdness,
tendency to pretend and compromise, recrimination, rationalization, selfishness, etc.—are
228
often connected to or dictated by his deep-seated need for self-analysis” which lead him
to self-recognition and traumatic insights (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 345). In
such moments of self-awareness, Illiano argues that Pascal/Meis achieved the higher
level Manas, the thinking principle, but in the end of the novel, “the late Mattia Pascal”
regresses to the astral plane, a lower plane on the spiritual ladder. Illiano’s examination
returns Mattia Pascal full circle to his detainment in the Kamaloka where he will remain
as “a true outsider” (Illiano “Pirandello and Theosophy” 346). Though Mattia Pascal
“died” and was reborn as Adriano Meis, he was not liberated from his former life at all
but further oppressed by the fictions of his new one. Pascal does not have the proper
support or corrective path to overcome these defects and achieve genuine freedom from
suffering, the Buddhist nirvana.151 The tendencies of centralization and growth explained
by Buddhism can account for Pascal’s failed liberation:
Life has two fundamental tendencies: the one is contraction
(centralization) [or unification], the other expansion [or
differentiation/growth]. If growth prevails over unity it results in
disorganization, disintegration, chaos and decay. In organic life
hypertrophy leads to the final destruction of the organism (’cancer’). In
mental life growth without unity (centralization) leads to insanity, mental
dissolution. If centralization prevails over growth it results in atrophy and
finally in the complete stagnation of life, whether physical or mental.
(Govinda 53).
If the ‘principium individuatonis,” the individual principle which enables an individual to
be conscious of itself, falls out of balance with the principle of assimilation (bodily or
mental), then the principle outgrows its own function and develops, as in the case of
151
Nirvana is defined: “According to the Orientalists, the entire ‘blowing-out,’ like the flame of a
candle, the utter extinction of existence. But in the exoteric explanations it is the state of absolute existence
and absolute consciousness, into which the Ego of a man who had reached the highest degree of perfection
and holiness during life, goes after the body dies, and occasionally, as is the case of Gautama Buddha and
others, during life” (Blavatsky The Key to Theosophy 115).
229
Mattia Pascal, the “hypertrophic ‘I’-consciousness, which constructs an unchangeable
entity, an absolute ‘Self’ or permanent ego in contrast to the rest of the world, [and] the
inner balance is destroyed and reality appears distorted in form (Govinda 54). According
to this explanation, Pascal’s unhappiness and his sense of immobility and disintegration
in Miragno, as well as his sensation of existential suspension as Adriano Meis, can be
attributed to his mental growth prevailing over unity.
At the end of Pascal’s unique experience, he has not had closure and is driven to
retell his story. In the fourth chapter, “Fu così” (“It was so”), Mattia Pascal interrupts his
explanation of how he came to marry Romilda and says: “Ragoniamo un po’, arrivati a
questo punto. Io n’ho viste di tutti i colori. Passare anche per imbecile o per…peggio, non
sarebbe, in fondo, per me, un gran guajo. Già – ripeto – son come fuori della vita, e non
m’importa più di nulla. Se dunque, arrivato a questo punto, voglio ragionare, è soltanto
per la logica” [“At this point, let’s try to think rationally for a moment. I’ve been through
all sorts of things in my time. To pass for an imbecile or for…worse…would be no great
misfortune for me. As I’ve told you, I am outside of life, and nothing matters to me
anymore. So if, at this point, I choose to discuss the situation, it’s merely for the sake of
logic”] (Tr 1: 353; Trans. Weaver 31-32). Radcliff-Umstead writes:
By writing down the memoirs of his two lives, the protagonist, who works
from the vantage point of his third existence, attempts to discover the
meaning behind his experiments and the resulting failures of the masks
that he wore in society […] The novel would then reveal a sense of logic
in the events of his lives that could not be seen at the time those events
occurred. As usual with confessional literature, there is the danger that the
narrator might impose a meaning on past happenings that would not
correspond to their true significance at the moment they actually took
place. In Pirandello’s novel the spirit of inquiry and constant debate
prevent the protagonist from arriving at facile conclusions. It is not the
task of Mattia Pascal to compose a reassuring book about the reasons for
his acts; the memoirs are not to be considered an apology but rather the
230
exploration of the two masquerades that the protagonist felt compelled to
perform before the false world. The account of his past actions and his
reflections would then provide a meaningful statement about an
individual’s failure to lead and independent and authentic life of his own.
(189)
The novel, motivated by Pascal’s need for a logical and reasonable explanation,
therefore becomes the next incarnation of Pascal’s attempted and unattained spiritual
evolution. Despite the self-knowledge Pascal may have gained by looking back on his
experience, Fritjof Capra’s explanation in The Tao of Physics accounts for his inability to
feel part of life.
As long as our view of the world is fragmented, as long as we are under
the spell of maya and think that we are separated from our environment
and can act independently, we are bound by karma. Being free from the
bond of karma means to realize the unity and harmony of all nature,
including ourselves, and to act accordingly. The [Bhagavad] Gita is very
clear on this point: All actions take place in time by the interweaving of
the forces of nature, but the man lost in selfish delusions thinks that he
himself is the actor. But the man who knows the relation between the
forces of Nature and actions, sees how some forces of Nature work upon
other forces of Nature, and becomes not their slave. (Capra 89)
Through the representation of Pascal’s stagnated condition of living outside of life as “the
late Mattia Pascal,” and his full-circle return to his unhappy existence in the Boccamazza
library, Pirandello demonstrates the unavailability of a proper spiritual path and the
difficulty in overcoming the “absolute” sense of self and “I” consciousness. As stated by
Radcliff-Umstead: “The creation of a new personality is only superficially achieved
through tonsorial, sartorial, and surgical alterations, for the one true transformation must
come from within the self. […] The protagonist therefore becomes the prisoner of his
own fictions, never attaining the freedom that was the original goal of his new life of
evasion” (Radcliff-Umstead 181). In writing his memoir, the “late Mattia Pascal” is able
231
to continue his creation of fictions, if he so chooses, as the reader never knows all sides
of a person’s entire story.
The novel closes with the image of Pascal next to his tombstone in the Miragno
cemetery. When a person who has heard his story passes and asks who he is, he shrugs
his shoulders and responds with brilliant last words, “Io sono il fu Mattia Pascal” [“I am
the Late Mattia Pascal”] (Tr 1: 578; Trans. Weaver 250). He did not find closure as
Mattia Pascal, nor does he know who he is at the present moment. Unable to detach from
his own story, his only option is to write a novel about his experience. As illustrated by
The Four Noble Truths and lanternosophy, unless the individual completely detaches
from maya by extinguishing his lantern of illusion by becoming conscious of the
interconnectedness of all things in the universe, he will not transcend the frustrating
karmic cycle of samsara. As Capra explains, “As long as this view prevails, we are
bound to experience frustration after frustration. Trying to cling to things which we see as
firm and persistent, but which in fact are transient and ever-changing, we are trapped in a
vicious circle where every action generates further action and the answer to each question
poses new questions” (Capra 95). Pascal has no choice but to return to another contrived
reality, especially in trying to find the answer to the question, “Who is the late Mattia
Pascal?”
232
Conclusion
Pirandello offers a challenging yet hopeful prognosis of the “spiritual sickness.”
Mental and spiritual angst may potentially result in man’s madness or death unless he
discovers “selflessness” and “oneness” by detaching from his illusions and false
constructions of reality. Ultimately, he must gains awareness of “no-self” and
nothingness in order to find the lasting bliss of nirvana, the “state of absolute exemption
from the circle of transmigration”—in which one is entirely freed from all forms of
existence (Blavatsky 232). For Pirandello, the “spiritual sickness” and the lack of a
readily availably solution, is especially prevalent in modern society where the cycle of
craving for capital growth and status, and the resultant gratification and eventual
disappointment, overwhelms the spiritual path of self-discovery impedes enlightenment.
Freedom of liberated consciousness, and reunion of mind, soul and spirit, is achieved
when man consciously practices detachment from his selfish desires and false beliefs, and
learns to live selflessly in harmony with himself, others, and nature—not in the universe
but as a manifestation of the universe.
After a close analysis of the novel Il fu Mattia Pascal and the final words of
Mattia Pascal, I conclude that Pirandello tantalizes Pascal with a solution to his crisis of
identity and consciousness but does not allow him to reach it, perhaps in order to
demonstrate the pitfalls of logic and reason. Pirandello effectively illustrates the difficulty
in achieving freedom from suffering due to the strength of the individual’s will to create
and believe in its creations. Just as life is continuously in the process of becoming, man
must unite his consciousness with the incessant change of mental and bodily elements
(Govinda 54). Echoing Pirandello’s sentiments that man does not recognize the relativity
233
of his perception, and that real death means creating one’s own reality and remaining
comfortable there, Govinda writes of man’s apprehension to change:
This change either appears as birth or growth or as death and decay,
though both these aspects are inseparably connected with each other like
the two sides of the same coin. Just as the same door may be called
entrance or exit according to the standpoint of the observer, so it is the
same process which we call birth or death according t our limited
perception, our one-sided point of view. By not seeing the unity of these
sides we fail to realize that we cannot desire one without inviting the
other. Clinging to life means clinging to death. The very essence of life is
change, while the essence of clinging is to retain, to stabilize, to prevent
change. This is why change appears to us as suffering. (Govinda 55)
Pascal’s return to Miragno does not go according to his plan because life has gone
on without him. Life, as it is meant to, changes in every moment. Pascal is upset by the
changes in Miragno even though he was unhappy with the way was it was before he left.
Mattia Pascal’s fundamental problem is that he cannot change himself to be harmony
with the changes inherent in life. Pascal is unable to detach from his false “self,” and
cannot cope with the dynamic changes of life, so he remains imprisoned in the cyclical
rotation of karma.
This analysis is not intended to confine or restrict Pirandello’s philosophies into
pre-established categories but aims to highlight the importance in assessing Pirandello’s
application of spiritual approaches. Upon analysis of his texts in the following chapter,
however, it can be discerned that Pirandello seems to favor the Eastern spiritual tradition
and Buddhist psychology over the methods of Western psychology and traditional
religion. Whether or not Pirandello was conscious of the established philosophy of
Buddhism, as its teachings had only recently come to light through modern Theosophy
and translations of Buddhist and Hindu doctrines, the dogma is not important—especially
not for Pirandello. The important objective for Pirandello as a humorist is to present such
234
concepts in the hopes that they will be reflected upon through meditation and be applied
without needing reason and logic. As portrayed by his typical protagonists, Pirandello is
well-aware that changing the self in such a way (i.e. obliterating the self and yielding to
Self), is a challenging commitment that not every man will choose or be able to
undertake, especially without spiritual guidance. Pirandello articulates in Il fu Mattia
Pascal that to be free of psychological suffering caused by cravings and delusions, man
does not need to conform to one religious practice or another, but he must reconcile the
disparity between form and life by: 1) overcoming the boundaries imposed by society and
the collective consciousness;152 2) gaining self-knowledge, becoming aware of and
transcending his individual, egocentric self-consciousness (ego-self); and 3) learning to
152
This is addressed by Pirandello in “L’umorismo.” As stated in the introduction, Pirandello’s
concept that the soul and consciousness are affected by a history of collective beliefs, was highly
influenced by Giovanni Marchesi. Pirandello writes in “L’umorismo”: “E mentre il sociologo descrive la
vita sociale qual’essa risulta dale osservazioni esterne, l’umorista armato del suo arguto intuito dimostra,
rivela come le apparenze siano profondamente diverse dall’essere intimo della coscienza degli associati.
Eppure si mentisce psicologicamente come si mentisce socialmente. E il mentire a noi stessi, vivendo
coscientemente solo la superficie del nostro essere psichico, è un effetto del mentire sociale. L’anima che
riflette se stessa è un’anima solitaria; ma non è mai tanta la solitudine interiore che non penetrino nella
coscienza le suggestioni della vita comune, con gl’infingimenti e le arti trasfigurative che la caratterizzano,
Vive nell’anima nostra l’anima della razza o della collettività di cui siamo parte; e la pressione dell’altrui
modo di giudicare, dell’altrui modo di sentire e di operare, è risentita da noi inconsciamente: e come
dominano nel mondo sociale la simulazione e la dissimulazione, tanto meno avvertite quanto piú sono
divenute abituali, cosí simuliamo e dissimuliamo con noi medesimi, sdoppiandoci e spesso anche
moltiplicandoci. Risentiamo noi stessi quella vanità di parer diversi da ciò che si è, che è forma
consustanziata nella vita sociale; e rifuggiamo da quell’analisi che, svelando la vanità, ecciterebbe il morso
della coscienza e ci umilierebbe di fronte a noi stessi” [While the sociologist describes social life as it
appears from external manifestations, the humorist, armed with his keen intuition, reveals how profoundly
different the outer appearances are from what takes place in the inner consciousness. Yet we lie
psychologically just as we lie socially. And, since conscious life extends only to the surface of our psychic
being, lying to ourselves is a result of social lying. The soul that reflects upon itself is a solitary soul, but
this inner solitude is never so great that the suggestions from collective life, with its typical dissimulations
and transfigurative devices, do not penetrate the consciousness. There lives in our soul the soul of the race
of the communitiy of which we are a part. We unconsciously feel the pressure of other people’s way of
judging, feeling, and acting; and as simulation and dissimulation dominate in the social world—the more
habitual they become, the less they are noticed—we too simulate and dissimulate with ourselves, doubling
and often even multiplying ourselves. We, as individuals, experience something which is inherent and
essential to social living, the vanity of seeming different from what we really are, and we avoid any
analysis which, unveiling our vanity, would prompt our remorse and humiliate us before ourselves”] (Spsv
149; Illiano, trans. 134).
235
embrace the true Self (anatta in Hinduism), similar to the concept of “no-self” (an"tman
in Buddhism). Pirandello illustrates, via the cycles of Mattia Pascal’s suffering and
frustration, that the ancient beliefs of Buddhism are as applicable in the early twentieth
century as they were two thousand years ago. Pirandello’s application forces us to ask the
question, “Have traditional Western philosophical, religious, and scientific practices
derailed man’s ability to live authentically in the universe?”
236
CHAPTER FOUR
FROM THE TRAP TO THE EXIT
Mystical Consciousness and the Language of Paradox
La vita è l’essere che vuole se stesso. Che si dà una forma. È dunque
l’infinito che si finisce. In ogni forma c’è un fine e dunque una fine. In
ogni forma è una morte. Dunque l’essere s’uccide in ogni forma, o si
nega. Diceva in questo senso Spinoza153 che ogni affermazione è
negazione. Perché l’essere vivesse bisognerebbe che s’uccidesse di
continuo ogni forma; ma senza forma l’essere non vive. Ecco l’eterna
contradizione. Perché l’essere viva è necessario che egli uccida di
continuo ogni forma, nell’attimo stesso che la crea, cosicché ogni
affermazione di vita è nello stesso tempo una morte; una morte-vita. 154
-Luigi Pirandello
The majority of Pirandello’s protagonists suffer because they ignorantly mistake
their subjective view of the world, which they mold from the vain desires and cravings of
their will, for true reality. Recurrently throughout his canon, Pirandello presents these
characters as miserably trapped in their artificial worlds—the result of a consciousness
confined by created illusions and personal attachments. In the statement above,
153
My footnote insertion: Baruch Spinoza (1634-1677) was a Dutch philosopher. According to
Bertrand Russell: “Spinoza’s metaphysic is the best example of what may be called “logical monism”—the
doctrine, namely, that the world as a whole is a single substance, none of whose parts are logically capable
of existing alone” (Russell 577). Particularly pertinent for Pirandello is: “ Spinoza is concerned to show
how it is possible to live nobly even when we recognize the limits of human power. […] Take, for instance,
death: nothing that a man can do will make him immortal, and it is therefore futile to spend time in fears
and lamentations over the fact that we must die. To be obsessed by the fear of death is a kind of slavery;
Spinoza is right in saying that ‘the free man thinks of nothing less than death.’ […] What should be avoided
is a certain kind of anxiety or terror; the necessary measures should be taken calmly, and our thoughts
should, as far as possible, be then directed to other matters. The same considerations apply to all other
purely personal misfortunes” (Russel 578). My footnote insertion
154
From “Foglietti” Inediti (Spsv 1275-76). Translation: “Life is the being that desires itself. That
gives itself a form. It is thus the
infinite that ends itself. In each form there is an aim and therefore a
conclusion. In every form is a death. So the being kills itself in any form, or denies itself. Spinoza said in
this sense that every assertion is a negation. In order for the being to live, it would need to kill itself
continuously of any form; but without form the being does not live. This is the eternal contradiction.
Because the being lives, it is necessary that it continuously kills in him every form, in the same moment
that he creates it, so that every affirmation of life is at the same time a death; a death-life. “
237
Pirandello describes the bondage of life to form and highlights the inevitable conflict in
equilibrating the dualistic forces. The constant imbalance of life and form negatively
affects the mind and causes the suffering at the root of the human condition.
Human suffering and the path to overcoming this suffering are at the core of
Buddhist psychology and the Four Noble Truths. The Buddha acknowledged the
universal human vulnerability to mental pain and he devised it as the First Noble Truth:
“There is suffering (dukkha)” (Frits Koster 15).155 In The Psychological Attitude of Early
Buddhist Philosophy, Lama Govinda describes the dualistic conflict between life and
form and he illustrates the unsuccessful attempts to resolve it:
Bondage presumes a dualism, namely, a force and something which
obstructs this force, thus, the relationship of tension between two opposed
systems, the ‘I’ and the ‘world.’ The attempt to adjust this tension
consists, on the one hand, in designs for the satisfaction of desires, that is,
in the attempt to incorporate parts of one system in the other; and on the
other hand, in aims at annihilating the opposing forces, that is, to drive
back the forces of one system with those of the other and in driving them
back, make an end of them. The attempt miscarries in both phases. Every
blow occasions an equally strong counter-blow, every counter-will again
begets willing, every act of obstruction begets resistance. Craving
increases in the exact degree it is yielded to. Every deed done for its
satisfaction is the germ, the continuously acting cause of new craving. […]
The impossibility of the equilibration of the state of tension, the total
discrepancy between subjective willing and objectively given facts, the
disharmony between ideation and actuality, is what we call suffering.
(Govinda 79-80)
The tension and disharmony described above echoes that of the tense interaction between
the six characters (representing life) in their search for an author, and the Managers and
the actors (representing form). The characters long for life but they are also bound by
their desire for an author to write their story, and therefore, grant them immortality. Most
155
Frits Koster explains: “The Buddha himself used the Pali term dukkha. The meaning of the
word dukkha can probably be rendered best as the unsatisfactory, unfulfilled, frustrating, conflicting and
painful nature of life” (Koster 15).
238
of Pirandello’s characters, like Mattia Pascal and Bernardo Sopo, do not overcome their
anguish because instead of eradicating the cause itself, they attempt to adjust the tension
by countering with the system of reasoning or by imposing another obstacle of form.
Buddhism postulates that man’s belief that the ‘ego’ is an absolute, when it is actually an
illusion, is the major obstruction to equilibrating the dualistic forces. Lama Govinda
describes the way to freedom from suffering is through “directed consciousness” and
annihilation of the vacuum of illusion:
The conquest of this disharmony, of these idiosyncrasies, the losing of the
[above-mentioned] tie, in short, the release into the state of inner freedom,
does not come about through the suppression of the will, but through the
removal of the vacuum, that is, through the annihilation of the illusion. All
suffering arises from a false attitude. The world is neither good nor bad. It
is solely our relationship to it which makes it either the one or the other.
With reference to the goal of deliverance, two main modes of
consciousness can be distinguished: the directed or the undirected.
Directed consciousness is that which, in recognition of the goal, has
entered the stream and is wholly bent upon freedom, which means that the
decisive reversal or attitude has ensued. Undirected consciousness, on the
contrary, allows itself to be driven hither and thither by instinct-born
motives and external impressions. On account of its dependence on the
external world it is designated as worldly or mundane (lokiya)
consciousness. In contradistinction to this, directed consciousness is held
to be supra-mundane (lokuttara). (Govinda 80)
“Directed consciousness,” or higher-world consciousness, detaches from external
distraction and maintains focus internally on the goal of freedom from suffering while
“undirected consciousness,” or everyday consciousness, is motivated by external
impulses and impressions. Govinda describes the three basic planes of consciousness as:
“The consciousness that dwells in the domain of the sensuous, of forms or craving
(kamavacara-citta); the consciousness which dwells in the domain of Pure Form
(rupavacara-citta); and the consciousness which dwells in the domain of the formless, of
Non-Form (arupavacara-citta), which is the intermediary between the other two”
239
(Govinda 81). Mattia Pascal, frequently changing identities and moving from place to
place, can be described as having undirected consciousness. The characters with directed
consciousness, such as Tommasino Unzio of “Canta l’Epistola” and Moscarda Vitangelo
of Uno, nessuno e centomila, focus their attention on nature and intuit the essence of
reality. These characters, immersed in meditation, allow reason and logic to be
extinguished and they recognize the interconnectivity of the natural universe. As a result,
they abandon their illusions, individual affairs, hopes and vain desires. There is a
pronounced transformation from the painstaking self-consciousness (the ‘I’-bound
domain of forms) of the early Pirandellian protagonist, Mattia Pascal, to Vitangelo
Moscarda’s detached mystical consciousness (the ‘I’-freed domain of Pure Form or NonForm)—or the state described as, “the peace which passeth all understanding” (James
Ogilvy 591). The success or failure of these characters depends on the path they take to
find freedom from suffering. That the path determines the outcome is best evidenced by
the different conclusions of the spiritual and psychological journeys of Mattia Pascal and
Vitangelo Moscarda. As discussed later in this chapter, Moscarda’s path, akin to the
Middle Way proffered by Buddhism, leads him to a state of nirvana while Mattia
Pascal’s path motivated by undirected consciousness, leads him back to the physical,
psychological and spiritual place of dis-ease from which he started.
The non-dogmatic and non-theistic practical teachings of Buddhism and Eastern
mysticism’s approach to the paradoxes of life, though perhaps gleaned indirectly by
Pirandello through various manifestations (via Arthur Schopenhauer and modern
Theosophy, for example), provide the author with the antidote to his characters’ spiritual
sickness. Pirandello demonstrates that the disintegration of spirit, induced by living in a
240
mechanistic world dominated by reason, is able to become whole again by following the
path of the ancient belief system of Buddhism. Regardless of whether Pirandello’s
tendency toward Eastern mystical philosophies were inadvertent or not, as demonstrated
in this chapter, Pirandello’s representation of the path to liberation and the rendering of
his characters’ experience of mystical consciousness—unbound by form, time and
space—ultimately advocates a metaphysical system of thought closest to the non-theistic
teachings of Buddhism. The reader is able to discern the shift from Pirandello’s
pessimistic representation of the protagonist as “trapped” to that of his positive
illustration of the protagonists’ experience of mystical consciousness and his
rehabilitative “exit” from suffering. This transition is exemplified in “Quando ero matto”
(“When I Was Mad”), “Leviamoci questo pensiero” (“Let’s Dispose of This Worry”),
“La trappola” (“The Trap”), “Canta l’Epistola” (“Sings the Epistle”), “Di sera, un
geranio” (“In the Evening, a Geranium”), and culminating in its greatest expression, Uno,
nessuno e centomila (One, No One and One Hundred Thousand).
241
Pantheism Versus Mysticism
The most beautiful emotion we can experience is the mystical. It is the
power of all true art and science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger,
who can no longer wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. To
know that what is impenetrable to us really exists, manifesting itself as the
highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty, which our dull faculties can
comprehend only in their most primitive forms—this knowledge, this
feeling, is at the center of true religiousness. In this sense, and in this sense
only, I belong to the rank of devoutly religious men.156
-Albert Einstein
Pirandello’s depictions of his characters in their moments of acute awareness of
nature and attainment of higher consciousness resemble the mystical experience. The
characters, in such moments of illumination, detach from their limited consciousness,
gain wisdom of true reality and experience enlightenment, or nirvana, the liberation of all
suffering, as this mystical state is known in Buddhism. In “Mysticism and Human
Reason,” W.T. Stace describes mysticism as a universal phenomenon that is found in
every country, age, culture and major religion and shares common elements, despite its
strong association with Christian mysticism. Stace offers a brief history of mysticism and
highlights the correspondence between the word “mysticism” in the West and the word
“enlightenment” in the East:
Those ancient inspired documents, the Upanishads, which go back in time
from 2,500 to 3,000 years, and which are the fountainheads both of the
Hindu religion and of the Vedanta philosophy, are a direct report of
mystical experience. Buddhism, too, is a mystical religion throughout. It is
founded on the mystical experience of Gautama Buddha. In the East, in
India, the word “mysticism” or any word corresponding to it is generally
not used. It is called “enlightenment” or “illumination.” But the
enlightenment experience in the East is basically the same as what is
called the mystical experience in the West. In the Mohammedan religion
the Sufis were the great representatives of mysticism. Mysticism in China
156
See Frank, Philipp Einstein: His Life and Times 284.
242
appears in connection with Taoism. The Tao is a mystical conception.
Judaism produced notable mystics. The history of Christianity is rich with
the names of great mystics and some of those names are household words:
Meister Eckhart, Saint Teresa, St. John of the Cross, and many others.
Even outside the boundaries of any institutional religion, in the ancient
Greco-Roman Pagan world, not attached, perhaps, to any particular
religion, Plotinus was one of the supremely great mystics. (Ed. Ogilvy
590)
Though mystical experiences have typically been associated with the mystic’s estatic
union with God, Maragaret Smith explains the union with the One, not exclusively in
terms of “God”—but with the One true reality.
Mysticism, then, is spiritual and transcendent in its aims, but it holds that
the Object of its quest, the World-Soul, the Absolute, the One Reality, is
also the Beloved, and as lovers the mystics seek for union with the One.
That union they believe can be attained only by passing through certain
definite stages, which they call the treading of the Mystic Way, so that
Mysticism is active and practical; it means discipline and a rule of life, and
much upward striving before the mystic can hope to attain the heights.
Mysticism, since it is permeated through and through by the power of
Love, can never be self-seeking, for the end can only be attained by selfstripping; moreover, what is given in full measure to the mystic must be
shared with others. (Margaret Smith 24)
Pirandello’s representation of the mystical experience involves man’s realization of the
interconnectivity of all things in nature. My analysis does not intend to portray
Pirandello’s characters as mystics, but to illustrate the similarities between the
protagonists’ experience of unity with nature and the mystical experience. This
representation of man immersed in nature, though perhaps inspired by the German
reception of the “vital Pantheism” found in Hinduism,157 has been incorrectly identified
157
In The German Gita, Bradley L. Herling investigates the German reception of Indian thought
during the years 1778 to 1831: “At a rather early point, prominent figures in German intellectual life
associated the “mind” of India, as exemplified by the Gita, with a crusade against the disenchantment of the
world, which had supposedly been caused by the Enlightenment. As a primordial source of cultural
wisdom, India could provide an antidote to a mechanistic world dominated by Verstand (reason) and a
rejoinder to an elitist, rarefied philosophy dominated by Vernunft (common sense). In response to the
degeneration that the Enlightenment had instigated, the ideas and the texts of India could promote a
German cultural renewal. For its Romantic detractors, the alternative to Enlightenment rationality was
243
by critics as Pantheism as Pirandello does not identify “God” with the all the aspects of
the universe.158 In the book, General Sketch of the History of Pantheism, Constance E.
Plumtre defines pantheism as, “the name given to that system of speculation which in its
spiritual form identifies the universe with God” (Plumtre 24).159
Pirandello embraces an interconnected vision of the universe, but as a selfproclaimed atheist, he is far from representing or advocating a pantheistic belief system.
Parallel to the accusation that Henri Bergson’s Élan vital was pantheistic,160 Anthony
Caputi comments that “pantheism”—as some critics have called Pirandello’s holistic
vision of the universe—“is not a fortunate term for this response” (Caputi 128). Caputi
aesthetic and synthetic, and, according to some interpreters, India’s thought essentially complemented this
vision. Bolstered by his reading of Indian religious texts like the Gita, Johann Gottfried Herder, for
example, asserted a brand of vitalist pantheism that urged certain camps in German philosophy away from
Kant, providing the bridge to early forms of Idealism. In addition, Herder was stunned to find such a
remarkable combination of philosophy and poetry in the Gita: India showed signs of understanding the
holistic vision that anti-Enlightenment forces in Germany were seeking” (Bradley Herling 3).
158
In L’estetica di Pirandello, Claudio Vicentini writes: “La descrizione di momenti estatici e
privilegiati ritorna ripetutamente nell’opera di Pirandello. Lo loro caratteristica commune è l’eccezionalità:
sono la sospensione dell’esperienza consueta. Inizialmente si definiscsono come partecipazione panteistica
alla vita della natura (vedi Quando ero matto e Canta l’Epistola) o come coscienza dell’estraneità delle
cose (vedi L’umorismo e Giustino Roncella)” (Vincentini 187-188).
159
In the book, General Sketch of the History of Pantheism, Constance E. Plumtre defines
Pantheism: “Pantheism, in the generally accepted meaning of the word, is the name given to that system of
speculation which in its spiritual form identifies the universe with God. Its antiquity is undoubtedly great,
for it is prevalent in the oldest known civilization of the world. The Hindu Pantheism is taught especially
by the Vedas, which are religious books; by the Vedanta, which is a philosophy; and by the Bhagavadgita,
which is a poem partly religious, partly philosophic. Hindu Pantheism is purely spiritual in character;
matter and (finite) mind are both absorbed in the fathomless abyss of illimitable and absolute being”
(Plumtre 24)
160
The Vatican placed Henri Bergson’s work on the Index in 1914. R.C. Grogin explains: “The
Vatican believed that Modernism was a well-organized conspiracy dedicated to the subversion of the
Catholic faith. When Rome issued the encyclical Pascendi Gregis in 1907 it dealt a mortal blow to
Modernism, and eliminated what it felt was a great danger to formal religion. Pascendi and the decree
which followed it, Lamentabili sane exitu, thoroughly condemned the modernist theses. In 1908 Alfred
Loisy was excommunicated, modernist journals were forced to close, and the works of the leading
modernists were placed on the Index. What then followed was, according to a recent historian of the
subject, nothing less than an “anti-modernist witchhunt” which lasted until the 1920s. A purge followed
Pascendi in which modernists and those presumed to be modernists were fired from administrative and
teaching positions in seminaries and universities. Moreover, argus-eyed vigilance committees serving the
bishop in each diocese were to see to it that anyone affiliated with a Catholic institution or publication who
expressed a "different" view on such subjects as biblical exegesis or scholasticism was to be purged. These
efforts to stamp out the modernist heresy reached a peak in 1910 when the Holy See, believing that
Modernism still enjoyed a clandestine existence, imposed an anti-modernist oath on all priests having a
pastoral charge or entering major orders” (R.C. Grogin 165-166)
244
cites the novella, “Quando ero matto” (“When I Was Mad”) (1902), as an early example
of a work that has been misconceived as pantheistic. The protagonist, Fausto Bandini,
begins the story with an admission that he is now “savio”—a word that can be translated
as either wise or sane. He says: “Prima di tutto chiedo licenza di permettere che ora sono
savio. Oh, per questo, anche povero. Anche calvo. Quando’ero ancora io, voglio dire, il
reverito signor Fausto Bandini, ricco, e in capo avevo tutti i miei bellissimi capelli, è però
provato provatissimo ch’ero matto” [“First of all, I ask permission to state upfront that
now I am sane/wise. Oh, for this, also poor. Also bald. When I was still myself, that is,
the revered Mr. Fausto Bandini, rich, and I had all my beautiful hair on my head, it was
very much proven however that I was mad”] (TLN 1: 761). He explains that one day, to
his wife’s chagrin, the idea came to him to offer a poor girl a job as a servant in his
house. Bandini says:
E si badi: qualifico pazzia quest’idea improvvisa, non tanto per la trepida
gioja che mi suscitò e che riconobbi in prima benissimo, per averla altre
volte provata tal quale, quand’ero matto: specie d’ebbrezza abbarbagliante
che dura un attimo, un lampo, nel quale il mondo sembra dia un gran
palpito e sussulti tutto dentro di noi; quanto per le riflessioni da povero
savio con cui cercai subito di puntellare quell’ebbrezza in me. (TLN 1:
762-763).
And mind you: I qualify as madness this sudden idea, not so much for the
anxious joy that excited me and that I recognized very well at first, for it
having other times so tested me, when I was mad: kind of dazzling
drunkenness that lasts a moment, a flash, in which the world seems to give
a great blast and shakes everything inside of us; for as long as the
reflections from a poor wise/sane man with which I immediately sought to
strengthen that intoxication in me.
Fausto Bandini receives a message from the universe and he experiences a flash of joy so
dazzling that he construes it as madness. Like so many other Pirandellian characters who
experience mystical consciousness and gain wisdom of true reality, Bandini believes that
245
he was “mad” because his new perspective marginalized him from the artificial world of
illusions that makes up society. Therefore, Pirandello’s choice of the word “savio” is
significant in that it is possible that Bandini is wiser and more sane than he was before his
mystical experience, yet the implication remains that before he was “crazy.”
Bandini explains that when he was mad, he was alienated from himself in such a
way that recalls the detachment from the ‘I’-bound domain of forms: “Quand’ero matto,
non mi sentivo in me stesso; che è come dire: non stavo di casa in me. Ero infatti
divenuto un albergo aperto a tutti” [“When I was mad, I did not feel myself in myself;
that is to say: I was not at home in myself. I had become in fact a hotel open to
everyone”] (TLN 1: 764). Bandini goes on to explain the sensation of detachment from
his ego-self and the experience of unifying vision that he experiences as he offers his help
and services those less fortunate:
Non potevo dir: io, nella mia coscienza, che subito un’eco non mi
ripetesse: io, io, io … da parte di tanti altri, come se avessi dentro un
passerajo. E questo significava che se, poniamo, avevo fame e lo dicevo
dentro di me, tanti e tanti mi ripetavano dentro con loro: ho fame, ho fame,
ho fame, a cui bisognava provvedere, e sempre mi restava il rammarico di
non potere per tutti. Mi concepivo insomma in società di mutuo soccorso
con l’universo; ma siccome io allora non avevo bisogno di nessuno, quel
“mutuo” aveva soltanto valore per gli altri. (TLN 1: 764).
I could not say: I, within my consciousness, that instantly an echo would
not repeat: I, I, I … from the part of many others, as if I had chirping
inside. This meant that if, let us suppose, I was hungry and I said it within
me, more and more they would repeat from inside: I am hungry, I am
hungry, I am hungry, for which provisions would be necessary, and not
being able to provide for all of them, I was always left with regret. In short
I thought I was in a mutual aid partnership with the universe; but since at
that time I did not need anyone, that “mutual” only had value for others.
Bandini, in thinking of the others’ needs as though they were his own, embodies
selflessness and compassion. He says that his first wife considered his behavior an
246
indication of a kind craziness of the times—perhaps akin to the multiple personality
disorder being studied at the time by Freud, Binet and others. Bandini, however, offers an
explanation that would sound perfectly sane to Buddhists in his treatise, Fondamento
della morale (Foundation of Morality), namely that it is his wife who does not
understand the shared commonality of suffering that resides in every individual. It is
interesting to note that Radcliff-Umstead looks to Foucault’s Madness and Civilization to
bolster the proposition that Bandini was indeed “mad” while in the same year that
“Quando ero matto” was written, William James noted the similarity between the mystic
and schizophrenic experience. (Kenneth Wapnick 321).161 Radcliff-Umstead describes
the techniques Pirandello applies to represent the unconscious and demented mind:
Through the technique of the interior monologue the narrator also enters
into debate with his audience in an effort to demonstrate his position and
prove his contention that to pursue wisdom and beve morally will only
provide convincing evidence of a demented mind. In Madness and
Civilization Foucault declared that the necessity of madness is bound to
the possibility of history. Bandini’s personal history arises out of the
madness of social relationships that Pirandello’s paradoxical art probes. In
dichotomies like matto / savio or ricco / mendicante, the signifying terms
of the story establish reflexive relations as the tale turns on itself in an
examination of an individual’s nocturnal nature, which the narrative
method allows the reader to explore. The reader becomes an internal
observer as the author eliminates the initial narrator / reader distance and
reproduced the schizoid annihilation of ordinary chronological time in
order to transform present and past into eternity. With its starts,
interruptions, and winding back upon itself, the interior monologue serves
161
In “Mysticism and Schizophrenia,” Kenneth Wapnick writes: “William James noted the
similarity between the mystic and schizophrenic experience as far back as 1902. He distinguished between
two kinds of mysticism; a higher and a lower. The former included the classic mystical experiences, while
the latter James identified with insanity, which he termed a ‘diabolical mysticism.’ James concluded that in
both forms is found: ‘The same sense of ineffable importance in the smallest events, the same texts and
words coming with new meanings, the same voices and visions and leadings and missions, the same
controlling by extraneous powers . . . It is evident that from the point of view of their psychological
mechanism, the classic mysticism and these lower mysticisms spring from the same mental level, from that
great subliminal or transmarginal region of which science is beginning to admit the existence, but of which
so little is really known. That region contains every kind of matter: ‘seraph and snake’ abide there side by
side” (Wapnick 321).
247
here to represent the linguistic structures of the unconscious. (RadcliffUmstead 55)
Maragret Smith, on the other hand, approaches the annihilation of self and time from the
perspective of the mystical experience: “Self-loss, withdrawal from self, self-annihilation,
these are essential to those who would approach the Absolute. Only when all images of
earth are hushed and the clamor of the senses is stilled and the soul has passed beyond
thought of self can the Eternal Wisdom be revealed to the mystic who seeks that high
communion with the Unseen” (Smith 21). Thus, one is able to discern the possibility of
mistaking mental illness, or what Radcliff-Umstead calls Bandini’s “schizoid
annihilation,” mistaking mental illness for mystical consciousness and experience.
The following description of Bandini’s experience of inner silence and intimacy
with nature is at the heart of the debate between the claim of Pantheism and Caputi’s
dispute of such label. Bandini describes a certain day in the country in which he
experiences the ecstasy of a divine vision:
Sul cadere della sera, in villa, mentre da lontano mi giungeva il suono
delle cornamuse che aprivano la marcia delle frotte dei falciatori di ritorno
al villaggio con le carrette cariche del raccolto, mi pareva che l’aria tra me
e le cose intorno divenisse a mano a mano più intima; e che io vedessi
oltre la vista naturale. L’anima, intenta e affascinata da quella sacra
intimità con le cose, discendeva al limitare dei sensi e percepiva ogni più
lieve moto, ogni più lieve rumore. E un gran silenzio attonito era dentro di
me, sicché un frullo d’ali vicino mi faceva sussultare e un trillo lontano mi
dava quasi un singulto di gioia, perché mi sentivo felice per gli uccelletti
che in quella stagione non pativano il freddo e trovavano per la campagna
da cibarsi in abbondanza felice, come se il mio alito li scaldasse e li
cibassi di me.
Penetravo anche nella vita delle piante e, man mano, dal sassolino, dal
fil d’erba assorgevo, accogliendo e sentendo in me la vita d’ogni cosa,
finché mi pareva di divenir quasi il mondo, che gli alberi fossero mie
membra, la terra fosse il mio corpo, e i fiumi le mie vene, e l’aria la mia
anima; e andavo un tratto così, estatico e compenetrato in questa divina
visione.
248
Svanita, restavo anelante, come se davvero nel gracile petto avessi
accolto la vita del mondo. Mi mettevo a sedere a piè d’un albero, e allora
il genio della mia follia cominciava a suggerirmi le più strambe idee: che
l'umanità avesse bisogno di me, della mia parola esortatrice: voce
d’esempio, parola di fatto. A un certo punto m’accorgevo io stesso che
deliravo, e allora mi dicevo:: “Rientriamo, rientriamo nella nostra
coscienza …” Ma ci rientravo, non per veder me, ma per veder gli altri in
me com’essi si vedevano, per sentirli in me com’essi in loro si sentivano e
volerli com’essi si volevano.
Ora, concependo e riflettendo così nello specchio interiore della
coscienza gli altri esseri con una realtà uguale alla mia e per tal mezzo
anche l’Essere nella sua unità, un’azione egoistica, un’azione cioè nella
quale la parte si erige al posto del tutto e lo subordina, non era naturale che
mi apparisse irragionevole?
Ahimè, sì. Ma mentre io per le mie terre camminavo in punta di piedi e
curvo per vedere di non calpestare qualche fiorellino o qualche insetto, dei
quali vivevo in me la tenue vita d’un giorno, gli altri mi rubavano la
campagna, mi rubavano le case, mi spogliavano addirittura.
E ora, eccomi qua: ecce homo! (TLN 1: 766-767)
As evening fell in the country, […] it seemed to me that the air
between me and the things around me slowly became more intimate: and I
saw beyond the natural view. The soul, absorbed and fascinated by that
sacred intimacy with things, went down to the threshold of the senses and
perceived every slight movement, every slight noise. And a great blank
silence was inside me, so that a flutter of wings made me wince, and
almost gave me a sob of joy, because I felt happy for the little birds that
did not suffer from the cold that season and ate in abundance throughout
the countryside; happy, as if my breath warmed them and as if I fed them
myself.
I penetrated also into the life of plants and, gradually, from the stone,
from the blade of grass, welcoming and feeling in me the life of
everything, until I seemed to become almost the world, that the trees were
my limbs, the earth was my body, and the rivers my veins, and my soul the
air; and suddenly I was so ecstatic and permeated in this divine vision.
Dissolved, I remained breathless, as if truly in my weak chest I had
received the life of the world.
I was sitting at the foot of a tree, and then the genius of my insanity
was beginning to suggest the most outlandish ideas: what humanity
needed of me, of my exhortatory word: Voice of example, word of fact. At
a certain point I realized that I was delirious, and then I said to myself:
“Let’s return, let’s return to our consciousness …” But I returned there,
not to see me, but to see others in me as they saw themselves, to feel them
in me as they felt in themselves, to want for them as they wanted for
themselves.
249
Now, so conceiving and reflecting in the inner mirror of the
consciousness the other beings with a reality equal to mine and by such
means also Being in its unity, an egotistical action, an action that is in
which the part one builds in place of everything and subordinates it, was it
not natural that it would appear unreasonable to me?
Alas, yes. But while I was walking across my land and tiptoed so as to
see not to step on some flower or some insect, through which lived in me
the tenuous life of a day, the others stole the country from me, they stole
from me the houses, they even undressed me.
And now, here I am: this is man!
Bandini experiences a sense of oneness with the universe when all of nature seems to
penetrate his consciousness and fill his soul. After the moment of inner silence passes,
Bandini’s ego-self tries to make him return to everyday consciousness and causes him to
think that he is delirious. He remains conscious of the feelings, views and desires of the
others that he felt with in himself, however, he mistakes this comprehension of the unity
of Being, or the higher Self, as being egotistical—when it is really the opposite. Bandini,
stripped of his blinders, transcends the ego-self and experiences a vision of the universe
at it really is—comprised of nature and Beings that are a manifestation of nature.
Caputi is most likely referring to Radcliff-Umstead’s label of “pantheism” to
describe Bandini’s relationship with nature. Radcliff-Umstead writes:
Hoping to win his first wife, Mirina, over to his views, he composed a
treatise called The Foundation of Morality, also in the form of a dialogue
with his spouse in which he defended his belief in an immanentist
philosophy with its vision of a harmonious world. Mention of the dialogue
treatise adds another narrative level to the tale that proceeds from the
present of sanity to a past of madness and then to the pantheistic text with
its debates. Bandini’s longing to experience continual empathy with the
surrounding world, even to penetrating the life of the plants, belongs to the
same kind of mystical lunacy as that of St. Francis D’Assissi and follows
an inclination studied by Freud of the conscious desire to adhere to the
unconsciousness. Within this tale’s multiple levels the narrator wishes to
show his former pantheism as an error, for when he thought he was living
a divinely inspired existence, his employees were robbing him. (RadcliffUmstead 56)
Anthony Caputi argues against the label of Pantheism assigned to Fausto Bandini’s
250
consciousness of nature:
What looks less like a healing attitude and more like a self-consciously
derived solution to the problems of human life, and what such discerning
critics as Arminio Janner, Giovanni Calendoli, and Douglis RadcliffUmstead propose as Pirandello’s answer, is his periodic interest in what
they call pantheism, but what is more accurately a giving over of the
struggle altogether in favor of sinking into the flux of nature. We see an
early version of it in “When I Was Mad” (1902), the story of Fausto
Bandini’s discovery that he had been mad all those years when he had
housed a great many selves, most of them imposed by others. To be mad is
to lose oneself among the chaos of selves within, to see neither oneself nor
the world for oneself. With this recognition Fausto’s sense of himself as
an individual begins; he gives up reasoning, that is, accommodating the
perspectives of others, and he becomes “wise.” His state of being
approaches something like pantheism on the night when, wandering
outside the villa where his beloved sister-in-law awaits burial, he learns
that his wife has a lover. As he dismisses all conventional responses to the
betrayal, a dismissal that will later certify another kind of madness for the
others, he is acutely conscious of the clouds and the wind and the vast
mystery surround man’s petty imperatives. He does not identify himself
with this nature, yet perceiving it in this way he embraces the
nonreasoned, nonstructured, almost prerational acquiescence that we shall
see is central to Pirandello’s so called pantheism. But “pantheism” is not a
fortunate term for this response. (Caputi 128)
This description of the protagonist correlates to experiencing mystical consciousness,
which is the precursor to the mystical experience, or enlightenment. Pirandello does not
describe Bandini as recognizing God in all the elements of nature, rather, he is described
as experiencing nature in himself. While I agree that Pantheism is not the proper term, I
challenge Radcliff-Umstead’s quick dismissal of Bandini’s experience as “mystical
lunacy,” and, contrary to Anthony Caputi, I consider the embodiment of such wisdom to
be intuited by a higher consciousness and a healing attitude, rather than a “selfconsciously derived solution to the problems of human life.” Pirandello’s representation
of Fausto Bandini’s awareness of nature and his “nonreasoned, nonstructured, almost
prerational acquiescence,” as well as his representation of characters in even more intense
251
moments of heightened consciousness and immersion in nature is, indeed, incorrectly
labeled as a pantheistic rendering. However, this experience claims more substantiality
than merely the, “giving over of the struggle altogether in favor of sinking into the flux of
nature,” as it is called by Caputi. This experience of detachment from the ego-self and
relinquishing of all illusions is indicative of nirvana, defined by the early Buddhist
doctrine, the Pali Canon, as:
‘Nirvana’ is the complete and utter dissolution of the three unwholesome
roots of greed, hate, and delusion. It is said of the tathagata that on
entering Nirvana the skandhas (bundles) are completely dissolved, and are
rooted out, so they can never arise again. The five skandhas are: rupa,
vedanam samjna, samskara and vijnana, or respectively physical form,
feeling, perception (both physical and mental), drives, and consciousness
[…] It is without foundation, without beginning and without end. It is
peace without movement or desire, the end of all suffering. […] It is
without a substantial self (anatta), the perfect peace, a ‘nothing’ as
compared with all visible configurations (Helmuth Von Glasenapp 107).
The “Unifying Vision”
Pirandello’s belief that it is an illusion to think of oneself as living independently
from nature, and his belief that man can transcend the consciousness limited by his
quotidian routine through the reunion with nature, is similar to what is known as the
“unifying vision” in mysticism. W.T. Stace explains that this “unifying vision,” or
“unitary consciousness,” is the fundamental characteristic of all mystical experience.
Similar to the characters’ need to gain a perspicacious awareness of and transcend the
illusions fostered by the routines and obligations of everyday life, Stace describes the
“unifying” vision versus the vision of “multiplicity”:
We may contrast the mystical consciousness with out ordinary, everyday,
rational consciousness. Our ordinary, everyday consciousness is
characterized by multiplicity. I mean that both the senses and the intellect,
which constitute our everyday consciousness, are in contact with and are
252
aware of a vast number, a plurality, a multiplicity of different things. In
our ordinary consciousness we discriminate between one thing and
another. But the mystical consciousness transcends all differences and all
multiplicity. In it there is no multiplicity and no division of interest. (Ed.
Ogilvy 591)
Pirandello’s protagonist Moscarda Vitangelo, confronted by the idea of one hundred
thousand varying visions of himself, best embodies this everyday consciousness of
multiplicity. Pirandello stresses that many men, unable to remove the blinders that inhibit
the view of true reality, remain unaware that they are able to attain a higher mode of
consciousness. Reason and logic fuel man’s ignorance and it is challenging to break
down the barriers imposed by everyday consciousness. However, when man accesses the
wisdom of true reality, he comes to understand the eternality of nature; all forms,
including conclusions, are illusions and not part of true reality. This transcendent view of
man as a manifestation of nature, and nature as eternal, shows a distinct move away from
Blaise Pascal’s warning that one’s eternity will be either heaven or hell, depending on the
strength of his monotheistic Christian faith. Pirandello, maintaining his criticism of
traditional science and religion, demonstrates the need to move toward a non-religious
and non-dogmatic spirituality that offers a prescription for authentic living. Via his
representation of the enlightenment of the modern man, Pirandello confirms the
effectiveness of the Buddha’s Middle Way to equilibrate the inherent imbalance of life
and form.
253
The Art of Not Concluding
By the time of his death it was quite certain that Luigi Pirandello was one
of the great dramatic artists of this century. There was no unanimity,
however, in the reasons given for this greatness, for, appropriately enough,
Pirandello’s plays about the puzzling nature of experience were
themselves puzzling. Since then twelve years have passed, and it is
perhaps now possible to consider his purpose without the hysteria of
partisanship that obscured so much of the criticism. Today Pirandello as
author is in the unusual position that his works are historical yet
contemporary. […] There is a complexity of attitude and of approach to
character and experience that is typical of some of the more intellectual
men of letters of the century. It is characteristic of Shaw, to whom
Pirandello is most often compared, of Ibsen, of Strindberg, perhaps of J.
M. Synge. In Pirandello this complexity gives rise to a constant sense of
paradox. (Fiskin 44)
According to Pirandello, man is able to achieve freedom from the suffering
imposed by the everyday consciousness by observing nature and seeing himself as a
manifestation of the natural world around him. The conflict for man lies in the
paradoxical reality that to live truly authentically, that is, as immersed in the dynamic
flow of the universe, one must die and be reborn in each moment—eternally, with no
conclusion. Remaining present in this perpetual state of becoming is necessary to avoid
the tantalizing compulsion to create conclusions and forms, and therefore, cling to the
illusion death. Pirandello clearly delineates such ideas in his critical essays, but he faces a
new crisis of representation in illustrating mystical consciousness and the ineffable
experience of enlightenment, or nirvana. Pirandello’s aim to create art that represents life
is not hindered by this challenge, and he succeeds in representing the paradox of the
“death-life” (quoted in the beginning of this chapter) by calibrating the natural
fluctuations of the characters’ consciousness with the flux and movement of life
manifested in nature. I argue that Pirandello, via his stratagem of not concluding, intuits a
way to represent the mystical experiences of his characters as they realign themselves
254
with nature and overcome the “eternal contradiction” of the conflict between life and
form.
As evidenced in this chapter, Pirandello not only represents man’s recognition of
nature as not concluding, but also rises to the challenge of representing life, and therefore
art, as not concluding. W.T. Stace describes the ineffability and timelessness of the
mystical experience:162
Closely connected with, and perhaps as a result of this characteristic of
transcending all multiplicity, discrimination, and division are other
characteristics common to the mystical experience in all religions. It is
non-sensuous, non-intellectual, and non-conceptual. And since all words
except proper nouns stand for concepts, this means mystical experience is
beyond all words, incapable of being expressed in any language;
“ineffable” is the usual word. Another characteristic is that what is
experienced is beyond space and time. It is timeless; and timelessness is
eternity. And therefore the mystical consciousness, even though it lasts
only for a very short while, perhaps only a moment, it is nevertheless
eternal. For that moment gathers into itself all eternity. It is an eternal
moment. (Stace 591)
Ultimately, Pirandello wants to represent characters, such as Unzio and Moscarda, in this
“eternal moment” of awakening, or enlightenment, as living parts of nature yet dying in
every instant. Nirvana is, in essence, expressed in the negative, and is therefore also
outside of the scope of communicative language:
[‘Nirvana’] is something that can be expressed in the negative only, for it
possesses no specific marks that language can encompass. The Pali Canon
even employs the paradox that Nirvana is ‘bliss’ though there is neither a
subject to enjoy it, nor the skandha vedana (feeling); the bliss of Nirvana
consists indeed in not feeling anything. (Helmuth Von Glasenapp 107).
162
Regarding the ineffability of the mystic experience, Arthur Deikman writes in Understanding
Mysticism: “Mystic experiences are ineffable, incapable of being expressed to another person. Although
mystics sometimes write long accounts, they maintain that the experience cannot be communicated by
words or by reference to similar experiences from ordinary life. They feel at a loss for appropriate words to
communicate the intense realness, the unusual sensations, and the unity cognition already mentioned.
However, a careful examination of mystic phenomena indicates that there are at least several types of
experiences, all of which are “indescribable” but each of which differs substantially in content and formal
characteristics. Error and confusion result when these several states of consciousness are lumped together
as “the mystic experience” on the basis of their common characteristic of ineffability” (Deikman 256).
255
Thus, it becomes clear that Pirandello’s reinforcement of the “not having” and “being
without” in his description of Tommasino Unzio’s, and later Vitangelo Moscarda’s,
moment of liberation is deliberately executed to compensate for the lack of adequate
language to describe this particular state of ‘nothingness’: “Non aver più coscienza
d’essere, come una pietra, come una piñata; non ricordarsi più neanche del proprio nome;
vivere per vivere; senza sapere di vivere, come le bestie come le piante; senza più affetti,
né desiderii, né memorie, né pensieri; senza più nulla che desse senso e valore alla
propria vita” [“To have no consciousness of being, like a stone, like a plant; to no longer
recall even one’s own name; to live for the purpose of living, without knowing about it,
like the animals, like the plants, no longer with feelings or desires or memories or
thoughts, no longer with anything that might give a sense of value to one’s life”] (Na I
446; Caputi 129). Fritjof Capra highlights the paradoxical situations confronted by
Eastern mysticism and modern physics:
Eastern mysticism has developed several different ways of dealing with
the paradoxical aspects of reality. Whereas they are bypassed in Hinduism
through the use of mystical language, Buddhism and Taoism tend to
emphasize the paradoxes rather than conceal them. […] Here we find a
striking parallel to the paradoxical situations which confronted physicists
at the beginning of atomic physics. As in Zen, the truth hidden in
paradoxes that could not be solved by logical reasoning, but had to be
understood in the terms of a new awareness; the awareness of the atomic
reality. The teacher here was, of course, nature, who, like the Zen masters,
does not provide any statements. She just provides the riddles. (Capra 47,
49)
Nature has always been, and will always be, man’s teacher. Pirandello aims to represent
this truth in his art with the additional challenge of not producing a symbolic art that is
trapped by its own form. Perhaps for Pirandello, the humorist, this paradoxical aspect of
reality provided the perfect paradigm for provoking the awareness and sentiment of the
256
opposite on the most visceral level: in order to truly live, one’s consciousness must die
and be reborn in every moment.
Pirandello’s philosophical narration in stories such as “La trappola” give way to
the artistic representation of the “uscita,” or exit from suffering through the
contemplation of nature. Despite Pirandello’s, as well as the characters’ recognition of
the illusion of concluding, the mystical experiences in the novelle, “Canta l’Epistola”
(“Sing the Epistle”) and “Quando ero matto” (“When I Was Mad”), for example, are
ensconced by the narration of the characters’ story and, bound by traditional form, they
offer the reader clear conclusions. However, as best illustrated by the lack of conclusion
of the novel, Uno, nessuno e centomila, Pirandello effectively overcomes this crisis of
representation in his rejection of narrative finality—which Pirandello indicates explicitly
by calling the last of the novel, “Non conclude.”
257
The Beginning of “Non conclude”
Bisogna che l’esssere accada, crei a sé stesso la sua apparenza: il mondo.
Il mondo è l’attività dell’essere, un’apparenza, un’illusione, a cui l’essere
stesso dà valore di realtà. Questa realtà non può dunque non scoprirsi
quello che è, cioè un’apparenza, un’illusione necessaria; perché necessario
è questo: che l’essere accade. E se l’essere è eterno, eterno sarà l’accadere,
e dunque un accadere senza fine, e dunque senza un fine, e dunque un
essere e un accadere che on concludono mai. La vita non conclude.163
Pirandello’s emphasis on the conflict between the endless and eternal duration of
the natural universe versus illusive man-made finite conclusions are observable as early
as 1909. From then on, there is a notable shift from his pessimistic representation of man
as trapped by the vain illusions of his ego-self to a more optimistic rendering of man’s
existence in the universe and the harmonious reconciliation with his true Self. Pirandello
no longer focuses solely on man’s view of himself as an insignificant, suffering entity on
the linear path from birth to death, but aims to demonstrate that man, his consciousness
included, is a manifestation of the eternal lifecycle of nature. Pirandello began his novel
Uno, nessuno e centomila (One, No one and One Hundred Thousand) in 1909, though he
did not complete it until 1925. Also in 1909, Pirandello wrote the article, “Non conclude”
(“It Does Not Conclude”),164 which shares its title with that of the last chapter of Uno,
nessuno e centomila. This obscure yet telling article offers insight to Pirandello’s view of
163
Luigi Pirandello from “Foglietti” Inediti (Spsv 1275). Translation: “It is necessary that being
occurs, to believe in oneself, an appearance: The world is the activity of being, a form, an illusion, to which
the being himself gives value to reality. This truth cannot therefore discover itself that is an appearance, a
necessary illusion; because this is necessary: that being happens. And if being is eternal, eternal will be the
occurrence, and therefore an infinite happening, therefore without end, and therefore a being, an occurrence
that will never be concluded. Life does not end.”
164
Pirandello’s article, “Non conclude,” was published in “La Preparazione” six months after “Da
lontano” in August of 1909. “Non conclude” was republished by Giancarlo Mazzacurati in the appendix of
Effetto Sterne. La narrazione umoristica in Italia da Foscolo a Pirandello (Sterne Effect. The Humoristic
Narration in Italy from Foscolo to Pirandello Pisa: Nistri-Lischi 1990 437-439) (TLN 2: 1093-1094).
258
nature as non-concluding and man’s need to create conclusions. Pirandello explains that
these conclusions, merely another form of illusion, are formulated because man wears “il
paraocchi” (blinders) that inhibit his view of the world around him. When man takes off
his blinders, an action similar to the soul that jumps to look through the larger lens of the
telescope, a different and more accurate vision of reality is revealed. Pirandello writes:
E l’uomo si accorge allora, che per un pezzo, per venire a una conclusione,
s’era impostato quasi un parocchi, che gli escludeva la vista delle altre
cose intorno. Ora, caduto il paraocchi, la mèta raggiunta si vede come
sperduta tra tutte quest’altre cose intorno, che chiamano, attirano e tolgono
il piacere della giunta. / Che ho concluso? –si domanda allora l’uomo. /
Ma il riconoscimento più forte di non aver concluso nulla avviene quando,
astraendoci dalle contingenze effimere, dalle brighe quotidiane, dalle
passioni, dai desideri, dai doveri che ci siamo impostati, dalle abitudini
che ci siamo tracciate, abbattiamo i limiti illusorii della nostra coscienza
presente, allarghiamo i confini della nostra abituale visione della vita, ci
solleviamo spassionati a contemplare e considerare da una altezza tragica
e solenne la natura. / È il riconoscimento dei vecchi, che appunto il
grembo eterno della natura si riaccostano. / E da questo riaccostarsi alla
natura si deriva il riconoscimento. / Perché la natura, nella sua eternità,
non conclude. E noi che siamo in lei, che siamo lei stessa, ma che per
alcun tempo ci siamo visti e considerati come parti per noi medesimi
staccate e distinte, quando s’approssima il momento di rientrare e di
perderci in essa, nella sua eternità, riconosciamo vana, illusoria, arbitaria
ogni conclusione nostra, riconosciamo che veramente non concludiamo
nulla. Rimane eterna dopo ciascuno di noi la natura: eterna appunto perché
non conclude. (TLN 2: 1093-1094)
And then man realizes, that for a while, in order to come to a conclusion,
he had put on blinders, which excluded him from the view of the other
things all around. Now, taking away the blinders, one sees the goal
reached as lost among all the other things around, that call, attract and take
pleasure away from the gain. / What have I concluded? –the man then
asks. / But the stronger recognition of having concluded nothing happens
when, abstracting from the ephemeral eventualities of quotidian troubles,
from passions, from desires, from the obligations that we set for ourselves,
from the routines that we have mapped out, we knock down the illusory
limits of our present consciousness, we expand the boundaries of our
habitual vision of life, we rise to impartially contemplate and consider
nature from of a tragic and solemn loftiness. / It is the recognition of the
old ways, that precisely moves one close again to the eternal womb of
nature. / And from this returning to nature one derives the recognition.
259
Because nature, in its eternity, does not conclude. And we who are in it
[nature], who are it [nature] itself, but who for some time we have seen
and treated ourselves as parts for our own selves detached and separate,
when the moment approaches to go back and lose ourselves in it [nature],
in its eternity, we recognize every one of our conclusions as vain, illusory,
arbitrary, we recognize that really we do not conclude at all. Nature
remains eternal after each of us: eternal because it does not conclude.
In order to have an accurate outlook and appreciation of life as it really is, it is necessary
for man to take off his blinders, thereby separating his true Self from that of his
predominant limited consciousness (which is confined by quotidian chores and driven by
egocentric passions).
One finds similar passages to those from “Foglietti Inediti” and “Non conclude,”
quoted above, in Pirandello’s novelle, “Leviamoci questo pensiero” (“Let’s Dispose of
This Worry”) (1910) and “Quando s’è capito il giuoco” (“When the Game is
Understood”) (1913).165 The protagonist of “Leviamoci questo pensiero” is the recently
widowed and anxiety-ridden, Bernardo Sopo. In trying to unburden himself of all worry,
165
In “Quando s’è capito il giuoco” (“When the Game is Understood”) (1913), protagonist
Memmo Viola, the apathetic amateur cook-philosopher, is called upon to fight a duel in order to avenge his
wife’s honor. He explains to Gigi Venanzi before the duel: “Del resto, caro mio, tutte sciocchezze. Inutile
parlarne! Cristina vuole lavato l’oltraggio, e non se n’esce. Perderei la libertà; e invece, con questa
occasione, io me la voglio guadagnare intera. Vedrai che ci riuscirò. Va’, va’; pensa a tutto, tu che te
n’intendi. Io ti aspetto a casa. Sto leggendo un bel libro sai? su i Massimi Problemi. Tu non ci hai mai
pensato; ma il problema dell’oltretomba è formidabile, Gigi! No, scusa, scusa... perché... senti questo:
l’Essere, caro mio, per uscire dalla sua astrazione e determinarsi ha bisogno dell’Accadere. E che vuol dire
questo? dammi una sigaretta. Vuol dire che... – grazie – vuol dire che l’Accadere, poiché l’Essere è eterno,
sarà eterno anch’esso. Ora un accadere eterno, cioè senza fine, vuol dire anche senza un fine, capisci? un
accadere che non conclude, dunque, che non può concludere, che non concluderà mai nulla. È una bella
consolazione. Dammi un fiammifero. Tutti i dolori, tutte le fatiche, tutte le lotte, le imprese, le scoperte, le
invenzioni …” [“… After all, my dear, all nonsense. It’s useless to talk about it! Cristina wants the outrage
washed, and it doesn’t come out. I would lose my freedom; and instead, with this occasion, I want to earn
the whole thing. You will see that I will succeed. Go, go, think about everything, you who understands it. I
will wait for you at home. I am reading a good book, you know? on the Greatest Problems. You would
never have thought it; but the problem of the afterlife is formidable, Gigi! No, sorry, sorry ... because ...
listen to this: Being, my dear, to exit its abstraction and determine itself needs the Occurrence. And what
does this mean? Give me a cigarette. It means that ... – thanks– it means that the Occurence, since the
Being is eternal, it will be eternal also. Now an eternal occurence, that is without end, means even without
an intention, understand? an occurrence that does not conclude, therefore, that is not able to conclude, that
will never conclude anything. It’s a nice consolation. Give me a match. All the pain, all the efforts, all the
struggles, businesses, discoveries, inventions …”] (TLN 2: 834).
260
Sopo aims to eradicate all thoughts and worries as soon as possible. Pirandello describes
the protagonist Bernardo Sopo:
La vita era per Bernardo Sopo profondamente oscura; la morte, uno
sbuffo di più densa tenebra nell’oscurità. Né al lume della scienza per la
vita né al lume della fede per la morte riusciva a dar credito; e in tanta
oscurità non vedeva profilarsi altro, a ogni passo, che le sgradevoli, dure,
ispide necessità dell’esistenza, a cui era vano tentar di sottrarsi, e che si
dovevano subito perciò affrontare o subire, per levarsene al più presto il
pensiero.
Ecco, sì, levarsene il pensiero! Tutta la vita non era altro che questo:
un pensiero, una sequela di pensieri da levarsi. Ogni indugio era una
debolezza. […] Non voleva confessare, non che agli altri, ma nemmeno a
se stesso, che nel fondo più recondito di quella oscurità che si sentiva
dentro e che né il lume della scienza né quello della fede riuscivano mai a
stenebrare neppur d’un primo frigido pallor d’alba, gli palpitava come
un’ansia indefinibile, l’ansia di un’attesa ignota, un presentimento vago,
che nella vita ci fosse da fare qualche cosa, che non era mai quella delle
tante a cui correva dietro per levarsene subito il pensiero. Ma pur troppo,
sempre, quando di queste s’era levato il pensiero, restava come sospeso e
anelante in un vuoto smanioso. Gli rimaneva quell’ansia, dentro: ma
l’attesa, ahimè, era sempre vana, sempre. (TLN 2: 528)
Life was for Bernard Sopo profoundly dark; death, a puff of denser
darkness into obscurity. He was not able to give credit the light of science
for life nor to the light of faith for death; and in so much darkness he did
not make out other, in every step, than the unpleasant, hard, bristly
necessity of existence, to which he was in vain trying to escape, and that
for this reason, should be immediately confronted or suffered, to remove
the thought as soon as possible.
That’s it, yes, remove the thought! All life was none other than this: a
thought, a series of thoughts to dispose of. Each delay was a weakness.
[…] He did not want to confess, not just to the others, but even to himself,
that in the most hidden depths of that darkness he felt inside and that
neither the light of science nor that of faith could ever succeed in
illuminating even the frigid pallor of the first dawn, it shook him like an
indefinable anxiety, the anxiety of an unknown anticipation, a vague
presentiment that in life there was something to do, that he was never one
of the many to whom he ran behind to immediately dispose of the thought.
But unfortunately, always, when these had taken away the thought, he
remained as if suspended and yearning in a vacuum. The anxiety remained
inside him: but the anticipation, alas, was always futile, always.
261
Pirandello returns to the notion that man, unsatisfied with science and religion, needs
spiritual guidance when in the throes of an existential crisis. Sopo, clearly suffering from
anxiety or another psychological illness of sorts, tries to escape the stress of the
eventualities of life by removing a thought or worry from his mind as soon as possible.
He establishes that clinging to thoughts is a weakness, and though he vows to renounce
each worry as they arise, another anxious thought or anticipation of worry always returns.
Though Sopo, in true Buddhist fashion, directs his consciousness away from the ego and
redirects it toward detachment from thought, his method proves to be nothing more than
the inadequate coping mechanisms of escapism and repression. He remains as if
suspended in a vacuum and does not find relief from his anxiety. In An Introduction to
Buddhist Psychology, Pasmasiri de Silva describes anxiety and the pathological behavior
that may result from defense mechanisms:
Anxiety and vexation (kodaupayasa) may be generated by one’s
attempt to obtain specific objects in the external world or by some
haunting inner disquiet. While analyzing the specific fears and anxieties,
the Buddha always takes us into the level of basic anxiety fed by the
various forms of ego-illusion. […]
When [such] fears are repressed and pushed beyond awareness the
seeds of anxiety develop. After repression, the person feels afraid, but
does not know exactly what he is afraid of. What is called objectless
anxiety is such a diffuse state of uneasiness. […]
In general, conflicts and anxieties emerge in three types of situations:
the relationship between the self and the outer world, between the self and
other selves, and finally between the discordant aspects of one’s own self.
The difficulty in seeing through the conflicting welter of ego-attitudes and
ambiguities in these relationships is due to the condition of half-obscurity
and ignorance that colours the emotional conflicts of people. It is the root
delusion that explains this phenomenon, by way of the diverse forms of
ego-illusion, which the Buddha presents as the twenty forms of wrong
personality-belief (sakkaya-ditthi). The link between the ego and forms of
anxiety is central to the teaching of the Buddha. (Pasmasiri de Silva 9394).
262
This explanation accounts for the description of life for Sopo as dark, with him plunging
into obscurity. Sopo, due to his ignorance, continues to repress his anxiety and does not
uncover the underlying delusion that is the root cause. Therefore, he remains suspended
in the vacuum of illusion.166
As the years go by, Sopo grows more and more apathetic and dissatisfied with
life. He determines that the dreams of the poets, the mental architecture of the
philosophers and the discoveries of science are all illusions and clever jokes. He asks,
“Che concludevano?” [“What did they conclude?”] (TLN 2: 530). Sopo is by now
convinced that man on the earth is not able to conclude anything, and that all the manmade conclusions are illusory and arbitrary. The narration continues:
L’uomo è nella natura, è la natura stessa che pensa, che produce in lui i
suoi frutti di pensiero, frutti secondo le stagioni anch’essi, come quelli
degli alberi, effimeri forse un po’ meno, ma effimeri per forza. La natura
non può concludere, essendo eterna; la natura, nella sua eternità, non
conclude mai. E dunque, neppur l’uomo!
Se n’accorgeva bene Bernardo Sopo, quando, nel tempo che sempre
gli avanzava, si astraeva dalle volgari contingenze, dalle brighe
quotidiane, dai doveri che s’era imposti, dalle abitudini che s’era tracciate,
e allargava i confini della consueta visione della vita e si sollevava,
spassionato, a contemplare da questa altezza tragica e solenne la natura.
S’accorgeva che, per concludere, l’uomo si metteva un paraocchi, che gli
facesse vedere per alcun tempo una cosa sola; ma, quando credeva di
averla raggiunta, non la trovava più, perché, levandosi quel paraocchi e
scoprendoglisi la vista di tutte le cose intorno, addio conclusione!
Che restava dunque a non volersi illudere coscientemente, quasi per
uno scherzo? Ahimè, nient’altro che le dure necessità dell’esistenza, da
subire o da affrontare subito per levarsene il pensiero al più presto. Ma
allora, tanto valeva uccidersi, per levarsi subito il pensiero di tutto. Bravo,
sì! Uccidersi … Poterlo fare! Bernardo Sopo non poteva: la sua vita era
purtroppo una necessità, di cui non si poteva levare il pensiero. Aveva
fuori tanti parenti poveri, per cui doveva vivere. (TLN 2: 530)
Man is in nature, he is the very nature that thinks, which produces in
him the fruits of thought, fruits in season too, like of those of trees,
perhaps a bit ephemeral, but necessarily ephemeral. Nature cannot
166
See the quotation by Lama Govinda regarding the “vacuum of illusion” on p. 3 of this chapter.
263
conclude, being eternal; nature, in its eternity, never concludes. And
therefore, even man!
Bernardo Sopo realized it, when, in the time that always advanced
him, he abstracted himself from the vulgar contingencies, from the daily
quarrels, from the duties that he had imposed, from the habits that he had
outlines, and he extended the boundaries of the normal view of life and
sprung up, impartially, to contemplate nature from this tragic and solemn
loftiness. He realized that, to conclude, man put on blinders, that made
him see for some time only one thing: but, when he thought he achieved it,
he could not find it anymore, because, taking off those blinders and
discovering the view all around him, farewell conclusion!
What remained, therefore, not wanting to deceive himself consciously,
almost as if a joke? Alas, nothing but the hard necessity of existence, to
suffer or to be addressed immediately, to disperse the thought as soon as
possible. But then, it was worth it to kill himself, to immediately take
away the thought of everything. Bravo, yes! kill himself… to be able to do
so! Bernardo Sopo could not: his life was unfortunately a necessity, of
which could not dispose of the thought. He had many poor relatives for
whom he had to live.
In this passage, echoing the sentiments from “Foglietti” Inediti and “Non conclude”
quoted in the beginning of this section, Pirandello returns to the notion that man must
remove his blinders if he wishes to see reality as it truly is. Separating himself from the
daily routines and struggles, Bernardo Sopo removes his blinders and realizes that all
conclusions are illusions as nature is eternal and man is part of nature. The problem lies
in reconciling this newly found cosmic wisdom with the artificial quotidian contrivances
of man. Sopo does not see the worth of existing among men who unconsciously deceive
themselves and he contemplates suicide. He cannot go through with it, however, as he
has many relatives for whom he must live.
Bernardo Sopo’s ignorance of the discordant aspects of his own self leads to
pathological behavior and alienation as his relationships with others are strained. Driven
by his need to hastily accomplish tasks so as to free himself of that worry, he is
inconsiderate to others and has become a nightmare for everyone; “era divenuto un
264
incubo per tutti” (TLN 2: 531). One day while Sopo is out walking, he stops in a deserted
piazza to think about what he has to do next. He closes his eyes and slowly repeats to
himself, “Io dovevo fare qualcosa…” [“I had something to do…”]. In a tragic turn of
events, Sopo is hit by a car, loses consciousness, and is rushed to the hospital. A few
moments before he dies, Sopo opens his eyes and repeats with his last breath: “Io dovevo
fare qulacosa…” [“I had something to do…”] (TLN 2: 532). Scopo dies without ever
having a moment of peace.
Discarding the Blinders of Ignorance
As seen with Bernardo Sopo, Buddhist psychology explains that suffering is
rooted in ignorance (avijja), or “not understanding or misunderstanding reality.” Frits
Koster eplains: “This ignorance is not at all a lack of intellectual knowledge; it is not
being (clearly) aware of or interpreting unwisely sensory input and mental and physical
experiences the moment they arise” (Koster 19). The reader is able to relate Pirandello’s
metaphor of wearing blinders (that limit one’s vision and cause suffering) to the Buddhist
concept of ignorance as described in the following passage:
In Buddhist psychology it is said that ultimately all problems arise from
ignorance. Not being aware and being blinded in relation to pleasant
impulses result in desire and attachment. With unpleasant impulses they
cause aversion, hatred, fear or jealousy, and with neutral impulses they
lead to confusion, uncertainty, boredom or apathy. In this way we as
human beings create unconsciously or only half consciously all kinds of
patterns in our thinking and acting that keeps us in bondage and cause
suffering. We may be searching all our lives for a mirage or a castle in the
air; we can see it, but it is always just out of reach. (Frits Koster 19)
The Buddhist concept of ignorance as the main obstacle to freedom from suffering is akin
to Pirandello’s blinders; the blinders prohibit man’s vision and cause him to ignore
fundamental truths of reality. Man suffers because of his ignorance, however, the Four
265
Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path of Buddhism are designed to spiritually educate man
and show him the way to recognize this ignorance, and therefore, overcome suffering. In
his description of the Third Noble Truth, the truth of the ending of suffering (nirodha
sacca), Koster writes:
The Buddha once said, Oh monks, I only teach one thing: suffering
and the ending of suffering. According to the early Buddhist scriptures,
walking the Eightfold Path—condensed as the path of virtue, meditation
and wisdom—leads to harmony and insight. This insight culminates in the
realization of the third noble truth: the truth of the eradication or ending of
suffering. In Pali the word used in this context is nirodha, which can be
translated as ‘not being in bondage, or no longer being in bondage.’
When meditative insight is profound enough, and when the meditator
and the situation are ready, a specific and purifying experience may
happen which is called ‘enlightenment.’ This experience bears no relation
to any worldly experience and therefore cannot be described. (Koster 2223)
Parallel to the Buddha’s recommendation of meditation, Pirandello espouses the
best way to gain wisdom and break down the barriers of the consciousness is to
contemplate and concentrate on nature. From an effortless meditation on nature, man can
derive the understanding that the natural universe is constantly evolving and
metamorphosing—like clouds become rain and the caterpillar becomes the butterfly.167
This natural process is dynamic and eternal while man’s illusive conclusions are
ephemeral and his existence is short-lived. Pirandello aims to show that even death is an
illusion. Man’s misconception of death as the ultimate conclusion is perhaps his greatest
existential obstacle. Because man perceives death as the end of life, and not as part of the
natural lifecycle that continues long after our individual physical bodies have expired, he
lives in fear of this end and his ability to live authentically is compromised. Man must
consider himself a microcosm of the eternal macrocosm—not separate and detached from
167
See the conclusion of Pirandello’s novella, “Soffio” (“Breath”) (1931).
266
nature but as smaller representation of the universe itself. When we realign ourselves
with this truth, Pirandello attests, all of the man-made deceptions and misconceptions are
brought to light and man is forced to recognize the pervasive superficiality and
artificialities from which his blinders had been blocking from his vision.
“La trappola”
In the novella, “La trappola” (“The Trap”) (1912),168 the reader is able discern
Pirandello’s impression of man as “trapped”—caught between the flux of life and his
desire to create forms. The unknown narrator, “un ragionatore tagliente e rabbiosa” (“a
sharp and angry reasoner”), relays his philosophy directly to the reader as no other
characters are mentioned. He begins with strong conviction, stating: “Quello che sento io,
senti anche tu, e sentono tutti” [“What I feel, you and everyone else feels”], and then
asks, “Perché avete paura di svegliarvi la notte?” [“Why are you afraid to wake up the
night?”] The narrator makes the assumption that the reader is, indeed, afraid of the dark
and then answers his own question: “Perché per voi la forza alle ragioni della vita viene
dalla luce del giorno. Dalle illusioni della luce” [“Because for you the force of reason
comes from the light of day. From the illusions of the light”] (TLN 2: 695). Pirandello
then distinguishes between natural sunlight versus the sad artificial light of a candle
burning in a dark, quiet room. The narration follows:
Come la mano, trema tutta la vostra realtà. Vi si scopre fittizia e
inconsistente. Artificiale come quella luce di candela. E tutti i vostri sensi
vigilano tesi con ispasimo, nella paura che cotto a questa realtà, di cui
scoprite la vana inconsistenza, un’altra realtà non vi si riveli, oscura,
orribile: la vera. Un alito…che cos’è? Che cos’è questo scricciolio?
168
“La trappola” was published for the fist time in “Corriere della Sera” May 23rd, 1912 and was
later included in the fourth volume of “Novelle per un anno”, L’uomo solo (1922) (TLN 2: 1156)
267
E, sospesi nell’orrore di quell’ignota attesa,169 tra brividi e sudorini,
ecco davanti a voi in quella luce vedete nella camera muoversi con aspetto
e andatura spettrale le vostre illusioni del giorno. (TLN 2: 695).
Like your hand, your whole reality trembles. You discover it fictitious
and inconsistent. Artificial like that light of the candle. And all your senses
monitor attentively with a pang, in fear that beneath this reality, of which
you discover the vain inconsistency, another reality will not reveal itself to
you, obscure, horrible: the true reality. A breath…what is it? What is this
squeaking?
And, suspended in the horror of the anticipation of that unknown,
between shivers and sweat, here in front of you in that light you see your
illusions of the day move themselves with a spectral appearance and
movement.
Pirandello argues that because life is fluid and dynamic, death is every form that
arrests the movement of life. Life is the movement of the wind, the sea, and fire—not the
form the earth assumes. Pirandello writes:
Ma che vuol dire, domando io, darsi una realtà, se non fissarsi in un
sentimento, rapprendersi, irrigidirsi, incrostarsi in esso? E dunque,
arrestare in noi il perpetuo movimento vitale, far di noi tanti piccoli e
miseri stagni in attesa di putrefazione, mentre la vita è flusso continuo,
incandescente e indistinto.
Vedi, è questo il pensiero che mi sconvolge e mi rendo feroce!
La vita è il vento, la vita è il mare, la vita è il fuoco; non la terra che si
incrosta e assume forma.
Ogni forma è la morte.
Tutto ciò che si toglie dallo stato di fusione e si rapprende, in questo
flusso continuo, incandescente e indistinto, è la morte.
Noi tutti siamo esseri presi in trappola, staccati dal flusso che non
s’arresta mai, e fissati per la morte . . .
Abbiamo finito di morire. E questo abbiamo chiamato vita!
Io mi sento preso in questo trappola della morte, che mi ha staccato dal
flusso della vita in cui scorrevo senza forma, e mi ha fissato nel tempo, in
questo tempo!
. . . È vero, sì, caduto più nella trappola, avrei allor odiato quell’altra
forma, come odio questa: avrei odiato quell’altro tempo, come ora questo,
e tutte le illusioni di vita, che noi morti d’ogni tempo ci fabbrichiamo con
169
Pirandello describes this “ignota attesa” [“anticipation of the unknown”] earlier in “Leviamoci
questo pensiero” (1910): “Non voleva confessare, non che agli altri, ma nemmeno a se stesso, che nel
fondo più recondito di quella oscurità che si sentiva dentro e che né il lume della scienza né quello della
fede riuscivano mai a stenebrare neppur d’un primo frigido pallor d’alba, gli palpitava come un’ansia
indefinibile, l’ansia di un’attesa ignota” (TLN 2: 528)
268
quel po’ di movimento e di calore che resta chiuso in noi, del flusso
continuo che è la vera vita e non s’arresta mai.
Siamo tanti morti affaccendati, che c’illudiamo di fabbricarci la vita.
Ci accoppiamo, un morto e una morta, e crediamo di dar la vita, e
diamo la morte…Un altro essere in trappola! (TLN 2: 696-97)
But what does it mean, I ask, to give oneself a reality, if not to fix
oneself in a sentiment, to set oneself, to be made stiff, encrusted in it?
And, meanwhile, to stop the perpetual vital movement in us, to make us so
many small and miserable stagnant pools waiting to rot, while life is a
continuous flow, incandescent and indistinct.
See, this is the thought that troubles me and makes me ferocious!
Life is the wind, life is the sea, life is fire; not the land that encrusts it
and assumes its form.
Every form is death.
All that is removed from the state of fusion and congeals itself in this
continuous flow, incandescent and indistinct, is death.
We are all trapped beings, removed from the stream that never stops,
and fixed for death. . .
We finished dying. And this we called life!
I feel caught in this trap of death that has detached me from the flow
of life in which I used to flow without form, and that fixed me in time, in
this time! . . .
It is true, yes, having fallen more into the trap, then I would have hated
that other form, as I hate this: I would have hated that other time, as now
this, and all the illusions of life, that we dead every time we fabricate for
ourselves with that bit of movement and heat that remains closed in us, of
the continuous flow that is real life and does not ever stop.
We are so many dead bustlers that delude ourselves to fabricate life for
ourselves.
We pair, a dead man and a dead woman, and we believe to give life,
and we give death … Another being entrapped!
Pirandello does not discriminate between individuals but says that we all are
trapped because we all create illusions that cause the perpetual flow of life to stagnate
and be reduced to static, lifeless form. This theoretical passage, similar to Pirandello’s
discourse in “L’umorismo,” according to Lucio Lugnani, “viene sviluppato un mito
primario Pirandelliano; e perciò il testo manifesta una inusitata densità e rigidità tematica,
attualizzando in forma per così dire pura una rete di relazioni oppositive” [“a primary
Pirandellian myth is developed; and for that reason the texts manifests an unusual density
269
and thematic rigidity, actualizing in form so to speak a pure net of opposite relations”; he
goes on to explain the distinction between the concepts of continuous, timeless life of the
“primordial, mythic order” versus that of the life fixed in time by the “real order” (TLN 2:
1161).170
Upon further analysis, it become clear that the Pirandellian philosophy, or the
“myth” that emerges, falls somewhere between his reconciliation of the mystical theology
of Blaise Pascal’s Pensées, Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Idea, Buddhist
philosophy and Pirandello’s own thoughts on the soul, life and death. Pirandello’s
recognition that life, like the sea and the wind is fluid and in continual motion, is akin to
the mythical order and the Buddhist belief in the dynamic nature of consciousness.
Pirandello’s concept of death here indicates a stop to the flow of life, as described by the
“real” order of life—not a transitional and integral phase of the life, death and rebirth
cycle. This rigidity is perhaps due to Pirandello’s affinity for the apologetic writings of
Pascal, whose primary concern is to persuade man to live in such a way that would allow
his soul eternal salvation in the afterlife, or perhaps due to a fear of eternal damnation,
having declared himself an atheist and admitting his skepticism of religion, despite
growing up and living immersed in religious Catholic culture (Giudice 38). Pascal writes
in Pensées: “You do not need a greatly elevated soul to realize that in this life there is no
170
In the notes for “La trappola,” Lucio Lugnani writes: “Nell’ordine ideale, mitico e primigenio,
precedente a ogni nascita d’uomo, la vita è flusso continuo (atemporale) e indistinto; nell’ordine reale, la
vita è separatezza, distacco (ossia distinzione), fissazione nel tempo e incombente immobilità. Perciò
nascere significa cominciare morire. Il grande mito, nostalgico e regressivo, è non nascere; la sua
traduzione pratica è l’ostinata renitenza ad aderire ad una identità immutabile, a immedesimarsi in un ruolo
e a conformarvisi, a lasciar consolidare le consuetudini, a intrappolarsi fino in fondo facendo ciò che fanno.
(TLN 2: 1161) [“In ideal, mythical and primordial order, prior to the birth of every man, life is continuous
flow (timeless) and indistinct; in the real order, life is separation, detachment (or distinction), fixed in time
and impending immobility. So to be born means to begin to die. The great myth, nostalgic and regressive,
is not to be born, and its practical translation is the stubborn unwillingness to adhere to an unchanging
identity, to identify with a role and to conform to it, to let the customs be made solid, to trap them all the
way doing what they do.”]
270
and true firm satisfaction, that all our pleasures are simply vanity, that our afflictions are
infinite, and lastly that death, which threatens us at every moment, must in a few years
infallibly present us with the appalling necessity of being either annihilated or wretched
for all eternity” (Trans. Levi 160). Though Pirandello rejects this religious notion for
himself, he shares Pascal’s belief that man is wretched, vain and trapped in the dark.
Concerning temporality, Pascal fundamentally believes that there is an “eternity” of
either salvation or damnation after death, and that our short lives are indicative of what
will happen to our souls when physical death inevitably arrives. Pascal goes on to
describe the prideful and unenlightened man, lacking conviction and “cloaked in
impenetrable darkness,” because he is indifferent to the immortality of his soul. Pascal
writes as though this man were speaking:
‘I do not know who put me in the world, nor what the world is, nor
what I am myself. I am terrifyingly ignorant about everything. I do not
know what my body is, or my senses or my soul, or that part of myself
which thinks that what I am saying, which reflects on everything and
itself, and does not know itself any better than the rest. I see the terrifying
expanses of the universe which close around me, and I find myself pinned
to a corner of this vast space, without knowing why I have been put in this
place rather than in another, nor why the short time given to me to live is
assigned to this moment rather than another in all eternity which has
preceded me and shall come after me.
‘I see nothing but infinities on all sides, enclosing me like an atom, or
a shadow which lasts only for a moment and does not return.
‘All I know is that I must shortly die, but what I know least about is
death itself, which I cannot avoid.’ (Trans. Levi 161)
Echoes of Pascal are clearly heard when the narrator of “La trappola” says: “I feel caught
in this trap of death that has detached me from the flow of life in which I used to flow
without form, and that fixed me in time, in this time!” (TLN 2: 697). Lama Anagarika
Govinda describes this in The Psychological Attitude of Early Buddhist Philosophy:
271
According to the knowledge of the transitory character of all phenomena
of life that is represented internally in the fleeting processes of the
consciousness, externally in the slow but continuous change of the body,
the Buddhist compares existence to a river, having its source in birth and
its mouth in death [. . .] In fact every moment is the transition to a new
form of life, since in every moment something becomes past and dies,
while something new appears or is born. The expression for birth,
respectively rebirth, is patisandi, which literally means ‘reunion’, and in
this case, is not to be understood in the physiological but in the
psychological sense. The term for death his cuti, literally, ‘falling’ decay.
(Govinda 129)
Pirandello, at this stage, seems to also be trapped between the notion of the end of
physical life, or death, causing the onset of the decay and disintegration, and not yet
reconciled with the possibility of a ‘rebirth’ of consciousness. Despite the uninterrupted
and flowing ‘stream of consciousness’ represented in contemporary modern literature,
Pirandello argues that the forms man fabricates will arrest the flow—rendering man as
the “living-dead.” As I demonstrated in Chapter Three of this dissertation, Pirandello
experiments with psychological rebirth in Il fu Mattia Pascal but Mattia Pascal’s two
rebirths fail to reunite him with his consciousness because he still sees himself as living
outside of life. Instead of becoming reborn into the flow of life, in which all things—
including consciousness—are interconnected, Mattia Pascal remains fragmented and
disconnected, in yet another trap.
“Canta l’Epistola”
In the novella, “Canta l’Epistola” (“Sings the Epistle”) (1912), Tommasino Unzio
has a mystical experience similar to that of Fausto Bandini’s in “Quando ero matto”
(“When I Was Mad”) (1902). Tommasino Unzio, a former seminary student, is called
Sing the Epistle because he had reached this stage in his priesthood preparations before
losing his faith. His soul was unfulfilled by the routine practices of the Catholic religion
272
and he craved a different sort of spirituality. Suffering from the sickness of his spirit,
Unzio listens mockingly to the desperate meditations of the Father and he retreats into
himself (“si chiuse in sé”)—leaving his room only to walk alone through the forest or to
meditate at the abandoned church of Santa Maria di Loreto. He spends his days lying in
the grass, meditating and concentrating on the nature around him. Unzio becomes very
protective of a certain patch of grass and he comes to respect and marvel at “lo spettacolo
che si spalancava sotto, della verde, sconfinata pianura” (“the show that stretched below
him, of the green, boundless open plain”; he nurtures one particular blade of grass with a
“maternal tenderness” (“Lo aveva seguito, quasi con tenerezza materna, nel crescer lento
tra altri più bassi che gli stavano attorno”) (TLN 2: 640). Concentrating on the movement
of the wind and clouds, Unzio recognizes that the vain ambitions of men are as transitory
and ephemeral as the clouds in the sky: “Tutte le illusioni e tutti i disinganni e i dolori e
le gioje e le speranze e i desiderii degli uomini gli apparivano vani e transitorii” [“All the
illusions and all the deceptions and the pain and the joy and the hopes and the desires of
men appeared to him vain and transitory”] (TLN 2: 638). His blinders have been removed
and his vision is clear. The narrator describes Unzio’s transformation of consciousness:
Non aver più coscienza d’essere, come una pietra, come una pianta;
non ricordarsi più neanche del proprio nome; vivere per vivere; senza
sapere di vivere, come le bestie come le piante; senza più affetti, né
desiderii, né memorie, né pensieri; senza più nulla che desse senso e
valore alla propria vita. Ecco: sdrajato lì su l’erba, con le mani intrecciate
dietro la nuca, guardare nel cielo azzurro le bianche nuvole abbarbaglianti,
gonfie di sole; udire il vento che faceva nei castagni del bosco come un
fragor di mare, e nella voce di quel vento e in quel fragore sentire, come
da un’infinità lontananza, la vanità d’ogni cosa e il tedio angoscioso della
vita.
Nuvole e vento.
Eh, ma era già tutto avvertire e riconoscere che quelle che
veleggiavano luminose per la sterminata azzurra vacuità erano nuvole. Sa
273
forse d’essere la nuvola? Né sapevan di lei l’albero e le pietre, che
ignoravano se stessi.
E lui, avvertendo e riconoscendo le nuvole, poteva anche—perché
no?—pensare alla vicenda d’acqua, che divien nuvola per ridivenir poi
acqua di nuovo. E a spiegar questa vicenda bastava un povero
professoruccio di fisica; ma a spiegare il perché del perché?
Su nel bosco dei castagni, picchi d’accetta; giù nella cava, picchi di
piccone.
Mutilare la montagna; atterrare gli alberi, per costruire case. Lì, in quel
borgo montano, altre case. Stenti, affanni, fatiche e pene d’ogni sorta,
perché? Per arrivare a un comignolo e per fare uscir poi da questo
comignolo un po’ di fumo, subito disperso nella vanità dello spazio.
E come quel fumo, ogni pensiero, ogni memoria degli uomini. […]
Tutte le illusioni e tutti i disinganni e i dolori e le gioje e le speranze e
i desiderii degli uomini gli apparivano vani e transitorii di fronte al
sentimento che spariva delle cose che restano e sopravanzano ad essi,
impassibili. Quasi vicende di nuvole gli apparivano nell’eternità della
natura i singoli fatti degli uomini. Bastava guardare quegli alti monti di là
dalla valle tiburina, lontani lontani, sfumanti all’orizzonte, lievi e quasi
aerei nel tramonto. (TLN 2: 638-639)
To have no consciousness of being, like a stone, like a plant; to no
longer recall even one’s own name; to live for the purpose of living,
without knowing about it, like the animals, like the plants, no longer with
feelings or desires or memories or thoughts, no longer with anything that
might give a sense of value to one’s life. Here: stretched on the grass, with
his hands clasped behind his head, watching the dazzling blue sky, white
clouds, swollen with the sun; to hear the wind that made the chestnut trees
of the forest like the sound of the sea, and to hear in the voice of that wind
and thunder, like an infinite distance, the vanity of every thing and the
agonizing tedium of life.
Clouds and wind.
Ah, but indeed he already glimpsed and recognized that those that
sailed for the bright blue endless emptiness were clouds. Perhaps it knows
it’s a cloud? Neither the tree nor the stones knew of it, they ignored
themselves.
And he, glimpsing and recognizing the clouds, could also—why
not?—think about the fact of water, which becomes a cloud, to become
water again. And this was enough for a poor physics professor to explain;
but to the why of the why?
Up in the woods of chestnut trees, blows of axes; down in the quarry,
blows of picks.
To mutilate the mountain; to cut down trees to build houses. There, in
that mountain village, other houses. Hardships, troubles, struggle and pain
of all sorts, why? To arrive at a chimney and then to have a little bit of
274
smoke come out of this chimney, immediately dispersed in the emptiness
of space.
And like that smoke, every thought, every memory of men. […]
All the illusions and all the disappointments and sorrows and joys and
hopes and desires of the men appeared to him vain and transitory in the
face of the feeling that disappeared and were outweighed by the things that
remained, unmoved. The individual facts of men appeared to him almost
like clouds in the eternity of nature. It was enough to look at those high
mountains across the Tibur valley, far away, fading on the horizon, light
and almost planes in the sunset.
Interestingly, this same passage is found in Uno, nessuno e centomila to describe
Vitangelo Moscarda’s similar experience mystical consciousness.171 I contend that in that
171
The following passages are found in Chapter IX. “Nuvole e vento” (“Clouds and Wind”) and
Chapter X. “L’ucellino” (“The Little Bird”) of Uno, nessuno e centomila (One, No One and One Hundred
Thousand). From Chapter IX. “Nuvole e vento”: “Ah, non aver più coscienza d’essere, come una pietra,
come una pianta! Non ricordarsi più neanche del proprio nome! Sdrajati qua sull’erba, con le mani
intrecciate alla nuca, guardare nel cielo azzurro le bianche nuvole abbarbaglianti che veleggiano gonfie di
sole; udire il vento che fa lassù, tra i castagni del bosco, come un fragor di mare. Nuvole e vento. Che avete
detto? Ahimè. Ahimè. Nuvole? Vento? Eh non vi sembra già tutto, avvertire e riconoscere che quelle che
veleggiano luminose per la sterminata azzurra vacuità sono nuvole? Sa forse d’essere la nuvola? Né sanno
di lei l’albero e la pietra, che ignorano anche se stessi; e sono soli. Avvertendo e riconoscendo la nuvola,
voi potete cari miei, pensare anche alla vicenda dell’acqua (è perché no?) che divien nuvola per divenir poi
acqua di nuovo. Bella cosa, sì. E basta a spiegarvi questa vicenda un povero professoruccio di fisica. Ma a
spiegarvi il perché del perché?” [“Ah, to be unconscious, like a stone, like a tree! Not to remember even
your own name anymore! Stretched out here on the grass, hands clasped behind your head, to look into the
blue sky at the dazzling white clouds that sail past, swollen with the sun; to hear the wind up there, among
the chestnuts of the wood, making a sound like the din of the sea. Clouds and wind. What did you say?
Alas, alas. Clouds? Wind? And doesn’t it seem to you all, all: to glimpse and to recognize that those
luminous things sailing up there through the boundless blue void are clouds? Do they perhaps know they
are clouds? Nor do the tree and the stone know, since they don’t know themselves either; and they are
alone. Glimpsing and recognizing the cloud, my dear friends, can you think also about the fact of water
(and why not?) that becomes cloud only to become water again. Fine thing, yes. And to explain this process
to you any poor physics teacher will do. But to the why of the why?”] (TLN 2: 774-775; Weaver, trans.
1990 37). From Chapter X. “L’ucellino” (“The Little Bird”): “Sentite, sentite: su nel bosco dei castagni,
picchi d’accetta. Giù nella cava, picchi di piccone. Mutilare la montagna, atterrare alberi per costruire case.
Là, nella vecchia città, altre case. Stenti, affanni, fatiche d’ogni sorta; perché? Ma per arrivare a un
comignolo, signori miei; e per fare uscir poi da questo comignolo un po’ di fumo, subito disperso nella
vanità dello spazio. E come quel fumo, ogni pensiero, ogni memoria degli uomini. Siamo in compagna qua;
il languore ci ha sciolto le membra; è naturale illusioni e disinganni, dolori e gioje, speranze e desiderii ci
appajano vani e transitorii, di fronte al sentimento che spira dalle cose che restano e sopravanzano ad essi,
impassibili. Basta guardare là quelle alte montagne oltre valle, lontane lontane, sfumanti all’orizzonte, lievi
nel tramonto, entro rosei vapori. Ecco: sdrajato, voi buttate all’aria il cappellaccio di feltro; diventate quasi
tragico; esclamate: Oh ambizioni degli uomini!” [“Listen, listen: up in the chesnut woods, blows of axes.
Down in the quarry, blows of picks. To mutilate the mountain, to chop down trees to build houses. There,
in the old city, other houses. Hardships, troubles, toil of every kind: why? Why, to arrive at a chimney,
gentlemen: and to have emerge from this chimney a bit of smoke, immediately scattered in the emptiness of
space. And like that smoke, every thought, every memory of men. We are in the country here; the languor
has relaxed out limbs; it’s natural that illusions and disenchantments, sorrows and joys, hopes and desires
should appear to us vain and transitory, compared to the feeling that wafts from the things that remain and
275
‘eternal moment,’ Unzio experiences mystical consciousness and glimpses true reality.
The sight of the clouds moving in the sky is hypnotic, and the sound of the trees relaxes
his mind. His senses are overcome by nature and his consciousness, too, has a reprieve.
He recognizes that the clouds are constantly in the process of becoming and this allows
him to surpass his limited view of the self as fixed and unchanging; he then is able to
comprehend the transitory and vain ambitions of men and their narrow path of existence.
Robert Thurman explains the Buddha’s method of surpassing this limited view of self
and, therefore, overcoming suffering:
[Buddha] discovered and proclaimed that total freedom from suffering—
exquisite, enduring joy—is extremely possible for every sensitive being. It
is only the unenlightened, self-centered and self-constricted being who is
temporarily incapable of real happiness. Most of us have a strong yet
unwarranted sense of having a fixed, unchanging, limited ‘self’ that is
totally separate from all other beings. This combines with our narrow view
that our existence is random and terminal; it only starts when we are born
and ends abruptly when we die. Fixed and alienated, random and
terminal—together these form a vicious combination. In the end, we are
left feeling bereft and slightly depressed, living a life seeming to be utterly
devoid of meaning. I call this “terminal living.” We can free ourselves
from such a terminal existence simply by becoming aware of our
misconceptions and their impact on our way of being. Once we have
accepted the fact that we ourselves may be the main cause of our own
unhappiness, we become determined to understand the problem fully and
to solve it as soon as possible [. . .] The first step toward true contentment
lies in confronting the fundamental problem of our rigid self-sense. When
we look carefully for our “self,” we cannot find it. We discover the error
that is the cause of our problem, and we begin to grasp the concepts of
selflessness, interconnectedness to others, and infinite life. Now we can
set ourselves free to experience the full satisfaction with ourselves, others,
and our world that the Buddhists call “enlightenment” or “awakening.”
(Thurman xxii)
Unzio begins to grasp, as Thurman explains above, “the concepts of selflessness,
survive them, impassive. The individual facts of men appeared to him almost like clouds in the eternity of
nature. You only have to look there at those high mountains across the valley, far far off, hazy on the
horizon, light in the sunset, amid pink mists. Here, stretched out, you fling your old felt hat in the air; you
become almost tragic, you exclaim: “Ah, the ambitions of man!”] (TLN 2: 775; Weaver trans. 38).
276
interconnectedness to others, and infinite life”; the thought of man cutting down trees to
make houses makes him angry, and he is repelled by man’s illusions and vain desires.
Unzio’s mind reverts to everyday consciousness, however, when he begins to ponder
metaphysical questions and attaches to the need for the explanation of the natural
experience. The connection with nature, however, has penetrated his spirit and widened
his outlook of reality.
Tommasino Unzio, like Fausto Bandini, exhibits extreme selflessness, as he is more
concerned with protecting his patch of grass than his personal struggles or complying
with the expectations of society. Pirandello chooses the word “ineffabile,” explained
earlier in this chapter by W.T. Stace as the “usual word” used to recount the mystical
experience, in the description of Unzio’s joy found in caring for the grass. Pirandello
writes:
E ogni giorno, per una o due ore, contemplandolo e vivendone la vita,
aveva con esso tentennato a ogni più lieve alito d’aria; trepidando era
accorso in qualche giorno di forte vento, o per paura di non arrivare a
tempo a proteggerlo da una greggiola di capre, che ogni giorno, alla
stess’ora, passava dietro la chiesetta e spesso s’indugiava un po’ a
strappare tra i macigni qualche ciuffo d’erba. Finora, così il vento come le
capre avevano rispettato quel filo d’erba. E la gioja di Tommasino nel
ritrovarlo intatto lì, col suo spavaldo pennacchietto in cima, era ineffabile.
Lo carezzava, lo lisciava con due dita delicatissime, quasi lo custodiava
con l’anima e col fiato; e, nel lasciarlo, la sera, lo affidava alle prime stelle
che spuntavano nel cielo crepuscolare, perché con tutte le altre lo
vegliassero durante la notte. E proprio, con gli occhi della mente, da
lontano, vedeva quel suo filo d’erba, tra i due macigni, sotto le stelle fitte
fitte, sfavillanti nel cielo nero, che lo vegliavano. (TLN 2: 641)
And each day, for one or two hours, contemplating it and sustaining its
life, he had shaken with it during each little breath of air; trembling
anxiously he was heart-broken on days of strong wind, or for fear of not
arriving in time to protect it from a herd of goats, so that every day, at the
same hour, he passed behind the little church and often lingered a little
among the rocks to tear out some tufts of grass. Until now, the wind like
the goats had respected that blade of grass. And Tommasino’s joy at
277
finding it there again, intact, with its bold plume on top, was ineffable. He
caressed it, stroking it with two very delicate fingers, delicate, almost
protecting it with his soul and his breath; and, leaving it, in the evening, he
entrusted it to the first stars that rose in the twilight sky, so that all the
others watched over it during the night. And, with his mind’s eye, from a
distance, he saw his blade of grass, between two boulders, under the thick
dense stars, twinkling in the black sky that watched over it.
Through contemplation and compassionate acts, Unzio, like many other caregivers,
experiences the rewarding sense of happiness that comes when helping other people,
fauna and flora. Robert Thurman describes the “transcendent virtue” of contemplation as
providing “the central strength that empowers you to achieve a new level of focus and
serenity. With it, you gain the full benefit of your wondrous mind, your compassionate
spirit, which encodes your subtlemost soul, the core nexus of your infinite relationships
with all sensitive beings” (Thurman 95). This sheds light on Pirandello’s description of
Unzio’s nurturing and protecting the grass as though his compassion emanated from his
soul and breath. Thurman explains the transcendent quality of contemplation, as well as
the other virtues of generosity, justice, patience and creativity:
All of these virtues are transcendent because they are indivisible from the
understanding of the true, selfless nature of reality that is wisdom. Once
we have begun to enjoy freedom from being driven around by our rigid
self-sense, we can start to dismantle our enslavement to the dictates of our
formerly domineering “I.” We already know that we will continue to
suffer as long as we remained trapped by self-preoccupation. Of all the
negativities that arise out of our traditional, self-centered view of the
world, selfishness is one of the most difficult and critical for us to
overcome. (Thurman 96)
The wisdom Unzio gains through contemplation, compassion and selflessness allows him
to be freed from the trap of self-preoccupation and illusion. As with Pirandello’s personal
description of the difficulty in returning from those moments of inner silence, Unzio is
278
later confronted by the challenge of reconciling his newly found clarity with a population
shrouded by illusion.
Similar to Fausto Bandini, Unzio becomes acutely aware of and immersed in nature
and for this reason, Caputi explains, “Canta l’Epistola” is “a story always cited to support
the argument for pantheism” (Caputi 128). Caputi disagrees, and I as well, with the label
of pantheism. Unzio’s curiousity and respect for nature grows throughout the story, and
he is devastated when he sees Signorina Fanelli selfishly rip his favorite blade of grass
from the ground. Caputi argues that, as with Fausto Bandini, “the term ‘pantheism’ does
not get at the special character of this engagement in nature” (Caputi 129). Caputi writes:
Tommasino Unzio, the former seminarist called “Sing the Epistle”
because that was as far as got in his preparation for the priesthood, settles
into an attitude very like nature worship. For him too winds and clouds are
crucial: the wind continuously moving, agitating, driving the clouds and
leaves; the clouds, recently water, soon to be water again, constantly
changing form. Before the “spectacle of nature” he feels himself little by
little possessed by an “absentminded melancholy.” […] He becomes
enchanted by tiny, delicate things, and the more fleeting the thing the
greater his tenderness for it. Hence his fatal response to Signorina
Fanelli’s pulling out and chewing on one of his favorite blades of grass.
Yet here too Pirandello was primarily interested in Sing the Epistle’s
attitude not because it led him to see in nature myriad manifestations of
God, but as an alternative to the perpetual effort of marshaling the
consciousness against the flux. […] The term “pantheism” does not get at
the special character of this engagement in nature. For Sing the Epistle,
“tired of the burden of his stupid flesh,” his new-found peace is not so
distinctly a form of worship, though it is also that, as it is a giving over of
himself to clouds and wind, to a kind of blissful passivity that asks very
little and rejoices in it” (Caputi 129).
Similar to what Caputi calls Bandini’s, “giving over of the struggle altogether in favor of
sinking into the flux of nature,” Unzio finds peace in nature and demonstrates what I
claim is mystical consciousness and enlightenment. The term pantheism is clearly
inaccurate, however, the problem with Caputi’s description is that these characters must
279
first immerse themselves in nature in order to then be freed of the struggle of everyday
consciousness—not the other way around. The blissful passivity that Unzio experiences,
akin to Buddhist nirvana, results from his contemplation of nature (mindfulness), directed
consciousness (right effort), and right concentration—all of which are included in the
Buddha’s Eightfold Path.172 Lama Govinda explains the last step of the Path:
Right concentration (samm! Sam!dhi.) is the eighth step of the [Eightfold]
Path. Its objects are those of the seventh step [mindfulness], its chief
factors those of the sixth step [right effort]. But while there the seven
factors of enlightenment exist only as germs, they attain their full maturity
in sam!dhi. And while the objects of the seventh step still remain in the
realm of the discursive (or conceptual) thought, they are raised to the
realm of intuitive consciousness of realization on the eighth step.
Concentration, though it does not exhaust the meaning of sam!dhi, is its
chief characteristic, but we have to bear in mind that concentration in this
connexion is equal to a transformation of consciousness: it eliminates the
tension between subject and object, or rather the creation of such a
conceptual discrimination, through the synthesizing force of pure
experience. I call this experience pure because it is not reflected or
coloured by the medium of thought or preconceived ideas, and therefore
free from illusion and its concomitants, attraction and rejection, greed and
aversion. If this experience is deep enough to penetrate our whole
consciousness, down to its very roots (sankh!r!) and fundamental motives
(hetu), liberation (nibb!na) is attained. But even if such experiences are of
lesser intensity and have only a temporal or otherwise limited influence on
our mind, yet they will widen our outlook, strengthen our confidence,
deepen out views, lesson our preconceptions, and purify our intentions.
(Govinda 69)
In recognizing the deceptions and vanities of man and the transitory nature of life, Unzio
transforms his consciousness and is closer to sustaining inner peace through selflessness.
Though Unzio’s experience may not have penetrated his entire consciousness, as
172
Lama Govinda writes: “The sixth step of the Eightfold Path is right efforts (samm! v!y!ma)
which consists of four phases: (1) the effort to destroy the evil which has arisen (in our mind), (2) the effort
to prevent the evil which has not yet arisen, (3) the effort to produce good which has not yet arisen, (4) the
effort to cultivate the good which has arisen. […] The seventh step [mindfulness] is described as a fourfold
contemplation, namely, concerning the body (k!ya), the sensations (vedan!), the mind (citta) and the
phenomena (dhamm!). These contemplations are chiefly analytical. They anticipate in many respects the
methods and efforts of modern psychoanalysis. But the Buddhist system of psychic culture goes one step
farther. It does not confine itself to thee analysis and control of consciousness as it is, but it proceeds to a
higher synthesis or intensification of consciousness through sam!dhi” (Govinda 69).
280
explained above, his outlook is widened and his preconceptions are greatly reduced. In
his moment of enlightenment, Unzio transcends his everyday consciousness and sees
through the illusions and artificial worlds of men. He recognizes the cycles of nature,
thereby overcoming the false perception of “terminal living,” and he experiences
selflessness to the point of not even remembering his own name: “Non aver più coscienza
d’essere, come una pietra, come una pianta; non ricordarsi più neanche del proprio nome;
vivere per vivere; senza sapere di vivere, come le bestie come le piante; senza più affetti,
né desiderii, né memorie, né pensieri; senza più nulla che desse senso e valore alla
propria vita” [To have no consciousness of being, like a stone, like a plant; to no longer
recall even one’s own name; to live for the purpose of living, without knowing about it,
like the animals, like the plants, no longer with feelings or desires or memories or
thoughts, no longer with anything that might give a sense of value to one’s life”] (TLN 2:
638). Thus, because of the crisis of representing nirvana with words, it becomes clear
that Pirandello’s reinforcement of the “not having” and “being without” in his description
of Unzio’s moment of liberation was deliberately executed to compensate for the lack of
adequate language to describe this ineffable state of nothingness.
The story ends tragically, however, when Unzio is killed in a duel with Signorina
Fanelli’s fiancé, De Venera. Unzio, generally serene and non-confrontational, is greatly
saddened and angered when Signorina Fanelli plucks his favorite blade of grass and
chews on it. He calls her “stupid” for this callous action and De Venera slaps him and
challenges him to a duel. Unzio, “stanco dell’inutile vita” [“tired of the useless life”],
accepts the challenge on the condition that they fight until one of them is gravely injured
or killed. De Venera, an experienced military officer, shoots Unzio in the chest and for
281
four days he suffered from a fever that seemed to make him delirious. To please his
religious mother, Unzio agrees to receive his last rites from a priest. When the priest asks
why he did what he did, Unzio smiles sweetly and answers simply: “Padre, per un filo
d’erba …” [“Father, for a blade of grass …”] (TLN 2: 642). Everybody believed that
Unzio’s last words were the result of his delirium. They were his true sentiments
however; if Unzio had to live in a world where people did not respect nature, then he did
not want to live at all.
Again, Pirandello aims to represent the existential crises fostered by a society
dominated by science and religion. He highlights man’s need live beyond imposed
boundaries and stresses the need to question the “why” of the “why” of existence that is
veiled yet not inaccessible. Luigi Chinatti writes in “Pirandello e la scienza”:
Perchè? Questa è la domanda che si fa sempre l’uomo, che si fa
sempre Pirandello. L’uomo, “l’animale metafisico,” cioè, “un’animale che
sa di dover morire,” cerca sempre il senso della vita e della morte. […]
Per Perandello, la scienza non spiega il perché del perché, come lo
definisce nella novella “Canta l’Epistola.” Parlando della natura, della
nuvola che diventa acqua che diventa nuvola che diventa acqua, il
protagonista Canta l’Epistola si perde nel mistero e pens ache a spiegare
queste vicende della natura la scienza non basta, cioè, basta fino a un certo
punto: a spiegare il perché “bastava un povero professoruccio di fisica; ma
a spiegare il perché del perché?” La scienza riesce a desrivere la vicenda
fisica, ma questo è solo l’aspetto fisico; la scienza così è superficiale,
guarda solo l’esterno, la forma—possiamo dire—che non è vita. La vera
sapienza guarda l’interno, l’essenza della vita. La scienza è falsa sapienza
per Pirandello. La scienza non arriverebbe mai a spiegare perchè Canta
l’Epistola sacrifica la sua vita per un filo d’erba. La sapienza della natura è
superiore a quella della scienza.
La scienza rappresenta per il Nostro un aspetto della filosofia moderno
(come il determinismo e il positivismo) di cui non si fida. Non solo non
riesce a spiegare il perché del perché—inutile allora la scienza in questo
senso—ma è anche pericolosa: minaccia di distruggere il mistero della vita
e le illusioni dell’uomo—il suo concetto di se stesso, degli altri, di Dio.
(Chinatti 814)
282
Why? This is the question that man always asks of himself, the one
that Pirandello continuously questions. Man, “the metaphysical animal,”
that is, “an animal that knows that it must die,” is always in search of the
meaning of life and death. […]
For Pirandello, science does not explain the why of why, how he
defines it in the short story, “Canta l’Epistola.” Speaking of nature, of a
cloud that becomes water, that becomes a cloud, that becomes water, the
protagonist of “Canta l’Epistola” loses himself in mystery and reasons that
science is not enough to explain nature’s occurrences, that is, it is limited:
to explain why “all that was needed was a poor little professor of physics;
but to explain the why of why?” Science is only able to describe physical
occurrences, but this is only the physical aspect; science in this way is
superficial, it looks only to the external, the form—we may say—that is
not life. True knowledge looks to the internal, the essence of life. Science,
for Pirandello, is false wisdom. Science would never be able to explain
why Sings the Epistle sacrifices his life for a strand of grass. Nature’s
wisdom is superior to that of science.
Science represents for us an aspect of modern philosophy (like
determinism or positivism) of which it does not trust. Not only is it unable
to explain the why of why—science, then is useless in this sense—but it is
also dangerous: it threatens to destroy life’s mystery and man’s illusions—
his concept of himself, of others, of God.
The natural landscape, for Tommasino Unzio, had been taken over by the artificial
worlds of man. In the end, to die having experienced an eternal moment truth was better
than to live inauthentically amongst deluded men and their vain ambitions.
“Di sera, un geranio”
What is significant in psychic life always lies below the horizon, and when
we speak of the problem of modern man we are speaking of things that are
barely visible—of the most intimate and fragile things, of flowers that
open only in the night. In daylight everything is clear and tangible, but the
night lasts as long as the day, and we live in the night-time also. There are
people who have had bad dreams which even spoil their days for them.
And for many people the day’s life is such a bad dream that they long for
night when the spirit awakes. I believe that there are nowadays a great
many such people. (C.G. Jung 93)
173
“Di sera, un geranio” (“Each Evening, a Geranium”) (1934),
173
written two years
“Di sera, un geranio” was published in “Corriere della sera” May 6th, 1934, and in the same
year was added to the 14th volume of “Novelle per un anno,” Berecche e la guerra (1934) (TLN 3: 846)
283
before Pirandello’s death, may be read as the author’s acceptance of his own mortality.
The story begins with a description of the alienation from the senses and body that one
experiences when asleep. This disaggregation from all sensation and freedom from the
weight of the body and mind, a motif recurrent in Pirandello’s later work, is described as
liberation. The story is the embodiment of Anselmo Paleari’s lecture on “lanternosofia”
(“lanternosophy”), as the dying man comes to realize that death is merely the extinction
of the false light of illusion. Pirandello describes the innermost thoughts of a man on the
verge of death, as he experiences the separation of his spirit (or soul) from his physical
body. The narrator describes the sleeping man, whose bald-head and beard closely
resemble Pirandello, on his death-bed:
Alienato dai sensi, ne serba più che gli avvertimenti il ricordo,
com’erano; non ancora lontani ma già staccati; là l’udito, dov’è un rumore
anche minimo nella notte; qua la vista, dov’è appena un barlume; e le
pareti, il soffitto (come di qua pare polveroso) e giù il pavimento col
tappeto, e quell’uscio, e lo smemorato spavento di quel letto col piumino
verde e le coperte giallognole, sotto le quali s’indovina un corpo che giace
inerte; la testa calva, affondata sui guanciali scomposti; gli occhi chiusi e
la bocca aperta tra i peli rossicci dei baffi e della barba, grossi peli, quasi
metallici; un foro secco, nero; e un pelo delle sopracciglia così lungo, che
se non lo tiene a posto, gli scende sull’occhio.
Lui, quello! Uno che non è più. Uno a cui quel corpo pesava già tanto.
E che fatica anche il respiro! Tutta la vita, ristretta in questa camera; e
sentirsi a mano a mano mancar tutto, e tenersi in vita fissando un oggetto,
questo o quello, con la paura d’addormentarsi. Difatti poi, nel sonno …
Alienated from the senses, he cherishes the memory more than the
premonitions, as they were; not yet distant but already detached; there the
ear goes, where there is even a slight noise during the night; here the eye
goes, where there is just a glimmer; and the walls, the ceiling (how dusty it
seems from here) and below the floor with the rug, and that doorway, and
the absent-minded fear of that bed with the green down comforter and the
yellowish pillowcases, under which one surmises a body that lies inert; the
bald head, sunk on the disheveled pillows; eyes closed and mouth open
between the reddish hairs of the mustache and of the beard, big hairs,
almost metallic; a dry, black orifice; and an eyebrow hair so long, that if
284
not held in place, would come down over his eye.
He, that one! One that is no more. One whose body already weighed
so much. And even breath is a struggle! His whole life, closed in this
room; and feeling little by little to be missing everything, and holding onto
life fixating upon an object, this one or that one, with fear of falling
asleep. In fact then, in sleep…
The dying man, slowly detaching from all sensation yet clinging to life, tries to fixate on
an object for fear of falling asleep, never to wake up again. Pirandello illustrates the irony
that even in the face of death, man longs for the fixation of form to keep him alive. Like
the apparenze (appearances) of All’uscita (At the Exit), the man must let go of all his
preconceived notions of life.
The patient has a brief exchange with his doctor who tells him that an operation at
this stage would be futile. These words, the last he will ever express in life, sound strange
to the dying man. The sentence that follows, “La lampada rosea, sospesa in mezzo alla
camera, è rimasta accesa invano” [“The rose-colored lamp, suspended in the middle of
the room, remains lit in vain”], has a double meaning when considered in the context of
“lanternosophy.” As Paleari explained to Mattia Pascal, humans are born with the sad
privilege of feeling themselves alive—unlike the flora and the fauna, which simply exist
in nature. Because of this so-called privilege of self-consciousness, an illusion results
which causes man to mistake his external reality for his inner feelings of life—which
varies and changes according to different circumstances. For Paleari, this mistaken sense
of life is like a little lantern that resides with in each person and whose light reveals the
world to us. However, this light imposed by the privilege of self-consciousness, casts a
dark and frightening shadow that would not exist if the lantern were not lit in the first
place. Man will believe in the illusion and fear the shadow as long as the lantern remains
285
lit with in him.174 Paleari suggests that death, like the shadow, is commonly feared
because of man’s misperception that the cessation of physical life is subsequently
followed by permanent existence of darkness. Instead of fearing death as the end of one’s
existence, he proposes that the final breath of life extinguishes the false light of the little
lantern, allowing man to finally experience true Existence—freed from the obstacles of
illusion: “Spento alla fine a un soffio, ci accoglierà la notte perpetua dopo il giorno
fumoso della nostra illusione, o non rimarremo noi piuttosto alla mercé dell’Essere, che
avrà soltanto rotto le vane della nostra ragione?” [“When at the end the light is blown out,
will the perpetual night receive us after the brief day of our illusion? Or won’t we remain
at the disposal of Existence, which will merely have shattered our trivial modes of
reasoning?”] (Tr 1: 485; Trans. Weaver 156). The rose-colored lamp does not remain lit
“in vain” because the man is ill and does not require light because he will soon be dead,
but because he is quickly approaching death, and therefore, closer to the breath that will
extinguish the false light of illusion and free him from the shadow of artificial reality.
Growing closer to death, the spirit detaches further from the body and the dying
174
See also the Lanternosophy section in Chapter Three of this dissertation. In Chapter XIII of Il
fu Mattia Pascal (The Late Mattia Pascal), entitled “Il lanternino” (“The Little Lantern”), Anselmo Paleari
says to Mattia Pascal: “A noi uomini, invece, nascendo, è toccato un triste privilegio: quello di sentirci
vivere, con la bella illusione che risulta: di prendere cioè come una realtà fuori di noi questo nostro interno
sentimento della vita, mutabile e vario, secondo i tempi, i casi e la fortuna”]; the narration continues: “E
questo sentimento della vita per il signor Anselmo era appunto come un lanternino che ciascuno di noi
porta in sé acceso; un lanternino che ci fa vedere sperduti su la terra, e ci fa vedere il male e il bene; un
lanternino che projetta tutt’intorno a noi un cerchio più o meno ampio di luce, di là dal quale è l’ombra
nera, l’ombra paurosa che non esisterebbe, se il lanternino non fosse acceso in noi, ma che noi dobbiamo
pur troppo creder vera, fintanto ch’esso si mantiene vivo in noi. Spento alla fine a un soffio, ci accoglierà la
notte perpetua dopo il giorno fumoso della nostra illusione, o non rimarremo noi piuttosto alla mercé
dell’Essere, che avrà soltanto rotto le vane della nostra ragione?” [“And for Signor Anselmo this sense of
life was like a little lantern that each of us carries with in him, alight; a lantern that makes us see how lost
we are on the face of the earth, and reveals good and evil to us. The lantern casts a broader or narrower
circle of light around us, beyond which there is a black shadow, the fearsome darkness which would not
exist if our lanterns were not lighted. And yet, as long as our lantern is kept burning, we must believe in
that shadow. When at the end the light is blown out, will the perpetual night receive us after the brief day of
our illusion? Or won’t we remain at the disposal of Existence, which will merely have shattered our trivial
modes of reasoning?”] (Tr 1: 484; Weaver, trans. 156).
286
man is liberated. Still conscious, however, he expresses animosity toward the physical
body as he no longer thinks of it as his own; he views the physical body as a but a
remnant of his former self that the living want to hold onto and preserve. He is roused
most by the thought of his absence in the world—imagining the houses, the streets, and
the sky from the perspective of death. He is dismayed by the thought of his life being
reduced to the meaningless objects that will survive him. There is an echo of
Schopenhauer’s theory of the world as will and representation as the dying man,
surveying the objects strewn around his room, realizes that the meaning given to all
objects is purely subjective. He recognizes this process as death though he is not yet fully
aware of the positivity of the experience. The narration follows:
Ma dopo tutto, ora s’è liberato, e prova per quel suo corpo là, più
antipatia, rancore.
Veramente non vide mai la ragione che gli altri dovessero riconoscere
quell’immagine come la cosa più sua.
Non era vero. Non è vero.
Lui non era quel suo corpo; c’era anzi così poco; era nella vita lui;
nelle cose che pensava, che gli s’agitavano dentro, in tutto ciò che vedeva
fuori senza più vedere se stesso. Case strade cielo. Tutto il mondo.
Già, ma ora, senza più il corpo, è questa pena ora, e questo sgomento
del suo disgregarsi e diffondersi in ogni cosa, a cui, per tenersi, torna a
aderire ma, aderendovi, la paura di nuovo, non d’addormentarsi, ma del
suo svanire nella cosa che resta là per sé, senza più lui: oggetto: orologio
sul comodino, quadretto alla parete, lampada rosea sospesa in mezzo alla
camera. Lui è ora quelle cose; non più com’erano, quando avevano ancora
un senso per lui; quelle cose che per se stesse non hanno alcun senso e che
ora dunque non sono più niente per lui.
E questo è morire. (TLN 3: 558)
But after everything, now he is liberated, and he feels for his body
there, more dislike, resentment.
Really he never saw the reason that others should recognize that image
as his own any more.
It was not true. It is not true.
He was not that body; there was on the contrary so little; he was him in
life; in the things he was thinking, that agitated him inside, in all that he
saw outside without seeing himself. Houses roads sky. The whole world.
287
Indeed, but now, without the body any longer, this is the sorrow now,
and this dismay of his dissolution and dispersion in all things, to which, to
maintain himself, he returns to adhere but, adhering there, the fear again,
not of falling asleep, but of his vanishing in the thing that remains there
for itself, without him any longer: object: clock on the bedside table,
picture on the wall, rose-colored lamp suspended in the middle of the
room. He is now those things, no longer as they were, when they still had
a meaning for him, those things that for themselves have no meaning and
so now are no longer anything for him.
And this is to die.
Similar to the end of the novella, “Soffio” (“A Breath”) (1931), the protagonist of
“Di sera, un geranio” becomes a disembodied spirit: “The individual consciousness, on
mirroring itself, has passed through reflection to complete dissolution” (RadcliffUmstead 111). In order to successfully represent the dissolution of consciousness,
Pirandello must overcome the boundaries of language and deconstruct traditional
narrative form. Radcliff-Umstead describes Pirandello’s approach to this crisis of
representing the nothingness of death:
Death as floating away into nothingness is the message of the novella “Di
Sera, un geranio” (“At evening, a Geranium”) of 1934, which so
transcends the conventional sense of narrative as to acquire an
evanescence of style as the disembodied spirit wanders across a familiar
realm that is rapidly becoming remote. A man who feared a dangerous
operation has died. To die is exactly to lose contact with the material
objects that go into the construction of life. The bewilderment of the spirit
floating around the death chamber is shown in the adverbs of place like
qua (here), giù (down), là (there) which establish a staccato rhythm for the
forcible flight of the consciousness. As a sentient form it used to find
identification in thought and in the outer world but never with the body,
toward which it feels rancor in death. Living consists in the images that
others project upon the individual. Dying is a dissolution into
formlessness, the fading away of all constructs. The structures of life that
the mind and the senses try to grasp—like a clock, a picture hanging on
the wall, the rose color of a lamp—were all illusions that must vanish into
death’s nothingness. (Radcliff-Umstead 113)
The man’s soul, separating further from the lifeless physical body in the bedroom, drifts
outside to the garden. Pirandello then describes a basin whose water flow is obstructed by
288
leaves clogging the drain. The story closes with the following passage:
Sparire.
Sorpresa che si fa di mano in mano piú grande, infinita: l’illusione dei
sensi, già sparsi, che a poco a poco si svuota di cose che pareva ci fossero
e che invece non c’erano; suoni, colori, non c’erano; tutto freddo, tutto
muto; era niente; e la morte, questo niente della vita com’era. Quel verde
… Ah come, all’alba, lungo una proda, volle esser erba lui, una volta,
guardando i cespugli e respirando la fragranza di tutto quel verde così
fresco e nuovo! Groviglio di bianche radici vive abbarbicate a succhiar
l’umore della terra nera. Ah come la vita è di terra, e non vuol cielo, se
non per dare respiro alla terra! Ma ora lui è come la fragranza di un’erba
che si va sciogliendo in questo respiro, vapore ancora sensibile che si
dirada e vanisce, ma senza finire, senz’aver piú nulla vicino; sì, forse un
dolore; ma se può far tanto ancora di pensarlo, è già lontano, senza piú
tempo, nella tristezza infinita d’una così vana eternità. Una cosa,
consistere ancora in una cosa, che sia pur quasi niente, una pietra. O anche
un fiore che duri poco: ecco, questo geranio...
– Oh guarda giú, nel giardino, quel geranio rosso. Come s’accende!
Perchè?Di sera, qualche volta, nei giardini s’accende così,
improvvisamente, qualche fiore; e nessuno sa spiegarsene la ragione. (TLN
3: 559)
Disappearing.
A surprise that becomes little by little, greater, infinite: the illusion of the
senses, already scattered, which gradually empties itself of things that
seemed to be there and that instead were not; sounds, colors, weren’t
there; everything cold, everything silent; it was nothing; and death, this
nothing of life as it was. That green … Ah, how, at dawn, along a shore,
he wished to be the grass, once, looking at the bushes and breathing the
fragrance of the green grass so fresh and new! Tangle of white living roots
clinging to suck life out from the black earth. Oh how life is of the earth, it
does not want the sky except to give breath to the earth! But now he is like
the fragrance of a herb that is dispersing in this breath, vapor still sensible
that thins and vanishes, but without end, with nothing nearby any longer;
yes, perhaps a pain; but if he is still able to think of it, he is already far
away, with no more time, in the infinite sadness of such a vain eternity.
A thing, still consisting within a thing, that is also almost nothing, a stone.
Or even a flower that lasts a short while; here, this geranium …
– Oh look down, in the garden, that red geranium. How it is illuminated!
Why? In the evening, sometimes, in the gardens some flowers, suddenly,
light up this way; and no one can explain the reason for it.
As in the quotation from C.G. Jung cited at the beginning of this section: “What is
significant in psychic life always lies below the horizon, and when we speak of the
289
problem of modern man we are speaking of things that are barely visible—of the most
intimate and fragile things, of flowers that open only in the night. In daylight everything
is clear and tangible, but the night lasts as long as the day, and we live in the night-time
also” (Jung 93). Pirandello demonstrates the frustrated final thoughts of a man realizing
that his life revolved around illusions. However, he presents his death as the breath that
extinguishes his lantern light of illusion, not the eternal darkness that provoked so much
fear and attachment to material possessions when he was alive. Radcliff-Umstead
concludes his discussion of this novella:
Just as in the story of the man with the flower in his mouth, in this novella
a flower serves as the symbol of death but also as a blazing moment of
eternity. For a second the spirit enters into the life of a geranium, which
suddenly catches fire and flames brilliantly until the spirit has faded
altogether away. The momentary flickering of mortality ends. Language
and poetic image capture death’s phenomenology and psychology.
(Radcliff-Umstead 113)
It is Pirandello’s aim to represent this truth: Man is trapped by his false belief that the
light is reality; when man no longer clings to the light, he will recognize that the darkness
is an illusion. The paradox here lies in that illumination, or enlightenment, takes place in
the dark of night; however, only against the backdrop of the darkness can one see the true
light of reality In representing the passage into death as parallel to witnessing a flower
that blossoms in the night, suddenly and with out explanation, Pirandello successfully
illustrates man’s need to embrace, and not fear, the darkness and to psychically pursue
those things that are not readibly visible in the daylight.
290
Uno, nessuno e centomila
According to Pirandello, Uno, nessuno e centomila is the key to all of his
work. From this we may infer that Pirandello’s most important texts
ultimately comprise the themes of alienation, the absence of identity and
renunciation. All these are explored to their extreme by Vitangelo
Moscarda. It is not just that life is capricious and unpredictable, that
attempts to establish order in the world are thwarted, and that judgements
are unreliable. There is a deeper anxiety, at a level where even the centre
of experience is called into question, where the self which one blithely
takes for granted starts to unravel. Yet if we may take both the author and
the narrator at their word, this process of “self-destruction” may in fact
lead to the attainment of true knowledge and felicity. [Pirandello says: “E’
il romanzo della scomposizione della personalità … Spero che apparirà in
esso, più chiaro di quel che non sia apparso finora, il lato positivo del mio
pensiero.” Many readers, however, have remained unconvinced, and feel
that Moscarda ends in sadness and defeat. Conversely, this article,
drawing largely on Buddhist doctrine, attempts to provide a systematic
explanation and vindication of Moscarda and his “refusal to be.” In this
light, I hope to demonstrate what existence means for Pirandello and his
protagonist, why it is a bad bargain, and most importantly, how the latter
successfully transcends it. (M. John Stella)175!
In this final section, I offer an analysis of the divergent spiritual and mental
journeys of the protagonist, Mattia Pascal, of Il fu Mattia Pascal, and Vitangelo
Moscarda, protagonist of Uno, nessuno e centomila, in their quests for self-knowledge
and unfettered consciousness in light of Pirandello’s application of Buddhist philosophy.
Vitangelo Moscarda’s character is similar to Mattia Pascal’s in that they share congruent
background stories of having a wealthy father, an idle work ethic and a bothersome wife,
and both men experience identity crises of equal severity that cause them to reevaluate
and radically change their lives. There is one vital difference, however: Moscarda
overcomes his spiritual sickness or, Tantalus syndrome, as called by Antonio Illiano, and
Mattia Pascal does not. Twenty years after the publication of Il fu Mattia Pascal,
175
See M. John Stella “Uno, nessuno e centomila: E il vostro naso?”
291
Pirandello is able to offer Moscarda a lasting solution to his crisis of identity that was,
perhaps, unavailable to Mattia Pascal because it was not yet available to Pirandello
himself (as translations of the sacred Eastern texts were not readily available in
translation, and such ideas were not common knowledge, especially in a predominantly
Catholic country.)176 With this text, Pirandello overcomes the crisis of form, that is, the
crisis of representing with language the ineffable nature of the mystical experience and
the dissolution of consciousness. Pirandello achieves this success by emphasizing the
negative aspects of nirvana, in terms of language signifying,“being without,” and by
eradicating the traditional conclusion and transcending the structure of the convential
narrative.
Mattia Pascal and Vitangelo Moscarda suffer parallel crises of identity and
consciousness and their distressing self-analyses are constant throughout the novels.
Moscarda, however, becomes whole in spirit, completely present and connected with the
176
The Second Council of the Vatican explains the rejection of Hinduism and Buddhism by the
Catholic Church: “From ancient times down to the present, there is found among various peoples a certain
perception of that hidden power which hovers over the course of things and over the events of human
history; at times some indeed have come to the recognition of a Supreme Being, or even of a Father. This
perception and recognition penetrates their lives with a profound religious sense. Religions, however, that
are bound up with an advanced culture have struggled to answer the same questions by means of more
refined concepts and a more developed language. Thus in Hinduism, men contemplate the divine mystery
and express it through an inexhaustible abundance of myths and through searching philosophical inquiry.
They seek freedom from the anguish of our human condition either through ascetical practices or profound
meditation or a flight to God with love and trust. Again, Buddhism, in its various forms, realizes the radical
insufficiency of this changeable world; it teaches a way by which men, in a devout and confident spirit,
may be able either to acquire the state of perfect liberation, or attain, by their own efforts or through higher
help, supreme illumination. Likewise, other religions found everywhere try to counter the restlessness of
the human heart, each in its own manner, by proposing “ways,” comprising teachings, rules of life, and
sacred rites. The Catholic Church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions. She regards with
sincere reverence those ways of conduct and of life, those precepts and teachings which, though differing in
many aspects from the ones she holds and sets forth, nonetheless often reflect a ray of that Truth which
enlightens all men. Indeed, she proclaims, and ever must proclaim Christ “the way, the truth, and the life”
(John 14:6), in whom men may find the fullness of religious life, in whom God has reconciled all things to
Himself. The Church, therefore, exhorts her sons, that through dialogue and collaboration with the
followers of other religions, carried out with prudence and love and in witness to the Christian faith and
life, they recognize, preserve and promote the good things, spiritual and moral, as well as the socio-cultural
values found among these men” (Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions Nostra Aetate, Vatican: the Holy See. 1965)
292
flux of life and nature, whereas Mattia Pascal remains fragmented and attached to the
forms of his memory and personality, still concerned with the futile constructions that
tormented him from the beginning of his conflict. While some critics have used the term
pantheism to describe Pirandello’s portrayal of the constant flux of life and his
characters’ immersed engagement with nature, I propose that Pirandello’s rendering of
the mystical experience of such characters, in the moment in which they achieve freedom
from their suffering, is most closely akin to the state of nirvana as described by Buddhist
doctrine. Moscarda’s awareness of his nothingness, and his ability to remain as though
viewing himself from outside of himself, enabled him to break his cycle of torment and
attain nirvana, the freedom from suffering, and experience selflessness and selfsatisfaction. Pascal, however, is unable to detach from his false “self” and remains
imprisoned in the cyclical rotation of karma. Close analysis of the novels Il fu Mattia
Pascal and Uno, nessuno e centomila, and the final words of Mattia Pascal and Vitangelo
Moscarda, reveal that Pirandello offers a solution to modern man’s crisis of identity and
consciousness. Pirandello concentrates on Pascal’s bondage of karma versus Moscarda’s
attainment of nirvana and liberation, as illustrated by the conclusions of the novels.
Let us now examine how the spiritual journey of the protagonists Mattia Pascal and
Vitangelo Moscarda, and a close analysis of their final words in the novels Il fu Mattia
Pascal and Uno, nessuno e centomila, demonstrates that Pirandello found and represents
the cure for man’s spiritual sickness, as Moscarda says, in the sickness itself. Early in the
novel Moscarda says, “Cominciò da questo il mio male. Quel male che doveva ridurmi in
breve in condizioni di spirito e di corpo così misere e disperate che certo ne sarei morto o
impazzito, ove in esso medesimo non avessi trovato (come dirò) il rimedio che doveva
293
guarirmene [“This was the beginning of my sickness. The sickness that would quickly
reduce me to conditions of spirit and body so wretched and desperate that I would surely
have died of them or gone mad, if I had not found in the sickness itself (as I will tell) the
remedy that was to cure me of it] (Tr 2: 195; Trans. Weaver 5). The process that
Moscarda will describe of needing to see himself from the outside, akin to Paleari’s
“lanternosophy,” can only begin after one confronts the illusion of his beliefs about his
identity and reality. Thurman explains the process of finding the remedy in the awareness
of the sickness itself:
Most teachers of enlightenment are just out there offering their healing
and liberating therapies. It’s their profession, as it was the Buddha’s. He
was the original Freud, the ultimate Jung . . . Buddhist psychology is a
joyous science of the heart. It operates on the assumption that we can use
our own sophisticated minds to realize our selfless and thus transformable
nature. It teaches us how to take apart our absolutized self-sense in a
useful way so that we are no longer in conflict with reality as we normally
are, kicking and screaming and miserable but pretending that we’ve got it
all together. It teaches us to free ourselves from our demons by understand
our true place in reality: ultimately selfless while relatively present, aware,
and interconnected with all other beings. It teaches us to embrace infinite
life. And it teaches us compassion, caring for others rather than obsessing
over ourselves. (Thurman 41)
Moscarda, the first-person narrator-protagonist, is a confidant 28-year old man who
becomes psychologically tortured at the outset of the story when his wife points out to
him that his nose is crooked. Upon hearing that his nose, the central facial feature that he
had prior believed to be handsome, tilts to the right, Moscarda is immediately irritated by
the sudden discovery of his physical defect; he worries that he does not know his own
body. Realizing that his external appearance looks different to other people than to
himself, Moscarda anxiously draws the conclusion that there is an elusive outsider living
inside him that exists for other people but is unknowable to him. Distressed by not being
294
able to imagine how others may view his appearance and actions, Moscarda begins to
feel like an artificial imitation of his true self and suffers a traumatic identity crisis.
Disconnecting from the image of himself that he formerly identified with, the mirror
becomes his enemy as it reflects an unrecognizable being, a dream-like “apparition” of
himself (Trans. Weaver 19). Similar to the traces of Mattia Pascal that were vaguely
familiar in Adriano Meis, Moscarda glimpses only fleeting impressions of the self he
believed himself to be, confusing the man in the mirror with the outsider residing inside
of him. Displaced from his identity and feeling an urgent need to be alone in a “new” way
(without himself), Moscarda admits signs of madness in his behavior. Unable to find
solitude and peace, reminiscent of Mattia Pascal’s distress, he plunges into reflection and
self-examination, becoming obsessed with pursuing the outsider inseparable from
himself. Moscarda cannot console himself with reflection and meditation, and his
spiritual sickness leads him to acts of madness. When he makes an even more unsettling
discovery about his identity, Moscarda says:
Credevo ancora che fosse uno solo questo estraneo: uno solo per tutti,
come uno solo credevo d’esser io per me. Ma presto l’atroce mio dramma
si complicò: con la scoperta dei centomila Moscarda ch’io ero non solo
per gli altri ma anche per me, tutti con questo solo nome di Moscarda,
brutto fino alla crudeltà, tutti dentro questo mio povero corpo ch’era uno
anch’esso, uno e nessuno ahimè, se me lo mettevo davanti allo specchio e
me lo guardavo fisso e immobile negli occhi, abolendo in esso ogni
sentimento e ogni volontà. (Tr 2: 201)
I still believed this outsider was only one person: only one for everybody,
as I thought I was only one for myself. But soon my horrible drama
became more complicated: with the discovery of the hundred thousand
Moscardas that I was, not only for the others, but also for myself, all with
this one name of Moscarda, ugly to the point of cruelty, all inside this poor
body of mine that was also one, one and, alas, no one, if I set myself
before the mirror and looked, hard and motionless, into my eyes,
abolishing in that person all feeling and all will. (Trans. Weaver 14)
295
Feeling doomed to carry this outsider with him forever, yet not willing nor able to
renounce his “impresa disperata” [“desperate enterprise”], Moscarda continues his
seemingly insane attempt to see himself with his own eyes as others see him (Tr 2: 202;
Trans. Weaver 15).
Throughout the novel, Moscarda experiences moments of liberation that he
misconstrues as madness. He ascends spiritually and mentally when he sees his father
from the perspective of an outsider, and is able detach from him in way he had never
been able to before. Moscarda sets out to perform an experiment with the aim of
imposing a new impression on those that perceived him as a cold usurer, like his father
was. He risks his job and reputation, but he is determined to evict Marco di Dio and his
wife from their house. Moscarda expresses a sense of liberation when he finds the file he
needed for his experiment. His master plan, as the reader comes to find out, is to be
publically recognized for donating a new house and a large sum of money to the couple
after having evicted them. However, his hope for the transfiguration of his public identity
is shattered when the crowd, as well as Marco di Dio, repeatedly calls him a madman.
Gradually Moscarda becomes more and more self-detached and alienated. His awareness
of this frightens him and leads him to consider suicide, as he does not realize that he is in
the process of spiritually evolving. He decides to withdraw the money from his father’s
bank, rendering it liquidated, so that he could completely disassociate from his past as a
usurer as well as being known as his father’s son. He grabs his wife’s wrists and shoves
her when she laughs at his ridiculousness, and he finally makes clear to her that he is no
longer her Gengè (his wife’s nickname for him). Back in his room alone, Moscarda says
that he has become “one” and he feels he has connected to the self he wanted to be; he is
296
no longer usurer for the public, nor Gengè for his wife.
Toward the end of the novel, Moscarda begins to talk about Gengè in thirdperson, indicating to the reader that a shift of identity is taking place. Anna Rosa, a friend
of his wife’s, discloses to Moscarda that his father-in-law, his wife and the men from his
father’s bank are planning to have him declared incompetent. She encourages Moscarda
to meet with the Monsignor at the church and dispose of his money in the respectable
way of donating it to charity. In a turn of events, Anna Rosa shoots Moscarda, and he
makes the decision to donate all of his possessions and earnings—an act of renunciation
akin to Siddhartha Gautama’s before he became the Buddha— so that a home for the
destitute could be established with an adjoining soup kitchen. He decides to take a room
there and lives simply, like any other person seeking shelter and food. The first-person
narration is interrupted with a phrase describing Moscarda, “Ecco: per sé, nessuno. Era
questa, forse, la via che conduceva a diventare uno per tutti” [“You see? For himself he
was no one. This, perhaps, was the path that led to becoming one for all”] (Tr 2: 308;
Trans. Weaver 158). Using a holistic approach to assess his identity, Moscarda attains a
liberated consciousness and inner peace, and unlike Pascal, is able to live the way he
consciously chooses— albeit, cloistered on the fringe society—but only because that was
his best option. What Moscarda and others may have perceived as his madness, was
nothing other then a calling for self-exploration and understanding. As Thurman explains,
“Those people who had problems with their inner lives, with fitting into the machine of
the greater social purpose, were mainly cast off into a corner and forgotten. Maybe they
played the role of the village idiot, or, if they were lucky, they wandered off and found a
Christian monastery (Thurman 37).
297
Moscarda’s final words in the last chapter of the novel, paradoxically called “Non
conclude,” (“No Conclusion”) indicate that he has found the path to nirvana, and is able
to transcend his identity crisis by mentally freeing himself of from all forms of existence,
passions, exertions and sensibilities. He no longer looks in the mirror, as he is not
concerned with his appearance and he wears the simple clothes provided by the home yet
he walks around smiling. In the practice of “not concluding” and detaching from all
concepts in his memory, including his name, Vitangelo Moscarda finds the Middle Way
and achieves what Mattia Pascal could not. Moscarda says:
Nessun nome. Nessun ricordo del nome di jeri; del nome d’oggi, domani.
Io sono vivo e non concludo. La vita non conclude. E non sa di nomi, la
vita. Quest’albero, respiro trèmulo di foglie nuove. Sono quest’albero . . .
E l’aria `e nuova. E tutto, attimo per attimo, è com’è, che s’avviva per
apparire. Volto subito gli occhi per non vedere più nulla fermarsi nella sua
apparenza e morire. Così soltanto io posso vivere, ormai. Rinascere attimo
per attimo. Impedire che il pensiero si metta in me di nuovo a lavorare, e
dentro mi rifaccia il vuoto delle vane costruzioni . . . Pensare alla morte,
pregare . . . Io non l’ho più questo bisogno, perché muojo ogni attimo, io,
e rinasco nuovo e senza ricordi: vivo e intero, non più in me, ma in ogni
cosa fuori. (Tr 2: 309)
No name. No memory today of yesterday’s name; of today’s name,
tomorrow . . . I am alive and I do not conclude. Life does not conclude.
And life knows nothing of names. This tree, tremulous pulse of new
leaves. I am this tree . . . And the air is new. And everything, instant by
instant, is as it is, preparing to appear. I turn my eyes away at once so as to
see nothing further arrest its appearance and die. This is the only way I can
live now. To be reborn moment by moment. To prevent thought from
working again inside me, causing inside a reappearance of the void with
its futile constructions . . . To think of death, to pray . . . I no longer have
this need; because I die at every instant, and I am reborn, new and without
memories: live and whole, no longer inside myself, but everything outside.
(Trans. Weaver 160)
The exemption from all thought beyond the present moment allows Vitangelo Moscarda
to overcome his fragmentation and evolve toward a totality. He achieves this through his
conscious relinquishing of illusions, attainment of awareness of the present moment, and
298
the subsequent detachment from all consciousness that a void ever existed. RadcliffUmstead recognizes Moscarda’s attainment of mystical consciousness. He writes:
The ultimately namelss central character of Uno, nessuno e centomila
undergoes an all-encompassing death of the ego—the same selfannihilation that mystics have sought for centuries through ascentic
discipline […]. It is a condition of dying and being reborn from second to
second, a release from the torture of thought, a constantly renewing
ecstasy of self-loss in the vastness of the universe, the sweet shipwreck of
the soul in the ocean of infinity that tempted the nineteenth-century poet
Leopardi. There occurs an interpenetration of all things with one another,
to annihilate the isolation and discontinuity that are customary to human
existence in convential society. The nothingness that the protagonist of
Pirandello’s final novel experiences is a positive “abyss of divine
enjoyment” […] What the Pirandellian character enters is a realm of
instantaneous vision, with no mutual exclusion of individual places in
space that become harmoniously interrelated. The barriers between dream
and reality vanish into the super-reality of that moment of absolute poetic
espression. […] At last in a Pirandellian work a fugitive from life triumphs
by escaping the temporal death of social form. Moscarda has transcended
the “normal” adjusted state that comes from abdicating ecstasy. The
protagonist had abandoned that false self and those false realities of life as
Gengé. (Radcliff-Umstead 284).
Concentrating on the flux of nature and the eternal cycle of becoming, Moscarda
transcends his ego-self—purifying his consciousness and realigning his soul with Being.
Moscarda is liberated from wordly suffering and embodies selflessness and peace,
thereby surpassing Mattia Pascal, who still clinging to form at the end of the novel,
remains in a state of emotional and spiritual paralysis. Pirandello, in turn, transcends the
boundary of form and language. Moscarda Vitangelo, dying and being reborn, detaches
from the narration—which he before claimed and guided. The final words of the novel
illustrate that Moscarda Vitangelo has vanished. Though the reader has a clear memory of
the original narrator of the story, Vitangelo has transcended his everyday consciousness
and the story has no choice but to continue as a representation of a series of present
moments and descriptions of nature. In exacting a continuity of rejections that indicate
299
the protagonist’s full immersion into mystical nothingness and unity, Pirandello perfects
the form and affects a truly modernist approach to literature.
300
CONCLUSION
So far, one thing is sure: that with Pirandello for the first time Italian
literature discovers how the spirit, far from being the simple, twodimensional entity it once believed, is a chasm unfathomable by the
eye, an unexplored region sounding with strange voice, streaked by
phantasmagorias, peopled with monsters, where truth and error,
reality and make-believe, wakefulness and dream, good and evil
struggle forever tangling in the shadow of mystery.177
-Adriano Tilgher
In keeping with his own theory of not concluding, Pirandello’s writing never
officially concluded. Driven by the desire “to continue to work, always work,” as he
wrote to his muse and confidant, Marta Abba, Pirandello continued to work up until the
night before he died in December of 1936.178 Pirandello was always motivated by his
persistent spirited imagination, so even while on his deathbead, he dictated his idea for
the third act of I giganti della montagna (The Mountain Giants) to his son Stefano .179
Pirandello’s last gift to the world, though unrevised and unfinished, is the consummation
of his life’s work; Pirandello himself called I giganti della montagna, “il mio capolavoro”
[“my masterpiece”] and “il trionfo della fantasia” [“the triumph of the imagination”]
(Illiano “Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author” 107). In his excitement,
Pirandello wrote to Marta Abba of I giganti della montagna:
Credo veramente ch’io stia componendo, con un fervore e una
trepidazione che non riesco a esprimerti, il mio capolavoro, con questi
Giganti della montagna. Mi sento asceso in una sommità dove la mia voce
trova altezze d’inaudite risonanze. La mia arte non è stata mai così piena,
177
“Life Versus Form” by Adriano Tilgher is originally found in Chapter VII of his book, Studi
sul teatro contemporaneo (1923). “Life Versus Form” is included in Pirandello: A Collection of Critical
Essays (Trans. and ed. Glauco Cambon 34).
178
(Trans. Marta Abba, The Mountain Giants and Other Plays 15).
179
The first act of I giganti della montagna (The Mountain Giants), titled I fantasmi, was
published in 1931 in “Nuova Antologia.” In Florence in 1937, I giganti della montagna was staged
outdoors in the Boboli Gardens under the direction of Renato Simoni (See Albumn Pirandello 328).
301
così varia e imprevista: così veramente una festa, per lo spirito e per gli
occhi, tutta palpiti lucenti e fresca come la brina. […]
C’è tutto, è l’orgia della fantasia! Una leggerezza di nuvola su
profondità d’abissi: risa potenti che scoppiano tra le lagrime, come tuoni
tra la tempesta: e tutto sospeso, tutto aereo e vibrante, elettrico: nessun
paragone con quello che ho fatto finora: sto toccando l’apice, vedrai!
(Illiano “Pirandello’s Six Characters” 107)
I do believe that I am composing my masterpiece, The Mountain
Giants with a fervor and a trepidation that I can’t express. I feel I have
climbed to heights where my voice finds unheard-of sounds. My art has
never before been so full, so varied and unpredictable: so truly like a feast
for the spirit and for the eyes—all shining pulsations as fresh as dew. […]
It has everything, it’s an orgy of fantasy! The lightness of a cloud
passing over the depth of an abyss; powerful laughter exploding among
the tears, like thunder in the midst of storms; and everything suspended,
no comparison to what I have done so far; I am touching the peak, you’ll
see! (Pietro Frassica 47-48)
It is unfortunate that Pirandello was unable to finish the work he deemed his masterpiece.
Despite the author’s passion for this work, it is doubtful that his visionary coup would
have been well received by the public. This final play, the last of Pirandello’s three
“myths,” was performed posthumously in Florence in 1937 with little success. Though I
giganti della montagna was successfully staged in 1958 by George Strehler, the critics’
enthusiasm was for Strehler’s direction rather than Pirandello’s content. Pirandello wrote
to Marta Abba in 1930 after staying up all night writing, “Will my work ever recompense
me for the pain this dawn has given me, drowning the bitterness of my own fate in the
general bitterness of our useless mortal life?” (Marta Abba, trans. The Mountain Giants
and Other Plays 15). The fate of his play would most likely not have surprised Pirandello
as he said that while I giganti della montagna was a triumph of poetry, it was at the same
time the, “tragedia della poesia in mezzo a questo brutale mondo moderno” [“The tragedy
of poetry in the midst of this brutal modern world”] (Illiano “Pirandello’s Six
Characters” 107). As Pirandello’s euphoric enthusiasm for I giganti della montagna
302
implies (critical skepticism notwithstanding), this text represents the summa of his
engagement with metaphysics and spirituality. Pirandello’s final mythical and mystical
drama is important to this study as it is the culmination of decades of writing about, and
meditating on, the boundaries of reality and the fictions of the spirit. It represents nothing
short of the fullest, and final, as it turns out, elaboration of his aesthetics of the
metaphysical.
Abounding with fantastic creations and supernatural elements, I giganti della
montagna maintains the integrity of traditional myth.180 This genre of the mythical realm
was the perfect forum for Pirandello to stage the conflict between the spiritual world and
the materialistic world and to give life to his abstract theories of life versus form and
illusion versus reality. The play, “al limite, fra favola e la realtà” [“at the boundary,
between fable and reality”],181 is a labyrinthine representation of the creative spirit versus
the world of form, reason and logic, the role and function of art, communication in the
theater, and enlightenment versus disillusion.
I giganti della montagna is set in a surrealistic world where, “all notion of a
naturalistic setting has disappeared” (Susan Bassnet-McGuire 155). The characters are
comprised of three main groups: 1) Gli scalognati (The Scalognati), “a curious society of
the dispersed, who live, in an ownerless villa, a life given over to dreams and illusions,”
headed by the magician, Cotrone; 2) A nomadic theater troupe trying to find an audience
180
Myth is defined as: “A traditional or legendary story, usually concerning some superhuman
being or some alleged person or event, with or without a determinable basis of fact or natural explanation,
esp. a traditional or legendary story that is concerned with deities or demigods and the creation of the world
and its inhabitants” (Webster’s 946).
181
After the List of Characters, one reads: “Tempo e luogo, indeterminate: al limite, fra la favola e
la realtà” [“Time and place, undetermined, at the boundary between fable and reality”] (Maschere nude 10:
391).
303
for the play, Favola del figlio cambiato (The Fable of the Changling Son),182 run by Il
conte (the Count) and his wife, Ilse, “the guiding spirit of the theatrical company”; and 3)
I giganti (the Giants), “with their dull, unthinking brutality,” and the servants of the
Giants, “the poor fanatical servants of life” (Trans. Simon and Erica Young 154-163).
Pirandello describes his layered “mito artistico,” (“artistic myth”), I giganti della
montagna, in an interview in 1930:
[È] semplicemente una tragedia d’uomini che non si intendono. Solo che il
contrasto, cioè il motivo e la materia dell’incomprensione e quindi del
dramma, è qui fornito dall’arte, mentre nel Lazzaro è la religione e nella
Nuova colonia la legge. I Giganti della Montagna sono gli uomini
refrattari all’arte, chiusi e conchiusi nella ragion practica del vivere.
L’attrice, il conte suo marito, il poeta Cotrone, i suoi compagni scapigliati
e i guitti della compagnia sono lo spirito che agisce e costruisce oltre la
materia: e il dramma è l’incontro, anzi lo scontro di questi due mondi
incomunicabili. (Ivan Pupo, ed. 448-449)
[It is] simply a tragedy of men who do not understand. Only that the
contrast is, that is the reason and the subject of misunderstanding and
therefore of the drama, is here provided by art, while in Lazarus it is
religion and in the New Colony it is law. The Giants of the Mountain are
men refractory to art, closed and concluded in the practical reason of
living. The actress, the count her husband, the poet Cotrone, his
disheveled mates and the wandering actors of the company are the spirit
that acts and constructs beyond the material: and the drama is the
encounter, or rather the clash of these two incommunicable worlds.
As explained by Pirandello in the quotation above, the drama of I giganti della montagna
is the conflict between the actors, representative of art, and the Scalognati, the allegorical
“primitive and natural forms of the spirit,” versus the Giants, who in their “destruction of
the human spirit” and adherence to reason, represent the resistance to art and obstacle of
form.
182
The Favola del figlio cambiato (The Fable of the Changling Son) is intended to be Pirandello’s
play, Il figlio cambio (The Changeling) (Bassnet-McGuire 155).
304
The Scalognati have renounced society to live naturally in the villa. Having
resigned from everything, or “everyday consciousness,” their souls are purified and they
are freed from self-consciousness—like the animals and the trees who do not have the
“privilege” of watching themselves live, as Pirandello has described this curse many
times before. They explain their happy existence, where everyday brings a new
opportunity to delve into the depths of consciousness and “dissipate reality” into bright
lights and clouds:
Cotrone: Tutte quelle verità che la coscienza rifiuta. Le faccio venir fuori
dal segreto dei sensi, o a seconda, le piú spaventose, dalle caverne
dell’istinto. Ne inventai tante al paese, che me ne dovetti scappare,
perseguitato dagli scandali. Mi provo ora qua a dissolverle in fantasmi, in
evanescenze. Ombre che passano. Con questi miei amici m’ingegno di
sfumare sotto diffusi chiarori anche la realtà di fuori, versando, come in
fiocchi di nubi colorate, l’anima, dentro la notte che sogna.
Cromo: Come un fuoco d’artifizio?
Cotrone : Ma senza spari. Incanti silenziosi. La gente sciocca n’ha paura e
si tiene lontana; e così noi restiamo qua padroni. Padroni di niente e di
tutto.
Cromo: E di che vivete?
Cotrone: Così. Di niente e di tutto.
Doccia: Non si può aver tutto, se non quando non si ha più niente.
Cromo: Ah, senti? Quest’è proprio il caso nostro! Dunque noi abbiamo
tutto?
Cotrone: Eh, no, perché vorreste avere ancora qualche cosa. Quando
davvero non vorrete più niente, allora sí. […]
Doccia: E solo quando non hai più casa, tutto il mondo diventa tuo. Vai e
vai, poi t’abbandoni tra l’erba al silenzio dei cieli; e sei tutto e sei niente...
e sei niente e sei tutto.
Cotrone: Potevo essere anch’io, forse, un grand’uomo, Contessa. Mi sono
dimesso. Dimesso da tutto: decoro, onore, dignità, virtù, cose tutte che le
bestie, per grazia di Dio, ignorano nella loro beata innocenza. Liberata da
tutti questi impacci, ecco che l’anima ci resta grande come l’aria, piena di
sole o di nuvole, aperta a tutti i lampi, abbandonata a tutti i venti,
superflua e misteriosa materia di prodigi che ci solleva e disperde in
favolose lontananze. Guardiamo alla terra, che tristezza! C’è forse
qualcuno laggiù che s’illude di star vivendo la nostra vita; ma non è vero.
Nessuno di noi è nel corpo che l’altro ci vede; ma nell’anima che parla chi
sa da dove; nessuno può saperlo: apparenza tra apparenza, con questo
buffo nome di Cotrone…e lui, di Doccia…e lui, di Quaquèo…Un corpo è
305
la morte: tenebra e pietra. Guai a chi si vede nel suo corpo e nel suo nome.
Facciamo i fantasmi. Tutti quelli che ci passano per la mente. […] Con la
divina prerogativa dei fanciulli che prendono sul serio i loro giucchi, la
maraviglia ch'è in noi la rovesciamo sulle cose con cui giochiamo, e ce ne
lasciamo incantare. Non è più un gioco, ma una realtà maravigliosa in cui
viviamo, alienati da tutto, fino agli eccessi della demenza. (Maschere nude
10: 447-450)
Cotrone: All those truths which our consciousness refuses. I make them
emerge from the secrecy of our senses, or if they are more frightening,
from the deep recesses of our instinct. Back home, I invented so many of
them that I had to run away, as I was pursued by scandals. Here I try to
dissolve them into phantasms, into vanishing visions. Fleeting shadows.
With these friends of mine, I attempt to dissipate even outer reality into
expanded brightnesses, by shedding the soul, like so many puffs of
colored clouds, into the dreaming nighttime. The foolish outsiders are
afraid of them and stay away; so, we remain the masters here. The masters
of nothing and of everything.
Cromo: And how do you live?
Cotrone: Like this. With nothing and with everything.
Doccia: One can only possess everything when one has nothing.
Cromo: Well, do you see? That’s just the case with us. Do we then
possess everything?
Cotrone: No, not quite, because you would still like to possess something.
When you will really no longer wish for anything, only then will you be
set.
Doccia: And only when you don’t have a home does all the world become
yours. No matter where you are, you will commit yourself on the grass to
the silence of the heavens. You are all and you are nothing; . . . and you
are nothing and you are all. […]
Cotrone: I too could have been a great man, perhaps, Countess. But I
resigned. I resigned from everything: from formality, honor, dignity,
virtue, which are things that all animals ignore, thank God, in their blissful
innocence. Once the soul is freed from all these obstacles, it remains as
great as the air, full of sunshine or clouds, open to all lightnings,
abandoned to all the winds; it is a superfluous and mysterious substance
for marvels, which elevates us and scatters us to fabulous distances. Just
look at the earth—what a plight! There may be someone down there who
is under the illusion of living our life; but it isn’t so. No one of us occupies
the body that another person sees us in, but rather the soul which speaks
… who knows from where: nobody can tell. It’s one appearance after
another, with this comical name of Cotrone . . . he with Doccia . . . and he
with Quaqueo . . . The body is death: it is shadow and stone. Woe unto
him who sees himself in his own body and with his own name. Let’s be
ghosts—all the ghosts which come to our minds. […] With the divine
prerogative of children who take their games seriously, we transfer the
306
wonder which is inside us to the things we are playing with, and allow
ourselves to be charmed by them. So it is no longer a game, but a
marvelous reality that we live in; far away from everything, and even
reaching excesses of madness. (Trans. Marta Abba 67-70)
This mythical fantasyland of possibility is true reality for the Scalognati. Cotrone
explains to Ilse that here, on the border of life where reason is not necessary, he is able to
turn dreams into reality: “Siamo qua come agli orli della vita, Contessa. Gli orli, a un
comando, si distaccano; entra l'invisibile: vaporano I fantasmi. E cosa naturale. Avviene,
ciò che di solito nel sogno. Io lo faccio avvenire anche nella veglia. Ecco tutto. I sogni, la
musica, la preghiera, l’amore... tutto l’infinito ch’è negli uomini, lei lo troverà dentro e
intorno a questa villa” [“We are here as if on the very border of life, Countess. At a
command, these borders become detached and the invisible enters; the ghosts evaporate.
It’s natural. It happens frequently in our dreams. I make it happen even in our waking;
that’s all. Dreams, music, prayer, love . . . all the infinite which is in man, you will find in
and about this villa”] (Maschere nude 10: 436; Trans. Marta Abba 60). Here we see all of
the major spiritual preoccupations of P’s mature opus at work: Spiritualism, Theosophy,
Buddhism, occultic elements, parapsychology, and psychology.
La Scalogna represents true reality for Pirandello as well, as it is the place where
the creative spirit is free to concoct and give life to even the most fantastic ideas of the
imagination; it is a reality where one is free to realize, not just dream, ideas so outlandish
and radical that the creator seems to have reached madness. However, there is no threat
of scandal or mental institutions in this reality. Actualizing the Buddhist notion of
“emptiness,” the Scalognati embody the paradox that to have everything, one must detach
from all things. Cotrone explains to Cromo that, despite the fact that the actors live
meagerly outside of society, they do not yet have everything and are not truly free
307
because they still possess the desire for an audience. Cotrone explains that people
experience “emptiness” differently as it evokes either a positive or negative connotation.
In Pirandellian terms, most people view living authentically with the flux of life—though
deviating from the norm—as living ‘without.’ Regarding the negative versus positive
representation of “emptiness” in modern literature:
The negative experience of ‘inner emptiness,’ boredom, loneliness
and nausea is part and parcel of contemporary art and literature.
Prototypes of these experiences in the clinical situation are becoming
common, but the literary and even the current philosophical writings
provide an encounter with what may be called an ‘emptiness’ which is
merely negative.
In the context of Buddhism, there are two approaches to the
experience of ‘emptiness.’ One is the negative encounter with the vacuity
and boredom in one’s life, the other is the positive realization of this as an
insight into the nature of reality, the lack of an inner essence and
permanent self along with spiritual experience of the ‘void’ and the
‘signless.’ It is due to a kind of spiritual poverty that modern man is
incapable of converting this negative encounter into a more positive
insight into the nature of reality. […] It is by deep insight into the nature
of reality, by understanding the doctrines of dukkha and anatta that we
transcend a purely negative submergence by boredom and emptiness.
(Padmasiri De Silva 121)
De Silva writes of a “spiritual poverty,” based on the teachings in the Majjhima Nikaya.
This “spiritual poverty,” equivalent to Pirandello’s “spiritual sickness,” can be overcome
by detachment from self and experiencing the ‘void’ itself. The void for Pirandello is
recognition that the shadow is created by the false light of illusion; therefore to
“experience the void,” in Pirandellian terms, is to take off the blinders of ignorance
(anatta), so as to gain inner vision of Being and achieve clarity of the nature of reality.
Like Vitangelo Moscarda who has become so detached from his body and appearance
308
that he no longer recalls his own name,183 Cotrone explains that clinging to one’s body
and name is like clinging to death—as these are just forms that enclose the soul and
repress the spirit. As the Buddha declared: “It is by preoccupation with body, feelings,
perceptions, mental constructions and consciousness that one acquires a name” (Trans.
Bhikkhu Bodhi Sa+yuttanik"ya III, iv). Renate Matthaei writes of the Scalognati, who
“stripped of everything,” have returned back to nature:
It is the mind freed from all social and metaphysical ties that here toys
with itself. Its creations are phantoms, fragmented dreams, ghosts that
transform truth and all external reality into ephemeral fantasies and
transient shadows. The shimmering kingdom of the Ravens of Misfortune,
filled with a heavenly intoxication, is a world of the dead, which in their
turn invent other shadows in the endless process of disillusion that cannot
escape from illusion. Being without external restraints, it falls victim to
imagination run wild. […] [Pirandello] lets dreams and imagination act
independently, giving them a reality that transforms the stage into a
phantasmagoria. (Simon and Erika Young, trans. 159)
Pirandello never abandoned the spectral elements of the occult nor the theories of
artistic hallucination from his early days with Luigi Capuana. Act Three resonates with
parapsychological phenomena, and Cotrone desribes the Theosophical notion of the
thought-form. Cotrone intertwines his description of the creations of imagination with a
commentary on the function of the theater and the obligation of the actors:
Vi ho pur detto che la villa è abitata dagli spiriti, signori miei. Non ve l’ho
mica detto per ischerzo. Noi qui non ci stupiamo più di nulla. L’orgoglio
umano è veramente imbecille, scusate. Vivono di vita naturale sulla terra,
signor Conte, altri esseri di cui nello stato normale noi uomini non
possiamo aver percezione, ma solo per difetto nostro, dei cinque nostri
limitatissimi sensi. Ecco che, a volte, in condizioni anormali, questi esseri
ci si rivelano e ci riempiono di spavento. Sfido: non ne avevamo supposto
l’esistenza! Abitanti della terra non umani, signori miei, spiriti della
natura, di tutti i generi, che vivono in mezzo a noi, invisibili, nelle rocce,
nei boschi, nell'aria, nell'acqua, nel fuoco: lo sapevano bene gli antichi: e il
183
From Uno, nessuno e centomila: “Nessun nome. Nessun ricordo del nome di jeri; del nome d’oggi,
domain” [“No name. No memory today of yesterday’s name; of today’s name, tomorrow”] (Tr 2: 309;
Weaver, trans. 160). See Chapter Four of this dissertation for full quotation.
309
popolo l’ha sempre saputo; lo sappiamo bene noi qua, che siamo in gara
con loro e spesso li vinciamo, assoggettandoli a dare ai nostri prodigi, col
loro concorso, un senso che essi ignorano o di cui non si curano. Se lei
Contessa, vede ancora la vita dentro i limiti del naturale e del possibile,
l’avverto che lei qua non comprenderà mai nulla. Noi siamo fuori di questi
limiti, per grazia di Dio. A noi basta immaginare, e subito le immagini si
fanno vive da sé. Basta che una cosa sia in noi ben viva, e si rappresenta
da sé, per virtù spontanea della sua stessa vita. È il libero avvento d'ogni
nascita necessaria. Al più al più, noi agevoliamo con qualche mezzo la
nascita. Quei fantocci là, per esempio. Se lo spirito dei personaggi ch’essi
rappresentano s'incorpora in loro, lei vedrà quei fantocci muoversi e
parlare. E il miracolo vero non sarà mai la rappresentazione, creda, sarà
sempre la fantasia del poeta in cui quei personaggi son nati, vivi, così vivi
che lei può vederli anche senza che ci siano corporalmente. Tradurli in
realtà fittizia sulla scena è ciò che si fa comunemente nei teatri. Il vostro
ufficio. (Maschere nude 10: 475)
I have already told you that the villa is haunted, my friends. I was not
joking. Here, we are not surprised at anything any more. Human pride—
forgive me—is really very stupid. There are other things that live a natural
life on this earth, Count, that we cannot see in our natural state, but that we
can perceive only through a defect in our five most limited senses. That is
why, at times, when conditions are abnormal, these beings reveal
themselves to us and frighten us. Of course—we had never supposed they
existed! They are unhuman dwellers of the earth, my friends—phantasms
of nature, of any kind of nature, that live among us invisibly, in rocks, in
woods, in the water, in the air, in fire. The Ancients knew them well, and
the masses have always known them. We know it now, out here, we who
compete with them and frequently overcome them, inasmuch as we
compel them to give to our inventions a sense that is unknown to them or
that they don't care about. If you still view life within the limits of the
natural or of the possible, Countess, I warn you that you will never
understand a thing out here. We are now outside these limits, thank God.
All we have to do is imagine, and our imagination instantly takes on life,
by itself. Just so long as something is quite alive within us, it will be
represented spontaneously and unaided, by virtue of its very life. It's the
free appearance of every necessary birth. At the most, we help along the
birth somehow. Take those dolls there, for instance. If the soul of the
characters that they represent incorporates itself within them, you will see
those dolls move and talk. And mark you well that the real miracle will
never be the representation itself, but always the imagination of the poet in
whom those characters were born living, so alive that you can see them
even if they are not bodily there. This is what is ordinarily done in the
theatres—on the stage they are translated into a fictitious reality. That’s
your job. (Trans. Marta Abba 88-89)
310
I giganti della montagna, is in essence, Pirandello’s response to the question he
posed forty-three years earlier in Arte e coscienza d’oggi” (“Art and Consciousness of
Today”): “Quale sarà l’arte di domani?” [“What will be the art of tomorrow?”] (Spsv
906). Susan Bassnet-McGuire writes:
The play may be seen as a statement of Pirandello’s disillusionment with
the role of art in contemporary society, a position towards which he had
been moving steadily for years. Pirandello had deeply involved himself in
exploring the apparent dichotomy between art and life, between form and
motion, and had come increasingly to investigate this duality in theater
terms […] [The] Giants’ servants, symbols of materialism and
tastelessness, do not want Ilse’s poetic play. They demand entertainment,
a song and dance routine, with no pretentions to high art. Although
Cromo, the character actor, tries to pursuade the others to acquiesce to the
audience’s demand, Ilse refuses. She attacks the audience for their
ignorance and in their rage and intolerance she is torn to pieces behind the
tattered curtain of her stage. (Bassnet-McGuire 154-155)
Disappointment and disenchantment with art is reflected in the action of the play within
the play, but Pirandello’s own myth answers that challenging conventions, surmounting
form, and representing the mysteries of life is far from tragic or impossible. As evidenced
by the dramatic works from Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore to I giganti della montagna,
Pirandello, (like Ilse whose devotion to the theater was her “sacred duty”), dedicated
himself to the creation and execution of genuine art and refused to conform to the
demands of the audience. Pirandello challenges his audience and offers a positive
prescription for change; he is not necessarily issuing a condemnation or criticism of the
current state of art. I giganti della montagna can be read, therefore, as consonant with his
triumphant feelings of satisfaction about its success (clearly not, ultimately, critical but)
as a spiritual exercise.
311
Pirandello illustrated throughout his canon that to survive in society, the human
mind adapts to, and is confined by, what Carl Jung called the “collective unconscious,”
which surrounds the ego-consciousness. Jung explains:
Individual consciousness is surrounded by the treacherous sea of the
unconscious. This consciousness of ours has the appearance of being
stable and reliable, but in reality it is a fragile thing and rests on very
insecure foundation. Often no more than a strong emotion is needed to
upset the sensitive balance of consciousness. […] These disturbances do
not show themselves only in acute form; often they are chronic and can
bring about a lasting change of consciousness. As a result of some psychic
upheaval whole tracts of our being can plunge back into the
unconsciousness and vanish from the surface for years and decades.
Permanent changes in character are not uncommon. (Carl Jung 138-139)
Pirandello recognized the imbalances of the consciousness and his work reflects the
psychic disturbances that Western psychology was just beginning to explore. In
demonstrating the spiritual sickness of his protagonists who suffer because of their
ignorance of illusion and dependence on logic and reason, Pirandello represented the
consequences for the consciousness, spirit and soul in adhering to an inauthentic way of
living. The result, though man is physically alive, is a spiritual death and a suffering that
tortures the soul until real death extinguishes the false light of illusion. Optimistically,
however, Pirandello comes to demonstrate that though man suffers as the result of his
attachment to ego-consciousness and artificial realities, freedom from the cycle of
suffering is attainable if he is willing to explore beyond the imposed limits of the
consciousness and embrace the interconnected nature of the universe. Pirandello, in his
skepticism of traditional Western science, looked beyond the medical approach to healing
the suffering of the mind and turned to various spiritual belief systems for a solution. As
Robert Thurman explains, modern Western psychology, as opposed to ancient Buddhist
psychology, provided temporary solutions:
312
Western psychology developed during the era of industrialization. Freud
and Jung lived in the wealthier societies of central Europe. Members of
the middle class finally had a little time and money to explore their
general state of being. When their interiors were maladjusted or abused or
neglected, they could find someone to work with them. So these early
psychologists began to ask themselves: How does the mind work? What
are the problems with the mind? How can these problems be fixed? But
their main purpose was only to re-adapt these misfits back into the
machinery of industrial society so that their patients could work, function
and “be normal” again. As Freud himself said, his therapy was designed to
help people get rid of neurotic suffering so they could get back to ordinary
suffering. There was never any mention of complete freedom from
suffering as the definition of health, or even a livable option. (Thurman
38)
Considered in this context, then, I would argue that this play, far from being a moment of
over-ripeness or an example of late style, is in fact the apex of Pirandello’s aesthetic
program. In his earlier works, Pirandello was intrigued by the contemporary revival of
Spiritualism and Theosophy, as well as the burgeoning fields of psychology and
parapsychology. In his later works, Pirandello’s typically anguished protagonists came to
embody a mystical consciousness which he represented using elements reminiscent of the
Buddha’s Four Noble Truths. Pirandello’s consideration of modern and ancient spiritual
approaches, Eastern as well as Western, as viable means to resolve the discordance
between the mind, soul and spirit was artistically original but also socially relevant and
laden with significant implications. Most insightful of Pirandello, in his rejection of
traditional Western science and attempt to overcome the prevailing “spiritual sickness”
plaguing man, was his application of the ancient Eastern Hindu and Buddhist systems,
whose views of the universe are now— 4,000 years later— validated scientifically by
many renown physicists. Modern physics recognizes the strong parallel between the
concepts of relativity and quantum theory and the ancient philosophies of the Eastern
mystical systems of Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism and corroborates the world-view of
313
the Eastern mystics—namely that all things in the universe are dynamic and
interconnected. Fritjof Capra describes this congruence in his seminal work, The Tao of
Physics:
Eastern thought and, more generally, mystical thought provide a consistent
and relevant philosophical background to the theories of contemporary
science; a conception of the world in which man’s scientific discoveries
can be in perfect harmony with his spiritual aims and religious beliefs. The
two basic themes of this conception are the unity and interrelation of all
phenomena and the intrinsically dynamic nature of the universe. The
further we penetrate into the submicroscopic world, the more we shall
realize how the modern physicist, like the Eastern mystic, has come to see
the world as a system of inseparable, interacting and ever moving
components with the observer being an integral part of this system. (Capra
25)
The discoveries of modern physics led to significant paradigmatic shifts in the fields of
science, on the microcosmic level as well as the macrocosmic, affecting traditionally
maintained Western cultural beliefs. The emergence of new evidence regarding the
physical world, via the exploration of atomic and subatomic particles, revolutionized the
dominating mechanistic Newtonian model of the universe and completely reconfigured
the conception of space, time, matter, and cause and effect—radically altering the
traditional and widely accepted convictions concerning physical reality. The synthesis of
relativism, the personality, the soul and the spirit—concurrent with modern physics,
psychology, parapsychology—and Spiritualism, Theosophy, Hinduism and Buddhism, to
name a few of the elements found throughout Pirandello’s canon, though seemingly
anachronistic, are perfectly indicative of the modern time and space in which Pirandello
lived and captured so accurately in his art. Interesting, however, is the paradox inherent
in Modernism in that the modern movement was motivated by a need to represent what
are truly age-old realities of the fluidity of the consciousness, human intuition, and the
314
vitality of life. Malcolm Bradbury and James McFarlane describe the achievements of
Modernist writers that were permitted because of the perspective of time and history:
And what such artists have achieved can be considered – has been
considered – the ultimate achievement of artistic possibility in the
twentieth century, part of the progress and evolution of the arts toward
sophistication and completion. The art that makes life, the drama of the
artist’s consciousness, the structure that lies beyond time, history,
character or visible reality, the moral imperative of technique; are not
these the basis of a great aesthetic revolution into literary possibilities
greater than ever dreamt of? Hence Virginia Woolf, holding that the
modern stylistic revolution came from the historic opportunity for change
in human relationships and human character, and that modern art therefore
had a social and epistemological cause, nonetheless believed in the
aesthetic nature of the opportunity; it set the artist free to be more himself,
let him move beyond the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of light.
Now human consciousness especially artistic consciousness could be
more intuitive, more poetic; art could now fulfill itself. It was free to catch
at the manifold – the atoms as they fall – and create significant harmony
not in the universe but within itself (like the painting which Lily Briscoe
completes at the end of To the Lighthouse).The world, reality, is
discontinuous till art comes along, which maybe a modern crisis for the
world; but within art all becomes vital, discontinuous, yes, but with in an
aesthetic system of positioning. (Bradbury and McFarlane 25).
Given the developments of modern physics, Pirandello’s works, typically classified as
modern, must now be considered as fundamentally rooted in and connected to an ancient
belief system that is capable of providing a framework for science and art that is timeless
and universal.
315
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abba, Marta, trans. The Mountain Giants, and Other Plays. Luigi, Pirandello. New York:
Crown, 1958.
Abelson, Peter. “Schopenhauer and Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 43.2 1993):
255-78. Print.
Abete, Giovanna. Il Vero Volto Di Luigi Pirandello. Rome: Azienda Beneventana Tip.
Editoriale, 1961.
Alonge, Roberto, Andre Bouissy, Lido Gedda, and Jean Spizzo. Studi Pirandelliani: Dal
Testo Al Sottotesto. Bologna: Pitagora Editrice, 1986.
Alonge, Roberto. Pirandello Tra Realismo E Mistificazione. Naples: Guida, 1972.
Ansell-Pearson, Keith, and Duncan Large, eds. The Nietzsche Reader. Malden, MA:
Blackwell Pub., 2006.
Armao, Linda. “From Il Fu Mattia Pascal to Liolà: An Analysis of Pirandello's Humor."
Carte Italiane 3 (1981): 51-65. Print.
Appelbaum, Stanley, trans. The Oil Jar and Other Stories. New York: Dover
Pubblications, 1995.
Asimov, Isaac. Asimov’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology: the
Lives and Achievements of 1510 Great Scientists from Ancient times to the
Present Chronologically Arranged. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982.
Atkins, Gaius Glenn. Modern Religious Cults and Movements,. New York: Fleming H.
Revell, 1923.
Bacon, Francis. Novum Organum. Ed. Joseph Devey. New York: P.F. Collier, 1902.
Bacon, Francis. The Physical and Metaphysical Works of Lord Bacon: including the
Advancement of Learning and Novum Organum. Trans. Joseph Devey. London:
Bell, 1876.
Barbina, Alfredo. La Biblioteca Di Luigi Pirandello. Roma: Bulzoni, 1980.
Barfield, Owen. Romanticism Comes of Age. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 1966.
Barilli, Renato. Pirandello. Una Rivoluzione Culturale. Milan: A. Mondadori, 2005.
Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Trans. Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972.
316
Bassanese, Fiora A. Understanding Luigi Pirandello. Columbia, SC: University of South
Carolina, 1997.
Bassnett, Susan, and Jennifer Lorch, eds. Luigi Pirandello in the Theatre: a Documentary
Record. Vol. 3. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic, 1993.
Bassnett, Susan. Luigi Pirandello. New York: Grove, 1983.
Baumann, Martin. “Creating a European Path to Nirvana: Historical and Contemporary
Developments of Buddhism in Europe.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 10.1
(1995): 55-70. Print.
Baumann, Martin. “Culture Contact and Valuation: Early German Buddhists and the
Creation of a ‘Buddhism in Protestant Shape’.” Numen 44.3 (1997): 270-95. Print.
Beloff, John. Parapsychology: A Concise History. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.
Bentley, Eric, trans. Naked Masks: Five Plays. Luigi Pirandello. New York: E. P. Dutton,
1952.
---. The Pirandello Commentaries. Evanston, IL: Northwestern UP, 1986.
Besant, Annie. The Seven Principles of Man. London: Theosophical Society, 1892.
Besant, Annie Wood, and C. W. Leadbeater. Thought-Forms. Adyar: Theosophical
House, 1980.
Biasin, Gian-Paolo, and Manuela Gieri, eds. Luigi Pirandello: Contemporary
Perspectives. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1999.
Biasin, Gian-Paolo. Literary Diseases: Theme and Metaphor in the Italian Novel. Austin:
University of Texas, 1975.
Binet, Alfred. Alterations of Personality. Trans. Helen Hayes Baldwin. Ed. James Mark
Baldwin. New York: D. Appleton, 1896.
---. The Experimental Psychology of Alfred Binet; Selected Papers. Ed. Robert H. Pollack
and Margaret W. Brenner. New York: Springer Pub., 1969.
Blavatsky, H. P. The Key to Theosophy. Pasadena: Theosophical UP, 1972.
---. The Theosophical Glossary. London: Theosophical Pub. Society, 1892.
Bodhi, Bikkhu, trans. The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the
Sa+yutta Nik"ya ; Translated from the P"li by Bhikkhu Bodhi. Boston: Wisdom
Publications, 2000.
317
Bradbury, Malcolm and McFarlane, James. Modernism: 1890-1930 A Guide to European
Literature. Penguin Group USA, 1991.
Burton, Dan, and David Grandy. Magic, Mystery, and Science: the Occult in Western
Civilization. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2004.
Caesar, Ann. Characters and Authors in Luigi Pirandello. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.
Cambon, Glauco. Pirandello; a Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs. N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1967.
Campbell, Bruce F. Ancient Wisdom Revived: a History of the Theosophical Movement.
Berkeley: University of California, 1980.
Capra, Fritjof. The Tao of Physics: an Exploration of the Parallels between Modern
Physics and Eastern Mysticism. Boston: Shambhala, 2000.
Capuana, Luigi. Novelle Del Mondo Occulto. Ed. Andrea Cedola. Bologna: Pendragon,
2007.
---. Spiritismo? Caltanissetta: Ed. Lussografica, 1994. Print.
Caputi, Anthony Francis. Pirandello and the Crisis of Modern Consciousness. Urbana:
University of Illinois, 1988.
Carrabino, Victor. Pirandello and Picasso: a Pragmatic View of Reality. Tallahassee:
Florida State, 1969.
Carpenter, Bruce N. Personal Coping: Theory, Research, and Application. Westport, CT:
Praeger, 1992.
Chamisso, Adelbert Von. The Wonderful History of Peter Schlemihl. Trans. Ilsa Barea.
Emmaus, PA: Story Classics, 1954.
Chapin, David. Exploring Other Worlds: Margaret Fox, Elisha Kent Kane, and the
Antebellum Culture of Curiosity. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2004.
Ryan, Charles J. H.P. Blavatsky and the Theosophical Movement: a Brief Historical
Sketch. Ed. Grace F. Knoche. Pasadena, CA: Theosophical UP, 1975.
Cigliana, Simona. Futurismo Esoterico: Contributi per Una Storia Dell’irrazionalismo
Italiano Tra Otto E Novecento. Naples: Liguori, 2002.
Clark, Hoover E. “Existentialism in Pirandello’s Sei Personaggi.” Italica 43.3 (1966): 26284. Print.
318
Conniff, Michael L., and Frank D. McCann, eds. Modern Brazil: Elites and Masses in
Historical Perspective. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1991.
Cranston, S. L. HPB: the Extraordinary Life and Influence of Helena Blavatsky, Founder
of the Modern Theosophical Movement. New York: Putnam, 1993.
D’Amico, Maria Luisa Aguirre. Album Pirandello. Milan: A. Mondadori, 1992.
Daschke, Dereck, and W. Michael Ashcraft. New Religious Movements: a Documentary
Reader. New York: New York UP, 2005.
Davies, P. C. W. God and the New Physics. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.
De, Miro D’Ajeta, Barbara. Il Seme, Il Germoglio E Il Fiore: Pirandello Fra Biografia,
Narrativa E Teatro. Roma: Aracne, 2008. Print.
De Silva, Padmasiri. An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD:
Rowman & Littefield, 2000.
“Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions - Nostra Aetate.”
Vatican: the Holy See. Web. 12 July 2011.
Di Gaetani, John Louis. A Companion to Pirandello Studies. New York: Greenwood,
1991.
Di, Lieto Carlo. Pirandello, Binet E Les Altérations De La Personnalité. Naples: Ellissi,
2008.
Donati, Corrado. La Solitudine Allo Specchio. Rome: Luciano Lucarini, 1980.
Dumoulin, Heinrich. Christianity Meets Buddhism. Trans. John C. Maraldo. La Salle, IL:
Open Court, 1974.
---. “Buddhism and Nineteenth-Century German Philosophy.” Trans. Julia Ching.
Journal of the History of Ideas 42.3 (1981): 457-70. Print.
Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions. Ed. Carl Seelig. Trans. Sonja Bargmann. New
York: Crown, 1982.
Engelbert, Phillis, and Diane L. Dupuis. The Handy Space Answer Book. Detroit, MI:
Visible Ink, 1998.
Epstein, Mark. Psychotherapy without the Self: a Buddhist Perspective. New Haven:
Yale Univ., 2007.
319
“Famous People in the Theosophical Society - Theosophical History.” Wisdom Quotes,
Facts and Articles: Spirituality & Religions on Katinka Hesselink Net. Web. 02
June 2011. <http://www.katinkahesselink.net/his/influence-theosophy.html>.
Fiskin, A. M. I. “Luigi Pirandello: The Tragedy of the Man Who Thinks.” Italica 25.1
(1948): 44-51. Print.
Flammarion, Camille. Popular Astronomy: a General Description of the Heavens.
London: Chatto & Windus, 1894.
---. Lumen. Trans. Brian M. Stableford. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 2002.
Flournoy, Théodore. Spiritism and Psychology. Trans. Hereward Carrington. New York:
Harper & Brothers, 1911.
Foucault, Michel. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Ed. Paul Rabinow. Trans. Robert
Hurley. New York: New, 1997.
Frank, Philipp. Einstein: His Life and times. Ed. Shuichi Kusaka. Trans. George Rosen.
Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2002.
Frassica, Pietro. Her Maestro's Echo: Pirandello and the Actress Who Conquered
Broadway in One Evening. Leicester: Troubador Pub., 2010.
---. Magia Di Un Romanzo: Il Fu Mattia Pascal Prima E Dopo : Atti Del Convegno
Internazionale, Princeton, 5-6 Novembre 2004. Novara: Interlinea, 2005.
Frazier, A.M. “A European Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West 25.2 (1975): 145-60.
Ghose, Aurobindo, and Mother. The Psychic Being: Selections from the Works of Sri
Aurobindo and The Mother. Pondicherry: Sri Aurubindo Ashram, 1990.
Giovanelli, Paola Daniela., comp. Pirandello Saggista. Palermo: Palumbo, 1982.
Giudice, Gaspare. Pirandello: a Biography. Trans. Alastair Hamilton. London: Oxford
UP, 1975.
Glasenapp, Helmuth Von. Buddhism--a Non-theistic Religion. With a Selection from
Buddhist Scriptures., Ed. Heinz Bechert. Trans. Irmgard Schloegl. New York: G.
Braziller, 1966.
Goswami, Amit, Richard E. Reed, and Maggie Goswami. The Self-aware Universe: How
Consciousness Creates the Material World. New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1995.
320
Govinda, Anagarika Brahmacari. The Psychological Attitude of Early Buddhist
Philosophy and Its Systematic Representation According to Abhidhamma
Tradition. New York: S. Weiser, 1974.
Greer, John Michael. The New Encyclopedia of the Occult. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn
Publications, 2004.
Grogin, R. C. The Bergsonian Controversy in France, 1900-1914. Calgary: University of
Calgary, 1988.
Haldane, J.S. The Sciences and Philosophy. New York: Doubleday, 1929. Gifford
Lectures.
Harris, Sam. The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values. New
York: Free, 2010.
Herling, Bradley L. The German G,t": Hermeneutics and Discipline in the German
Reception of Indian Thought, 1778-1831. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Holton, Gerald James. Science and the Modern Mind; a Symposium. Boston: Beacon,
1958.
Homer, Michael W. “Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: Spiritualism and ‘New Religions’”
Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought (1984): 97-121. Print.
Humphreys, Christmas. The Field of Theosophy: the Teacher, the Teaching and the Way.
London: Theosophical Pub. House, 1966
Il Nuovo Oxford Paravia Italian Dictionary: Inglese-italiano, Italiano-inglese. Oxford:
Oxford UP, 2009.
Illiano, Antonio, trans. On Humor: Introd., Transl., and Annotated by Antonio Illiano and
Daniel P. Testa. Chapel Hill (N.C.): Univ. of North Carolina Pr., 1960.
Illiano, Antonio. Metapsichica E Letteratura in Pirandello. Italy: Vallecchi, 1982.
---. “Pirandello and Theosophy.” Modern Drama 20 (1977): 341-51. Print.
---. “Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author: A Comedy in the Making.”
Italica 44 (1967): 1-12. Print.
Inge, William Ralph. Mysticism in Religion. London: Rider, 1969.
Isherwood, Christopher. Vedanta for Modern Man. New York: Harper, 1951.
321
James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience: a Study in Human Nature. Ed.
Martin E. Marty. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin, 1982.
Jepson, Lisa. “Filling Space: The Trauma of Birth in Pirandello's Existential Novelle.”
Italica 68.4 (1991): 419-33. Print.
Judge, William Quan. The Ocean of Theosophy. Los Angeles: Theosophy, 1937
---. “Suicide Is Not Death” Wisdom Quotes, Facts and Articles: Spirituality & Religions
on Katinka Hesselink Net. Web. 25 May 2011.
<http://www.katinkahesselink.net/other/Suicide.htm>.
Jung, C. G. Civilization in Transition. Trans. R.F.C. Hull. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton
UP, 1970.
Kern, Stephen. The Culture of Time and Space 1880-1918. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP,
1983.
Knee, Stuart E. Christian Science in the Age of Mary Baker Eddy. Westport, CT:
Greenwood, 1994.
Koller, John M. Oriental Philosophies. New York: Scribner, 1985.
Koster, Frits. Liberating Insight: Introduction to Buddhist Psychology and Insight
Meditation. Trans. Marjoó Oosterhoff. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm, 2004.
Kraemer, H. World Cultures and World Religions; the Coming Dialogue. Philadelphia:
Westminster, 1960.
Krishnamurti, J. Krishnamurti: Reflections on the Self. Ed. Raymond Martin. Chicago:
Open Court, 1997.
Krutch, Joseph Wood. “Modernism” in Modern Drama, a Definition and an Estimate.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1953.
Lauretta, Enzo. Pirandello E l’oltre: Atti Del XXV Convegno Internazionale, Agrigento,
5-9 Dicembre 1990. Milan: Mursia, 1991.
Leadbeater, C. W. Astral Plane. Ed. Jane Ma’ati Smith. 2008.
---. A Textbook of Theosophy. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Pub. House, 1912.
---. The Inner Life. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Pub. House, 1917.
Lechte, John. Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: from Structuralism to Post-humanism.
2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2008.
322
Leopardi, Giacomo, and J. G. Nichols. The Canti: with a Selection of His Prose.
Manchester: Carcanet, 1994.
Leopardi, Giacomo. Poesia L’infinito. Florence: Giunti Editori, 2003.
Levenson, Michael. The Cambridge Companion to Modernism. Cambridge: Cambridge
UP, 1999.
Levi, Honor, trans. Pensées and Other Writings. Blaise Pascal. Ed. Anthony Levi.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.
Lovejoy, Arthur O. The Great Chain of Being; a Study of the History of an Idea.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1936.
Macchia, Giovanni. Pirandello O La Stanza Della Tortura. 1st ed. Milan: A. Mondadori,
1981.
Mangini, Angelo M. Letteratura Come Anamorfosi: Teoria E Prassi Del Fantastico
Nell'Italia Del Primo Novecento. Bologna: Bononia Univ., 2007.
Marchesini, Giovanni. Le Finzioni Dell'anima. Bari: Laterza, 1905.
Mariani, Umberto. Living Masks: the Achievement of Pirandello. Toronto: University of
Toronto, 2008.
---. “A Will to Believe: Religion in Pirandello’s Late Plays.” Forum Italicum 33 (1999):
393-401. Print.
Marsili, Antonetti Renata. Luigi Pirandello Intimo: Lettere E Documenti Inediti. Roma:
Gangemi, 1998.
Matthaei, Renate. Luigi Pirandello. Trans. Simon and Erika Young. New York: F. Ungar
Pub., 1973.
Mazzacurati, Giancarlo. “L’arte Del Titola, Da Sterne a Pirandello.” MLN 106.1 (1991):
38-77. Print.
Mazzamuto, P., G. Petronio, M. Sacco Messineo, G. Santangelo, A. Sole, C. Spalanca,
and N. Tedesco. Atti Del IX Congresso A.I.S.L.L.I. Ed. V. Branca. Palermo:
Manfredi, 1976. Print.
McGrath, F. C. The Sensible Spirit: Walter Pater and the Modernist Paradigm. Tampa:
University of Florida, 1986.
323
Mignone, Mario B., ed. Pirandello in America: Atti Del Simposio Internazionale
Università Statale Di New York, Stony Brook, 30 Ottobre-1 Novembre 1986.
Rome: Bulzoni Editore, 1988.
Murdock, John. The Theosophic Craze Its History : the Great Mahatma Hoax : How
Mrs. Besant Was Befooled and Deposed : Its Attempted Revival of the Exploded
Superstitions of the Middle Ages. Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1894.
Murray, William. Pirandello's One-act Plays. Luigi Pirandello. New York: Funk &
Wagnalls, 1970.
Nelson, Benjamin. Freud and the 20th Century. New York: Meridian, 1957.
Neziroglu, Fugen, Matthew D. Jacofsky, Melanie T. Santos, and Sony Khemlani-Patel.
“The Maintenance of Anxiety Disorders: Maladaptive Coping Strategies” Seabhs.
1995. Web. Aug. 2011. <http://www.seabhs.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc>.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. The Antichrist. Trans. H. L. Mencken. Champaign, IL:
Book Jungle, 2007.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. The Birth of Tragedy ; And, The Case of Wagner. Trans.
Walter Arnold. Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1967.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. The Gay Science; with a Prelude in Rhymes and an
Appendix of Songs. Trans. Walter Arnold. Kaufmann. New York: Vintage, 1974.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. The Will to Power. Trans. Walter Arnold Kaufmann and
R. J. Hollingdale. New York: Random House, 1967.
Noelle, Wilfried. Helmuth Von Glasenapp Interpreter of Indian Thought. New Delhi:
Lakherwal, 1964. Print.
Norman, Hilda. “The Scientific and the Pseudo-Scientific in the Works of Luigi
Capuana.” PMLA 53.3 (1938): 869-85. Print.
O’Dea, Thomas F. Alienation, Atheism, and the Religious Crisis. New York: Sheed and
Ward, 1969.
Ogilvy, James A. Self and World; Readings in Philosophy. New York: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, 1973.
O’Rawe, Catherine. Authorial Echoes: Textuality and Self-plagiarism in the Narrative of
Luigi Pirandello. London: Legenda, 2005.
Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey. Upanishads, G,t", and Bible; a Comparative Study of Hindu
and Christian Scriptures. London: Faber and Faber, 1962.
324
Pascal, Théophile. Reincarnation, a Study in Human Evolution the Resurrection of the
Body and the Reincarnation of the Soul. London: Theosophical Pub. Society,
1910.
Paterson, Antoinette Mann. The Infinite Worlds of Giordano Bruno. Springfield, IL:
Charles C. Thomas, 1970.
Pike, Sarah M. New Age and Neopagan Religions in America. New York: Columbia UP,
2004.
Pirandello, Luigi, and Piero Cudini. Uno, Nessuno E Centomila. Firenze: Giunti, 1994.
Pirandello, Luigi. Epistolario Familiare Giovanile: (1886-1898). Ed. Elio Providenti.
Florence: Le Monnier, 1986.
Pirandello, Luigi. Luigi Pirandello Intimo: Lettere E Documenti Inediti. Ed. Antonetti
Renata. Marsili. Rome: Gangemi, 1998.
Pirandello, Luigi. Maschere Nude. Plays. Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1958. 2
vols. (vol. 1 includes Sei personaggi in cerca d’auore; vol. 10 includes All’uscita
and I giganti della montagna).
Pirandello, Luigi. Saggi, Poesie, Scritti Varii. Ed. Vecchio Musti, Manlio. Lo. Milan: A.
Mondadori, 1977.
Pirandello, Luigi. Taccuino Di Harvard. Ed. Dante Della Terza, Frau Ombretta, and
Christina Gragnani. Milan: A. Mondadori, 2002.
Pirandello, Luigi. Tutte Le Novelle. Milan: BUR, 2007. 3 vols. (vol. 1: 1884-1904, vol. 2:
1905-1913, vol. 3: 1914-1936).
Pirandello, Luigi. Tutti i romanzi. Comp. Giovanni Macchia and Mario Costanzo. Milan:
A. Mondadori, 1973. 2 vols. (vol. 1 includes Il fu Mattia Pacal and vol. 2 includes
Uno, nessuno e centomila).
Plumtre, Constance E. . General Sketch of the History of Pantheism. London: Deacon,
2003.
Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami. The Bhagavad Gita as It Is. Los Angeles:
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1989.
Prosch, Harry. The Genesis of the 20th Century Philosophy: the Evolution of Thought
from Copernicus to the Present. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964.
Puglisi, Filippo. Pirandello E La Sua Opera Innovatrice. Catania: Bonanno, 1970.
325
Pupino, Angelo Raffaele. Pirandello, O L'arte Della Dissonanza: Saggio Sui Romanzi.
Roma: Salerno, 2008.
Pupo, Ivan, ed. Interviste a Pirandello: Parole Da Dire, Uomo, Agli Altri Uomini.
Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino, 2002.
Puppa, Paolo. Dalle Parti Di Pirandello. Rome: Bulzoni, 1987.
Purucker, G. De. Occult Glossary; A Compendium of Oriental and Theosophical Terms.
Pasadena, CA: Theosophical UP, 1972.
Radcliff-Umstead, Douglas. "Pirandello and the Puppet World." Italica 44.1 (1967): 1327. Print.
---. The Mirror of Our Anguish: a Study of Luigi Pirandello’s Narrative Writings.
Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1978.
Radhakrishnan, S. Eastern Religions and Western Thought. Oxford: Oxford Univ., 1940.
Ragusa, Olga. “A Pirandello Quintet.” Italica 60.1 (1983): 71-78. Print,
Rand, Benjamin, comp. Modern Classical Philosophers; Selections Illustrating Modern
Philosophy from Bruno to Bergson,. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1924.
Rea, Michael C. World without Design the Ontological Consequences of Naturalism.
Oxford: Clarendon, 2002.
Ricard, Matthieu, and Xuan Thuan. Trinh. The Quantum and the Lotus: a Journey to the
Frontiers Where Science and Buddhism Meet. New York: Crown, 2001.
Rizzoni, Gianni, and Silvia Nicoletta. Tesè, eds. Agenda Letteraria Luigi Pirandello
2003. Milan: Libri Scheiwiller, 2002.
Rosa, Asor Alberto. Storia Europea Della Letteratura Italiana. Vol. 3. Turin: G. Einaudi,
2009.
Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster,
1945.
Santeramo, Donato. Luigi Pirandello: La Parola, La Scena E Il Mito. Rome: NEU, 2007.
Schmeidler, Gertrude Raffel. Parapsychology and Psychology: Matches and Mismatches.
Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988.
326
Schopenhauer, Arthur. The World as Will and Idea. Trans. R.B. Haldane and John Kemp.
Boston: Ticknor and, 1888. 3 vols.
Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Life: a Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation.
Chicago: University of Chicago, 2008.
Shepard, Leslie, ed. Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology: a Compendium of
Information on the Occult Sciences, Magic, Demonology, Superstitions, Spiritism,
Mysticism, Metaphysics, Psychical Science, and Parapsychology, with
Biographical and Bibliographical Notes and Comprehensive Indexes. 3rd ed.
Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1991. 2 vols.
Sinnett, Alfred Percy. Esoteric Buddhism. 8th ed. London: Theosophical Pub. Society,
1918.
---. Collected Fruits of Occult Teaching. London: Fisher Unwin, 1919.
Smith, Huston. The Illustrated World's Religions: a Guide to Our Wisdom Traditions.
San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print.
“Sources.” Online Etymology Dictionary. Web. 20 Aug. 2011.
<http://www.etymonline.com/sources.php>.
Steiner, Rudolf. The Occult Movement in the 19th Century and Its Relation to Modern
Culture. Trans. D.S. Osmond. London: Rudolf Steiner, 1915.
---. Mysticism at the Dawn of the Modern Age. Trans. Karl E. Zimmer. Englewood, NJ:
Rudolf Steiner Publications, 1960.
---. Knowledge of the Higher Worlds and Its Attainment. New York: Anthroposophic
Press, 1961.
----. Theosophy. An Introduction to the Supersensible Knowledge of the World and the
Destination of Man. New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1971.
Stella, M. John. Self and Self-compromise in the Narratives of Pirandello and Moravia.
New York: P. Lang, 2000.
Stella, M. John. “Stella-Self-and-Suicide-in-Pirandello.” Dhamma Portal. Web. 16 Aug.
2011. <http://www.metta.lk/english/Stella/Stella-Self-and-Suicide-inPirandello.html>.
---. “Uno, Nessuno E Centomila : E Il Vostro Naso? Web.
<http://metta.lk/english/Stella/Stella-Uno-nessuno-e-centomila.html>.
327
Stone, Jennifer. Pirandello's Naked Prompt: The Structure of Repetition in Modernism.
Ravenna: Longo, 1989.
Suzuki, Beatrice Lane. Mahayana Buddhism. London: Unwin Paperbacks, 1990.
Svevo, Italo. Italo Svevo: La Coscienza Di Zeno. Ed. Christina Benussi and Franco
Marcoaldi. Milan: Feltrinelli, 2000.
Tallack, Peter. The Science Book. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003.
Thurman, Robert A. F. Infinite Life: Awakening to Bliss within. New York: Riverhead,
2004.
Tolle, Eckhart. A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose. New York, NY:
Dutton/Penguin Group, 2005.
Vallone, Aldo. Profilo Di Pirandello. Rome: Dialoghi, 1962.
Van Buitenen, J.A.B., ed. The Mahabharata: The Book of the Beginning. Vol. 1.
Chicago: University of Chicago, 1973.
Van, Doren Charles. A History of Knowledge: Past, Present, and Future. New York, NY:
Ballantine, 1991.
Vena, Michael, trans. Italian Grotesque Theater. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP,
2001.
Vincentini, Claudio. L’estetica Di Pirandello. Milan: U. Mursia & Co., 1970.
Vittorini, Domenico. The Drama of Luigi Pirandello. New York: Russell & Russell,
1969.
Wallace, B. Alan, ed.. Buddhism and Science: Breaking New Ground. New York:
Columbia UP, 2003.
Wachtmeister, Constance. Reminiscences of H.P. Blavatsky and The Secret Doctrine.
Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1919.
Weaver, William, trans. One, No One, and One Hundred Thousand. Luigi Pirandello.
New York: Marsilio, 1992.
---. The Late Mattia Pascal. Luigi Pirandello. New York: Marsilio, 1995. Print.
Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York:
Gramercy, 1989. Windelband, W. History of Ancient Philosophy. New York:
Dover Publications, 1956.
328
Woods, Richard. Understanding Mysticism. Garden City, NY: Image, 1980.
Zangrilli, Franco. Pirandello: Le Maschere Del “vecchio Dio” Padova: Messaggero,
2002.
Zangrilli, Franco. Pirandello Postmoderno? Firenze: Polistampa, 2008.
Fly UP