...

The Catafalque of Paul V: Architecture

by user

on
Category: Documents
12

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

The Catafalque of Paul V: Architecture
 The Catafalque of Paul V: Architecture, Sculpture and Iconography
Arianna Lysandra Packard
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
COLUMBIA UNIVERISTY
2013
© 2013
Arianna Lysandra Packard
All rights reserved
ABSTRACT
The Catafalque of Paul V: Architecture, Sculpture and Iconography
Arianna Lysandra Packard
This dissertation examines the catafalque erected for the reburial of Pope Paul V in
S. Maria Maggiore on January 30, 1622. The catafalque, commissioned by the pope's nephew
Scipione Borghese, was only the second catafalque ever built for a pope. It was a large
tempietto type structure, fashioned of wood and plaster and covered with black cloth and
candles. It was constructed by Sergio Venturi and Giovanni Battista Soria and adorned with
thirty-six sculptures by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
These details are known to us through a funeral book, the Breve Racconto della
trasportatione del corpo di Papa Paolo V della Basilica di S. Pietro a' quella di S. Maria Maggiore, Con
Oratione recita nelle sue Esequie, & alcuni versi posti nell'Apparato, written by the poet Lelio
Guidiccioni which contains extensive descriptions of the monument and obsequies as well as
eighteen engraved plates of its architecture and sculpture. Further details are found in the eye
witness accounts of Giacinto Gigli and Paolo Alaleone as well as payment records preserved
in the Borghese Archives.
These sources allow us to reconstruct the appearance and iconography of Paul's
catafalque. Meaning is created through formal choices in the architectural design of the
catafalque and the sixteen personified virtues which adorn it. While the iconography is not
explicitly dealt with in the Breve Racconto, the visual clues are reinforced by poetry and
scriptural quotations which appear both on the actual monument and in the funeral book.
The iconography of the catafalque stresses the Borghese family's Romanitas and underscores
the importance of Paul's patronage in both purifying the Roman Church and ushering in a
new Golden Age.
This dissertation begins by investigating the context of Paul's reburial. Chapter one
looks the protocol surrounding the death and burial of seicento popes. It examines how
Paul's obsequies fit into this tradition and where his catafalque sits in the trajectory of the
development and use of catafalques for ecclesiastical funerals. Chapter two looks at the Breve
Racconto and evaluates the accuracy of both the text and its author. Particular attention is paid
to Guidiccioni's intellectual pursuits and his relationship with both Scipione Borghese and
Bernini.
Chapter two is devoted to Scipione Borghese and his patronage of art and
architecture. Chapter three rehearses the history of the Borghese family, Paul's
accomplishments as pope and his patronage. It also considers his presentation in
contemporary panegyric.
Chapter four outlines the appearance of the catafalque. Its form echoes both
Imperial mausolea and early Christian martyria. Through this formal mimicry the very
architecture becomes a metonym for the Pauline resurgence of Rome; it indicates Paul's
physical and spiritual restoration of the early Church and also the new Golden Age ushered
in by Borghese munificence and patronage.
Chapter five tackles the question of the catafalque's authorship. It examines the
involvement of Venturi, Soria and Bernini, attempting to reconcile the style of the building
with each of their known works.
Chapter six is devoted to the iconography of the sculptured virtues. It starts by
considering the history of defining a ruler through his virtues and the appearance of these
virtues in art. It then investigates the choice and portrayal of the sixteen virtues in this
catafalque. The virtues chosen are ostensibly organized around the exegetical conceit of the
Four Daughters of God, clearly suggesting Paul's triumph as pope and Christian prince. But
many are also closely associated with Augustus and the Imperial cult and there is a clear
undercurrent stressing Paul's Romanitas and comparing his reign to that of his imagined
Imperial forbearers. This theme is familiar from Borghese panegyric, and presumably
intended to further the reputation not only of the pope but also of his surviving family
members.
Table of Contents
Introduction: The Death of a Pope................................................................................1
State of the Scholarship........................................................................................................................7
Chapter 1: Ephemeral Decorations and the Burial of Popes in Seicento Rome..........12
Papal Burials.........................................................................................................................................24
Chapter 2: Lelio Guidiccioni and the Breve Racconto..........................................................35
The Oration ........................................................................................................................................45
The Odes .............................................................................................................................................49
Chapter 3: The Patron: Scipione Borghese..................................................................55
Chapter 4: The Borghese: Restorers of Ancient Rome................................................72
The Pope............................................................................................................................................. 74
Poetry....................................................................................................................................................89
Chapter 5: Un Tempio in Lutto: Architecture as Iconography..................................105
The Groundplan................................................................................................................................108
The Columns.....................................................................................................................................117
The Dome .........................................................................................................................................121
Epigraphy and Heraldry...................................................................................................................129
Interior................................................................................................................................................130
Decoration of S. Maria Maggiore...................................................................................................135
Chapter 6: The Architect.............................................................................................137
Sergio Venturi....................................................................................................................................138
Giovanni Battista Soria ...................................................................................................................139
i Bernini.................................................................................................................................................145
Annibale Durante and other Collaborators..................................................................................154
Giovanni Lanfranco..........................................................................................................................157
Chapter 7: The Sixteen Virtues and their Role in the Monument..............................161
From the Virtues of the Emperor to a "Mirror of Popes".........................................................165
Virtue Cycles and the Development of an Iconografica Numismatica....................................170
Paul's Virtues: The Four Daughters...............................................................................................175
Iustitia..................................................................................................................................................184
Pax.......................................................................................................................................................188
Misericordia........................................................................................................................................192
Veritas.................................................................................................................................................196
Dependent Virtues............................................................................................................................197
Religio.................................................................................................................................................198
Maiestas...............................................................................................................................................199
Puritas.................................................................................................................................................200
Annona...............................................................................................................................................202
Tranquillitas.......................................................................................................................................204
Providentia.........................................................................................................................................206
Sapientia..............................................................................................................................................212
Magnanimitas.....................................................................................................................................214
Magnificentia......................................................................................................................................215
Clementia ...........................................................................................................................................217
Eleemosina.........................................................................................................................................220
Mansuetudo........................................................................................................................................222
ii Conclusion..................................................................................................................224
Bibliography...............................................................................................................232
Figures........................................................................................................................271
iii List of Figures
Figure 1: Theodor Kruger, Elevation of the Catafalque of Paul V, from the Breve Racconto
(Photo: Author)
Figure 2: Natale Bonifacio da Sebenico, Elevation and Groundplan of the Catafalque of
Sixtus V, British Museum (Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum)
Figure 3: Proposed Reconstruction of the Groundplan of the Catafalque of Paul V (Photo:
Author)
Figure 4: Detail of Figure 1, showing the arrangement of the side entrance (Photo: Author)
Figure 5: Guglielmo della Porta, Tomb of Paul III, St. Peter's, Rome (Photo: ARTstor/ Art
Resource, NY)
Figure 6: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Tomb of Urban VIII, St. Peter's, Rome (Photo: ARTstor/
Art Resource, NY)
Figure 7: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Tomb of Alexander VII, St. Peter's, Rome (Photo:
ARTstor/ Art Resource, NY)
Figure 8: Alessandro Algardi, Tomb of Leo XI, St. Peter's, Rome (Photo: ARTstor/ Art
Resource, NY)
Figure 9: Pauline Chapel, S. Maria Maggiore, Rome (Photo: ARTstor/ Art Resource, NY)
Figure 10: Theodor Kruger, Column Capitals for the Catafalque of Paul V, from the Breve
Racconto (Photo: Author)
Figure 11: Valerian Regnard, Catafalque of Fillip III in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, Avery
Library (Photo: Author)
iv Figure 12: Alessandro Algardi (attributed to), Preparatory Drawing for the Catafalque of
Ludovico Facchinetti, British Museum (Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum)
Figure 13: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Preparatory Drawing of the Catafalque for the Duke of
Beaufort, British Museum (Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum)
Figure 14: Dome of the Pantheon , Rome (Photo: ARTstor/ Art Resource, NY)
Figure 15: Dome of S. Ivo, Rome (Photo: ARTstor/ Art Resource, NY)
Figure 16: Detail of Figure 1, showing the dome (Photo: Author)
Figure 17: "Consecratio" coin of Septimus Severus, British Museum (Photo: © Trustees of
the British Museum)
Figure 18: Workshop of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Elevation of the Catafalque of Carlo
Barberini (Photo: Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2013)
Figure 19: Francesco Borromini, Groundplan for the Catafalque of Carlo Barberini, Vienna,
Albertina (Photo: Albertina, Vienna)
Figures 20-35 All engravings by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto
(Photos: Author)
Figure 20: Iustitia
Figure 21: Pax
Figure 22: Misericordia
Figure 23: Veritas
Figure 24: Religio
Figure 25: Maiestas
Figure 26: Puritas
Figure 27: Annona
Figure 28: Tranquillitas
v Figure 29: Providentia
Figure 30: Sapientia
Figure 31: Magnanimitas
Figure 32: Magnificenza
Figure 33: Clementia
Figure 34: Eleemosina
Figure 35: Mansuetudo
vi Acknowledgments
The idea for this dissertation grew out of a paper I wrote on Scipione Borghese for a
seminar on Bernini given by Professor McPhee. Without that class, I would never have
heard of Lelio Guidiccioni and this dissertation would not have existed. This dissertation has
also benefited enormously from the advice, suggestions and encouragement of my advisors,
Professor Rosand and Professor Freedberg. Finally, thanks are due to Andrew WallaceHadrill and to John Gleason for their help with several Latin passages. Any remaining errors
are, of course, mine.
vii 1 Introduction
The Death of a Pope
On January 31, 1622 a large crowd assembled in the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore to
celebrate the reburial of Paul V. The Borghese pope had died a year earlier and been duly
buried in the Vatican. But the year being up, it was time to move his body to its final resting
place in the sumptuous mortuary chapel he had constructed for himself in the Esquiline. The
occasion was marked with all due pomp including an elaborate procession, the singing of a
requiem mass, the reading of a Latin oration and, most noticeably, the erection of a
magnificent catafalque in the nave of the basilica. Catafalques, while commonplace by the
seventeenth century for secular rulers and even cardinals, were still almost unheard of for
popes. But Paul's cardinal nephew Scipione Borghese had worked diligently throughout the
year and finally received permission to erect a catafalque to mark his uncle's obsequies.
This catafalque and the ways in which it memorializes Paul V and his family is the
subject of this dissertation. While sepulchral art is by definition commemorative, the politics
of early modern Rome engendered a particularly aggressive form of self-aggrandizement.
Unlike feudal or ducal families whose power and continuity were assured by bloodline, the
family of a ruling pope had only one shot at immortality. After a pope's death, his surviving
family members often found themselves in somewhat reduced circumstances or even social
outcasts.1
This situation was practically universal but usually temporary. The vast land holdings amassed by
many early modern papal families ensured the continued prominence of their families. This will be
discussed (along with the literature on the subject) in chapter three, particularly pp. 58-59.
1
2 Scipione Borghese was no exception. His court had been the center of artistic
activity in Rome throughout his uncle's long reign. But with the election of Gregory XV he
found his situation much changed.2 During the Ludovisi years, Scipione Borghese continued
to collect art and restore churches, but he had scant opportunity for spectacle on a grand
scale. The festive reburial of his uncle a year after his death, provided an opportunity to
remind Rome of the Borghese's might and munificence, an opportunity Scipione seized to
the fullest extent.
The reburial, or more precisely the obsequies and procession that marked it, were
much anticipated in Rome. Writing home a few days before the event, on January 22, 1622,
the Florentine ambassador Francesco Niccolini remarked on the preparations for the
festival, noting that he had heard that the apparato and the catafalque were beautiful and that
the cost, which surpassed 12,000 scudi, was borne by Scipione Borghese.3 That Niccolini was
aware of the catafalque's expense is not surprising, for this was surely meant to be public as
an important part of Scipione's display of both wealth and magnanimity. In contrast, the
Despite the length of his uncle's reign and the size of his faction in the curia, Scipione failed to elect
his preferred candidate, Cardinal Campori, as his uncle's successor. After this failure Scipione, and
the Borghese family's, preeminence was eclipsed by the Ludovisi Pope Gregory XV and his nephew
Ludovico. While the Ludovisi era was destined to last only two years, contemporaries could not have
foreseen the rapid election of Maffeo Barberini, Paul's creatura and Scipione's confidante, which
shifted the curial power equilibrium back into the Borghese orbit. The machinations of this conclave
will be discussed more fully in chapter three.
2
Archivio di Stato Firenze Mediceo, f 3337, c.n.n., lettera di Francesco Niccolini del 22 gennaio 1622:
"trasportatione di Papa Paolo V da S. Pietro dove i Papi hanno a stare in deposito al meno un anno,
alla cappella fabricata da lui in S.ta Maria Maggiore con l'intervento di tutto il Collegio. L'apparato et
il catafalco mi vien detto ch'è bellissimo, la spesa si dice passa 12.000 scudi e la fa il Cardinale
Borghese...." Quoted in Luigi Zangheri, "Alcune precisazioni su gli apparati effimeri di Bernini,"
Barocco romano e Barocco italiano: Il teatro, l'effimero, l'allegoria, ed. Marcello Fagiolo and Maria Luisa
Madonna (Rome: Gangemi, 1985) 109-116, 109. Interestingly, this is the same amount Cardinal
Alessandro Montalto had spent on his uncle's reburial. Minou Schraven, "The Rhetoric of Virtue:
The Vogue for Catafalques in Late Sixteenth-Century Rome," Praemium Virtutis II Grabmäler und
Begräbniszeremoniell in der italienischen Hoch- und Spätrenaissance, ed. Joachim Poeschke, Britta-KuschArnhold, and Thomas Weigel (Münster: Rhema, 2005) 41-63, 55.
3
3 obsequies for Paul's brother, Giovanni Battista, also staged by Scipione eleven years earlier
and also considered costly at the time, cost a mere 3,000 scudi.4
We know a great deal about the catafalque and obsequies thanks to a festival book.
Although catafalques are by nature ephemeral, most sixteenth and seventeenth-century
catafalques were memorialized in a festival book.5 These books were often lavishly illustrated
and included descriptions of the funeral ceremony as well as the apparato itself. Paul's
catafalque is recorded in one such book: the Breve Racconto della trasportatione del corpo di Papa
Paolo V della Basilica di S. Pietro a' quella di S. Maria Maggiore, Con Oratione recita nelle sue Esequie,
& alcuni versi posti nell'Apparato.6 This book contains a wealth of information about the
catafalque and the funeral service. It has several parts: an Italian text detailing the history of
the project, the procession from the Vatican, the catafalque's appearance and creators; a
transcription of the Latin oration read at the obsequies; transcriptions of odes and epigrams
which were read at the service; and a series of engravings of the monument. These images
include sixteen engravings of the sculpted virtues, an engraving of two separate column
capitals, and an oversized image of the entire catafalque in the nave of the church. These
eighteen plates constitute the only extant visual evidence for the catafalque's appearance.
The publication of this book was undertaken by Lelio Guidiccioni at Scipione
Borghese's behest. Guidiccioni was a poet, aesthete, and member of Scipione Borghese's
Minou Schraven, "Giovanni Battista Borghese's Funeral 'Apparato' of 1610 in S. Maria Maggiore,"
The Burlington Magazine 143 (2001): 23-28, 23, n. 12.
4
On festival books, see Renato Diez, Il trionfo della parola: Studio sulle relazioni di feste nella Roma barocca,
(Rome: Bulzoni, 1994) and Laurie Nussdorfer, "Print and Pageantry in Baroque Rome," The Sixteenth
Century Journal 29 (1998): 439-464. On funeral books in particular, see Minou Schraven, "The
Development and Distribution of the Funeral Book in Sixteenth-Century Italy," News and Politics in
Early Modern Europe, ed. Martin Gosman and Joop Koopmans (Louvain: Peeters, 2005) 47-61.
5
Lelio Guidiccioni, Breve Racconto della trasportatione del corpo di Papa Paolo V della Basilica di S. Pietro a'
quella di S. Maria Maggiore, Con Oratione recita nelle sue Esequie, & alcuni versi posti nell'Apparato (Rome:
Bartolomeo Zannetti, 1623).
6
4 court. While largely forgotten today, Guidiccioni's scholarship (and pedanticism) were
renowned in the Seicento.7 Happily, Guidiccioni's account can be substantiated and
supplemented by payment records and the accounts of two eyewitnesses: the Roman
gentleman diarist Giacinto Gigli and the papal ceremony master Paolo Alaleone.8
The ceremonies began early in the morning on Sunday the thirtieth of January.
Scipione and a group of cardinals, prelates, and canons gathered in St. Peter’s to witness the
opening of Paul's casket. The pontiff's body had been removed from its tomb in the Vatican
catacombs two days earlier on the first anniversary of his death. From there it was brought
up to the basilica where it was prepared for transportation to Paul's final resting place in the
the Cappella Paolina in S. Maria Maggiore, the building of which had occupied much of his
long papacy.
His body was placed on a portable platform designed to be carried and richly
decorated with ornaments, Borghese arms, and inscriptions. Covered with a blanket of gold
brocade, the body was surrounded by twenty four torch-bearing candelabras.
By evening representatives of the monastic orders, mendicants, and confraternities
had assembled in St. Peter’s and the procession began. This group included members of the
Seminario Romano, Collegio Germanico, the Carmelites of San Crisogono, the Dominican
protectors and titularies, the Camaldolesi monks of San Gregorio, and the Olivetan monks.
There were also mendicants, a group of beggar children called the letterati after their
protecor Leonardo Cerusi di Salerno, known as "il Letterato," and other orphans.9 This
group carried 600 torches. After these came the capitals of the Vatican, Esquiline, and
7
Chapter two will explore Guidiccioni's career and role in the Borghese household.
8
The information and accuracy reliability of all of these sources will be investigated in chapter one.
Salerno helped abandoned children who sang for alms. See Giacinto Gigli, Giacinto Gigli Diario di
Roma, ed. Manlio Barberito (Rome: Colombo, 1994) 24, n. 15.
9
5 Lateran, and then the coffin itself borne by mercenaries. Finally came the pontifical
cavalcade with members of the pope's retinue and household. This large group made its way
slowly through the streets of Rome, which were thronged with spectators.
The facade of S. Maria Maggiore, the destination of this procession, was draped in
black fabric, illuminated by candles and decorated with Borghese arms. Inside, the nave was
draped in black fabric with a cornice of candles. Large panels depicting the Borghese arms
and supported by skeletons hung between the columns. Set up in the crossing was an
enormous catafalque, eighty meters tall, painted to resemble bronze, with its dome draped in
black fabric and covered with candles. So towering was the structure, that part of the
basilica's roof had been removed as a precaution against fire.10
In addition to the fabric and candles, it was adorned with thirty six life-sized statues
fashioned of stucco. It is in these sculptures that much of the catafalque's interest lies, for
Guidiccioni attributes these to the young Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The combination of
Guidiccioni's text and payment records certainly indicate that Bernini was indeed
responsible for their design. Because the actual sculptures do not survive, questions of
workshop versus master are largely moot: Bernini would surely have determined the basic
form of all the figures for such an important commission and patron.11 And, sadly, these
basic outlines are all that we can glean from the extant engravings.
The sculptural decoration consisted of sixteen female personifications arranged into
four groupings, all of which were carefully chosen to represent aspects of Paul's character
both as pope and as Borghese paterfamilias: Iustitia (with Maestà, Puritas, and Religio), Pax
Schraven 2001, 27, n. 47. Soria included a bill for this removal in his account. [ASV, Archivio
Borghese, vol. 4173. "Artisti di Scipione Borghese 1607-1623', folio 15 r.]
10
The payment records and other evidence for Bernini's authorship, as well as the question of
workshop participation, will be discussed in chapter six.
11
6 (with Annona, Providentia, and Tranquillitas), Veritas (with Sapientia, Magnificenza, and
Magnamitas) and Misericordia (with Eleemosina, Clementia, and Mansuetudo). Guidiccioni identifies
these figures all as virtues. Strictly speaking they are not: some are benefits or results of
virtues, a problem which will be discussed in chapter seven. All of the figures were painted
to resemble marble and placed in the intercolumniation of the catafalque. Twenty more
stucco figures of putti were placed around the dome.
Meaning is created through both architecture and sculpture. Formal references to
early Christian and Imperial Roman architecture in the design of the structure cast Pauline
Rome as the reflowering of the early Church and the Golden Age of Imperial Rome, both
analogies carefully cultivated throughout Paul's reign. Paul's prowess as a patron is alluded to
by the extensive use of cloth drapery throughout the structure. By incorporating black
mourning cloth as part of the very structure of the the building, the catafalque seems to
mourn Paul and the loss of such a patron of the art of architecture. The personified virtues
create a more specific iconography celebrating the pope's character, again carefully
incorporating both Christian and pagan prototypes. Meaning is polysemous: Paul is the heir
both of Peter and Augustus: a restorer of the purity of the early Roman Church and a
harbinger of a new Golden Age.
Of course none of these themes are novel. Similar tropes were prevalent not only in
the encomiastic literature devoted to Paul, but in that of nearly every building pope before
him. By recycling these ideas the catafalque simultaneously lauds Paul's life and reinforces
the Borghese family's own foundation myth and current status. Thus the catafalque serves as
a mirror not only of Paul's many accomplishments, but of Borghese ambitions. Architecture,
sculpture, and poetry are all imbued with a classical iconography referring to the imagined
Roman heritage of the Borghese, even as it declares the importance of architecture and
7 building to the family's legacy.
This interpretation of the iconography is predicated on several disparate strands of
investigation: first, an understanding of all of the men involved and their merits and abilities
and, second, the historical context and how the catafalque's creators both echo history and
innovate. The first four chapters will examine this background. The first chapter will look at
the development of papal funeral rites and the use of the catafalque. The second chapter will
consider the Breve Racconto as a source, examining both its contents and the biography of its
author, Lelio Guidiccioni. The third chapter will be devoted to Scipione Borghese and a
survey of his patronage. The fourth chapter assesses Paul's life and patronage and how his
reign was presented in contemporary panegyric.
This foundation will enable us to investigate the iconography of the entire apparatus
funebris and consider questions of the attribution of all of its various elements. The final three
chapters will attempt to reconstruct the appearance of the catafalque, assign authorship and
understand its iconography. Chapter five tackles the architecture, reconciling the written and
visual images to arrive at an understanding of its form and in turn investigating how form
creates meaning. Chapter six considers the question of authorship and attempts to untangle
the hands of the various artists and architects involved in the catafalque's creation. Chapter
seven returns to iconography and looks at the sixteen personified virtues, how they were
chosen, and how their specific appearances relate to their meaning.
State of the Scholarship
While most of the players in this drama -- Paul V, Scipione Borghese, Bernini -- have been
the subject of much scholarly attention, relatively little has been written about this
8 catafalque.12 Catafalques and ephemeral art in general were little studied until the 1960s.
While individual catafalques were recorded in contemporaneous festival books, early authors
took little interest in the genre as a whole. The earliest work about catafalques as a genre is
Claude François Ménestrier's Des decorations funébres of 1682.13
More recently, the basic framework for the study of catafalques has been laid out by
two authors: Olga Berendsen and Liselotte Popelka. Olga Berendsen's doctoral dissertation,
“The Italian Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Catafalques,” catalogues all known
structures of this kind in those two centuries, breaks them down into several types and traces
their genesis and evolution.14 She devotes a chapter to each of the four different forms of
catafalque she hypothesizes: the monument catafalque, the obelisk catafalque, the
baldachino, and tempietto catafalque.
Popelka's work, Castrum doloris oder Trauriger Schauerplatz Untersuchungen zu Entstehung
und Wesen ephemer Architektur, examines the origins of the catafalque and traces its evolution.15
It gives a very detailed account of the evolution of several different types of structures: the
obelisk type, the dome type, etc. She also investigates the iconography of various
architectural choices: the meaning of different colors and materials in the monuments.
Seventeenth-century Italian ephemera (including but not limited to catafalques) has
been exhaustively studied and catalogued by Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco. His two volume
12
The literature on the Borghese and on Guidiccioni will be discussed in chapters two and three.
Claude François Ménestrier, Des decorations funébres, ou il est amplement traité des Tentures des Lumieres, des
Mausolées, Catafalques, Inscriptions et autres Ornemens funebres. Avec tout ce qui s'est fait de plus considerable
depuis plus d'un siecle, pour les Papes, Empereurs, Rois, Reines, Cardinaux, Princes, Prelat, Sçavans et Personnes
Illustres en Naissance, Vertu et Dignité (Paris, 1682).
13
Olga Berendsen, “The Italian Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Catafalques,” PhD dissertation,
New York University, 1961.
14
Liselotte Popelka, Castrum doloris oder Trauriger Schauerplatz Untersuchungen zu Entstehung und Wesen
ephemer Architektur (Vienna: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005).
15
9 L'effimero Barocco: Strutture della festa nella Roma del'600 catalogues all Roman festivals of the
seventeenth century with brief commentary and exhaustive bibliographical information.16
His Corpus delle feste a Roma is a later iteration of the same catalogue.17 The same author also
published an invaluable bibliography of the field.18
Other contributions to this field include several works by Marcello Fagiolo: “Il
trionfo sulla morte: i catafalchi dei papi e dei sovrani,"19 and Il Gran Teatro dell Barocco.20
Minou Schraven has done work on Roman catafalques, writing a dissertation (soon to be
published) and several articles about the general trend. Both of these articles provide
excellent and concise introductions to the development of the catafalque in Italy.21 Another
article specifically addresses Scipione's other catafalque commission: that of Marcantonio
Borghese.22
All of these works provide a solid background for studies of Baroque ephemera in
general and funeral apparati in particular. The bibliography on Paul's catafalque,
unfortunately, is much thinner. This neglect is long standing: Paul's catafalque is not
Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco and Silvio Carandini, ed., L'effimero Barocco: Strutture della festa nella Roma
del'600, 2 vols. (Rome: Bulzoni, 1970). The catafalque of Paul V is discussed in vol. 1, 46-53.
16
17
Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco, Corpus delle feste a Roma (Rome: De Luca, 1997).
18
Ibid., Bibliografica della festa barocca a Roma (Rome: Pettini, 1994).
Marcello Fagiolo, ed., La Festa a Roma dal Rinascimento al 1870 (Turin: Allemandi, 1997) vol. II, 2641.
19
20
Marcello Fagiolo, Il Gran Teatro dell Barocco (Rome: Bulzoni, 2002).
Minou Schraven, “Il lutto pretenzioso dei cardinali nipoti e la felice dei lori zii papi. Tre catafalchi
papali 1591-1624,” Storia dell’Arte 98 (2000); Ibid., "The Rhetoric of Virtue: The Vogue for
Catafalques in Late Sixteenth-Century Rome." Praemium Virtutis II Grabmäler und Begräbniszeremoniell in
der italienischen Hoch- und Spätrenaissance, ed. Joachim Poeschke, Britta-Kusch-Arnhold, and Thomas
Weigel (Münster: Rhema, 2005) 41- 63 and Ibid., Festive Funerals in Early Modern Italy. The Art and
Culture of Conspicuous Commemoration (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013).
21
22
Schraven 2001.
10 mentioned in the seventeenth-century biographies of Bernini. In his listing of known works
by the master Baldinucci explicitly states that he is not including catafalques.
Modern Bernini scholars have taken little notice of Paul's catafalque. This lack of
interest cannot be put down to ignorance, for it is certainly known to most writers on
Bernini and puts in a regular appearance as a footnote or aside to other projects with varying
degrees of accuracy.
The most extended discussion can be found in Cesare d'Onofrio's Roma vista da
Roma.23 Berendsen published an article specifically on this catafalque, but apart from one
important payment record it does little but introduce its existence and has several serious
errors.24 Many of the payment records were published by Italo Faldi in an article which also
briefly discusses the structure.25 Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco discusses it briefly in Bernini una
introduzione al gran teatro del Barocco.26
The iconography of several of the sculptures is referred to by several scholars in their
discussions of other Bernini works. Irving Lavin refers to the catafalque, and in particular to
the virtues Veritas, Misericordia, Iustitia, and Pax, as a counterpoint to Bernini's depictions of
23
D'Onofrio 1967, 288-293.
Olga Berendsen, "A Note on Bernini's Sculptures for the Catafalque of Pope Paul V," Marsyas
(1959): 67-69. There are several factual errors. She claims that the reburial occurred because the
Paulina was not complete at the time of Paul's death (Ibid., 67) and that the funeral book was
anonymous (Ibid., 68). Other errors stem from a misreading of the visual and verbal evidence. Thus
she claims that four of the virtues were seated inside the chamber when they are clearly visible
outside (Ibid., 69). This mistake is also repeated in her dissertation along with several others: that the
catafalque had four staircases (Berendsen 1961, 196) and that steps covered the entire dome (Ibid.,
197).
24
25
Italo Faldi, "Nuove note sul Bernini," Bolletino d'arte 38 (1953): 310-316.
Maurizio and Marcello Fagiolo dell'Arco, Bernini una introduzione al gran teatro del Barocco, (Rome:
Bulzoni, 1966) 80, 230, 258 and 265. Also Ibid., L'immagine al potere Vita di Giovan LorenzoBernini
(Rome: Laterza, 2001) 39-42.
26
11 the same virtues on the tomb of Alexander VII.27 Mathias Winner discusses the Veritas in
relation to the Bernini's Truth Unveiled by Time.28
The lack of in-depth scholarship is remarkable for several reasons: first, this
catafalque may represent the only aspect of Bernini and Scipione Borghese's relationship that
has not been thoroughly analyzed, or for that matter of Scipione's patronage in general.
Secondly, Bernini's evolution as a designer of catafalques surely bears a relation to his
development as a designer of tombs and even of churches, and his catafalques seem to only
have been considered in relation to the genesis of the project for the baldacchino.29
Finally, it is surprising that scholars interested in the intersection of the Borghese's
self portrayal and patronage have not taken up the iconography surrounding this catafalque,
as the papal obsequies offer obvious opportunities for studying panegyric and selfaggrandizement. This dissertation will attempt to redress some of these lacunae. I will
attempt to reconstruct the monument’s appearance and solidify the roles of the various artist
involved in it construction. Further, I will investigate the iconography of the architecture and
sculpture, as well as the entire obsequies, as seen through the poetry and oration included in
the funeral book.
27
Irving Lavin, Bernini and the Crossing of St. Peter's (New York: College Art Association, 1968).
Matthias Winner, "Veritas," Bernini Scultore: la Nascita del Barrocco in Casa Borghese, ed. Anna Coliva
and Sebastian Schütze (Rome: De Luca, 1998) 290-309.
28
29
See Berendsen 1982.
12 Chapter 1
Ephemeral Decorations and the Burial of Popes in Seicento Rome
Festivals, processions, and the ephemeral decorations created to celebrate them were
an important part of life in seventeenth-century Rome. Processions were arranged and
triumphal arches erected for numerous occasions: the possesso of a new pope, the
transportation of an icon, or the entrance of a foreign dignitary into the city. Elaborate
spectacles were prepared for the quarantore (forty hours devotion) and even secular festivities
such as jousts.30 To suggest the frequency of these events, visual records exist for at least six
non-funerary ephemeral festivals during the pontificate of Paul V, but there were surely
many more that have been forgotten. Rome saw festivals for the pope's possesso on
November 6, 1605,31 for the canonization of Francesca Romana on May 29, 1608,32 for the
canonization of Carlo Borromeo on November 1, 1610,33 for the transportation of the Salus
Popoli Romani on January 27, 1613,34 for the transportation of Charles Borromeo's heart on
For a complete catalogue of Roman festivals in the seventeenth century see Maurizio Fagiolo
dell'Arco and Sandro Corradini, L'effimero barocco: Strutture della festa nella Roma del'600 (Rome: Bulzoni,
1978), and Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco, Corpus delle feste a Roma (Rome: De Luca, 1997). On
decorations for the quarontore in the Seicento see Mark Weil, "The Devotion of Forty Hours and
Roman Baroque Illusions," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 37 (1974): 218-248.
30
31
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1978, 17-23.
32
Ibid., 24.
33
Ibid., 30-33.
Stephen Ostrow, Art and Spirituality in Counter-Reformation Rome: The Sistine and Pauline Chapels in S.
Maria Maggiore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) 118-120; Paolo de Angelis, Basilicae S.
Mariae Maioris de urbe a liberio Papa I usque ad Paulum V Pont. Max. descritio et delineatio auctore abbate Paolo
De Angelis (Rome, 1621) 233-235. The entire festival was recorded in "Relatione della translatione
della S.ma Imagine della Madonna di S.ta di N.S.re Papa Paolo V" [ACSMM Fondo Capella
34
13 June 22, 1614,35 and for the election of Ferdinand II on September 10, 1619.36 While few
festivals other than weddings and funerals received festivals books, they were often recorded
in engravings. Prints were published showing not only full elevations of the arches erected
for the possesso, but also the exact rout and processional order followed.
Scanning the avvisi from the Borghese period we find references to many more
festivals, presumably so minor that they were not recorded in a festival book or engraving.
An avviso from June of 1608 describes the festivities at S. Giovanni Fiorentini celebrated by
the Florentine nation to mark the completion of a new hospital.37 An undated avviso from
1608 mentions the festival for the public entry of the Duke of Nevers.38 Romans took
advantage of any and every opportunity to celebrate with ephemeral architecture.
Catafalques, or the specific form of ephemera associated with funerals, became
increasingly fashionable throughout Italy from the mid sixteenth century onward. The
earliest Italian catafalques were reserved for princes and their architecture often explicitly
Borghese, Misc. III, fasc II, no. 51] and quoted heavily by Ostrow. See also several avvisi recording
the development of Paul's plans for the transportation which were continually postponed due to the
unfinished work on the chapel. [Urb. lat. 1080, 394 r. and v.] "acciò sia finita per la Madonna
d'Agosto, volendovi trasportare solennamente le reliquie di San Carlo e di santa Francesa romana et
in fine l'immagine santissime di Madonna del Gonfalone." Quoted in Johannes Albertus Franciscus
Orbaan, Documenti sul barocco in Roma (Rome: Società romana di storia patria, 1920) 203. Also see
Ibid., 207 [Urb. lat. 1080, 722 v]: "resta questa solenne cerimonia ancor differita per qualche giorno
da venire, non sendo stato possibile con tutta la dilligenza usatavi dal cardinal Serra e dal signor
Targoni, di darli finita del tutto per detto giorno." For more on the transportation see below, pages
32-33. The festive and solemn transportation of relics was common. An avviso records a procession
of relics by the Bernabiti fathers of S. Biagio dell'Anello. Quoted in Orbaan, 201.[Urb. lat. 1080.184
r]: "1612 febbraio 29. Domenica. li padri bernabiti di Sa Biagio dell'Anello con solenne apparato,
musica e concorso di popolo, doppo al vespero cantata nella lor chiesa nuova in piazza Catinarà,
dedicata a San Carlo, fecero una processione intorno alla chiesa, portando alcune reliquie di detto
santo e gettorno la prima pietra mei fondamenti di detta chiesa...."
35
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1978, 36-38.
36
Ibid., 39.
37
Quoted in Orbaan, 110. [Urb. lat. 1076. 461 r. and v.]
38
Ibid., 128. [Urb. lat. 1076. 870 v.]
14 evoked the burials of Roman emperors, being built in the form of a pyre and surmounted by
candles.39 The term "catafalque" first appears in the late sixteenth century. Its origins and
etymology are unclear although it seems to derive from catafalicum or scaffold.40 As we shall
see, catafalco and other descriptors such as tumulo, mausoleo or castellum are used somewhat
interchangeably well into the Seicento.
The idea of some sort of ephemeral covering for the body of the deceased was
prevalent in ancient Rome, but fell out of fashion and was only reintroduced in the
fourteenth century. This ressurected form, known as the chapelle ardente, was a wooden
baldachin type structure covered in arms and candles. They are first recorded in royal
funerals in France, but soon spread across Europe.41 When the popes returned from
Avignon, they brought this tradition with them, renamed castrum doloris ("castle of sorrows")
and reserved specifically for the use of popes during the novenas, or proscribed nine days of
official, ritual mourning. The early papal castrum doloris were usually simple structures
supported by four columns and covered by candles.42 As a rule, they lacked sculptural
decoration and complex architectural members. They were of a set size and plan (eleven by
nine meters and eight meters high), dictated by the fact that they were built over the rota
This form was also popular for actual tombs in the sixteenth century. Alfred Frazer suggests that
this is due to a misreading of the imagery on consecratio coins and a conflation of the rogus or pyre
with imperial mausolea. Sixteenth century reconstructions of imperial mausolea found in Marco
Fabio Calvo's Antiquae urbis Romae cum regionibus simulachrum of 1527 as well as Giulio Romano's
Vatican frescoes confirm this interpretation. Alfred Frazer, "A Numismatic Source for
Michelangelo's First Design of the Tomb of Julius II," Art Bulletin 57 (1975): 53-57.
39
40
See discussion in Berendsen 1961, 4.
Schraven 2005, 42. For a full treatment of French funerals in this period, see Ernst Kantorowicz,
The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997)
315-451 and Ralph Giesey, The Royal Funeral Ceremony in Renaissance France (Geneva: Droz, 1960).
41
42
Berendsen 1961, 5.
15 porfirica in St. Peter's basilica.43
These types of sepulchral ephemera persisted and remained relatively static for
several centuries, but with the obsequies of Charles V, organized in 1558 all over Europe,
things started to change. The many monuments to Charles, though all unique, were all
designed according to instructions issued by Philip II. All were decorated with allegorical
figures of virtues. All had complex architectural designs, known architects, and set
iconographical programs.44
Following this example, it became common for foreign rulers to receive numerous
obsequies in different cities throughout the continent. Their funerals in Rome, as elsewhere,
often included catafalques.45 Thus, a catafalque was erected for the obsequies of Ferdinand
III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in S. Giovanni Fiorentini on June 22, 1609.46 The obsequies of
Henry IV of France on July 1, 1610 included a catafalque.47 On February 23, 1612,
Margaret of Austria's funeral was celebrated in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli with a
43
Schraven 2005, 44.
Ibid., 46-48. For more on Charles' obsequies, see Achim Aurnhammer and Friedrich Däuble, "Die
Exequien für Kaiser Karl V. in Augsburg, Brüssel und Bologna," Studien zur Thematik des Todes im 16.
Jahrhundert, ed. Peter Blum (Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 1983) 141-190 and Olga
Berendsen, "Taddeo Zuccari's Paintings for Charles V's Obsequies in Rome," Burlington Magazine 112
(1970): 809-810.
44
All listed by Fagiolo dell'Arco in "La festa effimera, ovvero il barocco secondo Maurizio Fagiolo
dell'Arco," Il "gran teatro" del Barocco le capitali della festa, ed. Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco (Rome: De
Luca, 2007) vol. 1, 178-206, the list on 185-188.
45
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1978, 25-8, and Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 211-214; Olga Berendsen, “The Italian
Sixteen and Seventeenth-Century Catafalques," PhD dissertation, New York University, 1961, 183184.
46
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1978, 28-9; Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 216; Berendsen 1961, 185-186. See also the
avviso recording the obsequies in Florence, those in Rome are not mentioned. Orbaan, 177 [Urb. lat.
1078, 666r.]: "1610 settembre 25. scrivono di Firenze, che alli 16 del corrente in San Lorenzo s'erano
fatte solleni esequie a Enrico IV rè di Francia, co regale apparato e spesa e con rapresentare in pittura
l'imprese e gloriosi fatti del detto rè."
47
16 catafalque.48 Just six months before Paul's reburial, in August of 1621, the obsequies of
Philip III were celebrated with a catafalque in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli.49
Apart from rulers, catafalques were also considered appropriate for great artists,
perhaps because of the example of Michelangelo. Thus on July 29, 1609, the obsequies of
Annibale Carracci were celebrated in the Pantheon with a catafalque.50
Catafalques were quickly adopted by the local Roman aristocracy. One was erected
for Duke Alessandro Farnese in S. Maria in Aracoeli on April 3, 1593.51 Giovan Francesco
Aldobrandini's obsequies in December 1601 included a catafalque,52 as did those of Maria
Cesi Altemps in the Collegio Germanico on December 18, 1609.53
Because of the makeup of the Roman curia, whose ranks drew heavily from Rome's
oldest and most prominent families, it was inevitable that the same pomp would soon be
adopted for the obsequies of cardinals. As catafalques became more common in Rome and
were incorporated into cardinals' obsequies, a new type appeared which resembled a tempietto
more than a pyre. Its form seems to have been inspired by ancient mausolea and the shrines
48
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1978, 34-35; Berendsen 1961, 188-189.
49
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1978, 44-45; Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 232-235; Berendsen 1961, 195-196.
Quoted in Orbaan, 145. [Urb. lat. 1066, 362 v.] "all Rotonda furono fatte certe superbissime
esequie con catafalco al Caracciolo, che il meglio che haveva serviva il cardinal Farnese et diede da
ridere a piu di quattro veder un pittore equipararsi ad un principe." On Michelangelo's funeral and
catafalque, see Rudolf and Margot Wittkower, The Divine Michelangelo: The Florentine Academy's Homage
on his Death in 1564 (London: Phaidon, 1964), which includes a transcription and translation of the
funeral book Esequie del Divino Michelangelo Buonarroti (Florence, 1564). See also Edward Parsons, "At
the Funeral of Michelangelo," Renaissance News 4 (1951): 17-19.
50
51
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 197; Berendsen 1961, 168-169.
52
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 196-197.
53
Ibid., 214-215.
17 built in the form of temples to exhibit the emperor's body during his eulogy.54 Another
obvious prototype was Bramante's Tempietto, and, while still rife with Imperial illusions, the
new tempietto-catafalque started to meld pagan symbolism with Christian liturgical practice
in a way that made the form acceptable for ecclesiastical use. The first cardinal to have a
catafalque was Alessandro Farnese, and he had two: the first in the Gesù for the obsequies
on March 23, 1589, and the second for the celebration in SS. Pietro e Paolo on April 28,
1589.55 Another catafalque was erected for Cardinal Marco Sitico Altemps in S. Maria in
Trastevere on April 27, 1595.56 On January 22, 1603, Cardinal Antonio Maria Salviati's
obsequies, celebrated in S. Giacomo in Augusta, included a catafalque.57
Despite this rage for catafalques, as late as 1620 they were still almost unheard of for
popes. It is hard to understand exactly why the form was considered acceptable for cardinals
but not for popes. A large factor was certainly the reform-minded climate in Rome in the
second half of the sixteenth century and the dictates of the Council of Trent against
unnecessary pomp. But this can hardly be the whole story. The insistence on humility in the
funeral of a pope (but not a cardinal) predates the Council of Trent and is an integral part in
the rituals of both the election and death of the pontiff, as we shall see later.
To some extant the question of the adoption of papal catafalques may be one of
semantics. In other words, the difference between a castrum doloris, which was considered
particularly suited to a pope, and a catafalque, which was not, seems to be only one of degree
and pomp. Significantly, the sixteenth and seventeenth-century sources do not seem to
54
Berendsen 1961, 100.
55
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 178-179; Berendsen 1961, 165-166.
56
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 192.
57
Ibid., 198.
18 consistently differentiate between various terms such as castrum doloris, catafalco, mausoleo,
tumulus or even tempio.58
One distinction that does seem to be real is a liturgical one. The castrum was originally
intended to rise over the bier and the actual physical body. The catafalque, on the other
hand, usually contained only an effigy or other signifier of the body, but not the actual
corpse.59 But even this distinction is somewhat nebulous. By the mid fifteenth century popes
were buried at the start of the novena and an effigy provided for the castrum doloris.60
Footmen in mourning were placed outside the castrum waving palm fronds, pretending to
banish the flies which had been attracted by the decaying flesh of not thoroughly embalmed
pontiffs.61
Furthermore, there is some reason to believe that papal catafalques were not quite as
rare as is commonly assumed. It is certainly true that catafalques were not incorporated into
This issue of contemporary phraseology has also been commented on by Schraven. However, she
argues that a clear distinction can be drawn between the two forms. Schraven 2000, 6. Popelka, on
the other hand, argues that the terms are interchangeable and that different usages are regional.
Popelka 25. Interestingly, Paul V's catafalque is described as a castrum doloris in Ciaconius' brief
account of the reburial. Alphonsus Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae pontificum romanorum (Rome: 1677) vol.
4, 387.
58
For the history of the use of effigies in European royal funerals see Giesey 1960, 79-105;
Kantorwicz, 419-437 and Julius Schlosser, "Geschichte der Porträtbildnerai in Wachs," Jahruch der
Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen der allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses (Vienna) XXIX (1910). The first use of an
effigy seems to be the funeral of Edward II of England in 1327. Effigies in both England and France
were originaly reserved for princes, only slowly spreading to other royals. Effigies were adopted in
France around 1500 and unlike their English prototypes they were made to look alive.
59
This may mirror the general trend throughout Europe in this century towards the use of effigies.
Kantorwicz even posits that the use of the effigy took on a triumphal meaning to illustrate the king's
undying dignity associated with Roman triumphi. Kantorwicz, 423.
60
Agostino Paravicini-Baglioni, The Pope's Body, trans. David S. Peterson (Chicago: University of
Chicago, 1994)158. An inverse interpretation of the flies presence is found in Howard McDavis'
suggestion that the four bees on Urban VIII's sarcophagus are attracted to the odor of Urban's
sanctity. Howard Mc. Davis, "Bees on the Tomb of Urban VIII," Source VIII/IX (Summer/Fall
1989): 40-48. This interpretation seems more likely to be specific to the Barberini pope because of
the long literary tradition associating the pope's patronage with sweetness and honey. See for
example Lelio Guidiccioni, Delibatio Mellis Barberini (Rome: Vitali Mascardi, 1639).
61
19 the novena or into any official Vatican recognition of a pope’s death until the mid
seventeenth century. The earliest catafalques commemorating a pope were erected only at
private expense and through the force of personality and influence of family. They also
appear to have been limited to reburials. It is usually assumed that the only papal catafalque
to predate Paul's was that commissioned by Cardinal Montalto in August 1591 for the
transportation of the body of his uncle, Sixtus V, to S. Maria Maggiore.62 Guidiccioni
explicitly cites that catafalque as a precedent for Paul's, and, perhaps more revealingly, the
"generosity" of Montalto as an inspiration for Scipione to honor his uncle in a similar way.
As we shall see in a later chapter, Sixtus was an important model for Paul both in his
restoration of Rome and his construction of a funeral chapel, which was conceived as a
pendant to that of Sixtus. Guidiccioni may have wanted to underline this relation as well as
reinforce Scipione's political power by insisting on the relation between the two nephews
and two catafalques. Indeed, he specifically claims that Scipione looked to Montalto as a
prototype.63 Thus, his assertion that Sixtus' catafalque was the only precedent may have been
motivated more by these reasons than historical accuracy.
In addition to noting the influence of Cardinal Montalto, Guidiccioni also lists the
popes who did not receive catafalques and specifically recounts the Sacred College's reasons
for disallowing Pius IV's nephews from erecting one: that the novenas celebrated at the
Vatican had been enough, "nell esequie Vaticane di nove giorni, a ciaschedun papa si drizza
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 182-188; Ibid., 1978; 3-13; Berendsen, 166-168 and Schraven 2000, 55-62.
Sixtus' reburial and catafalque is described in Baldo Catani, La pompa funerale Fatta dall'Illustrissimo &
Reverendissimo Signor Cardinale Montalto nella traportatione dell'ossa di Papa Sisto il Quinto (Rome, 1591).
62
Guidiccioni 1623, 16. "Alle quai cose, che constituiuano l'vltimo stato, adherendo il Signor cardinal
Borghese, volse mantenere questo lodeuol possesso, col quale vn nipote grato viene ad honorar la
memoria d'vun riguardeuole Zio..."
63
20 il detto Castello, la qual cerimonia, senza replicarla, devria bastare usata per una volta."64
Modern sources discussing the rarity of papal catafalques in this period almost always cite
this passage from Guidiccioni as the only evidence that papal catafalques were not allowed.65
But this is not exactly what Guidiccioni says. He writes "that apparatus was not erected for
Pope Leo X in the Minerva, nor Adrian VI in the Anima, nor Paul IV in Minerva or for Pius
IV in S. Maria Maggiore and finally Pius V in S. Maria Maggiore."66 All of these pontiffs
predate Sixtus V, so Guidiccioni does not actualy claim that there were no catafalques
between those of Sixtus and Paul. In fact, were there not, we might expect to find their
names added to the above list of popes who did not merit a catafalque.
The funeral arrangements of these intervening popes therefore merit close attention.
The problem is that only one pope between Sixtus and Paul ruled for over a year. Sixtus was
followed by three popes in 1590-1591 who each lasted less than a year in office: Urban VII
who lived just twelve days, Gregory XIV who ruled for 314 days, and Innocent IX who lived
just two months. After these came Clement VIII who ruled for thirteen years and Leo XI
who lasted twenty six days. This lack of strong rulers may be why Guidiccioni looked to the
earlier precedents.
To further complicate the situation, the reburial of some of the earlier pontiffs
actually occurred in the 1580s and ‘90s. The reburial of Pius in 1583, eighteen years after his
death, was organized by his three cardinal nephews. A description by the ceremony master
Francesco Firmani states that there were no candles or castrum because it was not deemed
64
Guidiccioni 1623, 15.
65
For example, Berendsen 1961, 13 and Schraven 2005, 53.
66
Guidiccioni 1623, 15.
21 appropriate eighteen years after his death.67 This statement suggests that the length of time,
not the pomp, was at issue. Alaleone, writing at the same time states that there was not a
castellum or catafalque with lights, but that it would have been better had one been built.68
This is odd, for in fact, it would have been more remarkable if Pius IV had had a catafalque.
No ecclesiastical catafalques are recorded in Rome this early, the earliest being Alessandro
Farnese's in 1589, making it rather curious that Alaleone would have commented on the lack
of catafalque. Pius V was also reburied, by Sixtus V, in January 1588, in a four-day festivity
which included a procession and oration, if no catafalque.69
It is true that there is no visual record of catafalques for any of the popes between
Sixtus and Paul in Rome, but there are certainly cases of important later catafalques for
which no visual record exists: for example, the Roman catafalque of Carlo Barberini and that
of Urban VIII.70 And in fact, the literary sources do allude to several catafalques. Gigli
[BAV, Chigiani L II 31 [Ceremonial Diary of Francesco Firmani, January 14,1583] fols. 831-832].
Quoted in Schraven 2005, 52, n 47. "Non fuit facta alique distrubutione candelarum, prout solet fieri
in exequiis magnis, cum recenter pontifex defunctus non est, nec castrum doloris, quia non videbatur
convenire ei huiusmodi exequiis, ipse solum factae fuerunt occasione translationis 18 annis vel circa
post eius mortem."
67
BAV, Chigiani IL 32 [Ceremonial Diary of Paolo Alaleone, January 7, 1583] fol 20. Quoted in
Schraven 2005, 53, n 49. "Non fuit factum castellum, sive catafalcus cum luminaribus, quod melius si
factus fuisset." Schraven inexplicably suggests that this means Alaleone changed his mind after the
fact. However, this dates to the day before the transportation and a week before Firmani's
comments.
68
Pietro Galesini, Translatio Corporis Pii Papae Quinti Beatae Memoriae quam sollemni sanctoque pietatis officio.
S.D.N. Sixtus V Pont. Max. celebravit VI. Idus Ianuarii anno MDLXXXVIII (Rome, 1588). See also
Schraven 2005, 53-55.
69
For a discussion of and bibliography on Carlo Barberini's catafalque see chapter six, n. 555.
Although there is virtually no mention of it in the literature, a catafalque appears to have been
erected for the last three days of Urban VIII's novenas. This was noted by Andrea Adami,
Osservazioni per ben regolare il coro dei cantori della Cappella Pontificia (Rome: Rossi, 1711) 90-95, cited by
Frederick Hammond, The Ruined Bridge: Studies in Barberini Patronage of Music and Spectacle 1631-1679
(Sterling Heights, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 2010) 250, n. 10. Hammond also cites the diary
of the puntatore which notes that as of August 6, "non esser' finita la Piramide, che si fa in mezzo à
San Pietro per il sud[dett]o funerale." [BAV, CS 63, fols. 48-48v.].
70
22 describes the funeral of Sixtus' predecessor, Urban VII, who ruled for all of thirteen days in
1590 before succumbing to malaria. Gigli reports that his body was moved from St. Peter's
to S. Maria sopra Minerva by the Compagnia dell’Annunziata to be be buried in their chapel.
The nave was draped in black and a catafalque was erected in front of the chapel. It had two
sides with stairs and paintings and inscriptions. A black baldachin with silver arms hung over
the body.71 Also, a catafalque was erected by Grand Duke Ferdinand de’ Medici in the
duomo in Florence for Leo XI's obsequies, which were celebrated May 15-16, 1605.72
It is perhaps worth noting that neither of these catafalques was commissioned by a
cardinal nephew. Between the tenures of Montalto and Borghese, the only cardinal nephew
who might have had the financial and political wherewithal to pull off a spectacle on this
scale was Clement VIII's nephew, Ippolito Aldobrandini. But relations between
Aldobrandini and Scipione Borghese were not cordial and Clement VIII was himself
reburied in the Pauline Chapel.73 Clement had made Paul cardinal and Paul wanted both to
repay this debt and to draw another parallel with the Sistine Chapel where Sixtus had
included the tomb of his sponsor, Pius V, as pendant to his own. Clement's tomb is
mentioned in an avviso as early as 1608, so perhaps this plan forestalled any idea of Cardinal
Aldobrandini's to plan his own reburial ceremony.74 On the subject of Clement's actual
71
Gigli, vol. I, 29.
Schraven 2000, 9. Recorded in Descrizione Dell'Esequie di Papa Leone XI celebrate nel Duomo di Firenze
da Signori. Operai d'ordine del Serenissimo Gran Duca (Florence, 1605).
72
For more on Scipione's relationship with Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, see D'Onofrio 1967, 293296.
73
Quoted in Orbaan 1920, 120. [BAV. Urb. lat. 1076. fol. 579v.] "...con tutto ciò volse intrar per
veder la fabrica della sua capella, dove ha dissegnato fra le altre cose mettervi di rincontro - sicome
fece nella sua Sisto V la statua di Pio V che l'haveva fatto cardinale - così Sua Beatudine ci vuol
mettere la statua di Papa Clemente." See also Ostrow 1996, 321, n. 102, who argues that Orbaan
mistranscribes the avviso date and that the correct one is August 6, 1611. In fact, Orbaan does not
74
23 reburial, the sources are curiously silent. The translation of his body had been planned for
1611, but in fact did not happen until 1646.75
While it may be impossible to settle definitively the question of whether there were
any earlier papal catafalques, after Scipione's example they certainly became standard.
Ludovico Ludovisi commissioned one for his uncle's obsequies held in S. Pietro in Bologna
in 1624.76 After Gregory, papal catafalques seem to have become even more integrated into
protocol, actually being erected in St. Peter's. Urban VIII, was the first pope to have a
catafalque erected in St. Peter's, of which, sadly, no visual record survives.77 Innocent X in
1655 had a catafalque in St. Peter's as well.78 Two years later, in 1667, catafalques had
become so acceptable that the expenses for Alexander VII's were borne by the Camera
Apostolica.79
None of this history explains how Scipione prevailed in building a catafalque. As we
shall see, relations between him and the new cardinal nephew were far from cordial. On the
other hand, while Alessandro Ludovisi, Gregory XV, had not been Scipione's first choice in
the conclave, he was still a Borghese creatura and may have felt some loyalty. Or perhaps the
Borghese faction in the curia was simply large enough that they felt compelled to honor their
give any date. This avviso is placed between two others, the former dated July 26, 1608 and the latter
August 9.
See Gigli I, 286. June 11. Paul had intended to transfer the body in August of 1611. [BAV. Urb. lat.
1079, fol. 48v.] Quoted in Orbaan, 183. "...celebrare nella capella sudetta e farvi transportar in essa il
corpo di Clemente VIII, per il quale fa fare un deposito con una bellisima statua di esso Pontefice
Nostro." See also Ostrow 1996, 321, n. 102.
75
Recorded in Giovanni Luigi Valesio, Apparato funebre dell'anniversario à Gregorio XV. Celebrato in
Bologna a XXIV. de Luglio M.DC.XXIV (Bologna, 1624).
76
See Schraven 2000, 6 and 15, n. 9 and Fagiolo Dell'Arco 1997, 326 and 366-7. Described by Carlo
Cartari in Roma, AS, Fondo Cartari Febei, busta 73, c 151r. See also n. 70 above.
77
78
Schraven 2000, 15, n. 9.
79
Ibid., 6.
24 patron.
But if the how must remain obscure, the why is very clear. For the inverse of the
Sacred College's logic in burying deceased popes quickly and without pomp is the calculus
done by centuries of prominent papal families in building elaborate tombs and monuments
to their deceased relatives. Commemorative architecture is by nature particularly suited to
glorification. Here we must pause to note that disentangling Scipione's motives is no simple
matter. The catafalque he built is at once a sincere commemoration of his uncle's virtues,
and a show of his own (and by extension the Borghese family's) power and generosity.
Because the fate and role of a cardinal nephew is so tightly bound up with his uncle's reign,
the two are not necessarily incompatible goals. Of course, the Borghese already had the
Pauline Chapel, but since it and its allegorical programs had been conceived fifteen years
previously and completed for a decade, Scipione could have felt a need to rejuvenate its
program.
Papal Burials
The novelty of the papal catafalque (however relative) raises the question of why
Paul was reburied at all. Most authors have assumed that the reburial was occasioned by the
fact that the Pauline Chapel was not finished at the time of his death.80 This, of course,
cannot be the reason as the chapel was completed in 1611.81 Why, then, did Scipione wait a
year to honor his uncle? The answer is simple: reburials were the norm for popes in the early
80
See for example dell'Arco 1997, 235 and Berendsen 1961, 129.
On the Pauline Chapel, see Ostrow 2006, 118-251; Klaus Schwager, "Die architektonische
Erneuerung von S. Maria Maggiore unter Paul V," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 9/10 (1961-2):
289-382 and Gerhard Wolf, "REGINA COELI, FACIES LUNAE, 'ET IN TERRA PAX': Aspekte
der Ausstatung der Capella Paolina in S. Maria Maggiore," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 27-28
(1991-92): 314-317.
81
25 modern period. Regulations required the body to be maintained in the Vatican for a year, so
families wishing to move their relative's remains into a family chapel had no alternative.
In fact, the Sacred College endeavored to bury popes as quickly and
unceremoniously as possible in order to get to the important business of electing a successor
and stabilizing the regime. The dichotomy between the mortal pope who dies and the
pontifical office which is eternal became increasingly clearly delineated in the tenth century.
Theologians took great pains to insist that from the moment the pope dies he ceases to be
the pope and becomes merely a body.82 Foreign rulers writing to the Sacred College
consistently express hopes for the speedy election of a successor rather than condolences on
the pope's death.83 Continuity was clearly important for theological reasons, but also for
practical ones. Looting and vandalism were a recurrent problem as a reaction to a pope's
death and throughout sede vacante, even into the fifteenth century. The destruction in effigy of
deceased popes was common through the sixteenth century and even later, as evidenced by
the destruction of a stucco sculpture of Urban VIII within an hour of his death.84
The interrelated ceremonies which arose around the proper burial of the pope and
election of his successor can be seen as a response to these threats to governance in two
distinct ways. One, the burial of the pope was a prerequisite for the election of a new one - Antje Bräcker, "Das Begräbniszeremoniell für die Päpste Paul V. (1550–1621) und Gregor XV.
(1554–1623) – Zwei Wahrnehmungen" Praemium Virtutis II Grabmäler und Begräbniszeremoniell in der
italienischen Renaissance, ed. Joachim Poeschke, Britta Kusch-Arnhold, Thomas Weigel (Münster:
Rhema, 2005) 35. Perhaps this came about as a reaction to the looting which commonly followed a
Pope's death. Even into the fifteenth century chaos and looting were rampant upon a pontiff's death.
Bräcker investigates this phenomenon, her study is based specifically on the information found in
Alaleone and Gigli's accounts of the deaths of Paul and Gregory.
82
83
Ibid., 35.
Laurie Nussdorfer, "The Vacant See: Ritual and Protest in early Modern Europe," The Sixteenth
Century Journal 18 (1987): 173-189, 180.
84
26 disputes over timing caused several elections to be challenged.85 Two, the evolution of
funeral rites focused on the corporeality of the pope and his display to the populace helped
create the clear distinction between the individual pontiff who dies and the continuity of the
institution of the Church.86
The funeral rites, first set out in Gregory X's bull ubi periculum of 1274 and elaborated
in the first ceremonials dating from the fourteenth century, remained relatively static for
centuries. The earliest funeral ceremonial, that of Pierre Ameil, dates to 1385-1390.87 The
rites evolve very little and are echoed in a mid-fifteenth century ceremonial written for Pietro
del Monte, bishop of Brescia, and the ceremonial of 1488, De caeremoniis Curiae Romanae libri
tres, written by John Burckard and Agostino Patrizi Piccolomini and published only in 1516.88
These rites are very similar to surviving descriptions of Paul's funeral.
A number of sources allow us to reconstruct a basic outline of the funeral rites given
Paul. On January 28th Alaleone reports that the pope is dead:
1621, January 28. Our most holy father Pope Paul V died today in the
apostolic palace on the Quirinal at eleven thirty in the evening at the
age of sixty-eight and four months. His body was adjusted as is
customary and was dressed in a cassock, belt, rochett, mozzetta and
biretta by the penitentiaries of St. Peter’s, and they watched the body
up to the eleventh hour, after which it was placed in a litter that was
brought to the apostolic palace in the Vatican by St. Peter’s, and was
attended from here on by certain palafrenieri with lit candles, by light
horsemen threetimes armed with lances and by the Swiss Guard on
foot. And the penitentiaries of St. Peter's in normal clothes attended
85
Paravicini-Baglioni, 109.
86
Ibid., 146.
87
Ibid., 150.
On the evolution of the papal ceremonial see Aimé Georges Martimort, Les ordines les ordinaires e les
cérémoniaux (Turnhout: Brepois, 1991) 96-102. On the Corsiniana manuscript see Bernhard
Schimmelpfennig, Die Zeremonienbücher der Römischen Kurie im Mittelalter (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer,
1973).
88
27 upon the body, which was carried into the Sistine Chapel in the
Vatican, in which was provided every pontifical adornment in red and
also, as if mass would be celebrated, sandals, fanon, cloak, and also a
miter of gold thread and the body was placed upon the funeral bed
with a pillow under his head and with two caps of red pontifical velvet
on his feet.89
An avviso of January 30, 1620, states that the pope has died and his body been brought to the
basilica where it has been placed in a place of adoration.90 By the second of February,
Alaleone reports that it is "the fourth day of obsequies as is customary."91
More details are provided by a manuscript attributed to Agostino Mascardi on the
conclave which elected Gregory XV, which describes the days following Paul's death:
He died finally on Thursday at eleven pm, fortified by all the
sacraments, in the hands of a good number of cardinals, and the palace
was immediately handed over to Cardinal Detti, the vice camerlengo.
The following day the congregation of cardinals was assembled in the
room of the consistory in the Vatican to give the necessary orders, and
the body was carried to St. Peters accompanied by the Sacred College.
For nine mornings they celebrated the obsequies with mass sung by
one of the cardinals, after which the ordinary congregation was always
held in the sacristy. Sunday the obsequies finished. Mons. Palloni
recited the funeral oration. Monday the mass of the holy spirit was
sung by Cardinal Giustiniani and by order of the college Agostino
Orbaan, 38. "1621 Januarii 28, Obiit in palatio Apostolico in Quirinali hora vigesima tertia cum
dimidia Sanctissimus Dominus Noster Paulus papa Quintus, aetatis suae annorum lxviii et mensium
quatuor. Corpus ejus fuit accomodatum de more et indutum postea a paenetentiariis Sancti Petri
veste subtana, zona, rochetto, mozetta et bireto et custodierunt corpus usque ad horam xi, quod
postea fuit in lectica portatum ad palatium Apostolicum in Vaticano apud Sanctum Petrum et
associatum ab aliquibus parafrenariis suis cum fanalibus accensis hinc inde, a militibus levis armaturae
eques II tribus cum lanceis armatis, et a militibus Helvetiis pedestribus, et paenetentiarii (a) Sancti
Petri cum vestibus suis ordinariis associarunt corpus, quod corpus fuit portatum in cappellam
Apostolicam, Sixti IIII nuncupatam, in Vaticano, in qua fuit paratum omnibus pontificalibus
paramentis rubris ac si missam esset celebraturus, cum sandalis, favone et pallio ac mitra de tela aurea
et positum supra lectum mortorium cum pulvino sub capite et cum duobus galeris de velluto rubro
pontificali ad pedes. Vixit in pontificatu annos xv menses vili et dies xii."
89
[Urb. lat. 1089. 87 r. and v.] "La Santità del Nostro Signore Papa Paolo Quinto...giovedì su le 23
hore rese lo spirito al Creatore et fu poi la sera portato a San Pietro e il suo corpo eposto in quella
basilica in luogo dell'adoratione." Quoted in Orbaan, 272.
90
91
"4. dies exequiarum o(mn)ia ut de more." Quoted in Bräcker, 30.
28 Mascardi, secretary of Cardinal d'Este, read the oration de subrogando
Pontefice.92
Here we find all of the components necessary for the orderly transition of power: the
handing over of the palace, the ritual dressing and display of the corpse, the summoning of
the cardinals for the consistory, and the prescribed nine days of obsequies.
We are equally well informed about the ceremony around Paul's reburial. While there
do not seem to be ceremonials summarizing the proper etiquette, we can at least see the
ceremonial and liturgical side to Paul's reburial based on a number of sources. Apart from
Guidiccioni, whose account was summarized in the introduction, there are two other
contemporary accounts of the transportation of Paul's body to S. Maria Maggiore: those of
Giacinto Gigli and Paolo Alaleone. Gigli was a Roman gentleman whose private diary of his
recollections of life in Rome has been published as the Diario di Roma.93 Alaleone was the
papal ceremony master from 1582 to 1637.94
"Morì finalmente il giovedì sulle 23 ore, armato di tutti i Sacramenti, nelle mani d'un buon numero
di Cardinali, e subito fu consegnato il Palazzo al cardinale Deti, Vice Camerlengo. Il dì seguente si
fece la Congregazione de' Cardinali nella stanza pel Concistoro in Vaticano, per dar gli ordini
necessari, e si portò il cadavere in S. Pietro, accompagnato dal sacro Collegio. Per nove mattine si
celebarono l'esequie con la messa cantata da un de' Cardinali, dopo le quali si tenne sempre l'ordinaria
Congregazione in sagrestia. La domenica, finite l'esequie, Mons. Palloni recitò l'orazione funerale. Il
lunedì fu cantata la messa dello Spirito Santo dal Sig. Cardinale Giustiniano, e per ordine del Collegio
orò il Sig. Agostino Mascardi, segretario del Cardinal d'Este, de subrogando Pontifice." [Archivio di Stato
di Modena, Cancelleria ducale, Documenti di Stati esteri busta 132, Roma, Conclavi and also Biblioteca
Arcivescovile di Udine, Mss italiani N 39.523-542.] Quoted in Francesco Luigi Mannuci, ed.,
"Appendice II Due Opuscoli Inediti di Agostino Mascardi," La Vita e le opere di Agostino Mascardi con
appendici di lettere e altri scritti inediti e un saggio bibliografico. Atti della Società ligure di Storia patria vol XLII
(Genoa: Società ligure di storia patria, 1908) 536. We learn more about how Mascardi was chosen to
read the oration in a letter he wrote to Camillo Moza on February 3: "Di V.S. Ill.ma, alla quale do
nuova come la Congregazione de' Cardinali l'altra mattina mi ballottò in concorrenza di Monsignor
Ginetti, proposto da farnesi, per fare l'orazione a' Cardinali de subrogando Pontefice, ed io prevalsi senza
sapere neanche d'esser nominato, e senza manifattura alcuna del. Sig. Cardinale nostro, che non lo
seppe se non sul fatto. Lunedì mattina dunque farò il mio cicalamento, e V. S. ha da riconoscere in
questa elezione (salva la proporzione) la stravaganza di questa Corte, che cava dal fango chi meno se
lo pensava. I promotori del negozio, per quel ch'intendo, furono Barberino e Borghese e poi tutti con
voti conformi." Ibid., 463.
92
29 Gigli gives a detailed account of the procession and a brief description of the
catafalque. Given the different functions of the men and the intended distribution of their
texts, the details are remarkably similar.95 If we start with the transportation itself, we can see
that the descriptions of all three men are very similar. While the focus of their accounts is
slightly different, all are more concerned with the festive and liturgical aspects than the
artistic. Gigli's account of the procession runs as follows:
On Sunday the 30th day of January 1622, the body of Pope Paul V, of
holy memory, was transported to S. Maria Maggiore to bury it in the
Chapel of the Madonna built by him, which was done with every
solemn right and expenditure by his nephew Cardinal Borghese in this
way. The putti di letterato came first, then the orphans,96 and seventeen
different lay companies, than twenty-seven fraternities, the clergy and
seminary of clerics, the parishioners of Rome, and a great number of
priests in surplices, and all these with very large torches of wax. The
putti, orphans, and members of all the above named companies carried
700 beautiful torches of white wax.
The body of the pope followed inside the casket placed on top of a
bier covered with a blanket of gold brocade and a frieze of black
velvet. Around the body were the canons of S. Maria Maggiore, and
the household of the pope followed behind on horseback, and some
cardinals, many bishops, and other prelates, and the servants "extra
muros",97 and other officials of the palace.
On Gigli see Manlio Barberito, "Introduzione" Giacinto Gigli Diario di Roma, (Rome: Colombo,
1994) vii-lxviii; Alessandro Ademollo, Giacinto Gigli e i suoi diarii del secolo XVII, (Florence: Gazzetta
d'Italia, 1877); Laurie Nussdorfer, Civic Politics in the Rome of Urban VIII (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1992); Peter Rietbergen, "Giacinto Gigli, Chronicler, or Power in the Streets of
Rome," Power and Religion in Baroque Rome: Barberini Cultural Policies (Leiden: Brill, 2005) 19-60.
93
On Alaleone see Leone Caetani, "Vita e Diario di Paolo Alaleone de Branca 1582-1638," Archivio
della Società Romana di storia patria 16 (1893): 1-39.
94
For a detailed examination of the differences in the two men's styles and interests in the entire
corpus of their writings, see Bräcker.
95
Gigli 24, vol. 1, n.16. The putti di letterato were a group of abandoned children who sang for alms
who were known by the name of their protector Leonardo Cerusi di Salerno, known as "il
Letterato."
96
Ibid., 40, n. 37. Door openers in the papal court outside of the anticamera. They assisted in the
chapels and in papal functions, i.e. the possesso of Innocent VIII and Sixtus V. They wore red robes.
97
30 The most numerous crowd was to be seen through every concourse,
and through the street one didn't hear anything except blessing of the
soul of this pope, everyone recounting and recalling the things done by
him, his good governance, remembering him generally, calling him
father of the poor, and making a comparison between the time now
and a year ago when he was alive.98
What we find here is a simple list of the participants in the procession and an
emphasis on the torches and the crowds of people thronging the streets to glimpse the
festivities. Alaleone's account of the transportation is similar but more detailed:
First some lay fellowships, against my opinion, because priority is
always disputed among those and they delay the procession. Next
orphan boys, all members of a religious order, clergy of the city, clerics
of the Seminario Romano, evidently anxious, canons of the
ecclesiastical colleges of the city, canons of two famous ecclesiastical
colleges and canons and capitals of the three patriarchal basilicas of
Rome, one may see of the Lateran, S. Maria Maggiore and the Vatican,
and in the beginning of the procession after the lay societies went the
great cross of the lords canons and chaplains of S. Maria Maggiore.
The first who helped in carrying the funeral bier, supported from
below by the pall bearers clothed in sacks, were the lord canons of St.
Peters, because the body had been removed from their basilica, and
they carried the stretcher or bier, covered above in gold cloth with the
insignia of the dead Pope all the way to S. Cecilia on Monte Giordano.
Next the lord canons of the basilica of the Lateran took over and
carried the aforementioned bier with the body of the dead pope
covered as above, and they carried it up to the head of Via S. Maria de
Laureto at the end of the Palatine of S. Mark from that side, and in
Ibid., 94. "A di 30. di Gennaro 1622. Domenica fu dalla Basilica di S. Pietro trasportato a S. Maria
Maggiore il Corpo della S.ta Memoria di Papa Paolo V. per sepellirlo nella Capepella della Madonna
da lui fabricata, il che fu fatto con ogni debita solennità et spesa dal Cardinal Borghese suo Nepote in
questo modo. Precedevano li Putti di Letterato,poi li Orfanelli, et diverse Compagnie di Sacchi, che
furno 17. poi le Fratarie in numero 27. il Clero et Seminario de Chierici, li Parocchiani di Roma, et
grandissima quantità di Preti con cotte, et tutti costoro con facole di cera molto grosse. Erano poi
portate settecento torcie di cera bianca bellissime dalli putti di letterato, dalli Orfanelli, et da persone
con i Sacchi di tutte le sopradette Compagnie, seguiva il corpo del Papa dentro la Cassa accomodata
sopra una Bara coperta con una coltre di broccato d'oro, et fregio di velluto negro. Intorno al corpo
erano li Canonici di Santa Maria Maggiore, e dietro seguivano a cavallo li Mazzieri del Papa, et delli
Cardinali, molti Vescovi, et altri Prelati, et li Camerieri extra muros, et altri Offiziali di Palazzo.
Il Popolo numerosissimo era per tutto concorso a vedere, et per la Strada non si udiva altro, che
benedire l'Anima di quel Papa, ciascunoraccontando, et ricordando le cose da quello fatte, et il sup
bon governo, et richiamandolo publicamente, et chiamandolo Padre delli Poveri, et facendo
comparatione del tempo di hora a quello di un anna fà, quando lui era vivo."
98
31 that very place leaving behind that bier the lord canons of the basilica
of S. Maria Maggiore took over. And the bier being deposited inside
the basilica, the most reverend lord bishop Curtis Vicarius of the
basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, dressed in black pluviale and simple
miter of canvas, did the responses and oration for the dead pope. Next
he was buried in the chapel of the most beautiful Virgin Mary before
blessed recollection of Pope Paul V, as long as he lived being carefully
built. There were carried many torches to here from that place by putti
literati, by orphans and by many different lay societies. After the bier
some prelates rode with great cloaks and ceremonial pontifical hats,
papal chaplains with red garments and hoods, papal valets "extra
muros" and shield-bearers of the pope with red garments without
hoods/ in front of the master of the papal household rode the captain
of the Swiss guard, two mazzeri of the pope with silver mace and the
masters of ceremony. Around the bier papal footmen with violet
colored outer garments and scepters walked on foot, the most
illustrious presidents of the Datary and reverend lord vicars of the
pope with clergy an Swiss Guard on foot by the sides, with halberds as
is customary. There were candles distributed and given to all in
abundance.99
Being the papal ceremony master, Alaleone is more concerned with the actual funeral rights
and he also gives a lengthy description of the uncovering of the body which is absent from
Gigli's account:
Alaleone, 240. "Incederunt primi aliquae societates laicorum, contra meam opinionem, quia semper
inter ipsos altercantur de praecedentia et retardant processionem, uti hodie etiam fecerunt. Deinde
orfani pueri, omnes religiosi, clerus Urbis, Clerici Seminarii Romani, videlicet Curati, Canonici
collegiatarum ecclesiarum Urbis, Canonici duarum collegiatarum ecclesiarum insignium et Canonici
et capitula trium Basilicarum Patriarchalium Urbis, videlicet Sancti Ioannis Laterani, Sancti Petri et
Sanctae Mariae maioris, et in principio processionis post societates laicorum praecedebat crux
Dominorum Canonicorum et capituli Sanctae Mariae Maioris tantum. Primi, qui adiuverunt in
portando baram funeralem, portatam subtus à baiulis saccis indutis, fuerunt Domini Canonici
Basilicae Sancti Petri, quia ab eorum basilica fuit extractum, et portarunt feretrum/ sine baram
coopertum panno aureo ut supra cum insignibus Papae defuncti usque ad Sanctam Caeciliam apud
Montem Iordanum. Deinde subintrarunt ad portandam dictam baram cum corpore Papae defuncti
coopertam ut supra Domini Canonici Basilicae Sancti Ioannis Lateranensis, et portarunt usque ad
caput Viae Sanctae Mariae de Laureto in fine Palatii Sancti Marci ab illo latere, et ibidem relinquentes
illam subintrarunt Domini Canonici Basilicae Sanctae Mariae Maioris. Et deposita bara intus
Basilicam Reverendissimus Dominus Episcopus de Curtis Vicarius Basilicae Sanctae Mariae Maioris
indutus pluviali nigro et mitra simplici de tela fecit officium cum responsoriis et oratione pro
defuncto Pontifice." It is worth noting that while substantively the same there are many minor
variations in the only other published transcription, that of Gianbattista Gattico of 1753. Gianbattista
Gattico, Act Selecta Caeremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae: Ex Variis Mss. Codicibus et Diariis Saeculi XV.
XVI. XVII. (Rome: Jo. Laurentii Barbierrini, 1753) 484.
99
32 Sunday sexagesima the 30th of January, 1622. Around the hour of ten,
the body of Pope Paul V of happy memory was removed from the
tomb in which he had been placed in the Basilica of St. Peter's, and
having been identified, and once more having been placed in a leaden
casket was hidden and locked inside a wooden casket
Next he was placed in the middle of the basilica of St. Peter's on top of
a bier and covered with gold cloth with his arms worked anew with
many torches of white wax in a circle around him.
Illustrious men - Cardinals Millinus, Gherardus and Pignatelli - were
present who identified him. After lunch by ceremonial rite the corpse
was carried from the basilica of St. Peter's to S. Maria Maggiore on a
bier covered with gold cloth and buried within the chapel of the
excellent lords Borghese, in which is the tomb of the aforementioned
Pope Paul V...100
All of the accounts emphasize the throngs of people and note carefully the order of
the procession and all of the participants. There is also an emphasis on the recognition,
dressing, and carrying of the corpse.
But in addition to following ecclesiastical protocol, the transportation of Paul's body
had another prototype. The procession of Paul's body to S. Maria Maggiore was clearly
intended to echo the procession Paul had ordered for the translation of the icon the Salus
Populi Romani to the Borghese chapel. Guidiccioni writes:
...the anniversary of the transportation of her sacred and celebrated
image, painted by St Luke then proved by St. Gregory and carried for
the true and only source of health in the universal plague of Rome.
That translation the Pope Paul had made many years before, raising the
image from its old tabernacle and with long and celebrated procession
and with perpetual yearly dispensations of many spiritual treasures, and
for the eight days of her festival, placing her where one finds her now,
Alaleone, 239. "Dominica Sexagesima 30. Ianuarii 1622. Circa horam X. fuit è sepulchro, in quo
positum fuit in Basilica Sancti Petri, extractum corpus faecilis recordationis Pauli Papae Quinti et
recognitum, et denuo in capsa plumbea posita intus capsam ligneam reconditum et clausum. Deinde
fuit positum supra baram et coopertum panno aureo cum suis insignibus de novo facto in medio
Basilicae Sancti Petri cum multis funalibus cerae albae cirum circa. Interfuerunt Illustrissimi Domini
Cardinales Millinus, Gherardus et Pignatellus, qui recognoverunt. Post prandium solemni ritu fuit
/////dictum corpus supra baram panno aureo coopertum portatum à Basilica Sancti Petri ad
Basilicam Sanctae Mariae Maioris et humatum intus Cappelam Eccellentissimorum Dominorum de
Burghesiis, in qua est sepulchrum praedicti Pauli Papae Quinti."
100
33 not without having always with marvelous care hastened the work of
that chapel, which was the first building started by him, the most
abundant of building popes.101
In fact, the similarities between the two processions are clear. The translation of the
icon is recorded in the anonymous "Relatione della translatione della S.ma Imagine della
Madonna in S.ta Maria Maggiore fatta dalla S.ta di N. S.re Papa Paol V."102 The procession
occurred on January 27, 1613, with preparations having started three days previously. The
icon was placed on a macchina in a special frame and carried along a processional route along
with icons of Carlo Borromeo and Francesca Romana. The procession was made up of
monks, confraternities, and clerics of S. Maria Maggiore, St. Peter's and the Lateran and the
Collegio Germanico, as well as cardinals and other important people all carrying lighted
candles.103
By making the connection between the two rites explicit, Guidiccioni emphasized
the importance of the Esquiline, the icon and the Virgin herself to Paul. It also served to
remind the viewer of formal similarities between catafalques and reliquaries.
While none of this background may have a direct bearing on the form of Paul's
catafalque, it is nonetheless important to understand. The rationale that led to the
downplaying of the individual pope's power post mortem would also have applied to
reburials. The Sacred College had likely refused earlier nephews' applications for festive
Guidiccioni 1623, 13. "...l'istesso giorno, che si celebraua la trasportatione anniuersaria della sua
sacra, & celeste Imagine, dipinta già da San Luca, poi da S. Gregorio prouata, & portata per vero, &
vnico fonte di salute nell'vniuersal' pestilenza di Roma. La qual; traslatione haueua Papa Paolo fatta
molti'anni prima, leuendo l'Imagine dall'antico suo Tabernacolo; & con lunga, & celeberrima
Processione, & con annua dispensatione di molti tesori spirituali, & perpetui, per gl'otto giorni della
sua festa, collocandola ou'hor si trova, non senza hauere con cura marauigliosa affrettato sempre il
lauoro di quella Cappella, che fù la prima fabrica cominciata nel suo, di fabriche abondantissimo,
Pontificato."
101
[ACSMM Fondo Capella Borghese, Misc. III, fasc 11, no 51]. Discussed and quoted in Ostrow
1996, 118-120. For further descriptions see Ostrow 1996, 12-13 and Gigli, I 27.
102
103
Ostrow 1996, 118-120.
34 reburials for some of the same reasons that popes were buried quickly. Placing too much
emphasis on the person of a single deceased pontiff would have undermined the higher
authority of the Church – as well as that of his successor. Furthermore, once a new pope
was in power there would be dynastic as well as liturgical reasons to deny further
commemoration as it would hardly have been in the new pope's best interests to draw
attention to the merits of his predecessor.
Scipione, then, had a fine line to walk - memorializing his uncle at the same time as
not offending the curia and the new pope. The careful insistence on protocol in the burial
and reburial of the pope's body can be attributed to the latter goal. But in the catafalque itself
we will find that this balance tips. While there are still nods to the curia - the written and
visual references to earlier papal prototypes as well as to early church architecture - these
symbols are appropriated and come to signify not the papacy itself but Paul's sanctity and his
role in the restoration of the early church.
35 Chapter 2
Lelio Guidiccioni and the Breve Racconto
The Breve Racconto is by far the most complete source of information we have about
Paul's catafalque. It consists of four separate parts: an Italian account of the transportation
of the pope's body, the decoration of the church and the catafalque; engravings of the
catafalque, sculptures and column capitols; the Latin oration and, finally, poetry about the
pope that was apparently attached to the catafalque.
Some modern scholars have assumed that the Breve Racconto was written by an
anonymous author.104 Both internal and external evidence demonstrates that the author of
the book, that is the Latin oration and Italian description, was Lelio Guidiccioni. The
dedication is signed by him and the oration can clearly be attributed to him by the external
evidence of other contemporaries sources.
The confusion seems to stem from the descriptive Italian section of the book. It is
not signed and for several reasons does not seem typical of Guidiccioni's other writing. First,
he refers to the author of the oration in the third person. Secondly, the language he uses to
describe Bernini seem very different from his usual writing. However, it is in these very
words that we find proof that Guidiccioni was indeed their author, for in a letter addressed
to Bernini written over a decade later, in 1633, Guidiccioni actually quotes his own text:
"Son 12 anni, ch'io scrissi di V.S. due parole mandate al publico, et conclusi che nell'opere di
Olga Berendsen, "A note on Bernini's Sculptures for the Catafalque of Pope Paul V," Marsyas
(1959): 67-69, 68. An exception is Orreste Ferrari who errs in the opposite direction, also attributing
the poetry in the book to Guidiccioni. Orreste Ferrari, “Poeti e scultori nella Roma seicentesca: i
difficili rapporti tra due culture,” Storia dell’Arte 90 (2006): 151-161.
104
36 scoltura, ella s'incaminava à liberar questo secolo dall'invidia degli antichi."105 Further
evidence of Guidiccioni's authorship is found in a letter written by him to Scipione Borghese
apologizing for the delay in the publication.106
It is hard to know how much to weigh Guidiccioni's suggestions versus the visual
evidence. Reconstructing a work of art, let alone its creators' intent, on the basis of a
commemorative book is a frustrating exercise. But perhaps to seek more than the
information contained in the book is to miss the point. Much like a permanent tomb or
funerary chapel, the entire apparatus funebris was designed at least as much for posterity as for
the contemporary viewer. But unlike the creator of a tomb, the creators of the catafalque
were fully aware that the only mark their creation would leave on history was the record in
the funeral book. If much of the intended audience was in the future, shouldn't we look at
the record in the funeral book as at least as important as the monument itself? Likewise
when discrepancies exist between the book and the eyewitnesses should we ignore them and
take the evidence of the book as a better record of the creators' intentions, even if the details
of the executed monument were different? After all, they could never have anticipated the
public dissemination of private and official diaries centuries later. The representation of the
ceremony and catafalque as presented in the funeral book was of the utmost importance to
the distillation and distribution of the message. This would mean that a large portion of the
intended audience would have been expected to see the catafalque through Guidiccioni's
lens.
105
D’Onofrio 1967, 381. [Cod. Barb. lat 2958, cc. 202-207.]
Ibid., 293, n12. "che resti servita dar caldo con un suo cenno alla finale opera di quelli intagli
dell'essequie esquiline, sopra che non mancai di somministrare i ricordi ordinatimi da V.S. Ill.ma,
tanto all'Artefice quanto à mons. Majordomo." Letter from Guidicioni to Scipione 12, August 1622.
[Fondo Borghese, IV, 215a, c. 207.]
106
37 So who is the man behind the book? Guidiccioni has largely been forgotten by
modern scholars. Most references to the poet are to his encomiastic literature on the
Borghese and Barberini. Work on (and a translation of) some of his Latin poems has been
done by J. K. Newman.107 Tracy Ehrlich has published several of his poems in relation to her
work on Frascati.108 Apart from this, none of Guidiccioni’s published works have been
reprinted since the seventeenth century. Cesare D'Onofrio has published several documents
about Guidiccioni and Bernini: a dialogue and part of a letter which is included in a brief
section dealing with the poet in Roma vista da Roma.109
Guidiccioni’s collection has received slightly more attention, starting with Francis
Haskell, who cites him as an example of a collector “tricked by unscrupulous dealers.”110
Most subsequent writers echo Haskell’s view. Orreste Ferrari, for example, writes that
Guidiccioni was a terrible connoisseur, had no interest in art and collected only in a futile
attempt to be seen as a gentleman.111 Two articles, by Sandro Corradini and Luigi
Spezzaferro deal with Guidiccioni’s will and the inventory of his collection, although neither
publishes or discusses these documents completely.112
John Kevin Newman and Frances Stickney Newman, Lelio Guidiccioni Latin Poems Rome 1633 and
1639 (Hildesheim: Weidmann, 1992).
107
108
Ehrlich, appendix.
109
D'Onofrio 1967, 379-382.
110
Francis Haskell, Patrons and Painters: Art and Society in Baroque Rome (New York, 1966).
Ferrari, 151-161. This view is difficult to reconcile with the history of Guidiccioni’s family, one of
the most important in Lucca, boasting several cardinals as well as important Lucchese politicians.
111
Luigi Spezzaferro, “le collezioni di “alcuni gentilhuomini particolari” e il mercato” appunti su
Lelio Guidiccioni e Francesco Angeloni,” Poussin et Rome. Actes du colloque de l’Academie de France a Rome
16-18 novembre 1994 (Paris: Reunion de musees nationaux, 1996) 241-255 and Sandro Corradini,
“Volontà testamentaria del Lucchese Lelio Guidiccioni,” in Studi sul Barocco Romano in onore di Maurizio
Fagioli dell’Arco, ed. Maria Grazia Bernardini (Milan: Skira, 2003).
112
38 Guidiccioni was born on October 17, 1582. He came from a distinguished Lucchese
family which had been involved in local and curial politics for centuries. Guidiccioni seems
to have been inspired by two great uncles, Cardinal Bartolomeo Guidiccioni and the poet
Giovanni Guidiccioni, both important men of letters and the Church.113 Following their
example, in 1601 he moved to Rome to complete his studies, a decision facilitated both by
family ties to the Curia and a close friendship with the Sacchetti brothers.114 In Rome,
Guidiccioni attended the Collegio Romano,115 but he also seems to have studied law
elsewhere.116 His first position in Rome was court poet to Scipione Borghese. The
seventeenth-century biographer Janus Nicias Erythraeus [recte Giovanni Vittorio Rossi]
praises Guidiccioni's devotion to Borghese, noting that after Paul's death "the cardinal was
deserted by all his friends, his acquaintances, his close advisors, Lelio alone remained, a lone
example of love, dutifulness, faith. Nothing except the Cardinal's own death was able to tear
him away."117 After Scipione’s death Guidiccioni remained in the Borghese orbit, entering the
household of Antonio Barberini the younger whom he served until his death in 1643.
Guidiccioni was buried next to another uncle, Flaminio Guidiccioni, in S. Gregorio Magno.
Another relative, Alessandro Guidiccioni was archbishop of Lucca during the 1630s. Guidiccioni
himself devotes the preface of his Rime to a discussion of the example and literary fate of his two
uncles. Lelio Guidiccioni, Rime (Rome,1637) “Mio lettore” a5. In his will Guidiccioni also expresses
concern that the writings of his uncle Bartolomeo be published. Spezzaferro, 1996.
113
Guidiccioni’s early association with the Sacchetti may be important to his development as a
connoisseur and collector. Both brothers remained close friends, as evidenced by the numerous
sonnets exchanged with both in the Rime. Guidiccioni 1637, 17, 25, 131, 132, 150, 214. On the
Sacchetti and their art patronage, see Lilian Zirpolo, Ava Papa, Ave Papibile: the Sacchetti Family, their
Art Patronage and Political Aspirations (Toronto, 2005).
114
He studied under Bernardino Stefonio, important for his interest in poetry and theater. See
Erythraeus' biography of him. Erythraeus, Pinacotheca Imaginum (Rome, 1645) I: 158-61. See also
Guidiccioni 1637, 371. “Al molto rev. Padre il P Bernardino Stefonio mio maestro e signore,” a
discourse on Virgil and poetry addressed to Stefonio.
115
Guidiccioni 1637, 149. He cites the studies as an excuse for not returning some of the sonnets:
“nell’andar fouri di Roma a’ studiar leggi, non si ripase ad alcuni sonetti d’amici.”
116
39 Guidiccioni was extremely erudite and particularly interested in the classical world. In
addition to his encomiastic literature on the Borghese and Barberini, he left a large body of
writing on ancient poetry, music and art.118 He also wrote an Italian translation of the Aeneid
as well as his own set of eclogues. His will shows concern for the fate of his unpublished
Latin writings, which he considered his legacy.119 His classicism earned him the moniker of
the "lucchese Virgil."120
Guidiccioni was an important member of the literary and artistic communites in
Rome, belonging to the Accademie degli Umoristi, Oziosi, and Insensati, as well as to
Francesco Barberini’s private academy which met at the Barberini palace and whose ranks
were drawn mainly from the Umoristi.121 His Rime contain exchanges of sonnets with most of
the prominent litterati of the day. 122 Contemporary references stress his learning, the beauty
117
Erythraeus, 160.
His Rime contain a discourse (dedicated to Vincenzo Buonvisi) entitled “capitolo de’i Poeti
Toscani, superiori alla nostra età, & della Poesia in genere.” Guidiccioni 1637, 257-270. He
considered Ancient authors (and in particular Virgil) far superior to any of his contemporaries.
118
119
Spezzaferro, 252.
Hieronymus Tetius, Ædes Barberinæ ad Qvirinalem a comite Hieronymo Tetio Pervsino descriptæ (Rome,
1642).
120
He was one of the signers on the March 27, 1608 decree of the newly formed Umoristi. His
inclusion is significant given the date; he had not yet published a single work in his own name. His
first work, Ottave rime nella canonizzazione di s. Carlo Borromeo celebrata da N. S. papa Paolo V il primo giorno
di novembre 1610, was published under the pseudonym Carolus Aurelius. A work in the Rime is
entitled “per l’esequie del Sig. Paolo Mancini nell Academia de gli Humoristi,” Guidiccioni 1637, 121.
For Guidiccioni’s involvement in Francesco Barberini’s academy, see Elizabeth Cropper, The Ideal of
Painting, Pietro Testa’s Dusseldorf Notebook (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984) 157 and Marc
Fumaroli, “Cicero Pontifex Romanus: la tradition rhétorique du collège romain et les principes
inspirateurs diu mécénat des Barberini,” Mélanges de l’école francaise de Rome, Moyen Âge-Temps Moderne 90
(1978): 797-835, 813-814.
121
Guidicioni 1637. There are sonnets addressed to Guidiccioni from the following poets: Stigliani,
147; Antonio Bruni, 148; Porfirio Feliciano, A13 and 141-3; Alderigo Vanni, 144; Nicolao Tucci,
145; Marcello Sacchetti, 25 and 150; Battista Bottini, A13. Furthermore there are sonnets addressed
to the following people: Manso, 133; Querengo, 115; Virginio Orsini, 117; Virginio Cesarini, 120
and 636; Clemente Merlino, 157 and Pomponeo Torelli, 126-7. Criscuolo records correspondence
122
40 of his Latin prose and his passion for collecting. Hieronymus Tetius, in his Aedes Barberinae,
devotes pages to the poet and his learned, graceful style.123 Even the acerbic Erithraeus lauds
his intellect.124
Guidiccioni, as noted, was famous also as a collector.125 The inventory of his house
in the Piazza di Spagna dated July 14, 1643, (several days after his death) enumerates 260
paintings; forty groups of drawings; ninety sculptures (mostly fragments); 1500 medallions
and coins (both antique and modern) and fifteen tapestries.126 His will also gives detailed
information about the disposal of this collection. Based on contemporary reports and
inventories, Guidiccioni's collection may have included a Madonna degli Sportelli Dorati
attributed to Raphael,127 a terracotta crucifix attributed to Michelangelo, a Rape of the Sabines
and Flood attributed to "Bassan giovane" and a Nativity ascribed to Jacopo Bassano,128
with Giulio Rospigliosi, Clemente Merlino, Girolamo Teti, Gaspare Paulucci, Francesco Bracciolini,
Giulio Manicini Scipione Sorbi and Virginio Cesarini. Vincenzo Criscuolo, Girolamo Mautini da Narni
1563-1632 predicatore apostolico (Rome: Istituto storico dei cappuccini, 1998) 372.
Hieronymus Tetius, Ædes Barberinæ ad Qvirinalem a comite Hieronymo Tetio Pervsino descriptæ (Rome,
1642), 495.
123
124
Erythraeus, 427.
Guidiccioni started collecting soon after he arrived in Rome. A published letter from Lanfranco
Margotti to Guidiccioni thanks the poet for the gift of a painting. As Margotti died in 1611, this date
serves as a terminus ante quem for the start of Guidiccioni’s collecting activities. Lanfranco Margotti,
Lettere del Sig. Card. Lanfranco Margotti, scritte per lo più ne’tempi di Papa PAOLO V. a nome del Sig. Cardinal
Borghese. Raccolte, e publicate da Pietro da Magistris de Calderola (Rome,1633).
125
126
Spezzaferro 1996, 242-243.
This attribution seems to have been debated during Guidiccioni's life based on the defensive tone
in a codicil to his will dated June 12, 1643: "perchè al quadro della Madonna con gli sportelli non ho
saputo trovar luogo di buon lume nella Basilica di S.ta Maria Maggiore, supplico la S.tà di N.ro Sig.re
a goderselo, et contenarsi poichè quando Dio lo chiami al premio delle sue tante sollecitudini sia
collocato in San Pietro sotto la Tribuna verso il suo sepolcro medesmo, dove non impedisca e possa
con buona veduta esser giudicato da valenthuomini per quello che è." Spezzaferro, 243.
127
It is unclear whether Guidiciconi attributed the first to Francesco or Leandro, the text reads "all'
E'mm.mo Sig. Cardinale Antonio (Barberini) mio Sig.re...il quadro grande del Bassan giovane col
Ratto delle Sabine compagno di quello del Diluvio..." Two paintings with similar descriptions appear
128
41 Annibale Carracci’s book of drawings of tradesmen,129 Ottavio Leoni drawings of the Duke
of Savoy and Ludovico Ludovisi,130 a Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine attributed to
Correggio,131 and a Death of the Virgin by Scarsellino.132
His collection and connoisseurship were renowned in the seventeenth century.133
Pompilio Totti’s 1638 guide to Rome, Ritratto di Roma Moderna, describes Guidiccioni’s
in the Antonio Barberini's inventories and are attributed by Marilyn Aronberg Lavin to Leandro
Bassano. Marilyn Aronberg Lavin, Seventeenth-Century Barberini Documents and Inventories of Art (New
York: NYU Press, 1975) 348, n. 290. The third work is referred to as "il quadro col presepio di
Bassan Vecchio." Spezzaferro, 243. Spezzaferro identifies this with the Jacopo Bassano Nativity now
in the Palazzo Barberini. Ibid., 252, n. 9.
Guidiccioni is recorded as the owner of this book by Giovanni Antonio Massani in the preface to
his publication of the drawings from the book in Le arti di Bologna (Rome, 1646). His words are
quoted by Malvasia. Anne Sumerscale, Malvasia's Life of the Carracci: Commentary and Translation
(University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2000) 271. "The book was given by Cardinal
Ludovisi to Signor Lelio Guidiciconi, a gentleman from Lucca, very well known in the Roman court
for his virtues and his many praiseworthy qualities. Proud to have something in his collection that
made virtuosi in particular curious to go there and see it he enjoyed for many years the applause he
himself derived from the praises given to the author of these drawings and from the continued
memory of the magnanimity of the donor. When Guidicicioni died and the book passed into other
hands, where it risked being moved to someplace where it would never be heard of again it finally
came into my own keeping..." See also Ibid., 364 for a discussion of Malvasia's comments on
Guidiccioni.
129
130
Corrandini 2003, 65.
An engraving by Giovanni Battista Mercati of this painting notes Guidiccioni's ownership:
“..quest’ operetta del raro/ Maestro, et divino spirito Antonio da Correggio, da lei già posseduta con
singolar deuotione. Reproduced in Massimo Mussini, Correggio tradotto Fortuna di Antonio Allegri nella
stampa di riproduzioni fra Cinquecento e Ottocento, exhibition catalogue (Milan, Motta 1995) 100, # 22. For
full text see below, n. 136.
131
Mancini records Scarselino’s Death of the Virgin in Guidiccioni’s collection. Mancini, 244. Scipione
Borghese had a large number of works by Scarselino, which may explain Guidiccioni’s interest in the
artist.
132
Guidiccioni also acted as “tour guide” of the Villa Borghese. On March 1, 1628, he escorted the
Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand II de’ Medici through the collection. Erythraeus, part II 128. See
also D’Onofrio 1967, 379. Guidiccioni was asked to estimate a group of antique statues found on the
Esquiline by Cardinal Giori. D’Onofrio 1967, 379n. Cardinal Angelo Giori (1586-1662) arrived in
Rome in 1606, where he entered the service of Maffeo Barberini and was entrusted with educating
his two nephews, Antonio and Francesco. He was created cardinal in 1643. Sandro Corradini, "La
collezione del Cardinale Angelo Giori," Antologia di Belle Arti 1 (1977): 83-94.
133
42 “dottisima libreria e belissime pitture.”134 Celio’s Memorie delli nomi degli artefici of 1638
documents his activities as a collector,135 as does Mancini’s Considerazioni sulla Pittura.136
Giovanni Battista Mercati’s print after Correggio’s Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine has a
dedicatory inscription documenting Guidiccioni’s piety and interest in art.137 Erythraeus,
though circumspect about Guidiccioni’s attributions, concedes that he has an impressive
collection.138
Another indicator of Guidiccioni’s connoisseurship can be found in his annotations
to Vasari’s Vite.139 His comments are wide-ranging: correcting factual errors in Vasari,
quoting Condivi, noting the present location of works, and most interestingly, criticizing
134
Pompilio Totti, Ritratto di Roma Moderna (Rome, 1638) 336.
Gaspare Celio, Memorie delli nomi degli artefici (Naples, 1638) 143; and reprint, ed. Emma Zocca
(Milan: Electa Casareo, 1967) 43 and 107, n 408. “Vi sono Getilhuomini particolari, ch’hanno cose
molto curiose, e degne d’esser viste, e lodate, fra li quali il Signor Abbate Lelio Guidiccioni.”
Guidiccioni is one of three collectors mentioned, the other two being Francesco Angeloni (called
Angelo) and Giovanni Agostino.
135
Giulio Mancini, Considerazioni sull Pittura, ed. Adriana Marucchi (Rome: Accademia nazionale dei
Lincei, 1956) 244.
136
“All M.(ol) to Ill.(ustrre et M.(ol)to R.(everen)do Sig.(no) Re Il Sig.(no) Re Lelio Guidiccioni/
L’affetto, che V. (ostra)S.(ignore) porta all’arte della Pittura, et la sua ardente pieta verso la Regina
del Cielo, mi han mosso ad’intagliare sotto il suo nome quest’ operetta del raro/ Maestro, et divino
spirito Antonio da Correggio, da lei già posseduta con singolar deuotione. Seruirà questa mia fatica
per multiplicare a V.(ostra) S.(ignoria) la rappresentatione/ d’un suggetto si grato, et della somma
riverenza, ch’io porto alla sua persona, a cui bacio affett.(uosamen)te le mani In Roma 1620.
Aff.(etionatissim)mo Ser.(vitore) Gio(vanni) Battista Mercati.” Reproduced in Massimo Mussini,
Correggio tradotto Fortuna di Antonio Allegri nella stampa di riproduzioni fra Cinquecento e Ottocento, exhibition
catalogue (Milan, Motta1995) 100, # 22; and Salvatore Settis “Introduction” in Giovanni Battista
Mercati alcune vedute et prospettive di luoghi dishabitati di Roma 1629 (Milan: il polifilo, 1995) i-lx.
Guidiccioni was Mercati’s first champion in Rome.
137
138
Erythraeus, part II 127.
Guidiccioni’s annotations are transcribed in M. Hochman, “les annotations marginales de
Federico Zuccaro a un exemplaire des Vies de Vasari,” Revue de l’art 80 (1988): 64-71. Guidiccioni's
familiarity with Vasari is important, for as Cropper has shown, the idea of novità lying in manner not
subject is applied to the visual arts in Vasari’s discussion of Pontormo and his borrowing from
Dürer. Cropper 1984, 124. This is the same idea Guidiccioni espouses in his dialogue with Bernini.
139
43 Vasari’s taste (usually for being too pro-Florentine). Raphael, Correggio, and Dosso are all
singled out.140 Guidiccioni's ability to locate works suggests both a broad visual knowledge,
and acquaintance with a wide circle of collectors, both in and out of Rome.
Poetry and art were not Guidiccioni’s only interests. He was also interested in music.
In fact, Guidiccioni may be best remembered as the addressee of Pietro della Valle’s
discourse on music, Della musica dell’età nostra che non è punto inferiore, anziè migliore di quella
dell’età passata.141 Della Valle’s famous work is a response to a treatise written by Guidiccioni
on the superiority of antique music.142 Guidiccioni’s interest in music was practical as well as
theoretical. He wrote several libretti and there are several poems in the Rime labeled “per
musica.”143 In Guidiccioni’s will, the list of treasures to be sold includes four musical
instruments, mostly identified by the musicians who played them.144 This list includes the
stars of the poet’s collection: Annibale’s book of tradesmen, a purported Michelangelo
Spagnolo, 238. Maddalena Spagnolo suggests that Guidiccioni’s interest in Lombard artists
(Correggio, Dosso and Michelangelo Anselmi) can be traced to an extended stay in Parma around
1603 evidenced by a letter to his brother Cristoforo of 1603. She also points out two other
connections: Alesandro Guidiccioni had been Archbishop of Parma a century earlier and Lelio's
Aeneid translation is dedicated to Odoardo Farnese.
140
Pietro Della Valle, Della musica dell’età nostra che non è punto inferiore, anziè migliore di quella dell’età
passata (Rome, 1640) and reprint in Giovanni Battista Doni, Trattati di musica, ed. A. F. Gori
(Florence, 1763).
141
Lelio Guidiccioni, Discorso sopra musica, cited in Leonis Allacci, Apes Urbanae, sive de viris illustribus
(Rome, 1633) 17; transcription and translation found in Andrew Dell'Antonio, Listening as Spiritual
Practice in Early Modern Italy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011) 135-156. As Della Valle
was a member of the Umoristi, these treatises can possibly be read as a manifestation of a more
widespread debate on the topic. Three poems in Guidiccioni's Rime describe the funeral of Della
Valle’s wife. Guidiccioni 1637, 138-9.
142
143
Guidiccioni 1637, 44, 46, 295.
Corradini 2003, 65. “il mio cimbalo…lo spinetto d’un palmo, che Giorgio porto sempre addosso,
il Liuto, che Gio. Franc.o suono a tutte le feste p[er] 35 anni, L’arpicordo chiamato dal frescobaldi la
Gioa.” Guidiccioni probably knew Frescobaldi well. Coliva, 403. In addition to his work for the
Barberini, the composer dedicated his Secondo libro di modulazioni diverse sacras modulationes. ad ecclesiae
concentum, & usum pietatis to Scipione Borghese in 1627. Gio. Franco. can be identified as Giovanni
Francesco Brissio, papal choirmaster under Paul V.
144
44 crucifix and several Bassano paintings. The inclusion of instruments is indicative both of
their value to Guidiccioni, and their presumptive monetary value.
Guidiccioni was deeply religious and especially devoted to the Virgin.145 Paul V made
him canon of S. Acconcio in SS. Paolino e Lucca in 1608, and Antonio Barberini appointed
him canon of S. Maria Maggiore in 1633. Guidiccioni was also involved in both secular and
curial politics. Although little is known of his political role, Erythraeus and Tetius suggest
that he tried to live up to his uncles’ model of statesmanship.146
What, then, does his biography tell us about how we should read his commentary?
Several important points emerge: that he was staunchly loyal to the Borghese, that he shared
a particular devotion to the Virgin with the pope, that he was extremely learned in the
classics, and that he was at least a passable connoisseur of paintings. Furthermore, that he
was on close enough terms with Bernini to exchange letters and perform dialogues with the
artist suggests that their working relationship was close. All this indicates that we can treat
him as a reliable source for the catafalque. So what can we learn from the text?
Guidiccioni's description of the funeral procession, as already noted, pays attention
to rank, precedent, custom and theological niceties. The description of the decorations
themselves are actually surprisingly cursory, occupying three of the section's fifteen pages.
These pages are purely descriptive, and the closest to iconography he ventures is to state that
145
Spezzaferro, 251 n.
Erythraeus, part II, 127. "Sed cum virtutis & ingenii vis tanta, in Reip. multis maximq: provinciis
administrandiss, florere deberet, quemadmodum olim duo illa, non Lucæ solum, sed orbis etiam
terræ lumina, Bartholomæus & Ioannes, fecerant; caruit omnino muneribus publicis, sive temporum
injuria, sive aulæ vitio; quæ sæpenumero, in mandandis honoribus, bonis prætermissis, eorum præmia
indignis defert; sive animi illius judicio, ut remotus à studiis ambitionis, otium & tranquillitatem vitæ
sequeretur." Similarly, Tetius, in his letter to Guidiccioni published in the Aedes Barberini warns
Guidiccioni of the dangers of excessive modesty and urges the poet to seek greater recognition from
the Barberini. Tetius, 495. Guidiccioni carried out several political missions for Scipione Borghese,
acting as a representative in Lucca and bringing the cardinal nephew’s condolences to Carlo
Emmanual of Savoy upon his son’s death in 1605. Criscuolo, 373.
146
45 the virtues are "molto bene appropriate alle laudi di Papa Paolo,"147 and that the "dodici in
piede...dipendeuano dalle prime quattro, trè per ciascuna."148 In fact, Guidiccioni explicitly
states that he is not discussing the iconography because it will be done elsewhere:
Di questa Mole, & delle sue figure, & d'ogni suo particolare
intendimento, altroue si rappresenta da alcuni belli ingegni vna più
piena notitia, con la significatione de gl' habiti, & de gl'attributi delle
Virtù in essa comprese. Onde non facendo quì luogo de fermarsi sopra
questa parte.149
This omission is curious. Perhaps another funeral book was intended (or even
published and lost) specifically devoted to this subject.
The Oration
To the modern reader Guidiccioni's Latin prose is dense, ponderous and as lacking in
information as it is replete with rhetorical flourishes. But it shares these characteristics with
most papal funeral eulogies of the period which were derived from the classical tradition of
the epideictic oration.150 In its Greek incarnation the epideictic oration contained a number
of elements: a profession of inadequacy on the part of the speaker, praise for the subject's
family, a recounting of his youth and an account of his life and deeds.151 In Greek funeral
147
Guidiccioni 1623, 17.
148
Ibid., 18.
149
Ibid., 19.
See John McManamon, "The Ideal Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court,"
Archivium Historiae Pontificiae 14 (1976): 9-71 and Theodore Burgess, Epideictic Literature (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1902) 89-261. According to McManamon, twelve out of seventeen
extant papal funeral orations from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are clearly based off of this
tradition while the rhetoric of the remaining five are closer in spirit to the Medieval ars praedicandi.
McMannamon, 26.
150
Ibid., 21. These principles are set out in a treatise by the third- century rhetorician Menander of
Laodicea. On Menander see D. A. Russell and and N. G. Wilson, Menander Rhetor (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1981).
151
46 oratory, lament and consolation of the listener were also important parts of the formula.152
While the Roman funeral oratory, the laudatio funebris, built on the Greek precedent, it was
first applied to individual citizens. For this distinction, is often considered an indigenous
Latin form.153 The laudatio funebris became the basis for most Renaissance funeral oratory, a
circumstance that is somewhat surprising given that very little written record exists of
Roman funeral oratory.154 Renaissance orators could have gleaned some idea of the
parameters of Roman funeral rhetoric through the writings of Cicero, Quintilian and from
the Ciceronian Rhetorica ad Herrenium, but they may have relied more on the living art form
which was still practiced in Byzantium although it had long fallen out of favor in the West.155
Regardless of their derivation, all of these elements are present in Guidiccioni's
oration. Between his protestations of sorrow and praise for the pope, he touches on the
Borghese family, Paul's military exploits, his devotion to the Virgin, and briefly reflects on
most of the virtues depicted in the catafalque. But he does not attempt anything that could
be called an iconographic program. The virtues found on the catafalque are Iustitia, Maestà,
Puritas, Religio, Pax, Annona, Providentia, Tranquillitas, Veritas, Sapientia, Magnificenza, Magnamitas,
Misericordia, Eleemosina, Clementia, and Mansuetudo.
152
McManamon 1976, 22.
Ibid., Funeral Oratory and the Culture of Humanism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,
1989) 6; George Kennedy, The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1972) 21-23 and Wilhelm Kierdorf, Laudatio Funebris Interpretationem und Untersuchungen zur
Entwicklung der römischen Leichenrede (Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1980)
153
154
McManamon 1989, 6.
Ibid., 6-7. For a comparison of these three writers, see Roger Rees, "Panegyric" in A Companion to
Roman Rhetoric, ed. William Dominik and Jon Hall (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) 136-149,
138.
155
47 Of these Iustitia, Maestà, Puritas, Pax, Tranquillitas, Sapientia, Magnificenza and
Magnamitas are explicitly credited to Paul in the text. Many of these (as well as others not
found in the catafalque) are enumerated in a single sentence: Guidiccioni praises Paul for
possessing prudence, temperance, magnificence, wisdom, justice, majesty, harmony and
sanctity.156 He repeatedly mentions many of these characteristics of the pope. He invokes
Paul's purity: "o candorem tuum Paule."157 Paul is the chosen seat of justice: "Iustitiæ
lectissimum domicilium.158" Paul is a defender of peace "aureæ pacis propugnator,"159 and
when Paul dies peace and tranquility depart the city of Rome: "in eius obitu ita vniversa
urbanæ paci, & tranquillittati conssona."160 Guidiccioni praises Paul's tranquility of mind
("mentis tranquillitatem").161
Paul's possession of the virtue of Religio is attested to by his attachment to the
Virgin,162 Annona by a discussion of his improvement of the grain supply163 and Misericordia,
Eleemosina and Mansuetudo by his giving of alms to the poor.164
Guidiccioni 1623, (oration 6). "Ego verò id existimo esse fœlicem dici, quod virtute præditum,
cum illo censeo in hac vita agi fœliciter, cuius consilia prudentem euincant, mores temperatum, facta
magnificum, scita sapientem; in cuius denique dominatu iustitia secundo euentu regnauerit, floruerit
maiestas; grauitas constantia, ac sanctitudo praefulserit."
156
157
Ibid., (oration 7).
158
Ibid., (oration 6).
159
Ibid., (oration 9).
160
Ibid., (oration 9).
161
Ibid., (oration 5).
162
Ibid., (oration 4-5).
Ibid., (oration 5)."Modo illam circumspice Italiæ oram rei frumentariæ inopia laborantem, Agrum
verò omanum fertilitate cumprimis inuidendum, prouincialia Horrea refertissima, suum quæquæ penu
vel ægrè capientia, vrbana munimenta præ Annonæ vbertate vix se sustinentia."
163
164
Ibid., (oration 10).
48 The oration, then, defends Paul's possession of the traits found on the catafalque but
does little to further our understanding of how they specifically were chosen and why they
appear in the guises they do. Furthermore, the text is clearly not just illustrative of the
monument, for among the other virtues there is also a long discussion of prudence, which
Guidiccioni describes as the virtue from which all others flow: "Magnum omninò Prudentiæ
decus, vt cœteræ virtutes laudari non possint, quin ipsa laudetur. Ego quidem à fortitudine
incipiens, sensim ad prudentiam deflectere sum coactus, à qua reliquæ proficiscentes...."165
Apart from prudence, the most discussed virtues are majesty and magnificence,
almost always relating to building. By building sacred buildings Paul became worthy to be
called magnificent: "in extruendis sacris Ædibus magnificentia dignè dicturum profiteatur."166
Guidiccioni gives a concise summary of Paul's buildings: his work on St. Peter's, the building
of fountains, widening of roads and the creating of prospects and S. Maria Maggiore.167 He
also enumerates Paul's more mundane projects for the safety of the Roman people: restoring
the citadel at Ferrara and other strongholds, rebuilding the ports and freeing up the river for
maritime trade.168
165
Ibid., (oration 9).
166
Ibid., (oration 10).
Ibid., (oration 11). "...Beatissimi Petri Templum, centum fermè annos summis Pontificibus
admaturatum, tàm grandi accessione à Paolo fœliciter absolutum, neque vndarum fontes fluiali
vbertate ductos, nequePrætoria, totq. alienæ commoditati ædificia substructa, necque stratas vias,
neque latiùs prospectus datus..." and later "Fœlices Exquiliæ; vobis id vum deerar honoris culmen, vt
Pauli Triumpho cohone staremini."
167
Ibid. (oration 7). "...Arcibus restitutis...munitionibus regio sumptu, inexpugnabili robore (Testis est
Ferraria)substructis: curatis Portubus, repurgatis fluminum alueis iàm maritimo exitu pœnè
interclusis, quæ quidem satis Pyrgi veters, Tiberina Ostia, Fanum, & Ancona testantur."
168
49 Closely tied to building we find the theme of the renewal and renovation of Rome.
Paul is the restorer of Rome's majesty: ""patriae maiestatis restitutorem."169 The entire city of
antique splendor would be restored: "Vrbem totam antiquæ maiestati restituendam."170 He
makes a new Rome out of the old: "Romæ se veteri Romam nouam imposuisse."171 Paul
restores Rome's illustrious Christian probity by building and decorating churches.172
As we will see in the next chapter, these related ideas of magnificence through
building and the restoration of Rome are important and recur in the encomiastic literature
throughout Paul's reign.
The Odes
The final textual section of the Breve Racconto comprises poems by various authors
which were attached to the catafalque. Guidiccioni describes their role in the obsequies thus:
furono dalla sparsa moltitudine per tutta la Chiesa letti con gusto i
seguenti versi composti da alcuni valenti, & amoreuoli litterati, che si
vedeuano con bel compartimento attaccati sù per le negre spalliere
della Naue principale.173
The quality and style of these works is uneven, confirming that they were, in fact, written by
divers poets.174 It seems probable that these were works by other literati around the Borghese,
169
Ibid., (oration 12).
170
Ibid.,(oration 2).
171
Ibid., (oration 10).
Ibid., (oration 6). "An anteactis Tempribus æquè se Roma reddiderit christiana probitate
conspicuam, an visa sint magnificentius extructa, & ornata Templa."
172
173
Guidiccioni 1623, 18.
174
For a discussion of Guidiccioni's style see Newmann 1992, 65-76.
50 or perhaps the members of one the Roman academies.175 Collections of poetry by
academicians on various subjects and current events were common in seicento Rome. One
example was the La Veronica Vaticana del Signor Francesco Mochi, a book containing twenty six
poems by different authors published in 1640 by Ludovico Grignani.176 Another example is
the booklet containing Italian poems and Latin epigrams on the 1631 eruption of Vesuvius
published in 1632 and dedicated to Antonio Barberini.177 But if the poems were included for
their literary merit (or the prestige of their authors) it is odd that they are not attributed to
specific authors.
The poems fall into two distinct groups. The first is twenty four pairings of ode and
epigram, each on the topic of a specific virtue. Their subjects loosely mirror those of the
sculpted virtues in the catafalque. But some virtues which appear on the catafalque do not
merit a poem and others are included which do not appear in the catafalque. This disparity
requires some explaining. Since the poems were actually read at the obsequies and displayed
around the church, they must have been written in anticipation of the ceremony rather than
in reaction to it. This indicates that the authors must have had some guidance from
Guidiccioni, so it is interesting that there is not a closer alignment of subjects. Even if (as
seems likely) a program had been distributed to these poets some of the writers deviated
from the it. These discrepancies mean that we must treat the poetry with care. It cannot be
read as strictly programmatic, but more as a reflection of the sentiments of the Borghese
court.
175
For more on the members of these groups see Fumaroli, “Cicero Pontifex Romanus,” 1978.
For more on this publication see Orreste Ferrari, "Poeti e scultori nella Roma seicentesca: i
difficili rapporti tra due culture," Storia dell'arte 90: 151-161, 153.
176
Urbano Giorgi, Scelta di poesia nell'incendio del Vesuvio fatta dal signor Urbano Giorgi Segretario dell' Ecc.mo
D. Conti di Conversano All' Emenentiss. e Reverendiss. Prencipe il Signor cardinal Antonio Barberini (Rome:
Tamburelli, 1632).
177
51 Iustitia receives two odes, Maiesta one, Religio two and Puritas (or at least her cousin
Castitas) one. There is one ode on Pax (or Amor Pacis), two on Tranquillitas, two on Providentia
but none on Annona. Veritas, Sapientia, Magnificenza and Magnanimita each receive one ode.
Misericordia receives one ode, Mansuetudo two, Clementia one and Eleemosina none. Thus, while
most of the virtues are covered, there is certainly not an equitable division. Nor do the
virtues which Guidiccioni singles out as more important (Veritas, Misericordia, Pax, and
Iustitia) receive more poetic attention. And oddly enough both of the virtues found in the
poetry but not in the sculpture (Prudentia and Liberalitas) receive two odes.
Just because they do not form a cohesive program does not mean that these odes are
not useful to our understanding of the catafalque. As one would expect given their disparate
authorship, some come closer than others to explaining the virtue's relevance to Paul. We
will return to some of these works in chapter seven in the course of our investigation of the
iconography of the sculpture.
The second group of poems in the Breve Racconto is comprised of epigrams on more
wide-ranging subjects (though all still relating to the pope or his obsequies). They fall into
three broad categories: elaborations on the conceit of the "Four Daughters of God" in
Psalm 84, praise of the virtues of the pope, and descriptions of various aspects of the funeral
and the Esquiline.
Most interesting is the group relating to Psalm 84, which as we shall see is one of the
sources for the iconographical program of the sculptures. Verse 12, the basis for the
conceit, reads:
Misericordia et veritas obviaverunt sibi:
iustitia et pax osculatae sunt.
Veritas de terra orta est:
et iustitia de caelo prospexit
52 Four epigrams address various aspects of this theme. Two take as their subject Mercy and
Truth: "Misericordia, Veritas obuiauerunt sibi" and "Veritatis, & Missericordiæ nouum
fœdus." One elaborates on Justice and Peace: "Iustitia, & Pax osculatæ sunt." A more
oblique reference to Psalm 84 comes in an epigram on the Borghese stemma.178 Because this
is the main organizing principle for the sculptures, this group provides the clearest indication
of collaboration between the poets and Guidiccioni about the intended meaning of the
catafalque.
There are also a number of epigrams on virtues. Several address specific virtues: "De
Annonæ studio," "Magnificentia," "De eius Castitate ex sacello Exquilino" and "De eius
Magnanimitate." Others take as their topic the combination of generic ("Virtutum concursu"
and Conciliatis Virtutibus ) and specific virtues ("De eiusdem maiestate, religione, &
Tranquillitate").
The subjects of the final grouping of epigrams are more disparate, but most address
various aspects of the burial: the subjects are "Quod in Exquilino Virginis templo fortitus fit
tumulum," "In sacello Virginis Deiparæ tumulo," "Cuius corpus facello Exquilino
reconditur," "De eius Funere," "Funere è Stemmatis Aquila," "De Sacello à PAVLO V.
PONT. MAX. Ex aedificato," "Ad Exquilias translatum,""In eius ad Exquilias funere," "Ex
sanguis corporis pallore," "De eius mentis Amplitudine," and "De eius gloriae
Immortalitate." Finally, there are two which do not seem to fit any of these categories:
DE PAVLI SVMMO PRINCIPATV
Burghesij stemmatis omina.
EPIGRAMMA.
A Spice Iustitiæ tractantem tela volucrem,
Et pacis vigilem cerne Draconis opem.
Burghesio in regno geminæ virtutis honores
Stemmatis agnosces prædocuiβe iubar.
Terrarum imperio natus: cunabula PAVLVS
Pacem inter nactus, Iustitiamque fuit.
178
53 "Marmorea effigie in sepulcro," and "Qui Vaticano templo ædificium adiunxit
amplissimum."
The epigram as a form is perhaps better suited to visual analysis than the ode, being in
some sense a written emblem.179 And there is a contemporary example of this in the distichs
composed by Maffeo Barberini and inscribed on the bases of Bernini's Pluto and Persephone
and Apollo and Daphne.180 But once again, these poems disappoint as a program to the
sculpture.181 The epigrams in the Breve Racconto are not in any way ekphrastic. They belong
rather to the tradition of the epideictic tradition common in the Greek Anthology.182
The subject of epigrams was hotly debated in early seicento Rome. While the Greek
style, based on the Greek Anthology, had been common in the sixteenth century the new
century favored the Roman sarcastic style typified by Horace. But there was still a school
favoring the Greek style and interest in the Greek Anthology was rejuvenated by the discovery
in 1606 of the manuscript of the Palatine Anthology, which was actually brought to Rome by
Leone Allacci in 1623.183 Allacci and Lucas Holstein were champions of this style. While they
On the evolution of and relation between these two genres see Daniel Russell, "The Genres of
Epigram and Emblem," The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 3: the Renaissance, ed. Glyn
Norton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) 278-284.
179
For a discussion of the role and sources of Barberini's distichs see Andrea Bolland, "Desiderio and
Diletto: Vision, Touch, and the Poetics of Bernini's Apollo and Daphne," Art Bulletin 82 (2000): 309-330.
180
Also this role is already played by the scriptural quotes inscribed on the sculptures' bases as will be
discussed in chapter seven.
181
On epideictic epigrams in the Renaissance and Neolatin poetry see Marc Lauxtermann, "What is
an Epideictic Epigram?"Mnemosyne 51 (1988): 525-537; Marc Lauxtermann, "Janus Lascaris and the
Greek Anthology," The Neo-Latin Epigram: A Learned and Witty Genre, ed. Susanna de Beer, Karl
Enenkel and David Rijser (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2009) 41- 62, 61.
182
Estelle Lingo, Francois Duquesnoy and the Greek Ideal (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2007) 69-70
and Fumaroli 1978, 797-835.
183
54 were both members of the Barberini sphere the closeness of the Borghese and Maffeo
Barberini render their authorship of at least some of these epigrams probable.
For almost all of the epigrams of the Breve Racconto conform to the Greek type. The
two sources for the Greek Anthology are the Palatine Anthology discussed above and the c.
1300 Planudean Anthology. A manuscript of the latter work was brought to Venice as part
of Cardinal Bessarion's library and an edition published by Janus Lascaris in 1494.184
Planudes and Lascaris both attempted to codify accepted types of epigrams. Planudes lists
four categories of epigrams: epideictic, scoptic, sepulchral and ekphrastic. Lascaris admits
only the epideictic genre.185 In content, the epigrams of the Breve Racconto could mostly be
classified as either sepulchral or epideictic. But their allegiance to the Greek style does not
stop there. They are also marked by frequent direct addresses to the viewer, a tactic common
in the Greek Anthology.186
These questions of style, of course, do not effect their relationship to the sculpture.
They do, however, place the authorship firmly in the circle of poets around Guidiccioni and
more specifically Maffeo Barberini, Ciampoli, Allaci and Holstein.187 In other words, the
closeness between the Borghese and Barberini spheres is evident. Establishing this
connection is important, for it suggests that even if the poetry was not part of the official
program, it is unlikely that its meaning is significantly different from that intended by
Guidiccioni. These poets were members of the same academies and saw and debated each
184
Lauxtermann 2009, 43.
185
Ibid., 44.
186
Lingo, 68.
187
On the stylistic aims of this circle, see Fumaroli, 814.
other on a regular basis. It is highly unlikely that they would not have understood the
messages Guidiccioni and Scipione intended to convey.
55 56 Chapter 3
The Patron: Scipione Borghese
It was no small feat for Scipione to gain approval to erect a catafalque for his uncle's
reburial, and the expenses involved in its construction were enormous. That Scipione went
to these lengths is indicative of its importance to the former cardinal-nephew. Scipione
commissioned Paul's catafalque out of reverence for his deceased uncle, but also, as we learn
from the Breve Racconto, in emulation of Cardinal Montalto and the catafalque he had
commissioned for his uncle's reburial.188 Cardinal nephews' positions were notoriously
precarious after their uncle's deaths, and Alessandro Peretti, Cardinal Montalto, was famous
as one of the few who managed to remain in good standing with the rest of Roman
society.189
Guidiccioni 1623, 15-16. "Il Signor Cardinale Montalto seguendo lo stile della generosità sua,
volse drizzarlo, allegando, che per la freschezza della morte del Zio, & per essersi quelle prime
essequie celebrate col rito generale dal sacro Collegio de' Cardinali, & dalla Camera Apostolica; non si
doueua togliere à lui d'esequir le sue parti, & di consolarsi col rinouar la memoria d'vn suo congiunto,
e d'vn Principe così degno. Alle quai cose, che constituiuano l'ultimo stato, adherendo il Signor
Cardinal Borghese, volse mantenere questo lodeuol possesso, col quale vn nipote grato viene ad
honorar la memoria d'vn riguardevole Zio..."
188
Giovan Battista Passeri, Vite de' Pittori, Scultori ed Architetti moderni, I (1730) and II (1736) facsimile
edition (Rome: Istituto d'Archeologia e Storia dell'Arte, 1933) 27. For more on Alessandro Peretti,
Cardinal Montalto, see Pastor, vol. 21. On his patronage of art see Patrizia Cavazzini, "New
Documents for Cardinal Alessandro Peretti Montalto's Frescoes at Bagnaia," Burlington Magazine 135
(1993): 316-327; Eric Schleier, "Domenichino, Lanfranco, Albani and Cardinal Montalto's Alexander
Cycle," Art Bulletin 50 (1968): 188-193; Yvan Loskoutoff, Un art de la Réforme catholique. La symbolique
du pape Sixte-quint et des Peretti-Montalto (1566-1655) (Paris: Champion, 2011). On his patronage of
music, see John Hill, Roman Monody, Cantata and Opera from the Circles of Cardinal Montalto (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1987), and James Chatter, "Music and Patronage in Rome: the Case of Cardinal
Montalto," Studi musicali 16 (1987): 179-227.
189
57 Cardinal Montalto seems to have been both a friend and role model for Scipione, as
he had been for Paul V.190 Both men were early patrons of Bernini.191 Both also had
curiously similar taste in villas at Frascati. Montalto had unsuccessfully attempted to buy
Mondragone from the Duke Altemps before Scipione's purchase of the villa.192 In a strange
twist, he ended up buying Acquaviva on July 21, 1614, which had previously belonged to
Scipione.193 That Guidiccioni mentions Scipione's desire to emulate Montalto is significant,
for it suggests a certain calculus behind Scipione's decision to erect the catafalque -- that it
was just as much motivated by his own social rehabilitation as filial piety. For while the
iconographical program of the catafalque obviously relates to Paul and his deeds, its meaning
is tempered through a lens of Scipione's own situation and his ambitions.
Investigating his life will help us appreciate these subtleties. Similarly, cognizance of
the sum of Scipione's patronage and particularly his other architectural projects, will help us
understand the choices he made in this catafalque, from style to the employment of specific
artists and architects.
190
See Chapter Four, 75 - 76.
Montalto commissioned at least two works from Bernini: the fountain Neptune and Triton and the
David which was bought by Scipione upon his death. On the David see Rudolf Preimesberger,
"David," Bernini Scultore: La Nascita del barocco in Casa Borghese, ed. Ana Coliva and Sebastian Schütze
(Rome: De Luca, 1998) 204-219. On the Neptune and Trition see Tod Marder, "Bernini's Neptune and
Triton Fountain for the Villa Montalto," Bernini dai Borghese ai Barberini la cultura a Roma intorno agli anni
venti, ed. Olivier Bonfait and Anna Coliva (Rome: De Luca, 1999) 118-127 and Carla Benocci,
"Documenti inediti sul Nettuno e Tritone di Gian Lorenzo Bernini per la pescheria della villa Peretti
Montalto a Roma," Storia della città 50 (1989): 83- 86. See also Irving Lavin, "Bernini's Bust of
Cardinal Montalto," Burlington Magazine 127 (1985): 32 and 34-38.
191
Ehrlich 335, n. 1. [AB 335, fasc. 12 November 3, 1613] "Attestato del Duca di Ceri che il Card.
Montalto ha offerto [scudi] 280,000 al Duca Altemps per i beni che q[ue]sto aveva nel territorio
Tusculano..."
192
193
Ibid., 335, n. 6.
58 Scipione Borghese was born Scipione Caffarelli on September 7, 1577. He was the
son of Camillo Borghese's sister Ortensia. Young Scipione received an education typical for
an ecclesiastical career, studying philosophy at the Collegio Romano and law at Perugia.
Like many of his predecessors, one of Paul's first acts as pontiff was to bring his
nephew to Rome and make him cardinal. Cardinal nephews played an important role in
papal politics, aiding not only in their uncle's statesmanship but also cementing the family’s
political power and wealth. Scipione was made cardinal in the consistory of July 18, 1605,
immediately following his uncle's elevation to the papacy and he took the Borghese name
and arms at this time. While his cousin Marcantonio was chosen to carry on the family line,
he was an infant and thus most practical responsibilities devolved upon Scipione.194
Once elevated to the purple Scipione's rise was meteoric. In August of 1605 he was
made head of the Consulta, in 1607 legate to Avignon, in 1608 archpriest of the Lateran and
Abbot of S. Gregorio al Celio. In 1609 he was made librarian of the Roman church, in 1610
Grand Penitentiary, in 1612 Camerlengo and Prefect of the Briefs. From 1610-1612 he was
Archbishop of Bologna. He also was Archpriest of St. Peter’s and protector of Loreto.
While this nepotism may seem excessive, it was the norm at the time. After Paul's election, a
pasquinade read: "dopo i carafa, i medici e i Farnese/or se deve arrichir casa Borghese,"
which suggests resignation rather than outrage.195
The rapid changes of fortune occasioned both by a relative's elevation to the papacy
and subsequent death were well understood by seicento cardinal nephews and their families.
Most worked diligently to make friends within the curia in order to lead a faction of cardinals
The pope was involved in the negotiations for Marcantonio's bride. After attempting to settle
matches with the daughter of Henri IV and the Medici, he settled on the Orsini.
194
Baldessare Labanca, il Papato sua origine, sue lotte e vicende, sub avvenire: studio storico-scientifico (Turin:
Fratelli Bocca, 1905) 392.
195
59 and hopefully influence the election of their uncle's successor. In practice, this rarely worked
out and strategic allegiances often occurred between a previous cardinal nephew and a new
one to try to break this type of influence.
The popes themselves also tried to ease these transitions for their nephews after their
deaths. Paul III wrote a text advising his nephew Alessandro on these matters and Gregory
XV wrote a tract addressed to his cardinal nephew on how to thrive in reversals of fortune
entitled Ricordi dati da Gregorio XV al cardinale Lodovisio suo nipote.196 The latter gives advice to
the nephew on how to comport himself should the new pope be hostile. The answer:
dissimulation and leaving Rome.197 The plight of the deposed nephew was so well known
that it was even taken up by satirists.198 An anonymous manuscript exists addressed to
Scipione after Paul's death. Its writer proffers advice for Scipione's new circumstances. His
prescription: a quiet life. But to this he adds that the nephew should continue to spend
money on good works and the patronage of churches.199
While Scipione certainly heeded the second part of this advice, he does not seem to
initially have followed the first. At the start of the conclave to elect Paul's successor, Scipione
took a different course. Perhaps he felt unassailable. Because of his uncle's long reign,
For more on Gregory XV, see Pastor, vol. 13, 59-67 and Mario Rosa, "The World's Theatre: the
Court of Rome and Politics in the first Half of the Seventeenth Century," Court and Politics in Papal
Rome 1492-1700, ed. Gianvittorio Signorotto and Maria Antonietta Visceglia (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 200) 78-98, 93; on Paul III see Rosa, 95-6 and Claire Robertson, “Il gran cardinale"
Alessandro Farnese: Patron of the Arts (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992) 292-3.
196
197
Rosa, 95.
See for example the parody in Traiano Boccalini, Ragguali di Parnasso (Bari, G. Rua, 1912). This is
further discussed by Hill, "Patronage of a Disenfranchised Nephew," 2001, 438.
198
"Ricordi dati da N. al Signore Cardinale Borghese dopo la morte di Papa Paolo V suo zio." [BAV
Vat. Lat. 12175, 109-118] Quoted in D'Onofrio 1967, 199.
199
60 Scipione headed a faction of forty-two cardinals created by Paul.200 The first choice of the
Borghese faction was Cardinal Pietro Campora. But this was not to be. At the urging of
Cardinal Orsini, his candidacy was excluded by the French.201 The eventual choice,
Alessandro Ludovisi, while a creatura of Paul's, was not one of Scipione's confidantes and the
new cardinal nephew, Ludovico Ludovisi, was outright hostile.
In response to this new situation Scipione does seem to have settled down to a
quieter life. Gigli describes Scipione's deportment during the Ludovisi years as modest and
tranquil, behavior that he only abandoned after Gregory's death.202
The animosity between Scipione and Ludovico Ludovisi was in fact entirely
typical.203 Scipione himself had certainly had a very contentious relationship with Cardinal
Aldobrandini after Paul's election, which is recorded in his correspondence.204 In fact,
On the conclave, see Agostino Mascardi, "Scrittura intorno alla elezione in Sommo Pontefice del
Card. Ludoviso," La Vita e le opere di Agostino Mascardi con appendici di lettere e altri scritti inediti e un saggio
bibliografico. Atti della Società ligure di storia patria 42, ed. Francesco Luigi Mannuci (Genoa: Società ligure
di storia patria, 1908) 523-542; Alessandro Tassoni, "Relazione sopra il Conclave in cui fu eletto Papa
Gregorio XV (1621)," Annali e scritti storici e politici, ed. Alessandro Tassoni and Pietro Puliatti
(Modena: Panini, 1990) vol. I, 267; Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des
conclaves (Paris: Lacroix, Verboeckhoven, 1865) vol. III, 5-38; Artaud de Montor, Histoire des souverains
pontifes (Paris: Firmin Didot, 1852) vol. 5, 239-241; Gaetano Novaes, Elementi della storia de' sommi
pontefici (Rome: Bourlie, 1822) vol. 9, 161-163; Frederic Baumgarten, Behind Locked Doors: A History of
the Papal Elections (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) 143-144.
200
201
Visceglia, 122.
Gigli, Diario di Roma, vol. I, 124. "Hora Borghese, il quale nel pontificato di Gregorio si era portato
dimessamente , et con animo tranquillo, et pacato haveva mostrato di sopportare le cose ordinategli
contro et il fasto, che grandissimo usava Lodovisio: appresso il quale, perché il Papa suo zio, stava
quasi sempre impedito dal malem era sempre stata la somma di tutte cose, finalmente essendo morto
Gregorio, quasi che fosse risorto, cominciò andare attorno allegrissimamente, et passeggiando per la
Città in cocchi pomposi, il che non haveva più fatto da che morse Paolo suo Zio."
202
See Wolfgang Reinhard, Freunde und Kreaturen: "Verflechtung" als Konzept zur Erforschung historischer
Fuhrungsgruppen Romische Oligarchie um 1600 (Augsburg: Vogel, 1979) 70-72.
203
On their relationship see Pastor vol. 25, 57 and Hill, "Patronage of a Disenfranchised Nephew,"
2001, 435. On the correspondence see Ibid., 444 n. 11, which transcribes an unpublished letter, and
Luigi de Steffani, ed., La nunziatura di Francia del cardinale Guido Bentivoglio. Lettere a Scipione Borghese
(Florence, 1853), vol. 1, 59-60.
204
61 Ludovisi's disdain for Scipione may have been compounded by Scipione's mistreatment of
Aldobrandini as a marital alliance had been made between the Aldobrandini and Ludovisi
families immediately following Gregory's election.205
Ludovisi set out to rival Scipione as a patron. He built villas on the Pincio and at
Frascati.206 His commission of an Aurora fresco from Guercino should almost certainly be
seen as a competition with Scipione's fresco of the same subject by Guido Reni.207 Whether
out of diplomacy or under pressure is unknown, but Scipione showered his replacement with
gifts. Scipione gave Bernini's sculpture of Pluto and Proserpina to Ludovisi shortly after its
completion.208 Scipione also gave Ludovisi a carriage and two paintings on copper by Guido
Reni.209
Curiously Ludovico's animosity may have extended to Scipione's role model
Alessandro Peretti. Passeri reports that Ludovico interfered with Montalto's decoration of S.
Gigli, vol. I, 85: " A di 25. di Aprile 1621. si fecero per mano del Papa le ceremonie dello
Sponsalizio della sua Nipote Lavinia con Giangiorgio Aldobrandini." The name Lavinia is an error.
The bride was Ippolita, her mother Lavinia. Gigli vol. I, 90, n. 15. That this alliance was planned even
earlier is suggested by Gigli's commentary on the elevation of the Ippolito Aldobrandini on April 19.
" Papa Gregorio fece quattro Cardinali uno di Casa Aldobrandini, al fratello del quale già era stato
ordinato di dar per moglie la nepote di Papa Gregorio." Gigli vol. I, 84.
205
206
Hill 2001, 438.
For more on Reni's fresco, see Marina Beer, "I sogni di Scipione: visione, allegoria, letteratura nel
casino dell'Aurora di palazzo Rospiglioso-Pallavicini a Roma," Percorsi tra parole e immagini (1400-1600),
ed. Angela Guidotti and Massimiliano Rossi (Lucca: Maria Pacini Fazzi, 2000) 179-201. On
Guercino's Aurora, see Eva-Bettina Krems, "Die prontezza des Kardinalnepoten und Guercino's
Aurora und Fama. Das Casino Ludovisi in Rom," Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 65 (2002): 180-220 and
Carolyn Wood, "The Indian Summer of Bolognese Painting: Gregory XV (1621-1623) and Ludovisi
Art Patronage in Rome," PhD Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1988.
207
208
An alternate explanation of this gift will be suggested in the conclusion.
Carolyn Wood, “The Ludovisi Collection of Paintings in 1632,” The Burlington Magazine 134
(1992): 515-523, 519 (inventory #109). The paintings are The Virgin and Child with St. John in the
Louvre and a Virgin Sewing now lost.
209
62 Andrea della Valle. While Montalto had promised the entire commission to Lanfranco,
Domenichino, the new Ludovisi favorite, decided he wanted it and Ludovisi intervened on
his behalf. However both Bellori and Baldinucci state that Lanfranco only obtained the
commission for the dome after Montalto's death.210 Of course, even if Passeri's account is
correct it may only indicate Ludovisi's devotion to Domenichino and not hostility towards
Montalto, but given the alliance between Montalto and Scipione it is tempting to read the
incident politically.
All of this background is meant to underline several circumstances that will be
important to our understanding of how Scipione sought to reinforce his uncle's memory.
Scipione needed to keep a low profile, but at the same time wanted to reinforce his position
through lavish spending on ecclesiastical projects. Furthermore the constant affronts by the
Ludovisi and his own new situation would have led him to want to increase his own import
through shoring up his uncle's memory.
This would have been the obvious strategy. Scpione was defined throughout his life
by comparison with his uncle, as is evident in the vast panegyric literature devoted to him. In
Guidiccioni's dedication of the Breve Racconto to Scipione, for example, we find praise of filial
piety and an attempt to equate Scipione with his uncle both through his lineage and through
his valor.211 Paul differs from Scipione only in that "he has reigned, and you were worthy of
See Haskell, 72-73 and Passeri, 45 and 148. Also see Elizabeth Cropper, The Domenichino Affair:
Novelty, Imitation and Theft in the Seventeenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) 5. For
Bellori see Alice Sedgwick Wohl, Hellmut Wohl and Tomasso Montanari (ed.), Giovanni Pietro Bellori.
The Lives of the Modern Painters, Sculptors and Architects a New Translation and Critical Edition (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2005) 257.
210
Guidiccioni 1623. All’ Illustrissimo, & Reuerendissimo Signore, il Signor Cardinal Borghese.
Io doueva, conforme all’vfanza, publicar subito l’Oratione fatia da me nell’Esequie di Papa Paolo,
glorioso Zio di V. S. Illustrisima; & benche l’opera fusse debole, desiderai sodisfar con prontezza à
diuersi Signori & Principi, che m’honoraron di chiederla instatemente. Ma perche pensai di
rappresentare in intaglio il Catafalco da V. S. Illustriss. Eretto con splendor veramente regio , & e
211
63 reigning." Paul is "your most grand uncle, who is completely one with you." Scipione is “a
new Scipione, in every way worthy of such a Camillo."212 But curiously Scipione's worth to
Paul is suggested not through his deeds, but through a comparison all'antica: "he had seen
himself shining in you with the fortune of Augustus, the clemency and humanity of
Scipione." Scipione becomes an amalgam of Augustus and Scipio Africanus. While these are
standard topoi, it is striking just how often they occur.213 These same themes are elaborated
in several stanzas of the poem on Marcantonio's marriage lauding Scipione. Guidiccioni
writes:
He emulated the great uncle, he fully shows
the high gentle affection, which resides in him.
He restored the sacred temples, and he adorns the
pleasant yoke of Tusculum with royal buildings.
As if it were almost the African ground
devoted to Scipio.214
insieme ciascuna sua statua, impressa per mano di dotto artefice; m’è riuscita l’impresa sì lunga, & di
tanto luoro, ch’io no posso scusarne l’indugio, senza accusare il mio ardire in tener dietro ala
generosità di V.S. Illustriss. La quale, come liberalmente ordinò la magnificenza dell’ opera, così
adesso cortesemente acceterà la poca oblatione del molto, ch’è suo, il succinto ragguaglio di quanto
appartiene all’Esequie, vna imperfetta mostra dell’Apparato, & e l’Oratione, tale à punto qual fu
prodotta dal primo spirito della mia riuerenza. Cose, che sono interamente di V.S. Illustrissima,
perche contengon gl’atti della pieta sua, & escon di mano d’vn suo Seruitore, & vanno à finire in
laude del suo grandissimo Zio, il quale è tutt’uno con V.S. Illustriss. Nè forse da lei fi distingue in
altro, se non ch’egli hà regnato, & ella merita di regnare. Dov’io giusticando il mio detto col mondo,
mi rimetto al giuditio del mondo stesso, s’egli hà veduto risplendere in lei con la fortuna di Augusto,
la clemenza, & e l’humanità di Scipione; & mentre s’ammiraua un nuouo Scipione per ogni parte ben
degno d’un tanto Camillo, io così riueriua quella felice ombra, sotto cui crebbero l’operationi di V.S.
Illustriss. Come riuerifco hor lei, ch’è germoglio di quella pinata. Onde con fede, & ossequio, tanto
superiore all’ antico Lelio, quanto alla mia seruitù si devono attributi, & officij di maggior deutione,
augurando à V.S. Illustriss. Le medesime glorie, & anco felicità maggiori del suo maggiore, congiungo
con quest’augurio l’vsate preghiere d’ogni continua prosperità sua; & qui le faccio humilissima
riuerenza. In Roma li 12. maggio 1622.
Camillo is a reference to the Roman dictator, Marcus Furius Camillus, known as the second
founder of Rome. See further discussion on page 93, n. 345.
.
213 See for example Guidiccioni 1937, 248-55 in which the poet compares Scipione to Scipio
Africanus (stanza 2), Augustus (stanza 9) and Hercules (stanza 25).
212
214
Ibid., 244.
Emulo del gran Zio, ne mostra à pieno
L'alto affetto gentil, ch'in lui soggiorno.
64 As these quotations show, Scipione's character and his patronage of architecture helped
define him in imitation of the Antique. Of course a cardinal nephew's status is defined by his
uncle, and we should not overlook the importance of these comparisons. If we are to see the
catafalque as a part of Scipione's social rehabilitation, then any praise of Paul found in the
catafalque naturally accrues to its patron, Scipione.
Scipione's own memory did not fare well after his lifetime. The centuries after
Scipione's death were not kind to his reputation. By the twentieth century most historians
dismissed him as a dilettante and hedonist, who only acquired art for the pleasure of stealing
it.215 These views seem to have their root in a report of the Venetian ambassador questioning
Paul's judgment in appointing Scipione, "given his mediocre learning and a life much
dedicated to pleasures and pastimes." In light of the friction between Paul and the
Venetians, it is questionable whether this account is reliable.216
And, indeed, the facts paint a rather different picture. While indubitably somewhat
sybaritic, Scipione seems to have also taken his duties as cardinal nephew to heart. His
correspondence reveals a serious engagement with the issues of the day.217 He had a sizeable
Ristaura i sacri Tempi, e'l giogo ameno
Del Tusculan, di regie moli adorna.
Et quasi ancor sia l'African terreno
Deuto à SCIPIO...
215 Pastor writes "no certain proofs of immorality have yet been adduced." Frances Haskell dismisses
Scipione as a man "of few intellectual attainments," and the Villa Borghese as "the centre of the most
hedonist society Rome had known since the Renaissance." Francis Haskell, Patrons and Painters (New
Haven and New York: Yale University Press, 1966) 27-8.
Paul and Scipione's relations with Venice will be discussed in the next chapter. Incredibly, Tracy
Ehrlich seems to be the only modern author to note this fact. Ehrlich, 31.
216
For pieces of Scipione's diplomatic correspondence, see Guido Bentivoglio, La nunziatura di
Francia del cardinale Guido Bentivoglio, lettere a Scipione Borghese (Florence, 1863-70) and Decio Carafa,
Correspondance du nonce Decio Carafa, archeveque de Damas (1606-1607) publieé de Lucienne van Meerbeck
(Brussells, 1979).
217
65 library composed largely of theological texts, not a given for an early seicento cardinal, and
certainly not suggestive of a frivolous mind.218 Scipione surrounded himself with some of the
most renowned poets of the day, most of whom were members of the Accademia degli
Umoristi.219 He employed Gironimo Aleandro220 and possibly Antonio Bruni and Gregorio
Porzio.221 Tomasso Stigliani was also a member of Scipione’s circle. A vast number of books
were dedicated to Scipione by these and other writers, the majority of which are theological
treatises or encomia.222
Today Scipione is best remembered for his art collection, the bulk of which remains
housed in the Villa Borghese. Yet even here he has not escaped criticism, with some scholars
seeing his collection as the fortuitous result of a life of bullying and stealing.223 While it is
Victoria von Fleming,"'ozio con dignita'? die Villenbibliothek von Kardinal Scipione Borghese,"
Romische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte 85 (199): 182-224. Another
inventory of Scipione’s books counts 1800 titles, broken down into similar categories. Annalies
Maier, Codices Burghesiani Bibliotheca Vaticana (Città del Vaticano, 1952) 430. In both of these cases, the
bulk of texts are exegetical and theological.
218
Von Fleming 1996, 188. For more on the Umoristi see Piera Russo "L'Accademia degli Umoristi.
Fondazione, strutture e leggi: il primo decennio d'attività," Esperienze letterarie 4 (1979): 47-57; Michele
Maylender, Storia delle accademie d'Italia, 5 vols. (Bologna, 1926-30), vol. V, 370-381, and Ingo
Herklotz, Cassiano Dal Pozzo und die Archäologie des 17. Jahrhunderts (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1999), 1920.
219
220Aleandro
was the author of a treatise on antique sculpture and mythology in art, Antiquae tabulae
marmoreae solis effigie, symbolisque exculptae : accurata explicatio: qua priscae quaedam mythologiae, ac non nulla
praeterea vetera monumenta marmorum, gemmarum, nomismatum illustrantur (1617). For more on Aleandro,
see Herklotz, Cassiano dal Pozzo, 35-36.
Fleming makes this claim, but there is no evidence to verify it. In fact, they seem to have been
working for other patrons in the teens and twenties. Both were Marinisti; Aleandro wrote a defense
of Adone and Marino acted as a mentor to Bruni. According to Pastor, vol. 21, 60, Gregorio Porzio
held the post of ‘segratario delle lettere latine del card. Borghese.” He also wrote at least two
panegyrics on Borghese palaces. Anna Coliva claims that Guidiccioni, Aleandro, Bruni and Panfilo
Persico were members of Scipione’s court. Coliva, 418, n. 94.
221
According to Pastor there are 400 works dedicated to Scipione which are not included in
Ciaconius’ list. Pastor, vol. 21, 63.
222
223
For instance Haskell, 25-26.
66 true that Scipione did acquire some parts of his art collection by unorthodox means,224 it is
equally clear that he had a serious interest in commissioning and encouraging artists, both
young and established. Scipione’s tendency was to acquire in bulk, which may have
suggested a lack if discrimination to some scholars.225 But in fact, this was entirely typical of
men in his positions: cardinal-nephews often built up collections very rapidly both for fear
that their collecting clout would disappear after their uncles’ deaths and to fill their newly
built palaces and villas.226
Scipione's earliest documented purchase dates to 1605, immediately after his uncle's
election.227 The majority of acquisitions seem to have taken place shortly thereafter, in 1607
and 1608. Scipione’s purchases in 1608 include both individual masterpieces and entire
Examples include his acquisition of Domenichino's Hunt of Diana. This work was comissioned by
Cardinal Aldobrandini, but when Domenichino refused to give it to Scipione he siezed it and threw
the painter in jail. See Ann Sutherland Harris, "Domenichino's Caccia di Diana: Art and Politics in
Seicento Rome," Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive, Presented on his Seventy-fifth birthday, ed.
Cynthia Schneider and William Robinson (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1995)
92-96. Another incident is his theft of 105 paintings from Cavalier d'Arpino. Ehrlich, Landscape and
Identity, 315, note 26. For an inventory of the works taken from Cavalier d’Arpino, see Zygmunt
Wazbinski, “Il cavaliere d'Arpino ed il mito accademico: il problema dell'autoidentificazione con
l'ideale.” Künstler über sich in seinem Werk: Internationales Symposium der Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rom, 1989
(Weinheim: VCH, 1992) 317-363. Raphael's Deposition was stolen from the church of S. Francesco in
Perugia in 1607 and given to Scipione by the pope but it is unclear whether Scipione was complicit in
the crime.
224
Coliva interprets this as an effort to present himself as a great and cultured prince. Coliva, 398.
Buying in bulk does not, however, necessarily indicate a lack of discernment. In fact, it was typical of
the period. Many other seventeenth-century collectors, among them the Ludovisi and Chigi, acquired
their collections in similar manners. For a history of Ludovico Ludovisi’s collecting practice, see
Wood 1992. Ludovisi acquired 300 paintings in the two years of his uncle’s pontificate, mostly
through “legacies and politically motivated gifts.” Ibid., 515.
225
Early on Scipione certainly bought in bulk, while his acquisitions slow down later in his life. In the
early years he was busy acquiring and building palaces which needed decorations. He bought the
Borgo Palace in 1608, began buying land for the Pincio in 1607 and 8 and begun work on the
Quirinal in 1611.
226
Caravaggio’s Madonna dei Palafrenieri, which he acquired from the confraternity dei Palafrenieri.
Coliva, 399.
227
67 estates. These included seventy-one paintings purchased from Cardinal Sfondrato,228 the
Perugino paintings taken from the sanctuary of Saint Peter’s following the 1608 restorations
(shared with Cardinal Montalto),229 a number of canvases from Ferrara acquired by Enzo
Bentivoglio,230 Titian’s Sacred and Profane Love (also acquired from Ferrara)231 and Raphael’s
Deposition.
Scipione's interests extended to antiquities. In 1607 he purchased 237 statues from
the Ceuli family. 232 In 1609 he bought the della Porta collection, which included 100 antique
statues, fifty busts, as well as several sarcophagi, reliefs and a number of modern sculptures
Ibid., 398. Cardinal Sfondrato found the body of Saint Cecilia in 1599 and promoted her cult.
Among the paintings acquired by Scipione was Reni’s Saint Cecilia now in the Norton Simon
Museum.
228
229
Ibid., 398.
230
Ibid., 399.
It was originally acquired by Cardinal Aldobrandini and sold to Scipione. See Piero Pellizzari, “I
significati di Amor Sacro e Profano,” Tiziano e Venezia: convegno internazionali di studi Venezia 1976
(Vicenza: Pozza, 1980), 179-185.
231
Katrin Kalveram, Die Antikensammlung des Kardinals Scipione Borghese (Worms: Wernersche, 1995) 7.
There also appears to be some confusion about whether the collection was bought by Paul or
Scipione. An avviso of December 15, 1605 mentions the 237 statues of the Ceuli bought by Scipione
for seven thousand scudi. Johannes Albertus Orbaan, Documenti sul barocca in Roma (Rome: Sede della
Societa, 1920) 90. "Il cardinal Borghese ha compro per 7 mila scudi tutte le statue di marmo e
bronzo, che li Ceuli hanno nel suo palazzo di strada Giulia, che sono al numero 237.” An avviso of
December 19, 1605 states that while it had been thought that the Ceuli statues were bought by
Scipione, they had been seen en route to the Apostolic palace, a sign that they were bought by Paul.
Orbaan, 89. “Le statue del palazzo Ceuli, che furono scritte essere stato comprate del Cardinal
Borghese, si sono vedute et si vedono portar verso il palazzo Apostolico, che è segno la compra
facesse il Papa per la Camera, non il cardinale Borghese, e vorrà farle metter con l’altre a belvedere
dove con la condutta del’acqua Sabatina si faranno alter cose di bello e da spasso.” An avviso of
December 22 also credits the purchase to Paul. Orbaan, 90. “le statue compre per 9 mila scudi, che
erano del ceuli…"
232
68 and busts.233 In 1613 he acquired a smaller horde of antiquities from Antonio Ceparelli,
himself one of Bernini’s earliest patrons.234
The core of Scipione’s collection was in place by 1613, the year of Scipione
Francucci’s La Galleria dell’ Ill.mo Sig. Scipione cardinale Borghese, which describes an imaginary
tour guided by Apollo through Scipione’s Borgo palace.235 But Scipione continued to collect
after 1613 and even after his uncle’s death. Indeed, most of Bernini’s Borghese sculptures
date from a later period.236 Likewise Lanfranco’s ceiling frescos at the Villa Borghese were
only begun in 1624, well after Paul’s death.237
Like his uncle, Scipione was a prodigious builder. While Scipione is best known for
his domestic architectural projects -- the Villa Borghese, his villa and gardens on the
Quirinal, and his villas at Frascati -- he also restored a number of churches both during and
after his uncle's reign.
At least during Paul's lifetime, it is difficult to determine agency. While many projects
were carried out by and paid for by Scipione, they seem to have happened under Paul's
233
Kalveram, 12.
234
Ibid., 18.
[Archivio Vaticano, Fondo Borghese, IV, n. 102] Orbaan records some of it. Orbaan, 112. It
includes Barocci, L’incendio di troia; Arpino, Roma trionfante and fama; Brill, Paesaggi; Baglione, Giuditta;
Caravaggio, David col Teschio; Cigoli un quadro; Lavinia Fontana, vergine Annunziata; Salviati, Nascita di
Cristo; Passignano, un quadro; Francioso, Giovanetto moro, statua; Scipion Borghese simigliante all’Affricano.
See also Coliva, 418, n. 67. It is interesting that the works were all in the Borgo at this date; they were
moved to the Pincio by 1614. Heilmann 1973, 97-158, 110.
235
On the dating of the early Bernini/Borghese sculptures see Irving Lavin. "Five New Youthful
Sculptures by Gianlorenzo Bernini and a Revised Chronology of his Early Works," Art Bulletin 50
(1968): 223-248 and Tod Marder, "Bernini enfant prodige del ritratto," Bernini Pittore, ed. Tomasso
Montanari (Cinisello Balsamo: Silvana Editoriale, 2007) 211-221.
236
Howard Hibbard, “The Date of Lanfranco’s Fresco in the Villa Borghese and Other
Chronological Problems,” Miscellanea Bibliothecae Herziana (Munich: Anton Shroll, 1961) 355-365, 356.
Hibbard includes the documents for payments in 1624 and 1625.
237
69 auspices and with the assistance of papal architects. Baglione suggests that the villa on the
Pincio and the restorations to S. Crisogono and S. Sebastiano were Paul's projects.238 As in
matters of politics or entertaining, Scipione necessarily deferred to his uncle's wishes and
often assumed duties that would be unseemly for the pope to perform himself.
We have a very clear picture of the gestation and decoration of all of Scipione's
residential commissions. The villa on the Pincio has been studied by Cristoph Heilman.239
The various commissions at Frascati have all been studied by Tracy Ehrlich.240 Finally,
Howard Hibbard has written on the garden casino on the Quirinal.241 All of these buildings
have intrigued art historians because of the tremendous amount of pictorial decoration. The
Palazzo Borghese, while mostly implemented not by Scipione but by Marcantonio, has also
been thoroughly studied by Hibbard.242 The only palace which has not been investigated is
Scipione's Borgo palace (the present day Palazzo Giraud-Torlonia).
The churches have received less attention to date. Michael Hill wrote a dissertation
on Scipione's patronage of ecclesiastical architecture and has examined Scipione's
restorations of S. Crisogono.243 The payment records for S. Sebastiano fuori le mura have
238
Baglione, I 97.
239
Heilmann 1973.
240
Ehrlich.
241
Hibbard 1964.
242
Ibid., 1962.
Michael Hill, "Cardinal Scipione Borghese's Patronage of Ecclesiastical Architecture 1605-33,"
PhD Dissertation, University of Sydney, 1998; Michael Hill, "The Patronage of a Disenfranchised
Nephew. Scipione Borghese and the Restoration of San Crisogono in Rome. 1618-1628," Journal of
the Society of Architectural Historians 60 (2001): 432-449.
243
70 been studied by Aloisio Antinori, and Hill has also considered Scipione's involvement with
this project.244 But Scipione's other ecclesiastical commissions remain little studied.
Scipione's first project, stipulated by his uncle, was the construction of the two
oratory chapels of Sant' Andrea and S. Silvia at S. Gregorio Magno. This work was
undertaken between 1607 and 1609 and completed a project begun by Cardinal Baronio,
allegedly on the foundations of a building built by Gregory the Great.245
His next project was the restoration of S. Sebastiano fuori le mura, which began in
1607.246 His renovation entailed a new crypt, new rear entrance, new timbered roof, and the
rebuilding of the façade.247 The ostensible reason for the repairs was to provide better access
to crypt and relics.248 Scipione's renovations were distinguished by the heavy inscriptions
honoring himself and the equally huge amount of heraldry, with eagles even incorporated
into column capitals.249
The restoration of S. Crisogono had two distinct phases. The first was a new ceiling,
built in emulation of Cardinal Aldobrandini's at S. Maria in Trastevere.250 After 1623 (and the
end of the Ludovisi papacy) Scipione undertook a full decorative restoration of S.
244Michael
Hill, "Reform and Display in Cardinal Borghese's Restoration of S. Sebastiano fuori le
mura 1707-1614," Fabrications: the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Australia and New
Zealand (2005) 15-42. On S. Sebastiano see also Aloisio Antinori, Scipione Borghese e l'architettura
(Rome, 1995) 31-137 and Abdelouahab Zekagh, "La chiesa di S. Sebastiano fuori le mura in Roma e i
restauri del Cardinale Borghese," Palladio 6 (1990): 77-96.
245
Hill, "Patronage of a Disenfranchised Nephew," 2001, 434.
246
Ibid., "Reform and Display," 2005, 18.
247
Ibid., 19.
248
Ibid., 20.
249
Ibid., 24.
250
Hill, "Patronage of a Disenfranchised Nephew," 2001, 432-433.
71 Crisogono.251 The most remarkable part of the architecture, as at S. Sebastiano, is the
extreme number of inscriptions and Borghese emblems, woven into the fabric of the
architecture.252
In 1611 Scipione made plans to complete the cathedral of S. Pietro in Bologna,
where he was briefly archbishop, with the help of Ponzio and Maderno. Their plans were
never executed.253 Scipione also devoted time to the restoration of the shrine at Loreto, of
which he was cardinal protector.254
Scipione's public spending increased after Paul's death. His expenditure on alms
increased from 495 scudi per annum before Paul's death to 7,419 for the years after.255 After
Paul's death the scope of his church renovation projects also drastically expanded.
He provided a new façade designed by Giovanni Battista Soria for S. Maria della
Vittoria in exchange for the antique statute of a hermaphrodite excavated during its
renovation in 1625-27.256 He was involved in several projects in S. Maria sopra Minerva
where the burial chapel of his father's family, the Caffarelli, was located. He began by
commissioning a tomb for his father Francesco in 1620 and providing a new altar in 1621-
Ibid., 440. Hill interprets this as Scipione celebrating his return to power with the election of his
ally Maffeo Barberini.
251
252
Ibid., 444.
Antinori, 279-334 and Hibbard 1971, 191. He held the position from October 25, 1610 until April
2, 1612.
253
For Scipione's connection with Loreto, see Martin Faber, Scipione Borghese als Kardinalprotektor:
studien zur römischen Mikropolitik in der frühen Neuzeit (Mainz: von Zabern, 2005) 290-268.
254
255
Hill 2001, 438.
256
Hibbard 1971, 141.
72 23.257 He bought the church new organs and rebuilt the choir in the late 1620s, with Soria
responsible for the stucco work.258
He built churches in Montefortino and Monte Compatri and he spent 3000 scudi
between August 1627 and April 1628 to restore the monastery of S. Chiara a casa pie and
rebuild the façade of its church.259
We learn several important things from Scipione's record as a patron. His flurry of
spending on church renovations after Paul's death suggests that he was taking the advice of
the tracts that urged deposed cardinal nephews to rebuild their reputation through spending
on ecclesiastical projects. The catafalque, then, should likely be read as part of this same
rehabilitation project. We also learn that Scipione had a talented stable of architects and
artists at his disposal and that he moved in a circle of learned men and poets who certainly
would have helped guide the program of the appatatus funebris for Paul's reburial.
257
Hill 2001, 439.
258
Hibbard 1971, 234. Soria was paid for decorative stucco work in April 1630.
Ibid., 205; Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario erudizione-storico-ecclasiastico (Rome, 1840) vol. VI, 220-221.
See also Faber, 494-496 for Scipione's patronage of S. Chiara.
259
73 Chapter 4
The Borghese: Restorers of Ancient Rome
Because a catafalque is by nature commemorative, the character of the man it
celebrates is integral to our understanding of its meaning. A summation of Paul's life is given
in Guidiccioni's funeral oration, but to really understand the man we must take a step back
and appraise the actual facts of his life as well as the image presented by Guidiccioni and his
fellow panegyrists. For while the Borghese encomia are grounded in fact, they also in turns
both neglect and embellish the truth in order to show a specific (and hardly new) image of
papal splendor. This chapter addresses the fact and fiction of the Borghese reign.
The last quarter century has seen a resurgence of interest in the dynastic aims of the
early seventeenth-century Roman papal families as manifested in their patronage of arts,
music, and letters. Scipione Borghese in particular, as we have seen, has been the subject of
much art historical research because of his prodigious art collection. But research into the
Borghese has not been limited to Scipione's paintings. In fact, the field of Borghese studies
has substantially expanded in recent decades. German scholars have been particularly diligent
in their investigation into the financial and political machinations of the family.260 Borghese
architectural commissions have been studied by a number of authors -- including Howard
Wolfgang Reinhard, Paul V Borghese (1605-1621) Mikropolitische Papstgeschichte (Stuttgart:
Hiersemann, 2009); Ibid., Papstfinanz und Nepotismus unter Paul V (1605-1621): Studien und Quellen zur
Struktur und zur quantitativen Aspekten der päpstlichen Herrschaftssystems (Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1974);
Volker Reinhardt, Kardinal Scipione Borghese 1605-1631 Vermögen, Finanzen und sozialer Aufstieg eines
Papstnepoten (Tübingen, Niemeyer: 1984); Martin Faber, Scipione Borghese als Kardinalprotektor: studien zur
römischen Mikropolitik in der frühen Neuzeit (Mainz: von Zabern, 2005).
260
74 Hibbard, Patricia Waddy, Christopher Hill, and Tracy Ehrlich.261 Tracy Ehrlich, Anna Coliva,
and Victoria Fleming have looked at the Borghese through the lens of the encomiastic
literature produced at Scipione's court.262
The Borghese's origins were in Siena, not Rome. The family (initially spelled
Borghesi) relocated to Siena from the neighboring village of Monticiano around 1200. Once
settled in Siena they increased the family's prestige through prudent marriages and
involvement in banking and mercantile activity. By 1433 their status had grown sufficiently
that they were granted the right to add an eagle to their crest by the Holy Roman
Emperor.263 But the family's ambitions did not end there. Marcantonio Borghese (15041574), father of the future pope, moved to Rome to seek his fortune in 1537. He began his
Roman career as a curial lawyer and rose to be Consistorial Advocate.264 His position
continued to grow and he earned the trust both of Julius III and Paul III, as well as being
entrusted with various diplomatic missions by his home state of Siena.265 His position in
Roman society thus established, he set out to further enhance his status by marrying into the
Roman nobility. His chosen bride, Flaminia Astalli, came from an old Roman baronial
Howard Hibbard, The Architecture of the Palazzo Borghese (Rome: The American Academy in Rome,
1962); Ibid., "Scipione Borghese's Garden Palace on the Quirinal," Journal of the Society of Architectural
Historians 23 (1964): 163-192; Patricia Waddy, Seventeenth Century Roman Palaces, (Cambridge: MIT,
1990); Tracy Ehrlich, Landscape and Identity in Early Modern Rome Villa Culture at Frascati in the Borghese
Era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
261
Ehrlich 2002; Anna Coliva, "Casa Borghese. La Commitenza Artistica del Cardinal Scipione,"
Bernini Scultore: La Nascita del barocco in Casa Borghese, ed. Ana Coliva and Sebastian Schütze (Rome: De
Luca, 1998) 389-423; Victoria von Fleming, Arma Amoris: Sprachbild und Bildsprache der Liebe: Kardinal
Scipione Borghese und die Gemäldezyklen Francesco Albanis (Mainz: von Zabern, 1996).
262
For a full discussion of the Borghese family's Sienese origins see Wolfgang Reinhard,
"Ämterlaufbahn und Familienstatus: Der Aufstieg des hauses Borghese 1537-1621," Quellen und
Forschungen aus Italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 54 (1974): 328-427.
263
264
Ibid., 333.
265
Ibid., 334-335.
75 family.266 In 1552 Marcantonio was granted Roman citizenship. Shortly after, their first son,
Camillo, was born on September 17, 1552. He was followed by six more children: Orazio,
Girolamo, Francesco, Giovanni Battista, Ortensia, and Margarita. The two eldest were both
primed for ecclesiastical careers and the family focused on finding suitable marriages for the
rest among the Roman aristocracy.267
The Pope
Camillo Borghese, the future Pope Paul V, followed in his father's footsteps and
studied law at Perugia.268 When he returned to Rome he rose rapidly, acquiring a number of
important positions and assignments within the curia. His first assignments were assessor of
the Segnatura and then chaplain of S. Maria Maggiore. Much of Camillo Borghese's early
career in Rome overlapped with the papacy of Sixtus V. The Peretti pope Sixtus must have
had a tremendous influence on the young cleric and when he became pope he modeled his
reign very self-consciously on Sixtus' example in almost every respect. The enormous
amount of building undertaken in Sixtus' short reign, including the completion of St. Peter's
dome and virtual transformation of Rome's streets, must have been a revelation and
demonstrated just how much could be accomplished by a strong-willed leader. More
concretely, Cardinal Montalto seems to have adopted Borghese as a protégé, taking him to
The exact date of their marriage is unknown, but Reinhard points out that an inscription in the
Astalli chapel in Trinità de' Monti records her birth only in 1630, so it must date between then and
Camillo, the eldest son's, birth in 1652. Reinhard 1974, 333, n. 21.
266
Ibid., 339. This was somewhat thwarted by the early death of many of them. Apart from the
future pope, only Francecso and Marcantonio survived into the seventeenth century. Ortensia
married Francesco Caffarelli on July 7, 1676. Margarita married Orazio Vittori on April 7, 1579.
Francesco married Ortensia di Fabio Santacroce on March 8, 1581. Giovanni Battista married
Virgina Lante on September 25, 1588. Ibid., 344-345.
267
Pastor, vol. 25, 40. The next brother Orazio was a jurist who became Consistorial Advocate and
Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. The remaining siblings advanced the family through land
purchases and marraiges among the minor Roman nobility. Ehrlich, 29.
268
76 Bologna as vice-legate in 1588 and then intervening to assure his ability to take over his
brother Orazio's role of uditore generale after his death.269
In 1593 Camillo went to Spain as envoy extraordinary to Philip II, an appointment
which was to pay dividends in the support of the Spaniards in the conclave that elected him.
On June 15, 1596, he was made cardinal by Clement VIII. From 1597- 1599 he was the
bishop of Iesi. In 1603 he was made vicar of Rome. He was also a member of the Roman
inquisition and protector of Scotland.270 Despite these qualifications and the fact that he was
widely liked and respected as a jurist, his ascension to the papacy came as a surprise. At fifty
two, he was the youngest pope in decades, having emerged as the compromise candidate
after Leo XI Medici died after only twenty five days.271 The conclave that elected Leo had
been particularly divisive, and the calling of a second conclave within the month only served
to harden each group's opposition to the others' candidates. The Spaniards favored Cardinal
Sauli who was opposed by Cardinal Aldobrandini head of the biggest faction, comprising
twenty six cardinals. Cardinal Tosco, the Aldobrandini candidate, was almost elected by
adoratio, but the election was thwarted by Cardinal Baronio, who considered the cardinal a
bore and not dignified enough for the position. Faced with a stalemate, the Aldobrandini
and Montalto factions decided a compromise was necessary and settled on Borghese.272
Camillo's election as Paul V was due in large part to his time spent in Spain, because the
269
Ostrow 1996, 137-138.
270
Pastor, vol. 25, 41.
The Spanish proposed Sauli who was vetoed by Aldobrandini. Montalto proposed Pierbendetti
who was vetoed by the Spaniards. Aldobrandini proposed Tosco who was vetoed by those who
wanted Baronio. Maria Visceglia, "Factions in the Sacred College in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries," in Court and Politics in Papal Rome 1492-1700, ed. Gianvittorio Signorotto and Maria
Visceglia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) 99-132, 122.
271
272
For a concise overview of this conclave see Pastor, vol. 25, 29-38.
77 Spaniards, who had the ability to veto candidates, supported him after it became clear that
their choice, Cardinal Sauli, would not win.
The surprise of his election coupled with the newness of the family on the Roman
scene left the Borghese scrambling to try to validate their position in Roman society. They
did this through what most scholars have assumed was a calculated and concerted campaign
of land acquisition and intermarriage with established Roman families.273 They bought huge
tracts of land throughout Campagna and acquired titles for the pope's nephew Marcantonio,
with the pope elevating their fiefdom of Vivaro to a principate and Scipione purchasing the
Spanish fiefdom of Sulmona.274 In short, they continued to pursue the same strategies that
had helped them prosper both in earlier centuries in Siena and thus far in Rome.
Paul's reign was marked by peace in the Papal States, which contrasts strikingly with
the political machinations in the rest of Europe toward the end of his reign with the start of
the Thirty Years War, the dual threat of the Ottoman Turks and of Protestantism, and
heresy gaining inroads even in traditionally Catholic allies.275 Awareness of this historical
context is vital to understanding how the Borghese family wanted to cast the pope's role in
these tumultuous times.
The peace that flourished within the Papal States can be ascribed to two factors:
Paul's concern for the welfare of his people and his stern handling of justice. Paul was very
concerned with the wellbeing of the Roman populace, a priority he manifested by
This was, in fact, the typical way papal families consolidated their position in society. See Coliva
1998; Ehrlich and Wolfgang Reinhard, "Papal Power and Family Strategy in the Fifteenth and
Sixteenth Centuries," in Princes, Patronage and the Nobility: the Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age,
1450-1650, ed. Ronald Asche and Adolf Birke (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 239-356.
273
274
Ehrlich, Landscape and Identity, 34-5.
Disentangling the motives and even outcomes of various events is thwarted by the events of the
later seventeenth century, which color both contemporary and modern historians views of the events
and players.
275
78 ameliorating the living conditions of his subjects and stabilizing the grain and water
supplies.276 He also paid off the Papal See's debts. In fact, Gigli notes that despite Paul's
enormous spending on building he left a large surplus of gold in the treasury.277 Paul also
attempted to deal with the perennial problem of bandits which dogged the Papal States. It is
perhaps no coincidence that all of these issues had also been priorities for Sixtus V.278
Paul's personality aligned with his policies: he was dogmatic, reform-minded and
strictly Post-Tridentine. He was preoccupied with the carriage of justice and sought to
exclude immunities for dignitaries such as cardinals and ambassadors.279 Despite his modern
reputation for nepotism, Paul's contemporaries noted that he was equally strict with his own
family.280 Judicial reforms begun in 1608 included the establishment of a special congregation
which met every Friday, led by Scipione, which oversaw the protection of the poor and
monthly inspection of the prisons.281 He also enforced residency requirements for clergy.282
On the grain supply see Volker Reinhardt, Überleben in der frühneuzeitlichen Stadt: Annona und
Getreideversorgung in Rom 1563-1797 (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1991).
276
Gigli vol. I, 121. Interestingly Gigli makes this point in contrast to the debts left by Gregory.
"Restò dopo la morte di Gregorio la camera essausta, et aggravata di grandissimo debito, senza
sapersi come si fosse fatto, dove che quando morse Papa Paolo, oltre le grandissime spese da lui fatte
per tante gran fabriche che egli fece, et più milioni d'oro riposti in Castello di S. Angelo, furno da un
muratore dimostrati al nuovo Pontefice Gregorio, in un muro rinchiusi quattrocento mila doppie
d'oro, che Papa Paolo haveva nascoste per suoi occolti disegni, et haveva ordinato a detto Muratore
lo manifestò a Papa Gregorio, il quale nella prima allegrezza del suo Papato largamente li dispenzò
fra i suoi."
277
On Sixtus' reforms see Pastor, vol. 21, 76-88 and Corinne Mandel, "Golden Age and the Good
Works of Sixtus V: Classical and Christian Typology in the Art of a Counter Reformation Pope,"
Storia dell'Arte 62 (1988): 29-53, 26.
278
279
Pastor, vol. 25, 79.
280
Ibid., 79.
281
Ibid., 82.
282
Ibid., 218.
79 An oft cited incident illustrates this: the execution of a certain author, Piccinardi, for the
offense of writing (but not publishing) an unflattering life of Clement VIII.283
Indeed, Paul's reaction to the Venetian crisis can perhaps be best explained in this
context. In a brief dating to December 1605, Paul wrote,
However much we are desirous of public peace and quiet and direct our thoughts to
the end of governing the Christian Republic as quietly as we can solely in the service
of God, and however much we desire the minds of all men, and especially of great
princes, to be in conformity with our own, nevertheless if ever the dignity of the
Apostolic See should be offended, if ecclesiastical liberty and immunity should be
impugned, if the decretals and canons should be despised, and if the rights of the
Church and the privileges of ecclesiastical persons should be violated, which is the
sum of our responsibility, do not think that we will dissimulate in any way, or be
lacking in our duty.284
Because it is the most controversial event of Paul's reign, we must take a moment to
examine his actions in the interdict of Venice. The incident of the interdict can only be
properly understood in the greater European context, for it was more than Paul just flexing
his might but a serious response to what he perceived as the very real threat that the republic
would break with Rome.
While generations of scholars have seen the Venetian interdict as evidence of Paul's
rashness and lust for power, it is now viewed as a perhaps inevitable result of decades of
tension between Rome and Venice exacerbated by economic and political factors such as the
decline in maritime trade and, perversely, the peace in the rest of Europe which left other
powers with nowhere to focus their attention.285 A series of Venetian laws, some passed
before Paul's time, set the wheels in motion: laws of 1602 limiting clerical ownership of land
283
Ibid., 78.
Translation from William Bouwsma, Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty Renaissance Values in
the Age of the Counter Reformation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), 349.
284
See for example Ibid., 339-416. Documentary evidence can be found in Carlo de Magistris, Carlo
Emmanuele I e la contessa fra la Reppublica Veneta e Paolo V (1605-1607): documenti (Venice, 1906).
285
80 and requiring the permission of the Council of Ten to build a church, and two of 1605
restricting the alienation of lay property and reiterating la Serenissima's right to try clergy in
civil court.286
No doubt Paul's personality and insistence on the absolute rights of the Church
precipitated the crisis. The interdict of Venice was not Paul's first show of strength. He had
previously quarreled with Lucca over the rights of the state versus Holy See to pass laws
about theological matters, 287 and with Genoa over jurisdiction over clerics.288 In
anticipations of further conflicts he built up the Papal See's military strength and shored up
fortifications along the coast.289 Paul also rebuilt the fortress at Ferrara and renovated the
Castel Sant Angelo.290
However, the ensuing war of words and pamphlets led by Paolo Sarpi for the
Venetians and by figures such as Roberto Bellarmine in Rome show that there was a serious
political-ecclesialogical or even theological debate at stake, not just saber rattling.291
Another problem with viewing Paul as a tyrant is that he lost the battle. More
importantly, he lost willingly when he had the promise of military support from Spain and
286
Bouwsma, 344-346.
Leopold von Ranke, The History of the Popes, trans. E. Fowler (New York: Colonial Press, 1901) vol.
II, 337.
287
Thomas Adolphus Trollope, Paul the Pope and Paul the Friar: The Story of an Interdict (London: Smith,
Elder & Co., 1870) 89-91.
288
289
Pastor, vol. 25, 102-104.
Abramo Bzovio, "Paolo V," Le Vite de Pontefici di Bartolomeo Platina Cremonese, Dal Salvator Nostro
Fino a Clemente XI, Bartolomeo Platina, ed. (Venice: Bortoli, 1703) 699-721, 717.
290
There is extensive literature on Sarpi. See Paolo Sarpi, Istoria dell'Interdetto, Scrittori d'Italia vol. 181
(Laterza, 1940); David Wooton, Paolo Sarpi between Renaissance and Enlightenment (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1983); Giovanni Getto, Paolo Sarpi (Florence: Olschki, 1967); Ivone
Cacciavillane, Paolo Sarpi: la guerra delle scritture del 1606 e la nascita della nuova Europa (Venice: Corboe
Fiore, 2005).
291
81 financing from Genoa should the situation come to war. In the end, Venice won on most
points, thanks to a settlement mediated by the French Cardinal Joyeuse in which the
Venetian laws were allowed to stand but the offending clerics were handed over, not to
Rome, but to the French king.292
Apart from his focus on jurisprudence and expanding the papacy's temporal powers,
Paul was preoccupied with building. Construction was an integral part of Paul's regime. His
major building projects-- the renovations of and additions to St. Peter's, S. Maria Maggiore
and the Quirinal Palace, and his erection of fountains and roads -- were an important part of
how he envisioned himself and in turn how his reign was remembered by his
contemporaries. Paul's architectural projects ranged from ecclesiastical (renovating and
enlarging churches) to infrastructure (building roads and aqueducts). Much of his
architectural patronage seems to have been done self consciously in imitation of Sixtus V.293
Paul's enlargement and renovation of S. Maria Maggiore is particularly significant
both as the site of his catafalque and also because S. Maria Maggiore itself clearly was special
to the pope. Paul had been a chaplain of the basilica and as such witnessed firsthand the
erection of Sixtus' chapel.294 Paul's earliest embellishments of the church -- the commission
292
Bouwsma, 412.
For Sixtus' patronage and urban planning see Johannes Albertus Franciscus Orbaan, Sixtine Rome
(London: Constable, 1910); René Schiffmann, Roma felix: aspekte der Städtebauliche Gestaltung Roms unter
Papst Sixtus V (Bern: Peter Lang, 1985); Cesare D'Onofrio, Gli Obelischi di Roma: storia urbanistica di una
città dall'età antica al XX secolo (Rome: Romana società edetrice, 1992); Pastor vol. 22, 202-312; Helge
Gamrath, Roma sancta renovata: studi sull'urbanistica di Roma nella seconda meta del secolo XVI con particolare
riferimento al pontificato di Sisto V (1585-1590) (Roma: L'erma di Brettschneider, 1987); Sigfried Giedion,
"Sixtus V and the Planning of Baroque Rome," Space, Time and Architecture: the Growth of a New
Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967) 75-106; and Charles Burroughs,"Opacity and
Transparence Networks and Enclaves in the Rome of Sixtus V," RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 41
(2002): 56-71. On S. Maria Maggiore see Ostrow 1996, chapters 1 and 2. On his improvements in the
Quirinal district see Tod Marder, "Sixtus V and the Quirinal," Journal of the Society of Architectural
Historians 37 (1978): 283-294.
293
294
Pastor, vol. 26, 403.
82 of two paintings by Jacopo Zucchi to adorn the tabernacle which housed the icon: the
Miracle of the Snow and Procession of Gregory the Great -- date from the period during which he
was vicar of the basilica.295
But his dedication to the basilica was motivated by more than just these historical
facts. It would be difficult to underestimate the importance of S. Maria Maggiore for an
ambitious counter-reformation pope and it is no coincidence that both Sixtus and Paul chose
the basilica to house their earthly remains. Not only is the basilica Rome's most important
Marian shrine and home to many relics, it also has a historical relation to earlier papal
patrons.296 The legend of the Madonna of the Snow, which suggests that the impetus not
only for the founding but original design of the church was the Virgin herself, places these
popes in an even more august lineage of patrons: one that starts with the Virgin.297
The Borghese Chapel in S. Maria Maggiore was conceived in counterpoint to the
Sistine Chapel.298 While the iconography of the chapel does not appear to bear a direct
relation to the catafalque, it is worth noting that it is at once a celebration of Ecclesia Militans,
depicting the conquest and fortification of Ferrara and the wars against Hungary and the
Turks, and at the same time a celebration of the Virgin, around whose icon it was built.299
Paul's devotion to the basilica extended far beyond the chapel itself. He built a new
295
Ostrow 1996, 133. He was apponted vicar August 9, 1577 and kept the position for eleven years.
296
Ibid., 3.
Ibid., 2-3. Although the origins of the Miracle of the Snow seem to be in the twelfth century. J.
Fernandez-Alonso, "Storia della Basilica," Santa Maria Maggiore a Roma, ed. Carlo Pietrangeli (Rome:
Nardini, 1988) 28-29.
297
On the Pauline Chapel, See Ostrow 1996; Klaus Schwager, "Die architektonishe Erneuerung von
S. Maria Maggiore unter Paul V," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 20 (1983): 241-31 and Paolo de
Angelis, Basilicae S. Mariae Maioris de Urbe a Liberio Papa I usque ad Paulum V. Pont. Max (Rome, 1621).
298
299
On the iconography of the frescos see Ostrow 1996, 184-252.
83 sacristy,300 a new bell and canon house,301 and erected the column dedicated to the Virgin in
the piazza in front.302
If the decision to build the Pauline Chapel as a pendant to that of Sixtus suggests
that Paul actively wanted to tie his legacy to the Peretti pope, it is easy to understand his
early determination to be the pope to finish St. Peter's. Of course, nearly every pope before
Paul had shared this same ambition, but Sixtus had accomplished more in his short papacy
than almost any of his predecessors with the successful erection of the dome.303 The
completion of the nave and facade fell to Paul. The undertaking of a new nave was a
contentious issue both because the remains of the old Constantinian nave were still standing
and because Michelangelo's as yet unexecuted central plan did not cover all of the ground of
the old church. Close to the start of his reign, on April 18, 1606, Paul ordered the
destruction of now dangerous remnants of old St. Peter’s to make way for a new basilica.304
The decision was quickly made to build a nave in order to cover all of the sacred ground of
the Constantinian basilica. Thus, as Sixtus had done before him with the dome, he
abandoned Michelangelo's designs.305 Paul has been much criticized for this decision, but it is
300
Schwager, 253.
301
Pastor, vol. 26, 412.
302
See Ostrow 2010.
303
Pastor, vol. 26, 377.
For a complete account of the demolition, see Johannes Albertus Franciscus Orbaan, "Der
Abbruch Alt-Sankt-Peters 1605-1615," Jahrbuch der königlich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 39 (1919): 1139.
304
On Michelangelo's plans for St. Peters, see James Ackerman, The Architecture of Michelangelo
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971); Howard Saalman, "Michelangelo: S. Maria del Fiore
and St. Peter's," Art Bulletin 57 (1975): 374-409; Rudolf Wittkower, "Michelangelo's Dome of St.
Peter's," Idea and Image. Studies in the Italian Peninsula (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978) 73-89;
Henry Millon and Craig Hugh Smyth, "Michelangelo and St. Peter's: Observations on the Interior of
the Apses, a Model of the Apse Vault, and Related Drawings," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 16
305
84 best understood in the context of his general philosophy and other patronage. Returning to
the dimensions of the Constantinian basilica and most importantly covering all of the sacred
ground would have been of paramount importance for a pope so concerned about tracing
his and his church's lineage back to the early church.
By March 6, 1607 work had started with the façade. By 1612 Carlo Maderno had
completed the seven central bays of the new facade.306 In 1617 the façade was extended by
two bays as bases for bell towers, which were not begun prior to Paul's death.307 After the
façade was complete, Maderno built the nave and other internal details. Paul also had
Maderno build the confessio in the crossing between 1615-17 where the curved stairs serve
as a physical link to the early Christian church.308 In another link to the early church, he built
new grottos, which carefully preserved all antique relics.309 Paul also built a new entrance to
the Vatican palace, but his work here was not extensive as he preferred the Quirinal.310
(1976): 137-206; Ibid., Michelangelo Architect: the Facade of San Lorenzo and the Drum and Dome of St. Peter's
(Milan: Olivetii, 1988); Ibid., "Pirro Ligorio, Michelangelo and St. Peter's," Pirro Ligorio, Artist and
Antiquarian, ed. Robert Gaston (Milan: Silvana, 1988) 216-286; Ennio Francia, Storia della costruzione del
nuovo San Pietro da Michelangelo a Bernini (Vatican City: De Luca, 1989); Christof Thoenes,
"Renaissance St. Peter's," St. Peter's in the Vatican, ed., William Tronzo (New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2008) 64-90.
Pastor, vol. 26, 389. For more on Paul's renovations of St. Peter's and in particular Maderno's
facade, see Hibbard 1971, 65-74 and 155-188; and Margaret Kuntz, "Maderno's Building Procedures
at New St. Peter's why the Facade First?" Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 68 (2005): 41-60, who argues
that the sequence and design of the facade were necessitated by the encroachment of the Pauline
Chapel into the basilica and the necessity of a connection between the palace and the benediction
loggia for ceremonial reasons.
306
On the later history of the bell towers, see Sarah McPhee, Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and
Politics at the Vatican (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).
307
Hibbard 1971, 72-3. Hibbard point out the irony that the form of the stairs echoes Julius II's
nymphaeum at the Villa Giulia as well as Scipione's hanging garden.
308
309
Pastor, vol. 26, 400.
For Paul's contribution, especially the new entrance to the palace, see Tod Marder, "Paul V's New
Palace Entrance," Bernini's Scala Regia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) 56-81.
310
85 Paul made great expansions to the Quirinal Palace, the papal summer residence.311
He worked on the Quirinal from the start of his papacy through 1618, expending 33,037
scudi over the entire period.312 Between 1605 and 1612 Flaminio Ponzio built a new wing
enclosing the courtyard on the east, which included the new Cappella dell’Annunziata.313
From 1609 to 1611 Ponzio was engaged in constructing an entirely new building to house
the Datary, and in 1613 he built a new winter apartment.314 The final stage of renovations,
after Ponzio's death, involved the renovations to the Cappella Paolina and surrounding
rooms undertaken by Maderno in 1614.315
In addition to these major projects, Paul, like Sixtus V before him, focused on urban
rebuilding. Today, all that seems to be remembered are the fountains. Indeed, Paul was such
a prodigious builder of fountains that he earned the nickname "fontefice massimo," a pun on
"pontifex maximus."316 Paul's most important change to the waterworks of Rome was the
construction of the Acqua Paola, which brought water to the Janiculum and in to Trastevere.
While the acqueduct was new, it was meant to follow and mimic that of Trajan. But aside
from this ancient reference it served a vital purpose: providing Trastevere with water as well
Jack Wasserman, "The Quirinal Palace in Rome," Art Bulletin 45 (September, 1963): 205-244;
Hibbard 1971, 195-198.
311
312
Ibid., 239.
Ibid., 233. For more on the chapel, see Judith Mann, "The Annunciation Chapel in the Quirinal
Palace, Rome: Paul V, Guido Reni and the Virgin Mary," Art Bulletin 75 (March, 1993): 113-134.
313
314
Wasserman, 235.
315
Ibid., 238.
316 Coliva 1998, 417, n. 11. "credo che egli stesso non faceva alcuna di quelle cose che fanno quelli
che pensano alla morte, eccetto che fabbricar fontane, per intagliarci sopra il suo nome e l'armi, onde
comunemente era chiamato "Fontefice massimo." See also Cristoph Heilmann, "Aqua Paola and the
Urban Planning of Paul V Borghese," The Burlington Magazine 112 (1970): 656-663; and Cesare
D'Onofrio, Le Fontane di Roma (Rome: Staderini, 1957) 141-154.
86 as increasing the supply to the Borgo, Vatican, and even across the river.317 In addition to the
Acqua Paola, several fountains were built by Maderno in the piazza in front of St. Peter's and
in Piazza Scossacavalli in front of Scipione's Borgo palace. While these fountains were, of
course, functional, they also would have been seen as an expression of Paul's princely
virtue.318
Paul also attended to other less decorative infrastructure needs. Abramo Bzovio,
who begins his life of Paul with a discussion of his major ecclesiastical buildings, returns to
the theme at the end of his work and details all of Paul's more mundane urban
improvements not often mentioned elsewhere. He includes Paul's modifications to the
mouth of the Tiber to enable maritime commerce and his rebuilding of the port and fortress
at Civitavecchia to protect against pirates as well as numerous other improvements in
bridges and streets to connect Rome more easily with the suburbs and countryside.319 Paul
also made provisions to protect against flooding of the Tiber.320
Paul widened and reengineered a number of key roads throughout Rome, but
specifically in Trastevere.321 Among his many road building projects were the laying of Via
delle Convertite and Via Capole Case. But while Sixtus’s roads had been designed to provide
317
Heilmann, 660.
For this view, see Katherine Wentworth Rinne, The Waters of Rome: Acquaducts, Fountains, and the
Birth of the Baroque City (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010).
318
319
Bzovio, 715.
Ibid., 717. Rescuing the Roman populace from the rising waters of the Tiber became a particularly
important piece of Borghese propoganda when Scipione Borghese ventured into the floodwaters on
horseback during a flood of 1606 which immediately drew comaprisons to the Roman general
Marcus Curtius who then appeared, jumping off his horse, on the facade of the Pincian villa.
D'Onofrio 1967, 208-212.
320
321
Heilmann, 660-662 and Pastor, vol. 26, 433-438.
87 grand vistas and fundamentally reshape the city, Paul's seem to have been provided for
mundane reasons: to ease the movement of goods and people from the ports to the city.322
Paul was unusually interested in the bread supply of the city, implementing multiple
price controls, executing those seen as profiteering, checking daily on the supply and even
testing bread from the various bakeries himself.323 He also built the granary by the baths of
Diocletian 1607, subsequently enlarged in 1609.324 He also instituted the "monte di farina"
for the poor.325 Because of these measures there was never a grain shortage during the rest
of his pontificate.326 Once again, Paul's emphasis on the grain supply is a continuation of a
policy started by Sixtus V.327
But there were also ancient prototypes both for the ruler's management of the grain
supply and its distribution to the poor. The city's grain supply was overseen in Imperial
Rome by the Annona.328 Augustus himself took over supervision of the grain and towards the
end of his reign implemented the office of the praefectus Annonae to better manage the city's
322
Heilmann, 661.
323
Pastor, vol. 25, 87-90.
324
Ibid., 50-51.
325
Bzovio, 716.
326
Pastor, vol. 25, 93.
On Sixtus' reform of the grain supply see Pastor, vol. 21, 99-101. On the symbolic import of
Abundance and the Golden Age for Sixtus see Mandel 1988, 32-36.
327
On the Roman grain supply see Peter Garnsey, Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World:
Response to Rise and Crisis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 167-244.
328
88 supplies.329 Related to the Annona was the Alimenta, an early form of welfare instituted by
Trajan that used public funds to feed poor children.330
In addition to recalling these illustrious precedents, Paul's protection of the grain
supply also contrasted favorably with his successor, as famines reoccurred under Gregory in
November of 1621.331
Paul was also responsible for the renovation of many early Christian churches,
including S. Gregorio al Celio and S. Sebastiano -- which, as we have seen, he outsourced to
Scipione.332 He also helped with other restoration projects as the need arose -- for example,
he funded the rebuilding of the Cloister of the Convertite after a fire in 1610, even though it
was under the patronage of his rival, Cardinal Aldobrandini.333
329
Ibid., 218 and 232-233.
Trajan's implementation of the Alimenta has been debated by scholars with some seeing it just as
a tax or forced payment. See Peter Garnsey, "Trajan's Alimenta: Some Problems," Historia Zeitschrift
für Altegeschichte 17 (1968) 367-381 and R. P. Duncan-Jones, "The Purpose and Organization of the
Alimenta," Papers of the British School at Rome 32 (1964): 123-46 and Paul Veyne, Les "Alimenta" de
Trajan (Paris: centre national de la recherche scientifiques, 1965). The many visual representations of
Trajan's institutio alimentaria will be considered in Chapter Seven along with the iconography of
Annona.
330
Gigli vol. I, 87. Gigli in his account specifically points out that Gregory's reduction of the size of
a loaf of bread to eight ounces directly contradicted Paul's policies. "A di 21. di Novembre fu calato il
Pane, et ridottoa otto oncie il baiocco sotto pretesto di voler il Papa soccorrere Bologna sua Patria, et
altri lochi, che pativano carestia, non ostante che il Popolo chiaramente si dolesse, che non era bene
levare il grano di Roma, che già Papa Paolo V. haveva provisto abondevolmente per tre anni a venire,
si come ancora dannava il giudizio, o, lo interesse di Papa Gregorio in havere nella estate passata,
prima delle riccolte, dato la tratta al grano in Ancona, et permesso che i Veneziani ne potessero
portar via. Laonde pareva, che la charestia fosse procurata, e non mandata a Roma da Dio. Per
questo si mormorava per tutto, et quelli, che maggiormente havevano havuto a caro la mutazione del
novo Papa, hora dicevano di conoscere quanto si fossero ingannati nella loro espettazione, perché
non solo il grano, ma era rincariito ancor l'oglio for di modo, et così tutte le altre cose."
331
332
See discussion in chapter three, 68-70.
Funds were provided for restoration after a fire in 1617 by the pope and Cardinal Aldobrandini.
Hibbard 1971, 205.
333
89 From the beginning of Paul's reign, Flaminio Ponzio was the official papal architect,
as well as the architect for Scipione Borghese. Ponzio’s rise to this position was fortuitous.
He was working on the Palazzo Borghese, which Paul had bought unfinished shortly before
he became pope. Having inherited the architect along with the palace, Paul seems to have
kept him on until his untimely death in 1613. Ponzio was replaced by the Fleming Jan Van
Zanten (also known by the italicized Giovanni Vasanzio).334 The employment of such
undistinguished architects by patrons so preoccupied with building requires. Carlo Maderno
would have been the obvious choice for Borghese patronage, and indeed he was employed
on certain projects, but most often in an advisory role. Maderno's employment as coarchitect of the Fabbrica of St. Peter’s predated Paul's elevation, but in any case he received
the commission for the facade because he won the competition. Perhaps Maderno's
association with Cardinal Aldobrandini precluded his formal employment by the Borghese.
It is also possible that Paul's own interests were strong enough that he preferred a
weak architect he could dominate. Paul's interest in architecture seems to have have been
more than just theoretical. He took an active role in the design process. In a dialogue with
Guidiccioni, Bernini recounts how Paul solved a problem which had baffled the architects of
how to install a door between the Cappella Paolina in the Quirinal Palace and the Sala
Regia.335
Ibid., 53. Hibbard suggests that he was only hired at the insistence of Stefano Pignatelli and that
he was incompetent and often had to have his messes cleaned up by Maderno.
334
Cesare D'Onofrio, "un dialogo-recita di Gian Lorenzo Bernini e Lelio Guidiccioni," Palatino 10
(1966): 127-134, 133. "Ma perche questa con la sua amplezza resta più larga di quella gli architetti non
sapevano trovar odo da far la porta, che stesse in mezzo del muro, rispetto l'una, et al'altra.Papa
Paolo trovò inventione di cosa, che rimediò al disordine, at accrebbe ornamento notabile...Il pensiero
fù tutto suo." It is not entirley clear what Guidiccioni is referencing. For Paul's construction of the
chapel, see Wasserman, 236-238.
335
90 The sum of all of these projects clearly had a tremendous impact on the appearance
and functionality of the city. This historical record suggests both citizens and visitors to
Rome were amazed. Paul's transformation of the city was so complete that Guido
Bentivoglio, returning after eleven years absence, wrote that he didn't recognize the city.336
Another visitor to Rome, Johann Heinrich von Pflaumern, wrote in 1625 that the new
buildings (those built since his previous visit in 1607) surpassed even the ancient.337 An
anonymous contemporary writing after the death of Gregory XV recorded that Paul's
renovations of Rome superseded those of any other pope.338 Even at the end of the century
Alessandro Donati still claimed in his Roma vetus ac recens that Paul's only concern was
adorning the city.339
Poetry
So much for the historical facts about the Borghese. As impressive as Paul's actual
legacy may be, an entirely more grandiose picture of his import is painted by the poetry of
the period. A number of leitmotifs recur throughout the encomiastic literature produced at
Scipione's court: Paul's pontificate as a new Golden Age and the incumbent comparisons of
Paul to Apollo, Caesar and Augustus. Most of these tropes are not unique to the Borghese,
Friedrich Noack, "Kunstpflege und Kunstbesitz der Famile Borghese," Repertorium für
Kunstwissenschaft 50 (1929): 191- 231, 194. Guido Bentivoglio, Lettere con note grammaticali e analitiche di
G. Biagioli, ed. Guido Biagioli (Livorno: Masi, 1831) 1755, n. 72.
336
337
Johann Heinrich von Pflaumern, Mercurius Italicus (Lugdani, 1649) 378. Quoted in Noack, 194.
Quoted in Heilmann, 662. [Fondo Borghese II, 2 fol. 163] "Nelli abellimenti di Roma [Paul V] ha
superati tutti l'altri Pontefici con tempij fabriche et Aquedotti. Et si puo dire habbia rinovata Roma
con tante strade e Piazze di nuovo, le vecchie amplite et addrizate."
338
Alessandro Donati, Roma vetus ac recens (Rome, 1595). "Iam vero Pauli V in exornanda urbe
singularis cura." With this he starts his description of Paul's building campaign which runs from
pages 347-350. Also quoted in Heilmann, 662.
339
91 but it is still significant that they occur. For it is impossible to read the literature generated at
the Borghese court without concluding that there was a concerted effort to promote classical
analogies and underscore the family's Romanitas. This may seem odd given that they were
not, in fact, Roman, but the very newness of the Borghese family in Rome probably
underscored their interest in creating a faux Roman lineage for themselves.
While much of this poetry rehashes these classicizing tropes, another theme is
equally prevalent in the literature that has not received the critical attention it deserves: the
importance of architecture and building. The Borghese are consistently portrayed as rescuers
of Rome, by light of their many building projects and renovations to the city. We can see
these two themes, Romanitas and building, as two sides of a coin. It is not just the fact of
Paul's election, but the Pauline renovation of the city, that ushers in a new Golden Age. Both
of these ideas will prove integral to our understanding of the catafalque.
Nonetheless, it is wise to remember that, however compelling the poets' analogies,
these were words written by men trying to curry favor, and we must be cautious not to
impose their motives upon their masters, especially in light of the exaggeration inherent in
encomiastic poetry. We must be wary of extrapolating patrons' motives out of the flattery of
their retainers. Furthermore, the frequency with which the same motifs show up throughout
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries makes it impossible that the presentation all'antica
was a Borghese-specific project.340 Furthermore, some of the more florid and obscure
passages of poetry should surely be read as displays of poetic bravura and knowledge as
much as Borghese self-aggrandizement.
For example the Pamphilij claimed to trace their heritage through Numa Pompilius to Aeneas. See
Rudolf Preimesberger, "Pontifex Romanus per Aeneam Praesignatus: Die Galleria Pamhilij und ihre
Fresken," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 16 (1976): 221-287.
340
92 Borghese Romanitas is a frequent theme in the encomiastic literature. In his panegyric
celebrating the birth of Paolo Borghese, Guidiccioni writes that his birth "restores Roman
hopes" and that of his "issue will be born new cities and new realms."341 Another poem
extolls the "Latin blood" of the Borghese family.342
Romanitas seems to have been stressed not just by the poets but by Paul himself.
Despite the family's Sienese origins, Paul always identified himself as a Roman. An example
of this thinking can be found in the foundation documents for the Borghese chapel, that
give explicit instructions for the future care of the chapel. Popes regularly issued bulls
stipulating the succession of cardinal protectors of their chapels. Paul's first bull on this
topic, dating to 1610, makes Scipione Borghese the cardinal protector of the Paolina and
dictates that his successors must always be a Borghese cardinal, or if none exists one born in
Rome. This last part is telling, as most popes specify a cardinal from their home state.343
341
Guidiccioni 1637, 137.
Nella nascita del Sig. Paolo Borghese
Alhor, ch'il parto à ristorar eletto.
Le Romane speranze, à l'aura vscio;
Germe di lui, che fù secondo à Dio,
Destinato à regnar pria che concetto;
La fronte ergea dal molle humido letto
Il Tebro intento al nuouo honor natìo;
Et presago spargea tal mormorio,
Fisse le luci al gran marmoreo Tetto.
Sacro nido d'Heroi, superba mole,
Soglia reale, ond'è che l'altre io sdegni
Ch'il mondo ammira, & che vagheggia il Sole.
Già in riua accolsii chiari parti, & degni,
Di cui Roma fù parto; hor di tua prole
Nasceran Città nuoue, e nuoue Regni.
342
Ibid., 129. "a un parente del Card. Scipione Borghese"
o degno homai, cui'l Tebro honori, & cante
Signor, del Latin sangue inclita speme:
Che per calle d'honor, ch'oblio non preme,
Affretti al giogo di virtule piante...
Faber, 370. The bull was changed in 1615 giving the family even more control. It states that the
head of the Borghese family can pick the cardinal protector.
343
93 Epigraphical evidence yields a similar insistence on Paul's Romanitas. All of the inscriptions
on the monuments erected for Paul's possesso include the word "Romanus."344 Likewise, the
inscription which crowns Maderno's facade of St. Peter’s reads "IN HONOREM
PRINCIPIS APOST.PAULUS V. BURGHESIUS ROMANUS PONT. MAX AN MDCXII
PONT VII."
The insistence on Romanitas not only links the Borghese to the city, but it engenders
comparisons to antique heroes and events. Guidiccioni' s poetry is full of comparisons of
Paul and Scipione to various classical figures. In a play on his given name, Paul is cast as
superior to the antique Camillo. The antique Camillo is Marcus Furius Camillus, the fourthcentury warrior and dictator known as the second founder of Rome, having liberated Rome
from the Gauls.345 The connection seems to have been suggested not only be the play on the
name Camillo, but by the idea of the reinvention, or rebirth of Rome brought about by
Camillus. This connection was maintained by later generations of Borgheses and appears in a
ceiling fresco in the Villa Borghese by Mariano Rossi commissioned by Marcantonio IV in
the eighteenth century.346 The fresco shows Truth triumphant over Time vindicating
Camillus who triumphed after his exile in Gaul by saving Rome.
Francesco Cancellieri, Storia de' solenni possesside' somme pontefici (Rome: Luigi Lazzarini, 1802) 174.
There were at least four seperate apparati erected for the occasion: one by the spetiale del drago, one
by the Collegio Romano and arches by the Gesu and Campidoglio.
344
On Camillus see Plutarch. "Camillus" Plutarch's Lives, trans. Bernadotte Perrin (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1914) and Livy, History of Rome, trans. B.O. Foster (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1926) vol. 4, book 10.
345
Carole Paul, "Mariano Rossi's Camillus Fresco in the Borghese Gallery," The Art Bulletin 74 (1992):
297-326.
346
94 In a similar play on names, Scipione is compared to Scipio Africanus, but Scipione is
also the child of Euterpe and Clio "fanciul t'alletta Euterpe, & Clio."347 Paul is the son of
Bellona " lui, che di Bellona è figlio." In the most common tropes, Paul is compared to
Caesar and both Scipione and Paul to Augustus "duo nativi Augusti."348 Scipione and Paul
are both the equals of Hercules.349 Paul is a new Apollo.350
Most often, these analogies to classical heroes and gods are used to foretell a new
Golden Age come to Rome under the rule of the Borghese. Virgil, in the Fourth Eclogue,
writes that a new Golden Age will commence when Astraea returns to earth:
Now is come the last age of Cumaean song; the great line of the
centuries begins anew. Now the Virgin returns, the reign of Saturn
returns; now a new generation descends from heaven on high. Only do
you, pure Lucina, smile on the birth of the child, under whom the iron
brood shall at last cease and a golden race spring up throughout the
world! Your own Apollo now is king!351
Starting in the fifteenth century this Virgilian imagery was frequently applied to popes to
suggest the inauguration of a new Golden Age with their reign.352
347
Guidiccioni 1937, 248 (stanza 2).
348
Ibid., 250 (stanza 9).
349
Ibid. 255 (stanza 29).
Victoria von Fleming has made a very thorough study of the Apollonian (and tangentially Golden
Age) imagery in Borghese poetry relating to her interpretation of Albani's four tondos in the
Borghese collection. Fleming 1996, 231-3 and 241-2.
350
Virgil, Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid 1-6, Trans. H. R. Fairclough, revised G. P. Goold (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1999) 49. [Eclogue IV: 4-10] "Ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas;
magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo. iam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna; iam nova
progeneis caelo demittitur alto. tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primum destinet ac toto surget
gens aurea mundo, casta fave Lucina; tuus iam regnet Apollo."
351
On the Golden Age in literature see Harry Levin, The Myth of the Golden Age in the Renaissance
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969); Gustavo Costa, La leggenda dei secoli d'oro nella
letteratura italiana (Bari: Laterza, 1972); A. Bartlett Giametti, The Earthly Paradise and the Renaissance Epic
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966). For its application to Renaisance popes see Charles
Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome, (Bloomington: University of Indiana, 1998) 297-298. For Sixtus V
352
95 The recurrent allusions to Astraea in Borghese panegyric are multivalent. They allude
to Paul's legal background and his role as a stern administrator of justice. But more
importantly they cast Paul's reign as the new Golden Age in terms that would have been
immediately clear to the seventeenth-century reader.
Some poets even use the Borghese stemma, the dragon and eagle, to demonstrate the
fulfillment of this prophesy.353 The encomium of Ambrogio De Magistris, Aetodracontaeum,
written in 1617 and dedicated to Scipione, describes a new Golden Age brought about by the
union of eagle and dragon:354
The ancients consecrated the eagle to Jupiter and the dragon to Saturn,
and through both expressed the concept of the prince.....but at last
these two [animals], most illustrious prince, are combined in the family
stemma of the Borghesi [sic]. So that just as Jupiter succeeded Saturn,
and surmounted the dragon with the eagle, and opposed to the
Saturnian sisters Irene and Astraea his own sisters Amalthea and
Politica, by whose work the times were seen to be reintegrated and a
return made to the ancient Golden Age, the sweetly in our time the
eagle is in accord with the dragon, and truly restores all things that
formerly, by a certain splendid deceit the age of Saturn had
bestowed.355
and the Golden Age see Corinne Mandel, "Golden Age and the Good Works of Sixtus V: Classical
and Christian Typology in the Art of a Counter Reformation Pope," Storia dell'Arte 62 (1988): 29- 52.
The theme of Astraea as harbinger of the new Golden Age was taken up as imperial panegyric and
applied to Charles V by Ariosto, and to Elizabeth and Charles I by many English poets. For more
on the development of the theme of Astrea in literature, see Frances Yates, Astraea: the Imperial Theme
in the Sixteenth Century, (London: Routledge, 1975) and Frank Kermode, The Classic: Literary Images of
Permanence and Change, (Cambridge: Harvard, 1983).
The iconographic elaboration of papal stemme had been common since at least the sixteenth
century. For a very thorough discusison of this phenomenon under Gregory XIII see Marco Ruffini,
Le imprese del drago: Politica, emblematica, e scienze naturali alla corte di Gregorio XIII (Rome: Bulzoni, 2005)
and Von Fleming 221-222. For the stemma of Sixtus V see Mandel 1988.
353
D'Onofrio 1967, 218 and Matthias Winner, "Ratto di Proserpina," Bernini Scultore: La Nascita del
barocco in Casa Borghese, ed. Anna Coliva and Sebastian Schütze (Rome: De Luca, 1998) 180-203, 203.
Preface transcribed in Paul, 325-6.
354
Translation from Paul, 315-316. Transcription Ibid., 326: "Aquilam Iovi, Draconem Saturno
Veteres consecrabant, utroque Principem exprimebant: Illa prapotentis animi celsitudinem
adumbrantes, hoc excellentis imperij magnitudinem, illa sanguinis illibati claritudinem, hoc
honestissimi corporis habitudinem, illa populorum
355
96 De Magistris was not the only panegyrist to meditate on the Borghese emblems. Francisco
Guevara wrote that the combination of dragon (a sign of Cronus and the Golden Age) and
eagle (a sign of Jove) represents the melding of the present and Golden Age.356
These were of course not the only associations of the eagle and dragon. In Borghese
panegyric, the eagle often appears as a symbol of Apollo and Augustus while the dragon is a
symbol of Minerva.357 The subordination of the dragon to the eagle in the Borghese arms
also allowed for comparison of Paul to the eagle (Apollo) and Scipione to the dragon
(Minerva).358
reverentiam, hoc in omnium regno deliciarum opulentiam. Ex quorum insignium coniunctione
absolutissimi Principis forma consurgit, numerusq. virtutis omnis. Atque haec demum duosunt,
PRINCEP ILLUSTRISSIME Tibi in que gentilitio Burghesiorum insigni componuntur. Ut veluti
Saturno succesit luppiter, Aquilamq. Draconi superposuit, opposuitq. sororibus Saturnalibus irene
atque Astraeae sorores suae Amalthaeam atque Politicam, quarum ope, operaq. visa sunt redintegrari
tempora, et antiquum in aurum reviviscere, ita postremis hisce temporibus Aquila cum Dracone
dulce coniuret, referatq. verb omnia, quae aurea olim Saturni secula splendido quodam mendacio
conferebant."
His undated poem "Epipompeuticum" is transcribed by D'Onofrio 1967, 219, n. 6: "sic
innocenter ite [Draco et Aquila]: sic salutem / unanimi iugo traentes / atque Pacis, atque letae / Uber
Amaltheae / effere terric, effere ponto."
356
Von Fleming, 225-6. She makes a compelling case for the relationship between Minerva and the
dragon in Borghese encomia. While she claims this was a typical pairing, she does not credit a
Classical source. In fact, it is difficult to find any references to the dragon as symbol of Minerva.
Possibly it is a reference to her role in helping Cadmus slay the Ismenian dragon. See Ovid,
Metamorphoses I-VIII, trans. Frank Miller, ed. G. P. Goold (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1984) III, 48-112.
357
Von Fleming, 225-230. She quotes extensively from the following unpublished manuscripts by
decidedly minor poets dealing with this theme: Bernardo Lagarda, In Laudem Scipionis Burghesii S.R.E.
card.lis amp.li odae undecim. Bernardus Lagarda seminarii romani clericus [ASV, Fondo Borghese I, 696];
Giovanni Matteo Savio, L'aquila e 'l drago. canzonette di Gio.mattia Savio Accad.mo insensato, eccentrico et
unisono di Perugia [ASV, Fondo Borghese IV, 196]; Stephanus Landus, Scipioni Burghesio Pauli V.
Sororis Filio Card.li Ampliss.o Stephanus Landus felicitatem [ASV, Fondo Borghese, I, 700] and Marc
Antonio Maffei, Eironopolemion illustriss. principi scipioni burghesio S.R.E. Card. ampliss. decantatum inter
philosophicas theses M. Antonii Maffei romani in collegio romano soc.tis iesu [Biblioteca nationale 34.9.C.9. int
10].
358
97 The motifs of dragon and eagle thread their way through a long poem in
Guidiccioni's Rime titled "panegirico sopra il gia Car. Borghese con le laude di Paolo V." In
this poem of twenty-nine stanzas, Guidiccioni lauds both Scipione and Paul, resorting to
almost every popular classicizing trope. While it is not dated, the dedication to Cardinal
Spada provides a terminus post quem as he was made cardinal in 1626.
The first theme of the poem is Astraea, Roman goddess of Justice and the last
immortal to leave earth. The theme is introduced in the third stanza:
And while intent on their sublime honors
through the solitary roads you yourself advanced
and emulating the better centuries
you desired also to surpass those who were before
and surrounded with the virtue of eternal laurels,
standing behind you, & in front of all others
Behold the great uncle, in whose hand hangs
Astraea's balance, of the south wind Ostro shining
which the antique Camillo saw, in exile
from Gaul, proud Rome and the Tarpeus
torn and burnt; he gave death to the enemy throngs,
& to him they erected a trophy of his valor...359
and returns again in the very last stanza:
359
Guidiccioni 1633, 248.
Et mentre intento a' i lor sublimi honori,
Per le solinghe vie te stesso avanzi;
E imitator de' i secoli migliori
Brami anche superar quei che fur dianzi;
Et cinto da Virtù d'eterni Allori,
Poggi à lei dietro, & à tutt'altri innanzi;
Ecco il gran Zio, ne le cui man sospende
La sua bilancia Astrea, d'ostro risplende.
Qual l'antico Camillo, in stranie forme
Vista dal Gallo altier Roma, e'l Tarpeo
Lacera, ed arsa; à l'inimiche torme
Diè morte, & n'erse al suo valor trofeo;
Tal'ei, di glorie à quel primier conforme,
A drizzar nato il ben che già cadeo,
Fè guerra a' i vitij, & l'anime bramose
Di vera gloria in libertà ripose.
98 you, who follow Pallas, embrace the merits
SCIPIO, of him, who is Bellona's son
See rare virtue which fastens the senses
Excellent heart, great soul, high counsel.
among you wanting love anew you trace
you recall Astraea to the world from long exile.360
The idea of the Golden Age also appears in Giacomo Lauro's Antiquae Urbis Splendor
of 1612 and Abramo Bzovio' slightly posthumous (1625) biography of Paul.361 Bzovio
describes Paul as the "true restorer of the century of gold, under whose rule flowered
religion, innocence, holiness, faith, law, doctrine, and from doctrine then justice, and peace,
from peace abundance of every spiritual and worldly good, and from this the happiness of
Rome and of the world."362
The application of the theme of Astraea and the Golden Age to the Borghese is not
limited to poetry, it also appears in art. 363 In fact, Astraea appears in a frieze over the door to
Scipione's Borgo palace, where she is joined by representations of Peace and Abundance.364
D'Onofrio associates the theme of the return of Astraea with the early Bernini group of the
360
Ibid., 255.
Tu, che Pallade segui, i merti abbraccia,
SCIPIO, di lui, che di Bellona è figlio.
Vedrai rara Virtù, ch'i sensi allaccia,
Eccelso cor, grand'alma, alto consiglio.
Trà voi volando Amor, con nova traccia,
Richiami al Mõdo Astrea dal vecchio esiglio.
O fortunati; In terra à voi non vide
Due pari alhor, che segno i mari, Alcide.
361
See Coliva, 401; Bzovio, 720 and J. Jacobus Laurus, Antiquae Urbis Splendor (Rome, 1612).
Bzovio, 720. "vero Restauratore del secolo d'oro, sotto il cui governo fioriva la Religione,
l'innocenza, la santità, la fede, le leggi, la dottrina, e dalla dottrina poi giustitia, e la pace, dalla pace,
l'abbondanza di ogni bene spirituale, e temporale, e da questa la felicità di Roma, e del Mondo."
362
363
D'Onofrio 1967, 216-219.
Rudolf Preimesberger, Paragons and Paragone (Los Angeles: Getty, 2011) 62. She stands over a
rainbow and is flanked by justice and abundance. The inscription reads "Renovatio saeculi."
364
99 Amalthean Goat.365 Anna Coliva has interpreted Lanfranco's Council of the Gods as an allegory
of the return of the Golden Age brought about by the end of the Ludovisi papacy and the
birth of a Borghese heir, Marcantonio, the son of Scipione's cousin Paolo.366
While Astraea appears more often in the Borghese literature than with most earlier
popes, where Apollonian imagery is more common, there is another harbinger of the
Golden Age which appears even more frequently: Paul's renovation of the city of Rome.
The rebirth of Rome and ensuant dawn of a new Golden Age is frequently cast as
the result of Paul's ambitious building campaign. Papal rebuilding as a catalyst for the new
Golden Age is of course not a new conceit. It is particularly prevalent in the literature about
Julius II and Sixtus V, both prodigious builders.367 But this history only makes the analogy
more compelling, for it equates Paul not only with his pagan predecessors, but also with his
Christian forbearers.
Guidiccioni's panegyric on the marriage of Marcantonio Borghese and Camilla
Orsini on October 20, 1619 includes a lengthy passage devoted to the pope, almost all
focused on Paul's renovations of Rome:
Behold PAUL, now in old age,
three crowns adorn the noble head of hair
and return under him faint and gentle,
that which before was not, the resurgent Rome;
Astraea reigns...
Therefore of the sacred Vatican
every hour new marvels he erects.
D'Onofrio 1967, 216-219. He traces the associations between Amalthea as sister to Astraea,
symbol of Abundance and nymph (or goat) who raised Jove on Mt. Ida. Here he interprets the goat
as Amalthea and the putti as Jove and a satyr, showing the new Golden Age brought about by
Scipione and Paul.
365
366
Coliva, 355.
On Julius II see Temple, 2001. On Sixtus V see Mandel 1988, 29-52, 48-50. Mandel cites extensive
literature crediting a new Golden Age to Sixtus' good works, i.e. his renovations of Rome.
367
100 There with great labor he opened the great street
to fountains to rivers in rich spring.
Here he makes the Quirinal rival Heaven
and on top of Rome he makes another Rome.
See he alters on the Esquiline a temple
which to all the centuries to lengthy oblivion contrasts
to [the Virgin] here new honors he erects...368
Guidiccioni singles out Paul's public works: the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Vatican,
and the opening of streets and creation of fountains. The emphasis on the last two less
glamorous projects is telling, as is his silence about the private Borghese residential
projects.369
Guidiccioni 1637, 242. This text was also published independently as Nelle Nozze del Sig. Principe di
Sulmona, & della Sig. D. Camilla Orsina.
Mirai PAOLO, anzi l'età senile,
Di trè Corone ornar la nobil chioma.
E tornar sotto lui vaga, & gentile,
Qual pria non fù, la rinascente Roma;
Astrea regnar, la forza hauersi à vile,
Giacer la fraude, e l'alterezza doma.
Giusta bilancia à la sinistra ei tiene;
Con la destra comparte, & premij, & pene.
368
A mercennarie schiere offre soccorso,
Ciascun chiamando àl'opre, e l'otio incalza.
Quindi del sacro Vatican sul dorso
Ogn'hor nouelle merauiglie inalza.
Là con lauoro immenso apre il gran corso
A fonti, à noui fiumi in ricca balza.
Quì fà, ch'il Quirinale al Ciel s'oppone;
Et soura Roma vn'altra Roma impone.
Mirasi altero in sù l'Esquilie vn Tempio,
Ch'a' i secol tutti, al lungo oblio contrasta.
A lei quì noui honori erge, ch'à l'empio
Serpe rio, mentitor col piè sovrasta.
Oro, e gemme l'offrisce; & fatto esempio
D'alta bontà,con mente pura, & casta,
Vuol quì chiamarsi in ricco intaglio, & pio,
Di lei vil seruo,egli, ch'in Terra è Dio
Hibbard, "Palazzo Borghese" 1962 remains the authority on this building. While Paul gave the
Palazzo Borghese to his brothers upon his election, he remained intimately involved in the planning
and financing of its construction. On the gift see Ibid., 46; on the pope's continued involvement see
369
101 Other poets' encomia laud Paul's renovations of Rome in similar terms. A poem by
Francesco della Valle from "Le nuove fabbriche di Roma sotto Paolo V" praises Paul's
renovations of Rome, particularly his building of fountains and concludes "o valor of grand
Paul! She [Rome] who lay in the furor of her children extinct and subdued under a great sun
in peace to the end revived."370
The particularly interesting element of the Golden Age motif is that while it begins as
a purely pagan reference, it acquires a simultaneous syncretic Christian reading, for the
rebirth of Rome comes to symbolize not only a new Augustan Golden Age, but also the
rebirth of the early Roman church and the reemergence of Catholic strength rooted in this
history after the perils of the Reformation. The Borghese focus on restoring early Christian
monuments only cemented this interpretation. The origins of this transformation can
probably be located in several strands of seventeenth-century philosophical thought: the
Ibid., 47-48. On the taxes levied to fund its construction see Ibid., 49, n. 24 and 73, n. 6. See also
Waddy 1990.
Francesco della Valle, Rime Classici della letteratura calabrese (Rubbettino, 2003)10. Also quoted
(but not cited) by Hibbard 1962, 51.
Già cede il tempo e coronata sporge
d'aurei tetti ogni monte al ciel la cima,
ed a l'altera maëstà di prima
da le ruine sue Roma risorge.
370
Ogni machina antica l'aure sorge,
quant'in terra giacea s'erge e sublima,
e ciò che de l'età ròse la lima,
ristorato dal ferro omai si scorge.
gli ampi spazi non copre inutil soma,
ma l'adornan le fonti e inondan l'acque,
e fatta sopra Roma è nova Roma.
Oh valor del gran Paolo! Ella, che giacque
nel furor de'suoi figli estinta e doma,
sott'un gran figlio in pace al fin rinacque
102 humanist view of patronage as a manifestation of various princely virtues and postTridentine doctrine which viewed architecture as a work of faith.
Renaissance and seicento theorists considered building a sign of magnificence, an
appropriate princely virtue. In fact, magnificence in the Renaissance was a virtue particularly
associated with artistic or architectural patronage, and thought to be appropriate only in a
ruler or prince. That this specific association of building with the virtue of magnificence was
intended to be a theme of Paul's apparatus funebris is clear by the prime place that the virtue
of Magnificentia receives on the catafalque and the poetry extolling her.371 Likewise the
discussion of Paul's magnificence as a builder is, as we have seen, a key theme in
Guidiccioni's oration.372
The interpretation of magnificence as a virtue related to building was already current
in Italy by the fourteenth century and appears in Galvano Fiamma's justification of Azzone
Visconti's building projects. Fiamma quotes Aristotle extensively as evidence of the
magnificence of building.373 Later, Cosimo de’ Medici's vast expenditures on architecture
prompted a defense of his building spree: Timoteo Maffei's treatise In magnificentiae Cosimi
Medicei Florintini detractores.374
371
This will be discussed in chapter seven.
372
See chapter two, 45-49.
Louis Green, "Galvano Fiamma, Azzone Visconti, and the Revival of the Classical Theory of
Magnificence," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 53 (1990): 98-113, 101.
373
Maffei bases his dialogue on Thomas Aquinas' discussion of magnificence in the Summa Theologica.
Fraser Jenkins, "Cosimo de Medici's Patronage of Architecture and the Theory of Magnificence," The
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1970): 162-170, 165.
374
103 Giovanni Baglione’s Vite de' pittori scultori et architetti includes a dialogue between a
Roman and a foreigner on the "Opere di Papa Paolo V."375 The Roman gentleman sets out
to explain to the foreigner the "magnificenza" of the pope and says that he reigned with
"giustitia, pace, & abbondanza." He thoroughly enumerates Paul's building projects and
states that the works at St. Peter's are "degna di Paolo" and "opere magnifiche, e
memorande."376 He sums up by praising the "magnificenza di Paolo V. Romano."377
Magnificence, as defined through the building and restoration of churches, was also
seen as an appropriate virtue for the seicento cardinal. The Jesuit thinker Giovanni Botero,
in Dell'Ufficio del cardinale, had written that the main function of cardinals (apart from electing
popes) is to build churches to promote faith: and that this exemplifies the virtue of
magnificence.378 In this work he extolled the building of churches as a sign of magnificence,
noting that restoration was preferable to construction ex novo.379
The promotion of faith introduces another important motivation for building. In the
post-Tridentine context, artistic and architectural patronage was often seen as a way of
making doctrinal points through the use of images. While architecture might not serve as
Giovanni Baglione, Le Vite de' Pittori scultori et architetti dal Pontificato di Gregorio XIII del 1572 In fino
a' tempi di Papa Urbano Ottavo nel 1642, ed. Jacob Hess and Herwarth Röttgen (Città Del Vaticano:
Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, 1995) vol. I, 94-97.
375
Ibid., vol. I, 95. He lists the Pauline Chapel, the sacristy at S. Maria Maggiore, the column in front
of that church, the Quirinal palace, and the demolition of old St. Peter's and its facade and
benediction loggia, the expansion of the Vatican library, the new fountains in St. Peter's square and in
Piazza Scossacavalli as well as the Aqua Paola, the Palazzo Borghese, the Annona, new streets,
Frascati, the convent of the Convertite, the ports of Fano and Civita Vecchia, and the citadel at
Ferrara.
376
377
Ibid., vol. I, 97.
378
Hill 2005, 26. Giovanni Botero, Dell' ufficio del cardinale (Rome, 1599).
Giovanni Botero, Della ragione di stato (Venice, 1598). "Usi magnificenza nelle fabriche delle chiese,
e stimi cosa più degna d'un Prencipe Christiana il ristorar le chiese antiche, che il fabricar le nuove.
Perché la riparatione sarà sempre opera di pietà." Cited by Hill 2001, 446 n. 18 and discussed 434.
379
104 clear a didactic purpose as a fresco cycle, it was certainly important as a vehicle for housing
such works as well as relics of early Christian saints. Religious piety fostered the renovation
of the churches of early Christian Rome. The physical renewal of early Christian churches
was seen as an outward manifestation of inward religious renewal and a show of Catholic
triumph.380 That this motivation was present in Paul's mind is certainly suggested by
Guidiccioni's description of his building projects in the oration.381 The importance of this
goal in Guidiccioni's description is interesting given that the esequies occur at the same
momment as the founding of the Propaganda Fide.
More than just magnificence or doctrine, however, building could also be an
expression of Caritas. The idea of building as a form of Caritas recurs throughout the
literature of the period. Paul's majordomo Giovanni Battista Costaguti explained his
projects as a way to give work to Roman laborers.382 In his biography of Bernini, Domenico
Bernini defends Paul’s vast expenditures on architecture as necessary for the adornment of
the city rather than a frivolous waste of money.383 In the seventeenth century it was clearly
common to view building as a way of renewing the city, making it more habitable for its
See Ostrow 1996, 1. For a discussion of counter reformation popes' emphasis on early christian
basilicas.
380
Guidiccioni 1623, (oration 6). "An anteactis Tempribus æquè se Roma reddiderit christiana
probitate conspicuam, an visa sint magnificentius extructa, & ornata Templa."
381
Giovanno Battista Costaguti, Architettura della basilica di S. Pietro in Vaticano (Rome: Camera
Apostolica, 1684) xxvi; Pastor, vol. 25, 99.
382
Franco Mormando, trans. and ed., The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini by Domenico Bernini: a Translation
and Critical Edition (University Park: Penn State Press, 2011) 96. "Under this pontiff, a most vigilant
promoter of men of talent, that great court was flourishing more so than ever before, through the
great abundance of excellent individuals in every profession, the majesty of its edifices, and
everything capable of procuring exceptional fame for that pontificate. In the heart of this great
prince, occupying a place equal to any other expression of creative talent, were sculpture and
architecture and by these two means Paul greatly amplified the ecclesiastical and secular magnificence
of Rome. For the adornment of the city, Paul spent more than five million scudi, but did so with no
detriment whatsoever to the states under his care."
383
105 citizens and keeping laborers employed. Paul's contemporaries clearly considered the import
of these projects to extend beyond the practical. Several sources explore Paul's motives as a
patron. The biography of Paul written by the Polish Dominican Abramo Bzovio several
years after the pope's death deals with his life, wars, and theological determinations, but the
majority of it is given over to his buildings. Significantly, Bzovio is as concerned with the
reasons behind Paul's patronage as the actual results. His account of Paul's decision to finish
St. Paul's is instructive. He writes, "to give a living example to the cardinals to enlarge their
titular churches, and to the rest of the populace to raise the poverty of many churches of
Rome, he made the decision to follow the building of St. Peter’s in Rome...."384
After listing Paul's main building projects Bzovio writes:
But to declare to the world, that these examples of piety do
not have an origin in an affection for eternal pomp, but
from true zeal and internal devotion, the Holy Shepherd did
not leave even once during his pontificate a day until the
last Sunday before he died, in which he he did not celebrate,
after having been first reconciled and arraigned with
particular orations.385
For Bzovio, the primary reasons for Paul's patronage are clear: piety, zeal, and
devotion. His other motivation, to inspire cardinals, can be supported by the fact that he
encouraged Scipione to restore early Christian churches. There is, of course, no reason to
accept these imputed motivations, and Bzovio's need to clarify that they were not done out
of "an affection for eternal pomp" might suggest that such a view was prevalent.
Bzovio, 702. "... per dar un vivo esempio a' Cardinali di ingrandire le Chiese di titoli loro, & al
rimanente al popolo si sollevar la povertà di molte Chiese di Roma, fece determinatione di seguire
l'edeficio di San Pietro in Vaticano..."
384
Ibid., 704. "Ma per dichiarare al mondo, che questi esempi di pietà non trahevano l'origine da
un'affettione di eterna pompa, mà da vero zelo, e divotione interna, non lascio il Santo Pastore già
mai nel suo Pontificato, giorno fino alla Domenica ultima innanzi che morisse, in cui non celebrasse,
dopo essersi prima reconciliato, e disposto con particolari orationi."
385
106 From all of these sources it seems clear that the renovation, even the reinvention,
of Rome was integral to the Borghese papacy both physically and metaphorically. Paul
used his building projects to secure the well-being of his citizens and to spur their faith.
But these projects also brought with them connotations of earlier reinventions and
reinventors and the promise of a new Golden Age. As we shall see in the following
chapters, the conceit of Paul as builder and the virtue of building itself are key elements in
the iconography of the catafalque.
107 Chapter 5
Un Tempio in Lutto: Architecture as Iconography
. . . a ragion, dico, à sì degno Corpo si doveva Sepolcro dignisimo, à sì gran
fabricatore di Tempij si deveva de i Tempij il più ornato...386
. . .fù in quel temp tutta, dall'imo al sommo, coperto à bruno,
quasi mostrando lutto di veder' morto colui, che sosteneva sì larga
parte del suo splendore.387
The papacy of Sixtus V was the model on which Paul based his reign. Likewise
Sixtus's catafalque was the prototype for Paul's own (figure 1). The program of Sixtus's
catafalque explicitly commemorated that pope's building projects by reproducing them in
simulacrum, with friezes depicting his good works running around the dome and models of
the obelisks and columns erected by him placed on the architrave (figure 2).388 Paul's
catafalque also refers to his status as a patron, but the approach is at once subtler and more
brazen. Instead of formally referencing Paul's buildings like Sixtus' catafalque, the entire
building is shown in mourning for the dead pope. This sense of architecture's loss is
expressed in the actual design of the catafalque. The theme of architecture in mourning is
conveyed through the symbiosis of ephemera and church architecture and complements the
iconographical program describing Paul's virtues which is found in the sculptures.
386
Guidiccioni 1623, 13.
387
Ibid., 16.
388
See Schraven 2005, 57.
108 The two quotations as epigraphs to this chapter, both taken from the Breve Racconto,
alert the reader to this element of the catafalque's program. In the first Guidiccioni,
describing the Borghese Chapel, opines that it is appropriate not only that such a worthy
body would have such a dignified tomb, but that such a great builder of churches should rest
in such a temple. In the second, talking now about the catafalque, he anthropomorphizes the
structure, suggesting that it wears black drapery as mourning to express sorrow at the death
of its patron. These two passages indicate that the catafalque's iconographical program was
not limited to the sculpture but that the architecture itself -- both that of the catafalque and
the entire apparatus funebris (or decoration of the rest of the church) -- was carefully designed
to reflect a view of Paul's importance as a patron of architecture and should be read
symbolically.
As we shall see, the monument is designed both to suggest this loss and to recall
early Christian martyria and Imperial Roman tombs, continuing the syncretic approach seen
in the Borghese encomia that equate Paul with both imperial rulers and fathers of the early
church.
Before continuing to unravel the meaning of the catafalque's architecture, we must
establish its appearance. We have a fairly good idea of its basic outlines thanks to the
engraving in the Breve Racconto (figure 1) as well as the descriptions of Guidiccioni, Gigli and
Alaleone.
Guidiccioni describes it thus:
This tomb was situated in the middle of the church, also in the form of
a church or mausoleum, all bronze in color, supported by twenty
columns, with their capitals, from which hung gold and black cloth
instead of foliage, & volutes, of the composite number and style, and
above them recurred a great cornice, which coming back in from four
parts, extends out with protrusions, and members of massive beauty,
109 and of marvelous view. The height of the edifice was eighty palmi and
the width fifty-four.389
This, as far as it goes, agrees with Krueger's engraving. The catafalque is clearly in the middle
of the church and of tempietto form. Based on the visible columniation we would expect the
illustrated catafalque to have twenty columns. The capitals appear to be composite and there
is fabric hanging between the volutes. Similarly, the cornice does meander in and out.
Gigli also describes the catafalque. Although his account is more concerned with the
plastic decoration than architecture, he does provide some additional details:
In the middle of the church then was made a most beautiful catafalque
of wood with eight sides with many columns going above the plinth,
which supported a round cornice above which was a dome of silvered
candelabras with lit torches, and all of the said columns and the bases
and the pedestals were made, that they appeared to be copper, and the
capitals of the columns were gilt. Between the columns were most
beautiful sculptures of white stucco, which were placed on pedestals of
copper color like the columns and in the middle of the pedestal was a
black field with gilt letters. Also above the said cupola among the
candelabras were very many angels of stucco, who held candelabras
with lit torches of white wax, and inside this catafalque was placed the
body when it came in the church.390
The only new information here concerns the coloration of the pedestals and fabric draping
the capitals and the profusion of candles. The candles are obvious in the engraving. The
Guidiccioni 1623, 16. "Era questa mole situata nel mezzo del Tempio, in forma pur di Tempio, ò
Mausoleo, di color tutta di bronzo, sostenuta da venti colonne co' i lor capitelli, da cui penduano
ligature di tela d'oro, e nera, in vece di fogliami, & volute, alla misura, & maniera composita, e sopra
esse ricorreua vna gran cornice, che rientrando da quattro parti, sporgeua con risalti, e membri di
massiccia bellezza, e di merauigliosa veduta.L'altezza dell'Edifitio era palmi ottanto, & la larghezza
cinquantaquattro."
389
Gigli, vol. I, 95. "Nel mezzo poi della chiesa era fabricato un bellisimo catafalco di legno a otto
facie con molte colonne parte sopra base, che sostevano un cornicione rotondo sopra il quale era una
cuppola di candelieri inargentati con facole accese, et tutte le dette colonne et le base, et i piedestalli
erano fatte, che parevano di rame, et li capitelli delle collone erano indorati, tra le colonne erano
belissime statue di stucco bianco, che posevano sopra piedestalli di colore rame come le colonne, et
nel mezzo del piedestallo era il campo negro scritto a lettere di oro. Similmente sopra la detta cupola
fra li candilieri erano moltissimi Angeli di stucco, che tenevano candelieri con facole di cera bianca
accese, et dentro questo catafalco fu posato il corpo quando giunse in Chiesa."
390
110 pedestals are not, but the engravings of individual virtues show a shallow pedestal with the
name of the virtue engraved across it (see figures 20 - 35). This pedestal does not seem large
enough to contain extensive text. Guidiccioni describes the scriptural quotations alternately
only as appearing "sotto" or "a piè," so perhaps the protruding semicircles which fall under
the statues in the plinth were treated as pedestals and contained these cartouches.391
Regardless, it appears that the basic elements of the structure are accurately reflected
in Krueger's engraving.
The Ground Plan
Based on these sources we can deduce that the catafalque was a peripteral central
plan building. At first glance the ground plan seems to be circular but it is actually more
complex (figure 3). While the entire structure sits on a low round step, the plinth which
forms the base of the upper structure is a Greek cross with stairs positioned between at least
the two arms facing the nave and choir.392 These stairs extend beyond both the high plinth
the colonnade rests on and the low step which forms the base of the entire monument. The
entablature repeats the lobes of the cruciform, cutting back at right angles at each stair
opening to meet the cella wall.
Because of the round base, curved arms of the entablature and the fact that the plane
of each arm is broken by the semi-circular bases for the statues, the entire structure reads as
round in Krueger's engraving while it actually is a hybrid. This interpretation is supported by
the written evidence. Guidiccioni describes the form thus: “quattro quadranti constituiti
391
Guidiccioni 1623, 16.
The ground plan provided by Fagiolo dell'Arco and Carandini is incorrect. It is the plan for the
catafalque for Sixtus V and unrelated to this work. Fagiolo dell'Arco and Carandini 1970, I, 46.
392
111 dentro a quarto angoli esteriori di due paralellogrammi, attorno all’istesso centro se medesimi
intersecanti.”393 Gigli describes it as having an eight-sided base, with many columns
supporting a round entablature.394 While Guidiccioni and Gigli's descriptions differ, they can
be reconciled both with each other and Krueger's engraving. If the catafalque were a Greek
cross, the arms would constitute the exterior angles of two rectangles. If Gigli read the stairs
set between the arms as independent sides, this would create an eight sided structure (one
side for each arm of the cross and four more spanning the distances between the arms). If
there were not staircases at the lateral entrances but instead a flat wall surmounted by a
sarcophagus, this reading becomes even more cogent.
The exact appearance of these lateral entrances is unclear since they do not fully
appear in Krueger’s engraving. Some guidance is found in Guidiccioni’s description of the
seated figures and their relation to these entrances. He writes "of the sixteen virtues, four sat
on two large sarcophagi, which exited from inside of the funeral bed in a way, that two by
two they end up at the foot of the two lateral entrances of the catafalque."395 Berendsen took
393
Guidiccioni 1623, 17.
Because Gigli recorded several funeral apparati in his diaries, we can check the accuracy of his
descriptions. The most germane comparison is his description of Carlo Barberini's catafalque, which
based on the visual evidence, had a very similar ground plan to Paul's. Gigli describes the catafalque
for Carlo Barberini as "un catafalco bellisimo a quattro faccie, ma rotondo con 16, collone di colore
di ottone scannellate con piedestalli, e capitelli e cornicioni di colore di diversi metalli, cioè oro, rame,
e statue 16. di color bronzo, nel mezzo del catafalco era una bellissima urna sostenuta da quatro
Statue in habito militare." Gigli I, 196. This can be compared to a drawing from Bernini's studio in
London and a ground plan attributed to Borromini. There are few others controls; Gigli does not
describe most funeral apparati, and when he does his focus is usually more on the decoration of the
church than the catafalque. His description of the catafalque for the obsequies of the benefactors of
the Gesu in 1639, while brief, seems accurate as far as it goes. It can be compared to an engraving by
G. Valdor reproduced in Fagiolo dell'Arco and Carandini, I, 117. ""un Catafalco altissimo con
quattro Piramidi nelle cantonate con molte Scrittioni, et Statue, et figure rappresentanti corpi morti di
ossa fatti di cartone." Gigli, I, 323.
394
Guidiccioni 1623, 17. “Delle sedici Virtu, quattro sedevano sopra due grand’urne, che uscivano di
dentro dal letto funebre per modo, che a due a due risalauno al piede delle due entrate laterali del
Catafalco."
395
112 this to mean that the figures were placed “inside the catafalque, around the sarcophagus.”396
Most authors have followed her interpretation.397 But this view is not supportable based on
the visual evidence. The inside of the catafalque is dimly visible in Krueger's engraving. The
funeral bed sits on the center of the floor. There is nothing that resembles a sarcophagus
visible under the bed, or anywhere else inside the catafalque. Nor are there any sculptures.
On the other hand, the seated figures with their legs protruding over the plinth are
clearly visible on the extreme left side of the catafalque, approximately where one side
entrance should be. These figures are clearly identifiable with the individual engravings of
Veritas and Misericordia. The head of a third seated figure is visible on the far right, through
the interior lateral door. All of these figures appear to sit on, or even be recessed into, the
plinth and are separated by a protruding object. This object is more clearly visible in the
individual engravings of the four virtues as a bench or sarcophagus with scrolled ends. The
figures then would seem to sit on a sarcophagus-like structure that extends from well
underneath the funeral bed (i.e. from inside the podium) to the feet of the lateral entrances
(figure 4).
This arrangement would parallel a common type of wall tomb in which two
allegorical figures recline on top of or on either side of a sarcophagus. The obvious
prototype for this genre is the two lateral tombs in Michelangelo's Medici Chapel.398 Closer
396
Berendsen 1961, 197.
Kauffmann for instance writes that they "umgaben den Sarkopag in Innern eines Tempiettto,"and
"sassen unten vor den Ecken des Sarkophags über Urnen." Hans Kauffmann, Giovanni Lorenzo
Bernini. Die figürlichen Kompositionen (Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1970) 207.
397
See Erwin Panofsky, Studies in Iconology Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance, 2nd ed. (New
York: Harper,1962) 199-213; Charles de Tolnay, "Studi sulla cappella medicea," L'arte V (1934): 5-44
and 281-307 and Charles de Tolnay, Michelangelo The Tomb of Julius II (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1954).
398
113 at hand was Guglielmo della Porta's tomb of Paul III in the Vatican (figure 5), which was
clearly executed in emulation of the Medici tombs.399
In turn, della Porta's tomb was to serve as a model for Bernini's monument to Urban
VIII (figure 6), the placement of which, facing della Porta's monument to Paul III, indicates
that this precedent was not lost on the sculptor.400 Panofsky, in his discussion of these two
works, contrasts the stasis of della Porta's reclining figures with the dynamism of Bernini's
figures whose movements extend beyond the niche which frames the entire tomb.401 The
deportment of Bernini's virtues in Paul's catafalque provides a missing link in this
transformation. They sit rather than recline and gesture both with their limbs and
expressions towards the viewer and each other.
Bernini returns to this formula throughout his career. Tellingly, the impetus for its
use came from the sculptor not his patrons, as is evident from its appearance in many more
preparatory drawings than in finished works. A preparatory sketch for the tomb of Countess
Matilda of Tuscany shows an elaborate sarcophagus with two virtues reclining on top
See Werner Gramberg, "Guglielmo della Porta's Grabmal für Paul III. Farnese in S. Pietro in
Vaticana," Römische Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 21 (1984): 253-365. The tomb was not finished at della
Porta's death and the original plan was a free standing monument. For Michelangelo's contributions
to its alteration, see Arnold Noach, "The Tomb of Paul III and a Point of Vasari,” Burlington Magazine
98 (1956): 376 and 378-9.
399
Panofsky 1964, 94. On Urban's tomb see Wittkower 252-253; Catherine Wilkinson, "The
Iconography of Bernini's Tomb of Urban VIII," L'Arte IV (1971): 54-68; Philip Fehl, "L'umilità
christiana e il monumento sontuoso: la tomba di Urbano VIII del Bernini," Gian Lorenzo Bernini e le
arti visive, ed. Marcello Fagiolo dell'Arco (Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1987) 185-207.
400
Panofsky, 94. Also see Philip Fehl, "Hermeticism and Art Emblem and Allegory in the work of
Bernini,” Artibus et Historiae 7 (1986): 153-189, 180-181. Fehl sees that as a defining shift in the
representation of allegorical figures with the sculptures coming to life and expressing grief over the
pope's death rather than just reflecting his virtues.
401
114 supporting a cartouche between them.402 A preparatory drawing for the unexecuted tomb of
Doge Giovanni Cornaro shows a two story structure with Mercy and Justice sitting on a
stepped cornice flanking a sarcophagus.403
The motif does also appear in several executed monuments. The first example is the
memorial plaque for Carlo Barberini in S. Maria in Aracoeli from 1630. This relief wall
plaque shows two figures (Ecclesia militans and triumphans) sitting on either side of a
sarcophagus shaped cartouche which bears a dedication to the deceased.404 The tomb of
Cardinal Pimentel of about 1653 in S. Maria sopra Minerva includes virtues sitting on steps
at the base of a sarcophagus.405
The type seems to have been particularly popular for papal monuments. Bernini
returned to it for the tomb for Alexander VII in St. Peter’s (figure 7), executed between
1670-78.406 The motif had also been taken up by Algardi in his monument for Leo XI
(figure 8), the bulk of which dates the 1630s.407
The decision to design this type of tomb seems, then, to be a stylistic rather than
iconographic one. This hypothesis is further supported by the visual parallel drawn with the
[Now in the Musee des Beaux-Arts Brussels] Illustrated in Wittkower, 255. The one on the right
holds scales and is clearly identifiable as Justice. The only visible attribute of the virtue on the left is a
cross. Wittkower identifies her as Faith. Ibid., 254. In the final plan the virtues are replaced by putti.
402
Illustrated in Ibid., 267. Wittkower suggests that this is a reworking without space constraints of
the Pimentel tomb. See also Anthony Blunt, "Two Drawings for Sepulchral Monuments by Bernini,”
Essays in the History of Art Presented to Rudolf Wittkower (London, 1967).
403
As illustrated in Irving Lavin, "Bernini's Memorial Plaque for Carlo Barberini,” Journal of the Society
of Architectural Historians 42 (1983): 6-10.
404
405
As illustrated in Wittkower, 273-274.
406
see Ibid., 295-297.
See Harriet Senie, "The Tomb of Leo XI by Alessandro Algardi," Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 90-95,
90.
407
115 architecture of S. Maria Maggiore. The creation of these two faux wall tombs in the
catafalque, facing into the Pauline and Sistine Chapels, would have also created a parallel
with the architecture of those two chapels. In the Pauline chapel angels sit above the
tabernacle that houses the Salus Popoli Romani and in the spandrels over the arched entrance
(figure 9).408
But while this decision may have been stylistic, many of the architectural choices
made throughout the catafalque carry a deeper symbolic meaning. The very choice of a
Greek cross was surely meant to echo early Christian churches and, in particular, martyria.
Coopting their form would have accomplished several purposes. First, it would signify the
pope's devotion to and continuity with the early church. Interest in early Christian churches
was high in post-Tridentine Rome and restoring the landmarks of early Christianity was an
important focus of Borghese patronage. The first church renovations undertaken by
Scipione (at Paul's bidding) were notable early Christian sites.409 The project to complete the
Vatican had long been seen as a restoration, and the construction of the Pauline chapel
around the icon Salus Popoli Romani lent a paleochristian air to that project as well.410
But the evocation of martyria in a funerary monument surely has a more specific
purpose. Just as a martyrium was built to house a martyr's relics, so the catafalque was built
to house (at least temporarily) Paul's remains. The formal similarities between the two types
See Ostrow 1996, 142-174. This device is also later adapted by Bernini in the Vatican. In 1647-49
a team of sculptures was assembled to decorate the nave of St. Peter's for the holy year. Among their
works were personifications of virtues in stucco in the spandrels arches in the naves based on the
example of one pair already complete in 1599. Jennifer Montagu, Roman Baroque Sculpture: The Industry
of Art (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989) 133-134. Montagu states that rough sketches and
iconography must have been worked out by Bernini as the actual sculptors are relatively minor. See
also Robert Enggass, "New Attributions in St. Peter's: the Spandrel Figures in the Nave," Art Bulletin
LX (1978): 96-108.
408
409
See chapter three.
410
Hill 2005, 18.
116 of structure was surely intended to impart an air of sanctity to the pope by conflating his
earthly remains with those of the martyrs. This is not meant to suggest that Scipione was
lobbying for his uncle's canonization. Even the most optimistic reading of his reign and the
climate of the early seventeenth century would not have stretched this far. What it does do is
draw a parallel between the intercessionary role of saint and the intercessionary role of the
pope. While Bernini's virtue statues will be discussed in a later chapter, one point may help
underscore this motif. The two virtues which flank the main entrance are majesty and purity.
We have already suggested that majesty refers specifically to Paul's patronage and the idea of
building as a virtue.411 Purity, then, would play an equally important role in guiding the
viewer's interpretation of the catafalque by underlining Paul's relation to the early church and
cult of martyrs.
But martyria are not the only depository of relics that the catafalque resembles. The
form, and particularly the bronze coloring, of the structure evokes tabernacles.412 The
association would surely have been evident to the seventeenth-century viewer and would
have reinforced the idea of the pope's sanctity by equating his remains with the sacrament
housed in a tabernacle. This similarity would also have been underscored by the relations
between translatio ceremonies for relics and transportation of pope's body for its reburial. It
is perhaps no coincidence that the translation of Paul's body seems to have been consciously
411
See chapter four.
Another intended association may have been with the Mausoleum of Hadrian. The Mirabilia
claimed that all of the statuary on the mausoleum - men, horses and peacocks (which later adorned
the Pigna) was gilt bronze. S. Rowland Pierce, "The Mausoleum of Hadrian and the Pons Aelius,"
Journal of Roman Studies 15 (1925): 75-103, 76-77.
412
117 designed to echo the translation of the Salus Populi Romani, again drawing the parallel
between pope's body and relic.413
In the last chapter we saw how pagan and Christian themes were intertwined to
show the various ways in which the Borghese reign represented a new Golden Age. Here,
once again, the construction of the architecture is imbued with pagan as well as Christian
meaning for the central plan building has both pagan and Christian resonance. In fact, early
Christian martyria grew out of the tradition of Imperial tombs. This association was clearly
intended, as Guidiccioni draws attention to these antique precedents in the Breve Racconto.414
He cites the mausolea of Augustus and Hadrian as well as the Monte del Grano (which he
describes as the tomb of Severo) and the tomb of Cecilia Metella as precedents for the
design.415
By the seventeenth century little remained to be seen of the Mausoleum of Augustus,
but this did not stop artists and antiquarians from trying to reconstruct its appearance. Most
seventeenth-century engravings seem to be based entirely on Pirro Ligorio's reconstructions
(which illustrate a structure with four equal tiers seemingly derived from funeral pyres as
413
As discussed in chapter one.
Guidiccioni was not the first author to connect a modern catafalque to ancient Roman burials similar observations had been made about the catafalque of Cosimo de Medici half a century before
in the Descritione della Pompa funerale fatta nell esequie del Ser.mo Sig. Cosimo Gran Duca de Medici gran duca di
Toscana (Florence, 1574). See further discussion in John Peacock, "Inigo Jones' Catafalque for James
I," Architectural History 46 (2003): 1-5 and 134-135. 3. Peacock notes that similar comments were
made by the Venetian ambassadors in London about the funerals of Prince Henry and James I.
414
Guidiccioni 1623, 14. "Che l'uso di questa erettione di Catafalco introdotto ad imitatione de
gl'antichi gentili, che falda materia superbamente costrussero vaste moli, & memorie sepulcrali, onde
la vecchia fama nell'Asia ricorda, & vanta i Mausolei, nell'Africa le Piramidi, & gl'Obeleschi, & in
Roma tutte queste cose insieme, di che si vede restar testimonio nel Mauseleo d'Augusto, &
d'Adriano, nell'Obelisco di Cesare & nel Sepolcro piramidale de Cestio, oltre quello, che poco fa si
vedeva di Severo, & al quanto prima delli Scipioni, & si vede anco pur de' i Metelli, &oltra l'altissime
cataste, o pire, & roghi funebri, che insieme con gl'istessi Corpi s'abruciavano solennemente."
415
118 depicted on consecratio coins) rather than the archaeological record.416 The original state of
Hadrian's Mausoleum was equally obscure, not withstanding its usurpal by the Vatican.
Again, many reconstructions would have been available in the 1620s.417 The Monte del
Grano was a relatively new site.418 Excavation had begun in 1582 when Fabrizio Lezaro
found a sarcophagus which Flaminio Vacca identified as that of Alexander Severus and his
mother.419
While neither the archaeological record or seventeenth-century reconstructions
suggests that this group of mausolea had an serious formal similarities to Paul's catafalque,
the very idea of a free standing (basically) round monument may have been enough to
conjure up ideas of Imperial tombs. Interestingly, another sixteenth-century source, drawings
by Giovanni Battista Montano, presents a series of unidentified Greek cross Roman
Its destruction seems to have begun immediately upon its acquisition by the Soderini family.
R. A. Cordingley and I. A. Richmond, "The Mausoleum of Augustus Papers of the British School at Rome
10 (1927): 22-35, 25; L. Richardson Jr., A New Topigraphical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Baltimore: John
Hopkins Press, 1992) 252 and Frazer, 57. Frazer suggests that Ligorio's reconstructions of Hadrian's
mausoleum and and Calvo's of the meta romuli were the sources for Julius II's tomb.
416
Filarete's bronze doors of St. Peter's and drawings by Du Perac and Ligorio. Interestingly as the
century progressed, reconstructions became better and Bartoli's Antichi sepolchri 1697 is more
accurate. Pierce, 98.
417
The name "monte del grano" derives from the fact that the tomb looks like a spilled sack of grain
and medieval legend had it that the site was just this turned magically to dirt.
418
Famiano Nardini, Roma antica di Famiano Nardini (Rome: Stamperia de Romanis, 1661)1-52. "36
Mi ricordo, fuori di Porta S. Gio: un miglio passati l'Acquedotti, dove si dice il Monte del Grano vi
era un gran massiccio antico fatto di scaglia, bastò l'animo ad un Cavatore di romperlo ed entratovi
dentro, calò giú tanto, che trovò un gran Pilo storiato con il Ratto delle Sabine e sopra il coperchio vi
erano due figure distinte con il ritratto di Alessandro Severo, e Giulia Mammea sua madre, dentro del
quale vi erano delle ceneri, ed ora si trova nel Campidoglio, in mezzo al Cortile del Palazzo de'
Conservatori." While modern scholars have rejected the attribution, it was still identified in this way
by Piranesi. In 1590 the sarcophagus was moved to Palazzo dei conservatori. Legend has it the the
Portland vase, originally the Barberini vase was also found in this tomb, although this theory has
since been debunked.
419
119 tombs.420 Giovanni Battista Soria -- who as we shall see in the next chapter was involved in
the design and constructions of Paul's catafalque -- had been a student of Montano's and
actually was the custodian of these drawings in the 1620s, so it seems likely that these images
could have been a significant source for imagining antique tombs. Regardless, Roman tombs
and funeral practices were well studied in the early Seicento and a number of treatises were
available detailing ancient burials - Lilio Giraldi's de sepulchris & vario sepeliendi ritu of 1539,
Onofrio Panvinio's de ritu sepeliendi of 1568 , Tomasso Porcacchi's Funerali antichi di diversi
popoli et nationi and Claude Guichard's Funérailles & diverses manières d'ensevelir des Romains, Grecs
& autres nations, tant anciennes que modernes of 1581.421 Interest in antique funerals continued
throughout the seventeenth century as witnessed by the appearance of Johann Kirchmann's
de funeribus romanorum in 1672.422
Columns
The colonnade consisted of twenty columns whose composite capitals were
festooned with black and gold ribbons in place of foliage. The decision to use twenty
columns is a reference to Constantine's Rotunda of the Anastasis in the Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem.423 The design of these columns was evidently an important piece of the
See Lydna Fairbairn, Italian Renaissance Drawings from the Collection of Sir John Soan's Museum
(London: Azimuth, 1998) vol. 2 cat. nos. 1040, 1047, 1087, 1093, 1098-1103, 1110-1114.
420
Lilio Giraldi, de sepulchris & vario sepeliendi ritu, libellus (Basel: Mich. Isting, 1539); Onofrio Panvinio,
de ritu sepeliendi mortuos apud veteres Christianos (Cologne: 1568); Tomasso Porcacchi, Funerali antichi di
diversi popoli et nationi (Venice, 1574); Claude Guichard, Funérailles & diverses manières d'ensevelir des
Romains, Grecs & autres nations, tant anciennes que modernes (Lyon, Jean de Tournes, 1581).
422 Johann Kirchmann, de funeribus romanorum libri quatuor (Lugd. Batv: Apud Hackios, 1672).
421
On the original form of the Holy Sepulchre, see Andre Grabar, Martyrium recherches sur le culte des
reliques et l'art chretien antique (Paris: College de France, 1946) vol. I, 257-259; Robert Willis, The
Architectural History of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem (London: J. W. Parker, 1849); Robert
423
120 iconography, for Guidiccioni specifically describes them as composite, more detail than he
provides elsewhere.
Apart from this numerological reference, the very use of the composite order
invokes early Christian architecture. The term composite was coined by Serlio who was the
first to codify the order.424 While the order had only emerged in the first century AD,
possibly developed by Augustus's architects, it quickly became associated with Imperial
functions, appearing on every triumphal arch starting with Titus up till Constantine.425
Constantine did not use it for his own triumphal arch but appropriated it for
Christian monuments, including the columns closest to the altar in old St. Peter’s. After this,
the composite order was used to symbolize the victory of Christ over death and sin,
rendering it particularly appropriate both for a papal monument and a funerary structure.
The triumphal arch was appropriated by Renaissance rulers.426 It was quickly associated with
the triumphal entry into heaven and thus became a common form for Renaissance tombs.427
Ousterhout, "Rebuilding the Temple: Constantine Monomachus and the Holy Sepulchre," Journal of
the Society of Architectural Historians 48 (1989): 66-78 and Richard Krauthammer, Studies in Early
Christian, Mediaeval and Renaissance Art (New York: New York University Press, 1969) 60-61.
For a fuller discussion of the iconography and development of the composite order, see John
Onians, Bearers of Meaning The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1988), 42-8. The composite was often called by other names reinforcing
its Italian origins. In fact, Alberti actually called it the italic order. Alberti, De re aedificatoria VII, 6.
Vasari, continuing in this tradition, tried to reclassify its origins as specifically Tuscan. Giorgio Vasari,
Le Vite de' più eccelenti pittori, scultori ed architettori, ed. Gaetano Milanesi (Florence: Sansoni, 1906) VII,
503.
424
425
Onians, 42-8 and 59.
See for instance Margaret Zaho, Imago Triumphalis: the Function and Significance of Triumphal Imagery for
Italian Renaissance Rulers (Bern: Peter Lang, 2004).
426
See for instance the tomb of Doge Andrea Vendramin by Tullio Lombardo (1493), based on the
Arch of Constantine. Wendy Sheard traces the development of the type in Venice through drawings
of Jacopo Bellini and in the ducal tombs of Pietro Lombardo. Wendy Sheard, Artibus et Historiae 18
(1997): 161-179. See also Howard Colvin, Architecture and the Afterlife (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1992) 217-232.
427
121 It was used by Baccio Bandinelli for the tombs of Leo X (1521 and Clement VII (1542), in S.
Maria sopra Minerva.428 In fact, the tombs in both the Sistine and Pauline chapels take this
form.429
The triumphal arch was also connected with the Roman god Janus, a linkage which
was particularly apt in sepulchral iconography.430 This meaning has also been commented on
in a later work of Bernini, the monument to the Blessed Ludovica Albertoni. Here the arch
which frames the sculpture is seen as a passage way to eternity, because of the arch's
association with Janus, god of new beginnings. This connection is strengthened by the
timing of her death, which (like Paul's) occurred in January.431
But the symbolic import of the capitals is not limited to their order. They are also
made of ribbon. To stress the significance of this point, Guidiccioni draws attention to the
capitals’ construction in the text, noting that they are made of ribbons rather than foliage.432
Visual evidence is provided by a plate illustrating two capitals, the only architectural detail
provided in the Breve Racconto (figure 10). The use of fabric is appropriate for an ephemeral
structure, but more importantly it serves an iconographic function. The drapery of the
See Victoria Goldberg, "Leo X, Clement VII and the Immortality of the Soul," Simiolus 8 (19751976): 16-25.
428
429
See Ostrow 1996.
Janus, the first King of Latium, was thought to have presided over the first Golden Age. Thus his
imagery became important to a number of Renaissance rulers. For the use of Janus imagery in this
connection with Leo X, and its combination with the idea of the return of Astraea, see Manfredo
Taufuri, Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Cities, Architects (New Haven: Yale, 2006) 100 and Stinger,
298.
430
Shelley Perlove, Bernini and the Idealization of Death (University Park: Pennsylvania State University
Press, 1990) 41.
431
Guidiccioni 1623, 16. “capitelli, da cui pendevano ligature de tela d’oro, e nera, in vece di fogliami
& volute, alla misura, & maniera composta.”
432
122 ribbons creates a stand in for a column "in lutto": the capitals are mourning the death of the
pontiff. Berendsen suggests that this type of capital became popular after this, but there are
very few examples in ephemeral or ecclesiastical architecture, and none that are as
elaborately draped to the exclusion of solid architectural detail.
Earlier catafalques, to be sure, had featured ribbons, hanging between columns or
framing the entrance. Ribbons framing the entrance arch appear in Fontana's design for
Philip II's catafalque in 1599, and again in Cigoli's for Ferdinand I of 1609. Henri IV's
catafalque of 1610 featured ribbon hanging between columns and on the pediment. The
closest precedent is the catafalque of Alessandro Farnese in the Gesú. But none of these
structures has anything approaching the same amount of fabric. Nor does the fabric form an
integral part of the architecture by actualy becoming a part of the column.
This type of integration remains equally uncommon afterwards. Columns featuring
ribbons as an actual part of their construction (as opposed to just mimicking the common
vegative garland which hangs between the volutes of ionic columns) only seem to occur
again in two incidences: the 1665 catafalque for Philip IV in S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli,433
and, in 1686, for the obsequies of Queen Christina in S. Maria in Valicella, where ribbons
were added to the actual capitals of the engaged pilasters around the nave and in the
architrave above. 434 Outside of Rome heavily draped capitals (now with the incorporation of
death heads) appear in the catafalque for Isabella Bourbon in Milan in 1644 and 1645.435
433
See Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 435.
434
Ibid., 548.
Illustrated in Apparato per le essequie di Isabella di Borbone nell 1644 e 1645. Also reproduced in
Montserrat Moli Frigola, "Donne, candele, lacrime e morte: Funerali de regine spagnole nel
Seicento," Barocco Romano e barocco italiano, ed. Marcello Fagiolo and Maria Luisa Madonna (Rome:
Gangemi, 1985) 135-158, 139.
435
123 Closer examination of the visual evidence suggests that these columns may have
been even more unusual. The individual engravings suggest that one ribbon treatment
topped a smooth column, while the other topped a fluted column. Krueger's engraving of
the entire monument shows the two types of capital reproduced in the individual engravings
alternating. Because Krueger uses vertical parallel lines to indicate shading, it is impossible to
determine whether the columns are fluted.
Life size virtues stood in the intercolumniations. The statues were arranged in groups
of three, each group relating to one of the pope’s principal virtues, which sat flanking the
lateral entrances. The statues stood slightly proud of the columns and the plinth had
semicircular protrusions to accommodate them, creating further movement in the base of
the building. These statues and their meaning will be discussed in chapter seven.
Dome
The form of the dome is as complex as the ground plan. It is a hybrid: part step
pyramid and part elliptical dome. The elliptical dome, reminiscent of a papal tiara, was
covered by gold and black drapery which was gathered up at the bases of the eight
articulating ribs and met eight concave volutes rising from the architrave, which were
surmounted by alternating heraldic eagles and dragons. Under the fabric the drum was
partially sheathed in a series of pyramidal steps rising from each lobe of the cruciform. The
steps served to join the outer lobes to the point from which the dome sprang, even with the
cella wall below. The finial of the dome was a papal tiara supported by four eagles and
dragons. The height of the dome was high enough that Soria had to remove part of the
ceiling of the nave as a fire precaution.436
436
Schraven 2001, 27, n. 47.
124 This dome is remarkable for two facts: its fabric covering and its hybrid nature. The
fabric reinforces the funereal aspect in an even stronger way than the draped columns
discussed above. Although earlier baldachins were often made of cloth,437 confirming these
references as appropriate in a sepulchral context, the incorporation of drapery on this scale
into the architecture of a catafalque is unprecedented. By covering the entire catafalque in
black cloth they have essentially created an entire "tempio in lutto."
The idea of the arts mourning a lost patron is certainly not a new theme in tomb
sculpture. The theme Panofsky terms the "arts bereft" appears first on the tomb of Robert
of Anjou in S. Chiara in Naples (1343-5) where the seven liberal arts are depicted en pleurant
around the effigy. It appears again and in a similar form in Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV
(1493), where they flank the effigy of the pope and have ceased to exhibit grief.438 This has
also been posited as a meaning of Michelangelo's early plans for the Julius tomb.439 But what
is novel in Paul's catafalque is that the architecture itself is in mourning.
The combination of dome and step pyramid drum is odder. On a purely formal level
it is a clever solution to a visual problem: how to join the round dome to the cruciform
contour of the entablature. But as tidy as this solution is, it surely was meant
437
See Berendsen 1982, 136-137.
Panofsky 1992, 87-88; L. D. Ettlinger, "Pollaiuolo's Tomb of Pope Sixtus V," Journal of the Warburg
and Courtauld Institutes 16 (1953): 239-274; Alison Wright, The Pollaiuolo Brothers: the Arts of Florence and
Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) 359-389, especially 373-384. Wright interprets the
presence of the liberal arts as a reflection on Sixtus patronage but does not link them to the pleurant
tradition.
438
See for instance Stinger, 280; Mary Garrard, "The Liberal Arts and Michelangelo's First Project for
the Tomb of Julius II" Viator 15 (1984): 335-404. On Julius' tomb in general see Erwin Panofsky,”
The First Two Projects for Michelangelo's Tomb of Julius II," Art Bulletin XIX (1937); Christoph
Frommel, "Cappella Iulia: die Grabkapella Papst Julius II in Neu-St. Peter," Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte
XL (1977); Panofsky 1962, 187-198, Charles de Tolnay, The Tomb of Julius II (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1954).
439
125 iconographically as well, for it allows the architect to incorporate and merge elements of
two Roman funerary types: the mausoleum and the pyramid. Berendsen suggests that the
entire dome was stepped, but this does not seem to be the case. No changes of plane are
visible on the ribs.440
Along with the mausolea discussed earlier, Guidiccioni mentions a number of
antique sources in the Breve Racconto which can be loosely grouped into the category of mete.441
The term "meta" in the Renaissance was applied to any conical shaped form ranging from
the fountain "meta sudans" to obelisks and pyramids. Guidiccioni lists three such
monuments.
The first he describes as the obelisk of Caesar, what is now known as the Vatican
obelisk.442 Many in the Renaissance believed that the ball on top of the obelisk contained the
ashes of Caesar.443 The obelisk was moved to its present position by Sixtus V and the ball
removed in an attempt to negate its pagan connotations.444
440
Berendsen, 1967.
Guidiccioni 1623, 14. "Che l'uso di questa erettione di Catafalco introdotto ad imitatione de
gl'antichi gentili, che falda materia superbamente costrussero vaste moli, & memorie sepulcrali, onde
la vecchia fama nell'Asia ricorda, & vanta i Mausolei, nell'Africa le Piramidi, & gl'Obeleschi, & in
Roma tutte queste cose insieme, di che si vede restar testimonio nel Mauseleo d'Augusto, &
d'Adriano, nell'Obelisco di Cesare & nel Sepolcro piramidale de Cestio, oltre quello, che poco fa si
vedeva di Severo, & al quanto prima delli Scipioni, & si vede anco pur de' i Metelli, &oltra l'altissime
cataste, o pire, & roghi funebri, che insieme con gl'istessi Corpi s'abruciavano solennemente."
441
The obelisk was built in Egypt and brought to Rome where it was located in the spina of
Caligula's circus. Bramante's proposal to reorient the basilica of St. Peter's has been interpreted as an
effort to align the Vatican obelisk, Peter's tomb and Julius' tomb, thus drawing the comparison of
Julius II as a new Caesar. Nicholas Temple, Renovatio Urbis: Architecture, Urbanism and Ceremony in the
Rome of Julius II (London: Routledge, 2011) 256-7. For more on Julius' tomb, see n. 439 above.
442
For a fifteenth century skeptic, see Brian Curran, Anthony Grafton and Angelo Decembrio, “A
Fifteenth-Century Site Report on the Vatican Obelisk,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 58
(1995): 234-48, which transcribes a report in Angelo Decembrio's De politia litteraria. The chapter
starts by paraphrasing the Mirabilia and Fulvio Biondo, but goes on to question whether it could
really be Caesar's tomb. Also see "St. Peter's Needle and the Ashes of Julius Caesar: Invoking Rome's
443
126 Guidiccioni's second example, the pyramidal tomb of Gaius Cestius still stands
today, built in to the Aurelian wall.445 It is interesting that Guidiccioni correctly identifies the
monument, as it was frequently referred to in the Renaissance as the meta Remi and
considered a foil to the meta Romuli, a similar monument near the Vatican.446
Guidiccioni refers to the meta Romuli as the first tomb of the Scipios. This pyramidal
structure near the Vatican was present into the sixteenth century, but totally destroyed by
1551.447 During the Renaissance it was often erroneously referred to as "sepulchrum
Imperial History at the Papal Court c. 1100-1300," in Maria Wyke, ed., Julius Caesar in Western Culture
(Oxford: Blackwell, 2006) 95-127.
Dale Kinney, "Spolia," St. Peters in the Vatican, ed. William Tronzo (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2005)16-48: 25. But the myth of Caesar’s ashes persisted even after Sixtus's move,
described thus: "as rumor has it, the ashes of one of the Caesars were inside." Pompeo Ugonio,
Historia delle Statiini di Roma (Rome, 1588). Also quoted by Kinney, 25.
444
445
Richardson, 353-4.
Margaret Finch, "The Cantharus and Pigna at Old St. Peter's," Gesta 30 (1991): 16-26, 21; J. L.
Osborne, "Peter's Grain Heap: A Medieval View of the 'Meta Romuli'," Echos du monde classique:
Clasical Views XXX (1986): 111-118; Margaret Finch, "Petrine Landmarks in Rome and two Predella
Panels by Jacopo di Cione," Artibus et Historiae 12 (1991): 67-82.
446
On the meta, see B.M. Peebles, "La Meta Romuli," Rendiconti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di
Archaeologia XII (1936): 21- 63; Richardson, 252-3.
447
127 Scipionis."448 While Guidiccioni could not have seen the meta prior to its destruction,
representations of it abound in sixteenth-century art.449
So we see that Guidiccioni has picked three monuments associated with Caesar,
Romulus and Remus. That he gives different names to them should not take away from its
programmatic implications. As an antiquarian and classicist he would have wanted to
demonstrate his knowledge, but at the same time would have felt sure that the average
reader (and viewer) would have made the popular association.450
Refering to the mete Remi and Romuli would have been particularly resonant for a
papal tomb. By the fifteenth century the two pyramids had become known as "meta sancti
Francesco Albertini, Opusculum de mirabilibus novae et veteris Urbis Romae (Rome, 1510) Lib. II,
chapter "De obiliscis et methis." Albertini gives all three interpretations: tomb of Scipio, Aepulonum
or meta Romuli. Cited in Peebles 1936, 27. Antonio Bosio, Roma subterranea novissima (Rome, 1659) I,
138. "Hanc vero Pyramidem nonnulli ipsammet fuisse asserunt, quae non multisab hinc annis haud
longe ab Hadriani Mole erecta conspiciebatur." This attribution was certainly not exclusive and it was
known as the meta Romuli in the Renaissance as well. On the meta Romuli and its relation to Chigi
Chapel, see John Shearman, "The Chigi Chapel in S. Maria del Popolo," Journal of the Warburg and
Courtauld Institutes 24 (1961): 129-160, 133. Shearman argues that Raphael creates a hybrid by
combining meta Romuli with obelisk, and argues that the relation with Romulus made it a
particularly appealing model. This identification seems to be based on a scholion of Acron on
Horace epod 9.25 saying that the body of Scipione Africanus was removed "de pyramide in Vaticano
constituta" and reburied in Porta. Richardson, 359.
448
Renaissance reconstructions of the meta appear in Filarete's bronze doors and Giulio Romano's
fresco Vision of Constantine in the Sala di Constantino in the Vatican Palace. Frazer argues that
Calvo's reconstruction was based on consecratio coins. It is certainly not accurate, apart from the
agreement of other early visual sources, a fifteenth-century manuscript (published by Peebles 1963)
also attests to its form.
449
As a member of the Accademia degli Umoristi, Guidiccioni would have been in close contact with
the leading antiquarians of the day. For more on this circle, see Susan Russell, "Pirro Ligorio,
Cassiano Dal Pozzo and the Republic of Letters," Papers of the British School at Rome 75 (2007): 239274; Ingo Herklotz, Cassiano dal Pozzo und die Archäologie des 17 Jahrhunderts (Munich: Hirmer Verlag,
1999) 33-52; Ibid., "Excavations, Collectors and Scholars in Seventeenth-Century Rome," I.
Bignamini ed., Archives and Excavations: Archaeological Monographs of the British School at Rome 14
(London, 2004) 55-88; Peter Miller, Peiresc's Europe: Learning and Virtue in the Seventeenth Century (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2000).
450
128 Petri" and "meta sancti Pauli."451 The two pyramids become entangled with the topography
of the city and iconography of burial of Peter.452
Pyramidal forms were also common in the Renaissance; they came to symbolize
immortality and were often incorporated into funerary monuments.453 This usage, however,
does not seem to have extended to catafalques in the sixteenth and first half of the
seventeenth centuries. The only example of a pyramid before Paul's catafalque is Fillip III's
catafalque by Orazio Torriani in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli erected on August 4, 1621
(figure 11).454
Indeed, nothing resembling a pyramid reappears in catafalque designs until a
preparatory drawing attributed to Algardi for the Catafalque of Ludovico Facchinetti, erected
Temple 2001, 275, n. 17. Citing Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Rerum italicarum scriptores 24 (Città di
Castello: S. Lapi, 1900) 1014 and 1038. This section is a transcription of the "Diarium Romanum ab
anno MCCCCIV. usque ad annum MCCCXVII Auctore Antonio Petri" 969-1069 from Biblioteca
Estensis. The terms appear repeatedly in Muratori - also on pages 1006 and 1044, but their origin is
not described. Their use seems to be much older - occurring in the Mirabilia. See Gustavus Parthey,
ed. Mirabilia romae e codicibus Vaticanis emendata (Berolini, 1869) 28. "In naumachia est sepulcrum
Romuli, quod vocatur Meta sancti Petri."
451
The phrase "inter duas metas" attached to the burial place of Peter seems to have been common
in the twelfth through fifteenth centuries but is only first recorded in writing by Flavio Biondo in his
Roma instaurata. Nicholas Temple, Disclosing Horizons Architecture, Perspective and Redemptive Space
(London: Routledge, 2006) 134-7. Finch also agues that the two metae were not romuli and remi but
romuli and another monument lost already in the fifteenth century called the Obelisk of Nero,
located near the Castel Sant'Angelo. Finch 1991, 70.
452
On the uses and iconography of the pyramid in Renaissance tombs see Shearman 1961, 134;
Quinto Tosatti, "L'evoluzione del Monumento Sepolcrale nel' Età Barocca, il Monumento a
Piramide," Bolletino d'Arte VII (1913): 173; On the adoption of the pyramid in tomb sculpture in the
later seventeenth century see Leo Bruhns, "Das Motiv der ewigen Anbetung in der Römischen
Grabplastik des 16. 17. und 18 Jahrhunderts," Römisches Jauhrbuch für Kunstgeschichte IV (1940): 255-426,
396; Henriette S' Jacob, Idealism and Realism a Study of Sepulchral Symbolism (Leyden, 1954) 103 and 224.
453
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1977, 44-45. The 1574 funeral book for Cosimo de Medici mentions the
pyramid of Cestius as source. Jennifer Woodward, "The Theatre of Death: the Ritual Management of
Royal Funerals in Renaissance England: 1570-1635 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1997) 178; Descritione
della Pompa funerale fatta nell esequie del Ser.mo Sig. Cosimo Gran Duca de Medici gran duca di Tosacana
(Florence, 1574).
454
129 on April 9, 1644 (figure 12). But it does not appear in the finished version.455 In fact a
pyramid does not reappear until the catafalque for Anne of Austria in the Lateran in June
1667.456
If we group obelisks with pyramids, the list expands to include Bernini's catafalques
for Alessandro VII from 1667 and for Francesco Guiron de Ville from 1669.457 But these are
a very different type of monument.458 Similarly, the pyramid as catafalque reached its zenith
in two other Bernini catafalques of the same period in which the pyramid actually becomes
the entire monument: the catafalques of Muzzio Mattei, erected June 8, 1668 in the
Aracoeli,459 and the fulfillment of the form, the catafalque of the Duke of Beaufort erected
on September 28, 1669, also in the Aracoeli (figure 13).460
On the other hand, many catafalques from this period are surmounted by domes.461
Likewise there are several precedents for stepped domes. The catafalque of Ferdinand I in
Florence designed by Cigoli and erected June 22, 1609, in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini had a
455
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1977, 124-125.
456
Ibid., 225-227.
457
Ibid., 246-247.
458
Ibid., 234-237.
459
Ibid., 245-246.
460
Ibid., 248-252.
Examples of domes are Sixtus V's catafalque erected August 27, 1591 in S. Maria Maggiore by
Domenico Fontana (Fagiolo dell'Arco 1977, 4-13), Philipp II's 1599 catafalque in Naples, also by
Domenico Fontana (Fagiolo dell'Arco 1977, 13, Henri IV's catafalque of July 1, 1610 in Rome
designed by Lemercier). While not exactly a prototype for this, the lateral walls of the Chigi Chapel in
S. Maria del Popolo are an interesting analogy because of the use of a pyramid which breaks through
the architecture of the wall. In his article on the chapel, John Shearman calls attention to the novelty
of this device: "the pyramid passes through the entablature, and this is one of the earliest appearances
of a new idea in architecture, the passage of one form through or over another: it can only be
understood if one imagines the form endowed with movement." Shearman 1961, 137.
461
130 stepped dome.462 There is also a drawing of a Roman tomb by Montano, not published in
Scielta varii but certainly in Soria's possession in 1622, which has a similar structure.463 There
are also some examples in more permanent architecture both before and after: the Pantheon
(figure 14) and Borromini’s S. Ivo (figure 15).464
The papal tiara which tops the dome was quite influential. In Gregory XV's
catafalque, just a year later, the entire dome takes the shape of the tiara. This form may have
also influences the spiral top of S. Ivo and another project by Borromini for a tiara topped
baldachino for S. Maria a Capella Nuova.465
The other prominent features of the dome are the presence of putti and the
profusion of candles. Above the four doors the fabric was held taught by putti to reveal
inscriptions. In addition to these eight putti, three were placed on each lobe, two standing on
the volutes and one in between. These putti held large candles in cornucopias. Candles were
also placed on the steps of the stepped sections of the dome and across the ribs (figure 16).
Smaller candles covered the draped surfaces of the dome.466
462
Fagiolo dell'Arco 1977, 25-28.
A drawing of a catafalque by Giovanni Battista Montano in Milan has a similar stepped dome.
Reproduced in Fairbairn 1998, vol. II, appendix 8, 770.
463
Anthony Blunt, Borromini (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979) 124-125. The stepped
drum was present in the earliest form of the building under Urban VIII as can be seen in a print
dating from 1652 in J. Van Meurs, Afbeelding van t'niueu Romen (Amsterdam, 1661). Reproduced in
Joseph Connors, "Borromini's S. Ivo alla Sapienza: the Spiral," Burlington Magazine 138 (1996): 668682, 670.
464
John Beldon Scott, "S. Ivo alla Sapienza and Borromini's Symbolic Language," The Journal of the
Society of Architectural Historians 41 (1982): 294-317, 304-305.
465
No. 174 in a Borghese inventory published by Sandro Corradini is "un disegno di candelieri
d'argento di Santa Maria magiore." Sandro Corradini, "Un antico inventorio della quadreria del
Cardinale Borghese," Bernini Scultore: La Nascita del barocco in Casa Borghese, ed. Ana Coliva and
Sebastian Schütze (Rome: De Luca, 1998) 449-456, 453.
466
131 Candles, of course, are remnants of the old castrum doloris, but we must not forget
that their use almost certainly derived from Roman funerary pyres. Once again we see a
melding of pagan and Christian symbolism. Guidiccioni acknowledges pyres as a source in
the Breve Racconto but gives no examples.467 This omission is interesting given his large
collection of ancient coins. Seicento understanding of Roman pyres was based largely on
coins of the consecratio type which show a pyre on the obverse.468
The association with the pyre is compelling for several reasons. First, many consecratio
coins show large amounts of drapery incorporated into at least one level of the pyre (figure
17).469 Second, the Borghese eagle makes an obvious link to the eagle which was believed to
carry away the emperor's soul to heaven as the pyre burnt.470
Epigraphy and Heraldry
The front entrance had an arched opening draped with ribbons which cascade from
an oval feigned marble relief portrait of the Pope praying, which was placed above the door.
The large inscription in the fabric above read "Paolo Quinto pontifici ter optimo, ter
maximo."
Guidiccioni distinguishes between permanent and ephemeral monuments "cataste, o pire, & roghi
funebri." Guidiccioni, 15. Renaissance scholars had difficulty distinguishing between pyres and
mausolea and mausolea and temples. See Krauthammer 1996 and Frazer 56.
467
468
See Frazer.
469
J.M.C. Toynbee, Death and Burial in the Roman World (Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1971) 61.
470
Ibid., 59.
132 The corresponding door facing the apse was surmounted by a relief of the papal
throne and the inscription "templorum positori, Pastori populorum." This inscription
explicitly refers to two of Paul's main characteristics lauded in the catafalque: his building
and his charity towards the Roman people. Its wording may also be meant to evoke a
comparison with Augustus, whom Ovid called the "templorum positor."471
While these two inscriptions relate to Paul, those over the lateral entrances relate to
Scipione. One was surmounted by an oval relief of a dragon, with the fabric above bearing
the inscription "Scipio Borghesius SRE Poenitenti." This was the way Scipione commonly
identified himself in inscriptions.472 The other door was crowned with an eagle and the
inscription "Avuncolo sanctissimo."
The prominence of the inscriptions echoes their abundance at S. Crisogono and S.
Sebastiano. But even more prominent than inscriptions are the Borghese devices, the dragon
and eagle, which cover almost every conceivable surface of the monument. The frieze was
adorned with sculpted eagles and dragons, alternating over each column below.473 Ribbons
Ovid, Fasti, ed. G. P. Goold, trans. James Frazer (Cambridge: Harvard Universit Press, 1989) II,
63.
471
Hill 2005, 24. The inscription on the facade of S. Gregorio Magno is similar: EPISC.
SABIN.CARD. BURGHESIUS M. POENITEN.A. MDCXXXIII. S. Sebastian's facade reads
SCIPIO CARD[INALIS] BURGHESIUS s[ANCTAE] R[OMANAE] E[CCLESIAE] MAIOR
PENITENTIARIUS AN DOM MDXCXII Inside S. Sebastiano another inscription reads:
SCIPIO CARDINALIS BURGHESIUS
MAIOR POENITENTIARIUS
HUIUS ECCLESIAE
COMMENDATARIUS
PAULI V PONTFICIS MAXIMI
NEPOS
INCLYTI MARTYRIS ECCLESIAEQ DEFENSORIS
BASILICAM VETUSTATE COLLABENTAM
RESTITUIT AUXIT ORNAVIT
ANNO DOMINIMDCXXII.
472
The incorporation of eagles into the frieze echoes the Chigi Chapel, where the association with
Imperial pyres is intended to suggest the soul's journey into heaven. See Shearman 1961 and Ingrid
473
133 were festooned between the animals. The cella wall was articulated with engaged pilasters
echoing each column. The spaces between these walls were covered with trophies and skulls.
Interior
The interior of the catafalque is difficult to make out in Krueger's engraving. We can
see only a bed, draped in fabric, with an eagle at its foot and a papal tiara topping it.
Guidiccioni provides more detail:
inside the concave of the catafalque between the four doors in the
middle of the pilasters were four faux niches, where in chiaroscuro, in
the act of recommending the soul of the dead pope to God were
painted: the Holy Virgin, and written under her "you accept prayers";
St. Peter, and under him "you free the bonds"; S. Carlo Borromeo and
S. Francesca Romana, canonized by him, with the motto of one you
advance light and the other you prepare the way.474
The import of these figures is clear liturgically: they intercede for the pope's soul,
assuring his salvation and simultaneously reinforcing doctrine of the intercessionary power
of saints. Paul's faith in the intercession of the Virgin is outlined in the foundation bull for
the Pauline chapel, where she is described as "sedulo exoratrix, & pervigil ad Regnem, quem
genuit intercedit."475 Marian devotion was an important piece of the Church's reinvention of
itself after the Council of Trent.476
Rowland, "Render onto Caesar the Things Which are Caesar's: Humanism and the Arts in the
Patronage of Agostino Chigi," Renaissance Quarterly 39 (1986): 673-730. 706.
474 Guidiccioni 1623, 19. "dentro al concauo del Catafalco fra le quattro porte in mezzo alle sue
pilastre, furon finte quattro gran nicchie, oue di chiaro oscuro, in atto di raccomandare à Dio
l"Anima del defunto Pontefice, erano dipinti, la Santissima Vergine, e scritto sotto di lei, Sume preces;
San Pietro, e sotto esso, Solve vincla; San Carlo, & Santa Francesca, da lui Canonizzati, col motto
dell'vno Profer lumen; & dell'altro Iter para."
475
Ostrow 1996, 167. The bull "Immensae bonitatis," is quoted by Ostrow, n. 204 and 209.
For an investigation of the role of Marian devotion in the years 1585-1610, see Nathan Mitchell,
The Mystery of the Rosary: Marian Devotion and the Reinvention of Classicism (New York: NYU Press, 2009)
5-47.
476
134 In fact, these figures create a link to the Pauline Chapel. There the chapel is focused
on a relic of Mary, the Salus Populi Romana, and flanked by two subsidiary chapels dedicated
to, and containing relics of, Francesca Romana and Carlo Borromeo. The inclusion of the
two saints canonized by Paul emphasizes his rejection of protestant doctrine. Paul canonized
Francesca Romana in May 29, 1608 and Carlo Borromeo in November 1610.477 The echo of
their presence in his actual tomb in the catafalque underlines Paul's devotion to the cult of
saints, but it also is another reference to his salvation as it stresses Paul's deposito ad sanctos.478
St. Francesca, or Francesca Bussa dei Ponziani was an obvious choice for Paul's
devotion. Like Paul she was Roman, particularly devoted to the Virgin and (though married)
celibate. She also cared for the Roman people, delivering grain and wine and attending the
sick.479 Paul's affinity for the saint is suggested by the fact that he chose the anniversary of
his coronation to canonize her. The bull "Caelestis aquae flumen" announcing the
canonization emphasizes both her (and the pope's) romanitas and her good works.480
On the canonizations see Pastor vol. 25, 258-260, and Niels Rasmussen, "Iconography and
Liturgy at the Canonization of Carlo Borromeo," San Carlo Borromeo: Catholic Reform Ecclesiastical Politics
in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century, ed. John Headley and John Tomaro (Washington: Folger,
1988) 264-276; as well as contemporary sources: Onorato Brognonico, canonizatione di S.ta Francesca
Romana oblata olivetana. Poema sacra (1614); Francesco Penia, Relatione summaria della vita, santità, miracoli e
atti della canonizatione di Santa Francesca Romana o de Pontiani. Cavata fedelmente dalli Processi autentici di
questa causa, Da Monsig. Francesco Penia Auditor di Rota (Rome, 1608).
477
Peter Brown, The Cult of Saints. Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1982) 32-35.
478
For her biography see Placido Lugano, "Francesca Romana," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani vol.
49 (1997) 594-599; Mauro Tagliabue, "Francesca Romana nella storiagrafia. Fonti, studi, biografie,"
Una santa tutta Romana. Saggi e richerche nel VI centenario della nascita di Francesca Bussa dei Ponziani (13841984) ed. Giorgio Picasso (Siena: Monte Olivetto Maggiore, 1984) 199-263; Arnold Esch "Santa
Francesca Romana e il suo ambiente sociale a Roma," in Picasso, 33-56; Suzanne Scanlon, Doorways
to the Demonic and Divine: Visions of Santa Francesca Romana and the frescoes of Tor' de Specchi, PhD
dissertation, Brown University, 2010, 8- 14; Anonymous, Compendio della vita, e miracoli di S. Francesca
Romana (Venice, 1658).
479
480
Ostrow 1996, 141.
135 Carlo Borromeo is, of course, known as the great reformer of the Church, defender
of the Church's temporal rights over those of its secular rivals, and reformer of the clergy.
But Carlo Borromeo was also a cardinal nephew and thus may serve as a stand in for
Scipione. The fact that it was as cardinal nephew and in his capacity as secretary of state that
he was instrumental in reconvening the Council of Trent, may be meant to suggest the good
that can be done in such positions.
Likewise he was also a great patron of architecture.481 His treatise Instructionum
Fabricae et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticae sets out guidlines for building and furnishing churches.482
There is of course a degree of irony involved in Carlo Borromeo's image adorning such a
pretentious catafalque. He had stripped the Milan cathedral of elaborate tombs he
considered inappropriate and ostentatious.483
The mottos transcribed by Guidiccioni relate to the biographies of the saints. There
was a legend that an angel lit the road ahead of St. Francesca, keeping her safe as she
travelled. The story of St. Peter in chains refers to an angel releasing Peter from chains while
he was imprisoned. Eudocia, wife of emperor Teodosio II, found the chains in Jerusalem
and they were given by her daughter to Leo the Great. When these chains miraculously fused
On his early patronage in Rome during his uncle Pius' IV's pontificate see John Alexander, From
Renaissance to Counter-Reformation: The Architectural Patronage of Carlo Borromeo during the Reign of Pius IV
Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Fonti e Studi 7 (Rome: Bulzoni, 2008).
481
Carlo Borromeo, Instructionum Fabricae et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticae libri duo, ed. and trans. Stefano
Della Torre and Massimo Marinelli, Monumenta Studia Instrumenta Liturgica 8 (Vatican City:
Libereria Editrice Vaticana, 2000) and Evelyn Carole Voelker, Carlo Borromeo's Instructionum Fabricae et
Supellectilis Ecclesiasticaei 1577: A Translation with Commentary and Analysis (Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press, 1970).
482
483
Colvin, 220.
136 with another set in Rome, the empress built S. Pietro in Vincoli to house this relic.484 You
prepare the way refers to Carlo Borromeo's reforms of the church.485
But in addition to being biographical, the last three mottos are taken from the
Marian hymn "ave maris stella," thus linking them to the third figure: the Virgin.486 The
anthem was part of the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, 487 so this may also be a subtle
indication of Paul's private stance on this very current issue.488 Monteverdi's 1610 Vespers,
dedicated to Paul V, included a setting of the "ave maris stella," but most scholars agree that
this was just an attempt to secure patronage on Monteverdi's part and there is no serious
Acts 12:7. "And, behold, the angel of the Lord came upon him, and a light shined in the prison:
and he smote Peter on the side, and raised him up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his chains fell off
from his hands."
484
Michael Mullett, The Catholic Reformation (London: Routledge, 1999) 138. Borromeo is often
considered the embodiment of Tridentine zeal. His first provincial council assembled in Milan in
October of 1565, was intended to further to adoption of the Council of Trent's decrees about the
behavior of the clergy, e.g. visits to Switzerland. He firmly believed that clergy must lead the way to
reform by setting a good example.
485
Menestrier also made this connection but it (and Menestrier's comments) has remained unnoticed
by scholars. The latter likely because they occur in a separate section of his treatise Menestrier, 342. It
occurs in a section devoted to the decoration of churches. "Pour la Pape Paul V. On mit l'image de
la sainte Vierge, dont il avoit fait bâtir et orner la superbe chapelle avec ces mots qu'elle adressoit à
Dieu: Sume preces. S. Pierre dont il avoit fait achever l'Eglise disoit a Dieu: Solve vincla. S. Charles
Boromeé, qu'il avoit canonisé: Profer lumen; demandant pour luy la lumiere de gloire; & sainte
Francoişe qu'il avait aussi canonisée: iter para. Tous ces mots estoient empruntez de l'Hymne Ave
maris stella."
486
Richard Spear, The Divine Guido. Religion, Sex, Money and Art in the World of Guido Reni (New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1997) 136.
487
488 Stephen
Ostrow "Cigoli's Immacolata and Galileo's Moon: Astronomy and the Virgin in Early
Seicento Rome," Art Bulletin 78 (1996): 218-235. Ostrow identifies Cigoli's Virgin in the dome of the
Paulina as a Virgin of the Immaculate Conception and cites contemporary sources making this claim.
He argues that Paul was an Immaculist sympathizer despite being unwilling to issue an official verdict
on the matter. On the Immaculist debate during Paul's reign, see Spear, 149-152; Suzanne Stratton,
The Immaculate Concepetion in Spanish Art (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) 67-87. See
also n. 770 below for the connection between the Immacolata and Divine Wisdom.
137 connection between him and the Borghese.489 Perhaps it is just meant to tie the other saint's
intercessionary role to the Virgin. The doctrine of the intercessionary powers of the Virgin
also play a prominent role in the iconography of the Pauline chapel.490
If we assume the center of the catafalque would only have been entered by the
cardinals singing the requiem mass it is tempting to imagine that this interior fresco cycle had
a special program visible to them and related to the words they intoned. Unfortunately we
know next to nothing about the music at Paul's funeral.491 Guidiccioni states merely that
Cardinals Borghese, Barberini, Lante, Verallo, and di Nazzaret entered the catafalque after
the "ceremonie di cappella" and sang a requiem.492 Exactly what the form of this requiem
was we do not know. Frederick Hammond has examined the music sung as part of the
official papal novenas, but there is no reason to assume that the practice would have been
the same for a reburial.493 Music was certainly an important part of the Cappella Borghese
and Scipione himself was involved with yearly funeral masses for Paul starting in 1622.494
On Monteverdi's vespers, see John Wenham, Monteverdi Vespers (1610) (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1997), and Jeffrey Kurtzman, The Monteverdi Vespers of 1610: Music, Context,
Performance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). For more on the Borghese's patronage of music,
see Jean Lionnet, "The Borghese Family and Music During the First Half of the Seventeenth
Century," Music and Letters 74 (1993): 519-529, and John Burke, Musicians of S. Maria Maggiore 16001700 A Social and Economic Study, supplement to Note d'archivio per la storia musicale nuova serie 2 (1984).
489
490
Ostrow 1996, 167-174.
491
Berendsen notes that music was an integral part of the program for an apparatus funebris.
492
Guidiccioni 1623, 19-20.
Frederick Hammond, The Ruined Bridge: Studies in Barberini Patronage of Music and Spectacle 1631-1679
(Sterling Heights, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 2010) 245-286.
493
Lionet 1993, 525. For more on music in the Borghese chapel see Lionet, "'La Salve' de Sainte
Marie Majeure: la musique de la Chapelle Borghese au la siezième siècle" Studi musicali XII (1983): 97119.
494
138 Decoration of S. Maria Maggiore
Of course the catafalque itself was only part of the entire apparatus funebris. The
clerics and members of the Roman public attending the ceremony would have first seen the
decorated facade. The most complete description of the facade is found in Gigli:
At S. Maria Maggiore the facade and the entire portico were covered
with arms of this pope, and painted "heads of death”, and doors
ornamented with festoons and most beautiful friezes all around made
of paper, which showed skeletons in a black field, and beautiful papal
realms and in the architrave of the doors in each one between two
white and black rosettes there were the arms of the Pope Paul painted
on board with the reign above without the keys.
Gigli goes on to describe the interior of the church:
The church, then, of S. Maria Maggiore was entirely covered in black
cloth from the gold ceiling to the ground: above the columns, which
closed the nave of the church there went around the long big cornice
full of candelabras of silvered wood, above which there were lit very
large candles of white wax. There hung then in the space between the
columns large arms of the pope painted in canvas around which were
various and different figures which with diverse gestures showed
sadness and tears. And above the aforementioned candelabras were
attached infinite arms with death heads arranged in the form of a large
cross.495
Much of this decoration is visible in Krueger's engraving: the fabric, candles and
shields with papal arms hung between the columns. The most obvious difference
is that Gigli's mourning figures are here replaced by skeletons. The profusion of
Gigli, vol. I, 94-95. "A Santa Maria Maggiore la facciata, et il Portico tutto era piene di arme di
esso Pontefice, et di teste di morto dipinte, et le porte ornate con festoni, et bellissimi fregi intorno di
carta, che in campo nero mostravano ossa de' morti, et Regni Papali con bellissimo disegno, et
nell'architrave delle porte in chiascheduna fra due rosonibianchi et negri vi era l'Arma di Papa Paolo
dipinta in tela con il Regno sopra senza le Chiavi. La Chiesa poi di S. Maria Maggiore era tutta
apparta di cotone nero da soffitto di oro sino a terra: sopra le colonne, che chiudevano le navi della
Chiesa girava intorno in lungo cornicione pieno di candelieri di legno inargentati, sopra li quali erano
accese facole di cera bianca molto grosse. Pendeva poi nello spatiofra una colonna et l'altra un'arme
grande dipinta in tela del d.o. Pontefice, intorno alle quali erano figure varie et differenti,le quali con
diversi gesti mostravano mestizia e pianto, et di sopra alli candelieri sudetti erano attacate nel panno
infinite arme con teste di morto di carta accomodate in forma di gran croci."
495
139 mementi mori described by Gigli was typical of Counter Reformation sepulchral art,
encouraged perhaps by the Jesuits meditation of death.496
In sum, the architectural choices made in this catafalque reflect several points. They
tie the pope to early Christian martyrs and underscore his intercessionary role in the
salvation of mankind. They also reference antique tombs, thus equating him with Imperial
rulers. But simultaneously they also reinforce his importance as a patron of architecture, and
architecture's mourning at the loss of such a great patron. The profusion of references was
surely intentional; the building was designed to evoke all of these ideas.
Colvin, 225. On this imagery, see Panofsky, "Mors Vitae Testimonium: The Positive Apect of
Death in Renaissance and Baroque Iconography," Studien zur toskanischen Kunst: Festschrift für Ludwig
Heinrich Heydenreich (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1964).
496
140 Chapter 6
The Architect
Attributing an ephemeral work to a specific artist or architect is fraught with
difficulties. First, the usual tools of style and form cannot be trusted because we no longer
have the physical work to judge. In this case, our only visual evidence is a third-hand
representation: an engraving of a drawing of a building. While we also have written
testimony, which confirms that this image must be relatively faithful, it is still a derivative of
the original. Furthermore a very large building is reduced to a single sheet of paper, making
details, even if accurate, difficult to read. More problematical, it shows only one angle, not
allowing us to see the other sides or interior of the building.
This circumstance compels reliance on the documentary evidence. But here again the
problem is complicated by the tangled web of architects and artisans which befuddles
attribution in all of Scipione Borghese's projects of these years. As we shall see, even with
the aid of extensive payment records there is simply no scholarly consensus on the
attribution of various elements of many of Scipione's buildings from the teens and twenties,
with a number of architects (Venturi, Soria, Van Santen) seemingly playing a role in each.
The titles of architect, falegname and misuratore seem to have been rather fluid and a signature
bearing one of these titles does not seem to have ruled out participation in other capacities
as well. This fact makes it difficult to associate stylistic elements of the catafalque with any of
these men.
It seems probable that this porosity of roles would have been heightened in an
ephemeral commission, where the construction of an entire monument out of wood and
stucco would have, perforce, fallen more to the falegname and to his expertise and design.
141 So, we are left to guess based on the sources we have. According to Guidiccioni, the
catafalque was "erected with magnificence by the most praiseworthy architect by Sergio
Venturi."497 Payment records confirm Venturi's involvement with the project, but also
introduce the name of Giovanni Battista Soria.498 Both Soria and Venturi spent the bulk of
their careers in the service of Scipione Borghese. Both were classicizing, pedantic
practitioners and nothing in their collective oeuvre matches the innovation in the catafalque,
drawing their authorship into question.
Sergio Venturi
Virtually nothing is known about Venturi. He was Scipione Borghese’s nominal
architect after Van Santen's (Vasanzio in the italicized version of his name) death in 1621.
Based on Borghese payment records, Hibbard credits him with portions of S. Crisogono, S.
Maria della Vittoria and the Borghese villa at Mondragone.499 Venturi may have also worked
on the Palazzo Volpi in Como.500 However, there is little consensus among either seicento
sources or modern scholars about any of these attributions. Starting with Baglione, the
facade of S. Maria della Vittoria has usually been attributed to Soria, as has that of S.
Guidiccioni 1623, 14. "la bella machina del Catafalco dal Signor Borghese per arte, e dondotta del
lodatissimo Architetto il Signor Sergio Venturi con real magnificenza eretto."
497
Schraven 2001, 27, n. 47. [Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Archivio Borghese, Vol. 4173, 'Artisti di
Scipione Borghese 1607-1623', fol. 15 r.] "A dì 22 di gennaro 1622. Opere del Catafalco. Mesura et
stima dell'opere de legname fatte a tutte sue spese da Maestro Gio. Battista Soria Capomastro
falegname a S. Maria Maggiore, in servitio dell'Ill.mo et R.mo sig. Card.le Borghese, per l'essequie
della S.ta Mem. di N.ro sig.re Papa Paolo Quinto."
498
Howard Hibbard, “Scipione Borghese’s Garden Palace on the Quirinal,” The Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians 23 (1964): 163-192, 174. Hibbard 1962, 73, n. 6. Hibbard writes that Venturi's
signature appears on nearly all the documents from these buildings.
499
See Stefano Della Torre, "Un gruppo di disegni di Sergio Venturi," Il Disegni di Architettura 0
(1989): 28-29. Della Torre attributes a group of fifty drawings at the Archivio di Stato di Como
[Archivio Storico Civico, fondo Ex-museo, cart. 42] to Venturi.
500
142 Crisogono and Tracey Ehrlich has demonstrated that the major work at Mondragone was
executed by Van Santen,501 with Venturi only applying finishing details at Frascati after Van
Santen's death.502
It is also unclear whether Venturi acted as an architect or as a merely as a supervisor.
In the 1620s his name appears attached to almost every building project of Scipione's.503
Hibbard's investigation of the Borghese payment records suggests that Venturi had a hand in
all of these projects, sometimes as an actual architect and sometimes as misuratore. Hibbard
transcribes a document dating from February 10, 1622 giving 150 scudi to "Sergio Venturi
nostro Architetto...per donativo et recognitione di tante le sue fatighe per uso nostro."504
Hibbard argues that Venturi was succeeded by Soria around 1627 or 8, despite Venturi
remaining in Scipione's employ. The last payments signed by Venturi as architect date to
between August 30, 1627 and March 3, 1628 (for the masonry at the Pinciana) and May 18,
1628.505
The lack of any firm architectural attributions to Venturi makes it difficult to
pinpoint his role in the genesis of the catafalque: without a control, it is challenging to relate
any of this monument's style to Venturi.
Giovanni Battista Soria
501
Ehrlich, 118-119.
502
Ibid., 343 n. 100.
Maria Barbara Guerrieri Borsoi and Francecso Petruccci, "Sergio Venturi," Il Santuario della
Madonna di Galloro in Ariccia, (Rome: Gangemi, 2011) 99-105, 102.
503
504
Hibbard 74, n. 6. AB 7933, fol. 19, 1, no. 131.
505
Ibid., AB 5059, no 107; AB 6057, no. 327.
143 Giovanni Battista Soria (1568-1651) is somewhat better known. Soria's biography is
included in Lione Pascoli’s Vite of 1736, from which we can glean the basic outline of his
career.506 He was born in Rome in 1581.507 He trained as a carpenter and architect with
Giovanni Battista Montano, whose drawings he later published in a series of volumes
entitled Scelta di varii Tempieti antichi.508 He worked first in Città di Castello and visited
Florence and Sicily before returning to Rome where he entered the service of the
Sacchetti.509 Pascoli suggests that his introduction to the Borghese came through his work
assisting Carlo Maderno on S. Maria della Vittoria.510 It seems possible, however, given
Scipione's (and Guidiccioni's, for that matter) friendship with the Sacchetti that they may
have been another source of introduction. In any case, starting in 1614, Soria seems to have
been Scipione's primary carpenter.511 In 1619 he made frames for Scipione's picture
collection at Mondragone.512 While Soria's title switched to architect in the late 1620's, he
seems to have continued working as a carpenter, or falegname, through the first half of that
decade. His name certainly appears in that capacity in many of the documents of 16251626.513 This designation may be misleading to the modern mind. The falegname's
Lione Pascoli, Vite di Pittore, Scultori ed Architetti moderni, ed. Valentino Martinelli and Alessandro
Marabottini (Perugia: Electa, 1992) 989.
506
507
Ibid., 989.
508
Giovan Battista Soria, Scelta di varii Tempieti antichi (Rome, 1624).
509
Pascoli, 989-990.
510
Ibid., 991.
511
Antinori, 52.
Ehrlich, 282, appendix III, A 14. Interestingly Durante is engaged in the same work in 1622.
Ehrlich, appendix III, A 21.
512
513
Hibbard 1962, n. 6.
144 responsibilities were much more wide-ranging than mere construction. Tracey Ehrlich argues
that as falegname, Soria supervised the decoration of all Borghese projects in these years.514
As noted above, he seems to have taken over Venturi's official position as architect
in 1628, but he certainly continued to work as a carpenter outside of the Borghese's
patronage, completing the choir stall and tribunes for the Capella del Coro at St. Peter's, the
organ for the Capella del Sacramento, the throne for the Cathedra Petri, the library of the
Palazzo Barberini and the models for Bernini's bell tower and the baldachino.515
His work as an architect is less clear because the attribution of building elements to
the various Borghese architects in the twenties and thirties is very tentative. He is usually
credited with S. Crisogono, S. Maria della Vittoria (1625-6), S. Caterina da Siena (1638), S.
Gregorio Magno al Celio (1633), S. Carlo ai Catinari (1636-8) and the Palazzo della famiglia
Borghese (a distinct building from the better known Palazzo Borghese).516
Stylistically he was certainly a classicist. His twentieth-century monographer, Brigette
Ringbeck, describes him as one of the foremost architects in the classical style.517 This
judgement was shared by Anthony Blunt, who wrote an entire article contrasting Soria's
classicism to the High Baroque style.518 Wittkower describes his work in a similar fashion, as
“academic” and demonstrative of “conservative views as far as church architecture.”519
514
Ehrlich, 338 n. 32.
515
Brigitta Ringbeck, Giovanni Battista Soria, Architekt Scipione Borgheses (Münster: Lit, 1989), 5.
516
For example, Ibid., 1.
517
Ibid., 1.
Anthony Blunt, "Roman Baroque Architecture: the Other Side of the Medal," Art History 3 (1980):
61-80.
518
Rudolf Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750 (New Haven: Yale University Press,
1982).
519
145 This classification is certainly supported by Soria's extant church facades. Blunt
groups Soria's facades in two groups: "a facade of two equal storeys" (exemplified by S.
Carlo ai Catinari and S. Maria della Vittoria), and "a three-arched portico and a closed
chamber above" (S. Caterina da Siena and S. Gregorio).520 Neither of these types has
anything in common with Paul's catafalque. This evidence, however, may not be conclusive.
Blunt observes that every extant Soria project is a renovation or facade.521 There are no
known buildings designed entirely by Soria, so possibly the extant Soria buildings are not an
indication of the extent of his imaginative capacity but merely his solution to existing
circumstances.
As noted at the start, the overlap between buildings attributed the Soria and Venturi
is large, creating yet another obstacle to sorting out their respective roles on the catafalque.
As a comparison, we can examine Scipione's employment of architects for his other major
building project in 1621-22: the ceiling of S. Crisogono. There are two distinct phases to
Scipione's renovation of the church. In the first, which encompassed the ceiling, work was
begun by Van Santen and completed by Soria. There is no record of Venturi's participation.
In phase two, the question of Venturi's participation is also unclear as the payments records
are inconclusive and at times contradict both the primary sources and stylistic
considerations.522 Ringbeck concludes that Venturi acted as building supervisor, overseeing
520
Blunt 1980, 66-7.
521
Ibid., 65.
Ringbeck, 38-9 and Hill 2001, 445, n. 7. Johann Mandl in his work on S. Crisogono credits
Venturi on stylistic grounds. Ibid., "Die Kirche des S. Crisogonus in Rom." However Baglione and
Mola both credit Soria. Baglione 1642, 97. Giovanni Battista Mola, Breve racconto delle miglior Opere di
Architettura, Scultura et Pitture fatte in Roma et alcune fuor di Roma, Karl Noehles ed. (Berlin: Hessling,
1966).
522
146 construction and signing the misure while Soria was responsible for the design.523 After 1627
Soria assumed both roles.524
The difficulty in untangling the separate hands of Scipione's architects may suggest
that all or some were involved in the design. Antinori sees the same collaboration between
Giovanni Battista Bulin as misuratore with Soria and Venturi in S. Crisogono, the Palazzo
della famiglia Borghese, the facade of S. Maria della Vittoria, S. Chiara alla casa pia, stuccos
for the new choir of S. Maria sopra Minerva.525
A similar collaboration on the catafalque is supported by the payments. The stylistic
confusion can perhaps be attributed to roles (architect versus builder) being, as already
suggested, more fluid than generally assumed. The fact that Soria was acting as an architect
several years after this certainly suggests that he would have at least been cognizant of, if not
a participant in, the design of this monument. Furthermore, as suggested earlier, the blurring
of lines may be exaggerated in an ephemeral structure where the carpenter's role would have
been important in determining structural capacity.
To further complicate matters, the timing of the project does not rule out Van
Santen's participation, at least in the early design stages. Because the catafalque was erected a
full year after Paul's death it is not unreasonable to assume that members of Scipione's
entourage were tasked with generating ideas for its design shortly after his death. Van Santen
died on August 25, 1621. Construction of the catafalque appears to have started by the
beginning of November, meaning that it would have been one of the first projects entrusted
523
Ringbeck, 30-31.
524
Ibid., 31.
525
Antinori, 103, n. 183.
147 to Venturi in his official capacity.526 Would the actual design of the catafalque have been
entrusted, even nominally, to Venturi? Because of the importance of the catafalque to
Scipione's social rehabilitation, it seems unlikely that it would have been entrusted to an
untested architect. However, it remains possible that ephemeral monuments were given to
new architects to test them. There is in fact some evidence of this practice. Van Santen
himself had been entrusted with the design of the catafalque for Giovanni Battista Borghese
in 1610, three years before he became Scipione's official architect.527
But it is also possible that Van Santen was involved in the conceptual planning of the
monument. Although work did not commence until November, Paul had died the previous
January and it is likely that Scipione commenced planning well before official permission was
received. The Dutch born Van Santen became Scipione's house architect after Flaminio
Ponzio's death in 1613. While many of his projects consisted of execution of Ponzio's
designs, he was responsible for the facade of the Villa Borghese. But again we are faced with
a stylistic problem for Van Santen's style is no less pedantic than Venturi's.
Another measure of each architect's involvement is the payment records. Soria
received 1674 scudi.528 Bernini received 490.529 Venturi, as house architect, signed the misure
and seems to have received a payment of 150 scudi for work relating to the catafalque.530
This certainly suggests that the brunt of the work fell to Soria.
526
On Van Santen's death, see Ehrlich, 118.
527
Schraven 2001, 24.
Ringbeck, 104. [ASV AB 4174 August 2, 1622] Oddly, this payment seems to date to six months
after the completion of the catafalque.
528
529
Berendsen 1957, 67-9.
Ringbeck, 104 and 30, n. 161. On Feb 10, 1622 Venturi received 150 scudi; "Sergio venturi nostro
Architetto...per donativo et recognitione de tante le sue fatighe per uso nostro..." (ASV AB 7933, fol.
530
148 Bernini
All of the evidence suggests that the design was some sort of collaboration between
Soria and Venturi. As is the case with all of Scipione's other projects, it is unlikely that their
exact responsibilities will ever be untangled. However, one more factor remains to be
considered: the involvement of Bernini.
While it is tempting to see Bernini's hand in the architecture, there is little solid
evidence to justify this claim. Ringbeck, the only scholar to have made this claim (or
specifically, attributed it to a collaboration between Bernini and Soria completely discounting
Venturi's involvement) bases her hypothesis on two stylistic considerations: the integration
of the sculptural figures with the architecture and the sense of movement created by the
entrance that she sees as anticipating S. Andrea al Quirinale. 531 In other words, her thesis is
based solely on style. As we have already noted, discussing style in a nonexistent building is a
questionable activity. Additionally, one could just as easily argue that any stylistic similarities
to later Bernini buildings are due to the fact that Bernini learned from his involvement with
this project.
Before going further, we should pause to examine the evidence for attributing the
sculptures to Bernini. The attribution derives from Guidiccioni. In the Breve Racconto he
describes the sculptures thus:
trentasei statue di molta bellezza, finte di marmo, & maggiori del
naturale, con fondamento essquisito in brevissimo spati condotte dal
19a, n. 131 )This seems to be in recognition for this particular project because afterwards his salary
falls off to three or four scudi per month. See also Hibbard 1962, 73.
531
Ibid., 106.
149 Cavalier Bernino scultore nell'età nostra di chiaro grido, che dalla
natura formato à dar viue forme à spiranti marmi, & dall'arte...532
As discussed in chapter two, Guidiccioni and Bernini were on friendly terms, making it
unlikely that he would be mistaken about the sculptor's participation. But even if this were
not the case, Guidiccioni's statements are borne out by multiple payment records. Six
separate payments are made by Scipione Borghese to Bernini, all of which explicitly
reference Bernini's sculptures for the catafalque. The first three come from the Uscita de'
Conti dal Banco from 1621 and are all signed by Giovanni Rotoli.533 The, fourth, fifth and
sixth come from the Registro dei Mandati of 1622-23.534
A separate invoice signed by Bernini enumerates his expenses.535 This bill suggests
that Bernini was responsible for more of the decoration then just the figures, but again does
Guidiccioni 1623, 16. For Guidiccioni's reiteration of this passage in a letter to Bernini dating
from 1633, see note 105 above.
532
Faldi, 316. The first: [doc XVII - 7617] "Sig. Cauallier Gio Lorenzo Bernino p(er) s. 150 m'ta
fattili pag(ar)e sotto di 3 detto a conto dell'opere di scoltura da farsi p(er) il Catafalco delle essequie
celebrarsi in S. Maria Maggiore p(er) fel.me di papa Pavolo V, a credito del Sr. Rotoli."
The second: [doc XVIII - 7617] "Sig. Cauallier Gio Lorenzo Bernino scultore p(er) s. 150 m'ta
fattigli pag(ar)e di (30) detto a conto delle statue di stucco che fa p(er) il Catafalco. A cred(it)o del S.
Rotoli sud(dett)o"
533
Ibid., 316. The Third: [doc XIX - 7931, p. 166, n, 624 ] "Sig. Gio Rotoli dep(osita)rio (paghera) al
Cau.re Gio. Lorenzo Bernino s. 150 m.ta a conto dell'opere di scoltura dafarsi p(er) il Catafalco delle
essequie da celebrrarsi in S.ta Maria Maggiore per le fel.me di Papa Pauolo V. Di Casa, li 3 xbre 1621
- Gio. batta Altieri Mog.mo." fourth: [doc. XX-7933]Sig. Gio. R(otoli) (pagherà) al Cauallier Gio.
Lorenzo Bernino scultore s. cento m.ta a bon c(onto) delle statue di stucco che fa per uso del
catafalco delle essequie da celebrarsi per la fel.me. di Papa Pauolo V n(ost)ro zio. Di Casa, li 15
gennaro 1622 - Il Card. Borghese." The fifth: [doc XXII 7933, p.16, n. 114]"Sig. Gio Rotoli
Depositario dell Ill.mo S. Card.le Borghese Vi piacerà pagare al Cauallier Gio. Lorenzo Bernino s.
50m.ta a bon c(on)to delle statue che fa p(er) il Catafalco dell'essequie della fel.me di Papa Pauolo V
n(ost)ro zio. D Casa, li 3 febbraro 1622 - Gio. Batta Altieri Magg.mo." The sixth:[doc XXII -7933, p.
22, n. 156] " Sig. Gio. R(otoli) n(ost)ro DepositarioVi piacerà pagare al Cauallier Gio. Lorenzo
Bernino scultore s. centocinq(uan)ta m.ta sono per donatiuo che gli facciamo oltre il prezzo
conuenuto et pagatoli di t(ut)te le statue fatta nel catafalco dell'essequie celebratesi alla fel.me di Papa
Pauolo V n(ost)ro zio. Di casa, li 19 febbraro 1622 - Il Card. Borghese. Gio Batta Altieri Magg.mo"
534
535
Berendsen 1959, 68.
150 not seem to include payments for anything that could be construed as architecture.536 22.30
is paid for "clay, hay, string and cloth."537 32.15 is paid for "timber, that is large boards of
poplar for the large faces of 2 1/2 palmi and other joists and boards."538 21.050 is paid for
"carpenters and nails."539 11.75 is paid for "pulleys and iron wire."540 33.25 is paid for "artists,
terra d'ombra, gesso, glue, brushes and boards."541 20.60 is paid for "coal, candles and large
string for the figures."542 All of these supplies would have been needed for the construction
of the sculptures and their attributes. Interestingly, the attributes themselves are included in
the bill and were actual borrowed objects, not sculpted renditions.
Now, neither Guidiccioni's words nor the payment records can be taken as proof
that Bernini himself was responsible for all of the sculptures. In fact, another payment
record clearly indicates the participation of the workshop. Two seperate line items on an
invoice submitted by Bernini allude to the payment of assistants.543 And in fact, the
construction of thirty-six sculptures in two months would have been a Herculean, if not
impossible, effort for a single man, even one as prodigious as Bernini. But the question of
workshop participation is not a particularly urgent one in ephemeral art. Since we are dealing
536
Ibid., 68.
537
Ibid., 68."Per Creta fieno spago e per telo."
538
Ibid., 68. "Legnami cioe tavoloni d'albuccio per le fasce larghi p.mi 2 1/2 e altri travicelli e tavole."
539
Ibid., 68. "fatture per fallegnami e chiodi."
540
Ibid., 68. "Verzelli e filo di ferro."
541
Ibid., 68. "Pittori terra d'ombra giesso Colla penelli Cartoni."
542
Ibid., 68. "letti locandi carbone candele e corde grosse per le statue."
Berendsen 1959, 68. Of the total bill of 462, 210 is designated "per fattura Alli scultori a chi piu e
manco conforme alli meriti." A further 28.50 is paid for "Omini per aiuto delli scultori e accomodare
le crete."
543
151 only with images of the sculptures rather than the real objects, the question of attribution to
the master versus workshop would be difficult to settle.
It also may not matter. Without the objects, we are necessarily more concerned with
content and general form than style. And the broad outlines of these compositions would
surely have been determined by Bernini in any case. For any commission Bernini would
have determined the basic outlines of the sculpture through sketches and terracotta
bozzetti.544 Given Bernini's close relationship with Scipione Borghese in these years, it seems
improbable that he would not have accorded this commission at least as much attention as
usual. Since all we have to work with is engravings of drawings of sculptures, the differences
in style that would allow us to attribute one virtue to Bernini and another to the workshop
are lost. Thus it seems safe to attribute the invenzione behind each figure (which is precisely
what we are left with) to Bernini himself.
With this issue addressed, let us return to the more controversial one of Bernini's
participation in the architectural design. As we have seen, the numerous and detailed
payment records for the sculptor's work on the catafalque all explicitly reference only
sculpture and other decorative elements. This documentary evidence suggests that any
architectural input from Bernini would have been purely informal.
But even without the evidence of the payment records, it would be improbable for
Bernini to have acted as architect this early in his career. Baldinucci informs us that it was
Urban VIII who set Bernini to the study of architecture and painting "so he could unite with
distinction these disciplines to his other virtues."545 Bernini's first architectural commissions
On the use of the workshop, see Jennifer Montagu, Roman Baroque Sculpture: the Industry of Art
(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), 99-115.
544
545
Baldinucci, 15.
152 also came from the Barberini pope: the baldachino and S. Bibiana. The earliest project where
Bernini is recorded as an architect of a building is S. Bibiana, undertaken between July 31,
1624 and November 11, 1626.546 While the facade bears little superficial resemblance to
Paul's catafalque, there are several details worth noting. Like the catafalque, the facade shows
changes in plane marked by breaks in entablature.547 Within the church there is an integration
of sculpture, architecture and frescoes which may be explained by the fact that although, also
unmentioned in the payments, Bernini seems to have designed the fresco program, as well as
the sculpture and architecture.548 The facade's echo of a triumphal arch seems to reference
both the Pauline and Sistine chapels.549
By the end of the decade he had certainly established his record as an architect, for in
1629 he succeeded Maderno as architect of the Fabbrica of St. Peter's and also took over
responsibility for work in the Barberini palace.
Having examined the historical record, we must return to style. So, is there any
compelling stylistic evidence that would lead us to assume that Bernini did in fact have a
hand in the catafalque's architecture? The first argument is a negative one: that the catafalque
cannot really be attributed to either Soria or Venturi on stylistic grounds. As we have seen,
this is a difficult argument to either prove or disprove. There is, however, certainly evidence
for a good working relationship between Bernini and Soria later in both men’s' careers. This
George Bauer, "Gianlorenzo Bernini: the Development of Architectural Iconography," PhD
Dissertation, Princeton University, 1974, 11.
546
547
Ibid., 13
Domenico Fedini, La vita di S. Bibiana vergine e martire romana (Rome, 1627) 76. "A me il Capitolo
per un poco di gusto o d'affezione ch'io m'habbia al disegno diede carico d'essere co'l Cavaliere
Bernino per servire a'pensieri si Sua Santita a dovendosi con pittura a fresco spiegare la vita della
Santa nella Nave grande..." Quoted in Bauer, 16.
548
549
Ibid., 32-33.
153 leads credence to the idea they may have worked together on this project. Bernini used Soria
as a collaborator on several later projects: He commissioned Soria to build wood models for
the columns and superstructure of the baldachino.550 Soria also built a wooden model that was
to form the third story of the south bell tower for St. Peter's in May 1641.551 Bernini clearly
relied heavily on Soria's architectural expertise even into the forties as is demonstrated by a
letter in which Bernini complains of his difficulties with the bell tower and begs for Soria's
help.552 But this continuity of collaboration does not in any way prove that the two men's
relationship was the same on this project.
The question of the integration of sculpture and architecture is a more rewarding line
of inquiry, for here we find solid evidence that Bernini was involved very early on in the
process. Work on the sculptures seems to have commenced simultaneously with the
structure of the catafalque. Guidiccioni writes that the catafalque occupied workers day and
night for the five weeks preceding the obsequies.553 In contrast he states only that Bernini
worked very quickly.554 But the estimate of five weeks is consistent with the payment
records, which date from between December 31, 1621 and February 19, 1622.555
Lynda Fairbairn, Italian Renaissance Drawings in the Collection of Sir John Soane’s Museum (London:
Azimuth, 1998) 550; Montagu 1989, 72-5 discusses the many changes to the model for the
superstructure recorded in Soria's payment accounts.
550
Paul Underwood, “Notes on Bernini’s Towers for St. Peter’s in Rome,” Art Bulletin 21 (1939):
283-287, 283. For a detailed discussion of Soria's role in the south bell tower, see McPhee 2002.
551
552
McPhee 2002, 69.
Guidiccioni 1623, 6. "l'Apparato del Tempio gia fusse ad ordine, come per lo spatio di cinque
settimane vi si fusse continuato il lavoro, non solo i giorni, a delle notti gran parte."
553
Ibid., 16. "con fondamento esquisito in brevisssimo spatio condotte dal Cavalier Bernino
scultore."
554
555
Faldi 1953, 315-316.
154 More importantly, the placement of both the Virtues and putti is integral to the
rhythm of the building, suggesting some sort of integral design process involving both
sculpture and architecture. If the building was designed to accommodate the sculpture, this
may have guided the architectural design of the building
Now for the question of style. It is curious that Ringbeck bases her claims to
Bernini’s authorship on a supposed similarity to S. Andrea al Quirinale, a project that falls
fairly late in Bernini's development as an architect, occupying him between 1658 and 1670.556
There are better analogues in type, style and date: namely Carlo Barberini's catafalque erected
in S. Maria in Aracoeli in 1630 and the baldachino.
Carlo Barberini's catafalque is known through two drawings. While a funeral book
was published, it includes only the oration, with neither pictorial or written description of the
catafalque.557 The first drawing is an elevation at Windsor attributed to Bernini's studio
(figure 22). The second is a ground plan attributed to Borromini (figure 23). While payment
records reveal that the elevation could not represent exactly the final form of the catafalque,
it is certainly relevant as an artifact of Bernini's evolution as an architectural designer.558
See Joseph Connors, "Bernini's S. Andrea al Quirinale: Payments and Planning," Journal of the
Society of Architectural Historians 41 (1982): 15-37 and Tod Marder, "The Evolution of Bernini's
Designs for the Facade of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale: 1658-1676," Architectura 20 (1990): 108-132.
556
Giulio Cintio, In funere illustrissimi et excellentissimi principis Caroli Barberini, generalis S.R. E. dvcis. Oratio
habita in aede B Virg in Capitolio a Julio Cincio (Rome, 1630). See also Alessandro Adimari, In morte
dell'illustriss. et eccellentiss. sig. don Carlo Barberino, general di Santa Chiesa, canzone d'Alessandro Adimari
(Rome: Zannetti, 1630). Another catafalque was erected in Bologna and is described and illustrated in
Floriano Nani, il funerale fatto dal Senato di Bologna al illustrisso et eccmo sigr. D. Carlo Barberino (Bologna:
Benacci, 1630). This catafalque consisted of two parts: a pyramidal ribbon baldachin attached to the
roof and a low round base covered with steps with candles. Another was erected in Ferrara,
recorded in Oratio in funere Ilustriss. et Excellentiss D. Caroli Barberini (Ferrara, 1630). This was an eight
sided catafalque with much sculpture and a candle covered dome. The Ferrara catafalque is
reproduced in Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 276. The Bologna catafalque is not reproduced in any modern
sources.
557
Fernando Bilancia, "Le esequie di Carlo Barberini nella chiesa di Santa Maria in Aracoeli," Studi sul
Barocco romano Scritti in onore di Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco. (Milan: Skira, 2004) 95-119, 98.
558
155 While the two catafalques appear quite different - Carlo's is just the skeleton of a building,
strongly architectural and classicizing with no draperies and little paraphernalia - the actual
structures of both are almost identical: a Greek cross with stairs set in between the arms,
topped by an elliptical dome. Carlo's catafalque, in fact, is basically Paul's stripped of all of its
draperies. Both also have a profusion of virtue statues.559
The baldachino is a relevant comparison more because of type than style. The
questions of the early evolution of the baldachino is a vexed one.560 But the period that
concerns us is the very earliest stages in which Bernini was involved following the election of
Urban VIII. It is important to establish what the structure looked like prior to Bernini and
Urban's interventions. Paul V had models erected of both a baldachin over the crossing and
a ciborium in the apse. These models were replaced by Gregory XV with payments starting
just months after Paul's obsequies, in June of 1622.561 Engravings of the triple canonization
of Saints Isidore of Madrid, Ignatius Loyola, Frances Xavier, Teresa of Avila and Filippo
Neri on March 12 of that year give us some idea of the baldachino's appearance just before the
Ludovisi changes.562 Kneeling angels support staves bearing a canopy. Bernini's work began
559
On the attribution of the various sculptures, see Montagu 1985, 27-28 and 421.
See Heinrich Thelen, Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Hochaltars von St. Peter in Rom (Berlin: Mann, 1967);
Irving Lavin, Bernini and the Crossing of St. Peter's (New York: College Art Association, 1968); Chandler
Kirwin, "Bernini's Baldachino Reconsidered," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 19 (1981)141-171;
Irving Lavin, "Bernini's Baldachin: Considering a Reconsideration," Römisches Jahrbuch für
Kunstgeschichte XXI (1984) 405- 414; Chandler Kirwin, Powers Matchless: the Pontificate of Urban VIII, the
Baldachin, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini (New York: Peter Lang, 1997); George Bauer, "Bernini and the
Baldachino: On Becoming an Architect in the Seventeenth Century," Architectura 26 (1997): 144-165;
Tod Marder, "The Baldachino." Bernini and the Art of Architecture (New York: Abbeville, 1998) 27-47
and Irving Lavin, Bernini at St. Peter's. The Pilgrimage (London, 2012).
560
561
Irving Lavin 1968, 8.
See illustration in Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 242. On the canonization, see Ibid., 241-243. See also
Lavin 1968, 8.
562
156 by July of 1624, the date of the earliest payments when the main altar is returned to
crossing.563 Within a year the baldachin had morphed into something very different: a
structure with Solomonic columns supporting a ribbed dome hung with ribbons from which
hung a fabric canopy. These changes had certainly been made by May 25, 1625 as we can
see of an illustration on the canonization of Elizabeth of Portugal.564
While this baldachin still does not look a lot like Paul's catafalque, several elements
are significant: the use of columns (instead of staves) and the fabric canopy. In fact, this
stage of Bernini's plan was criticized by Agostino Ciampelli because of these very elements.
He decried the structure as a chimera, part baldachin and part ciborium, because of this very
combination.565
But while the combination of ciborium and baldachin may have been shocking,
something similar had actually been going on for decades in the evolution of the castrum
doloris into the catafalque.566 Paul's catafalque, with its particularly prevalent use of fabric in
combination with solid architecture, may have suggested the feasibility of this combination
563
Ibid., 10.
See illustration in Fagiolo dell'Arco 1997, 257. There are two states of the print which show a
different baldachin. The earlier state shows standing angels with staves. This seems to suggest that
the changes to the baldachin occurred at precisely this point as some of the architectural screen and
sculptures must have been completed before the change to the baldachin. The fact that it was Bernini
himself who was responsible for the entire apparatus further supports this assumption. For more on
the canonization see Ibid., 255- 258.
564
Lavin 1968, 11. Recorded in the marginalia of F. Martinelli Roma ornata dall'architettura, pittura, e
scoltura [Bibl Casanatense MS 4984 p 201]. "...li Baldacchini non si sostengono con le colonne, ma con
l'haste, e che in ogni modo voleva mostrare che lo reggonoli Angeli: e sossioneva che era una
chimera."
565
This point was made by Olga Berendsen, "I primi catafalchi del Bernini e il progetto del
Baldachino," Immagini del barocco. Bernini e la cultura del seicento, ed. Maurizio Fagiolo and G. Spagnese
(Florence: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1982) 133-143, 137.
566
157 to Bernini. There is one other element of this stage of the baldachino's development which
may have been inspired by Paul's catafalque: the putti which sit on top of the columns.567
Of course, these similarities do not prove definitively that Bernini was responsible
for the architectural design of Paul's catafalque. But they certainly do suggest that he was
involved. He clearly paid careful attention to the architecture and returned to it as a starting
point for his own projects when he turned his attention to architecture later in the decade.
Thus the architecture of Paul's catafalque can be seen as seminal in the formation of Bernini
as architect.
The Decoration: Annibale Durante and Other Collaborators
Of course, the architecture and sculpture are not the only elements of the catafalque.
There also was a profusion of decorative painting, gilding and draping of fabric, not just on
the actual catafalque but throughout the church.
Payment records show that several artists worked on the decoration, apparently
mostly on the painted arms and trophies which decorate the cella wall of the catafalque and
the nave of the church. Payments were made to Annibale Durante (the nature of whose
work is not indicated); Sigismondo Tracci for "armi dipinte in carta;" Fabio Corcetti for
"armi dipinte in carta e Trofei depinti in tela;" and Michelangelo Stefanelli for "fregi ed Armi
dipinte in carta."568
567
Ibid., 139.
Faldi, 313. Faldi quotes these specific phrases from the payments but does not transcribe the
actual records.
568
158 Payments were also made to one Marcanti, who is described as a "festarolo."569 The
festarolo was the merchant who rented the black morning cloths and sometimes even
provided the skeletons and arms which hung over them.570 Because of the incorporation of
the drapery into the architecture, it is interesting to contemplate this man's role, but he
cannot be identified with any significant artisan of the period.
Annibale Durante
Annibale Durante is the only one of the artists to leave a trace on history.571 Durante
was a Fleming, whose earliest recorded work in Rome was a number of "stendardi" for the
archconfraternity of S. Maria in Campo Santo in 1601.572 As a Fleming, he probably was
introduced into Scipione's circle by the cardinal's majordomo Stefano Pignatelli, who acted
as protector of many Flemish artists in Rome. Durante executed many projects for Scipione
between 1610 and 1622 including work in the Borghese villa,573 Cicognola574 and Frascati. He
also worked for Paul at the Vatican and the Quirinal palace, where his work was recorded
between 1613-19.575 Durante served as Scipione's decorator in chief between 1611-1623, first
569
Ibid., 313.
Frederick Hammond, The Ruined Bridge Studies in Barberini Patronage of Music and Spectacle 1631-1679
(Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2010) 256-258. In his description of the festarolo's duties
Hammond relies on Francesco Liberati, Il Perfetto Mastro di Casa, Libro Terzo (Rome: Angelo Bernabò
dal Verme, 1668).
570
571
See Stephen Paul Fox, "Annibale Durante," Dizionario Biografico degli italiani vol. 42 (1993) 104-105.
572
Hoogewerff 1913, 227.
573
Heillman 1973, 111.
Johann Mandl, "Jan van Santen in Artena und Cecchignola,"Mededelingen von het Nederlandisch
Instituut Rom VIII (1928): 136, n. 3.
574
575
Ehrlich, 338 n. 35.
159 primarily working on gilding ceilings and frames, but graduating to overseeing all of the
interior decoration at Scipione's Quirinal gardens and the Pinciana.576
Ringbeck suggests that Scipione had a group of artisans who were frequently
employed on all of his building projects to create an atmosphere of trust and reliability: these
were the metalworker Giovanni Maria Zaccaria, glassworker Pietro Neri, Annibale Durante
and Giovanni Carrara as painters as gilders.577 It is useful, once again, to compare the
artisans working on Borghese's other big building project of 1622: the ceiling of S.
Crisogono. Here Soria was responsible for the carpentry and Annibale Durante for the
painting and gilding (along with Giovanni Battista Ferrari, Lorenzo Verri and Fausto
Rucci).578 Soria and Durante were also collaborators on Borghese's renovations to
Mondragone in 1614; Soria was in charge of the carpentry and Durante of fresco and stucco
work.579 In 1614 Soria and Durante worked together outfitting two chambers at Mondragone
for the pope's use.580
He was probably responsible for the faux painting of the catafalque to resemble
bronze and perhaps also the painting of arms, both roles he played repeatedly. It is possible
that he also executed the chiaroscuri saints in the interior of the catafalque.
The authorship of the bas-relief medallions is also unclear. The festival book only
attributes the Virtues and putti to Bernini. Did he, or his workshop, also undertake the
576
Coliva 1998, 408.
577
Ringbeck, 34.
Hill 2002, 445, n. 5. See also Mandl 1938, 17. Soria received 5,432 scudi. Durante received 1,168
scudi for painting. 4,500 scudi for gilding is divided among Durante and the other three artists.
578
579
Ehrlich, 122.
580
Ibid., 122.
160 reliefs or was another sculptor involved? It is possible that these fell under Soria's purview.
Records exist for at least one instance where he was involved in the sculptural decoration of
a building.581
The Funeral Book and the Question of Lanfranco
Apart from Durante, the other artists mentioned in the records are completely
anonymous. One wonders why the catafalque did not merit the involvement of more
prominent painters. Why, for example, was Lanfranco involved in illustrating the funeral
book, but not in decorating the catafalque?
This circumstance is especially strange given that Lanfranco was a particular favorite
of the pope's, working on the ceiling of the Sala Regia in the Quirinal and receiving the
commission for the ceiling of the benediction loggia at St. Peters which was never executed
due to Paul's death.582 He was certainly in Rome in 1622 as he was working on the dome of
the Capella Sacchetti in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini.
In the dedication of the Breve Racconto to Scipione Borghese, Guidiccioni apologizes
for the delay in the publication of the book, attributing it to his desire to have the sculptures
engraved by a learned artist.583 This concern is reiterated in a letter addressed to Borghese on
Hibbard 1962, 74, n. 6. He was paid for the relief over the door of S. Maria della Vittoria executed
by Domenico de Rossi. AB 6053, no. 357, September 15, 1627.
581
Eric Schleier, ed., Giovanni Lanfranco un pittore barocco tra Parma, Roma Napoli (Milan: Electa, 2001)
38-39. The designs were preserved in engravings by Pietro Santi Bartoli in 1655 by Lanfranco's son
Giuseppe who was Scipione Borghese's godson.
582
Guidiccioni 1623, dedication. "Ma perche pensai di rappresentare in intaglio il Catafalco da V.S.
Illustriss. erreto con splendor veramente regio, & insieme ciascuna sua statua, impressa per mano di
dotto artefice."
583
161 August 12, 1622.584 Lanfranco's involvement, then, is due to Guidiccioni, not Scipione
Borghese. This requires explanation. Guidiccioni left a large collection and scattered
observations about the relative merits of various artists and Lanfranco appears in neither.585
So how did Guidiccioni alight on Lanfranco as a "learned artist" worthy to engrave Bernini's
masterpieces?
One explanation is a working relationship between Dietrich Krueger and Lanfranco.
Krueger engraved a series of twenty drawings by Lanfranco dedicated to Cardinal Odoardo
Farnese, "Vita S. Brunonis. Cartusianorum, Patriarchae." Although the cycle is not dated,
number ten is dated 1620 and number eleven 1621.586 This suggests that the two men may
still have been involved in that project in early 1622. Since Krueger was responsible for all of
the engravings in the Breve Racconto, he may have suggested Lanfranco's involvement.
Another mystery is how Lanfranco accessed the sculptures. As Guidiccioni's letter
indicates, the drawings were not completed as late as August 12. The catafalque would have
been disassembled well before then, so the statues must have been preserved. However, they
do not seem to have ended up in either Guidiccioni or Scipione's collections. Perhaps they
were kept in Bernini's studio.
The situation becomes even more convoluted by the existence of several later
appearances of the images. The first is a printed edition of the sixteen virtues published by
D'Onofrio 1967, 293 n. 12. "che resti servita dar caldo con un suo cenno alla finale opera di quelli
intagli dell'essequie esqueline, sopra che non mancai di somministare i ricordi ordinatimi da V.S.
Ill.ma, tanto all'Artefice (il Lanfranco] quanto à mons. Majordomo." [Fondo Borghese, IV 215a,
c.207].
584
Michel Hochman, “les annotations marginales de Federico Zuccaro a un exemplaire des Vies de
Vasari,” Revue de l’art 80 (1988): 64-71.
585
Eric Schleier, "Lanfranco's "Notte" for the Marchese Sannesi and Some Early Drawings," The
Burlington Magazine 104 (1962): 246-257.
586
162 Lanfranco with a dedication to Francesco Piccolomini.587 The plates appear identical with
two alterations: the addition of the dedication to Piccolomini which appears on the
representation of Veritas, and the movement of the inscriptions, which appear on the verso of
each plate in the Breve Racconto, to the recto. The images are also reversed.
"Illmo Dno Francisco Piccolomineo" ideo meis effictua umbris tibi
debetur Virtutum Chorus, naq urluit iure nunc est, qiod uerius tuo
hyrent anima proprijs expresse lumenibus. eas igitur meq, iamdis haq
incipati benificentis ita completere ut uere naveas hic nihil non tuum.
Vale.
Pietro Marchetti for. Bernardius Oppius DDD"
Further complicating matters, two of the virtues make another later printed
appearance. Maiestà and Clementia both appear in an architectural border to the
printed "conclusioni filosofiche difese in disputa pubblica da Pier Francesco de
Magistris" in 1677. They are placed in niches in an architectural frame around the
text. They appear on the right and two other virtues Pietà and Potestà appear on
the left. Marc Worsdale called attention to these figures in his catalogue entry for
the 1981 exhibit "Bernini in Vaticano" but believed incorrectly that all four figures
were derived from the catafalque.588 The fact that these figures were reused twice
is suggestive and may indicate that by the middle of the century that this type of
virtue imagery had become so standard that it could be interchangeably applied to
various rulers.
If Lanfranco's involvement must remain obscure, the explanation to the question
posed earlier -- why no great painters were involved -- is probably relatively mundane. There
Giovanni-Pietro Bernini, Giovanni Lanfranco (Parma: Grafica Artigianna, 1985) 318. There is at
least one extant copy of these prints, located in Parma, Biblioteca Palatina, Raccolta Ortalli, 32123215.
587
Marc Worsdale, Bernini in Vaticano braccio di Carlo Magno maggio- luglio 1981 (Rome: de Luca, 1981)
257. Print located Barb X I 29 int. 11.
588
163 is not a lot of complicated painting. In fact almost all of the decoration (with the exception
of the grisaille saints) is purely decorative. There are trophies, arms, and a lot of decorative
faux painting. This is exactly the sort of work that Scipione's team of artists had perfected
working on his many villa projects over the past decade so it makes sense that he would
entrust this type of work to them.
In fact, this arrangement mirrors the situation with the architecture. Scipione
Borghese had a team of competent if not brilliant architects and artists and he turned to
them for all of his needs. Because of the specific iconography involved in the architectural
and sculpted elements of the building it is probable that the basic outlines of the structure
were designed by some combination of Guidiccioni, Borghese, Bernini and perhaps even
other scholars. Soria, Venturi and Durante, then, would have been left to work within these
specific parameters.
164 Chapter 7
The Sixteen Virtues
We have already investigated how meaning was conveyed through the architectural
form of the catafalque. By echoing early Christian and Imperial buildings alike the
architecture declared the renewal or resurgence of both of these earlier eras, brought about
by Paul's own copious building projects. These constructs are subtle and only truly accessible
to an erudite audience, versed in both architectural and ancient history. Surely these learned
references must have been augmented by another program, one that was clearly
understandable to the crowds which thronged to the basilica to pay their last respects to the
pope. To cement Paul's reputation in the minds of the general populace Scipione would have
had to invoke not Paul's similarities to Augustus, but rather his strengths as a ruler, his good
deeds for the people and city of Rome and his reform of the church. For Paul's obsequies
were an opportunity for Scipione to broadcast his uncle's legacy as a good pope and leader
not only to the curia and letterati but also to the Roman people.589
And indeed, there was a second program attributing the characteristics of a good
ruler to Paul. This was conveyed through the use of personified virtues. Several millennia of
political thought associated the strength of a ruler with his possession of certain inherent
virtues. This rich iconographic tradition allows the virtues to be endowed with multiple
layers of meaning, equating Paul with ancient rulers at the same time as lauding the
On the important role sepulchral monuments played in this function, see Volker Reinhardt,
"Geschichte, Memoria, und Nepotismus im päpstlichen Rom - Vorüberlegungen zur
Gedächtniskultur der ewigen Stadt in der frühen Neuzeit," Tod und Verklärung: Grabmalkultur in der
Frühen Neuzeit, ed. Arne Karstens and Philip Zitzlsperger (Cologne: Böhlau, 2004) 7-14.
589
165 characteristics that made him a good Christian prince. In some cases the allusions seem
obscure or even contradictory; the layers of allegory are so complex that they may not have
been intended to be understood by the viewer and but were an intellectual exercise or form
of bravura.590
The catafalque contained sixteen female sculptures divided into four groups of four.
While Guidiccioni identifies all of them as virtues, strictly speaking they are a mix. The
blurred lines between personifications of virtues and results of virtues is certainly not new to
this catafalque. There was a debate in Imperial Roman rhetoric over the differences between
benefits and virtues of the emperor.591 The differences between virtues, gifts, fruits and
beatitudes remained a live topic in medieval theology and had been ably discoursed upon
Aquinas and others. But these subtle philosophical or theological distinctions do not seem to
have been noted by Guidiccioni.
His first group comprises Iustitia, Religio, Maestas, and Puritas. The second group is
Pax, Tranquillitas, Annona and Providentia. The third grouping is Misericordia, Eleemosina,
Clementia and Mansuetudo. The final group is Veritas, Sapientia, Magnanimitas and Magnificentia.
Each of these groups contains three standing virtues which Guidiccioni describes as
dependent on one seated virtue. According to Guidiccioni the four seated sculptures (that is
Iustitia, Pax, Misericordia, and Veritas) represent the Pope's four principal virtues.592 These
For the frequency in which elements of the symbolism in festivals was designed not even to be
viewable by the audience see Panofsky, who notes that details were often such that "nobody but the
organizers themselves could ever hope to understand all the learned allusions lavished on the
costumes of figures which would only appear for a fleeting moment." Panofsky, Icones, 178. See also
Aby Warburg, I Costumi Teatrali per gli Intermezzi del 1589 (Florence: Galletti, 1895) 280.
590
591
See Noreña, 59 and 108. On Cicero's contributions to this debate see Fishwick 1987, 459-60.
Guidiccioni 1623, 18. "Le dodici in piede, che dipendevano dalle prime quattro, tre per
ciascuna...significavano dodici virtu dependenti da quelle prime."
592
166 virtues are not randomly selected from the group, but represent the Four Daughters of
God.593 The Four Daughters of God, also known as the Parliament in Heaven or the Virtues
Reconciled, was a long-standing exegetical conceit based on a reading of the twelfth verse of
Psalm 84.594 As we shall see, the confluence of these virtues in Paul signifies his strength as a
ruler and sets the stage for the salvation of man and a new Christian Golden Age. But while
this grouping is the driving organizational theme of the symphony of virtues, the
iconographical program is at once deeper and richer than this one scheme.
Before we turn our attention to its visual and iconographic apparatus, let us look at
two other virtues, Magnificentia and Puritas, whose placement in the catafalque (flanking the
door facing the nave) accords them a sort of visual precedence. These are the first virtues the
viewer would have encountered, so it is logical to assume that they were intended to inform
and colour his reading of the rest. We will examine the specific interpretation of these two
virtues in turn, but for now suffice to say that these two virtues present the twin faces of
Paul's pontificate: the magnificence of his patronage which would usher in a new Golden
Age and the purity of the church, representing the purification of the Counter Reformation
and rebirth of a new, purer form of Christianity. In other words, the sculptures in the most
architecturally prominent positions enhance the meaning already presented by the
architecture.
While this is not mentioned by most scholars writing about the catafalque, it has been pointed out
by several authors discussing Bernini's later depictions of Truth. Hans Kauffman in his discussion of
Truth Unveiled recognized that the catafalque was Bernini's first variation on the theme and states that
the entire iconography of the catafalque is organized around it. Hans Kaufman, Giovanni Lorenzo
Bernini. Die figürlichen Kompositionen (Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1970) 207. It is also noted by Winner.
Matthias Winner, "Veritas," in Bernini Scultore: la Nascita del Barrocco in Casa Borghese, ed. Anna Coliva
and Sebastian Schütze (Rome: De Luca, 1998), 290-309, 299-300.
593
594
This will be discussed below. See further bibliography in n. 637.
167 The decision to adorn the catafalque with virtues was probably an easy one. Most
recent catafalques had included some number of personified virtues, either surrounding the
bier, on the architrave or, as in this case, distributed in the intercolumniation. But these
examples would have only supplied the concept of virtues, rather than prescribing their
appropriate identities, for there is no homogeneity of virtues used in catafalques in the half
century before Paul's death. The apparati staged for the obsequies of Emperor Charles V had
a very specific program outlined by Philip II, but even these instructions did not extend to
dictating the virtues, which were chosen by each city.595 The obsequies of King Sigismund II
of Poland, celebrated in Rome in 1572, contained two virtues: Faith and Justice. The 1589
catafalque of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in the Gesù incorporated the four cardinal virtues,
the three theological virtues, in addition to Religion, Liberality, Hospitality, Honor, and
Virtue.596 Even Sixtus' catafalque, erstwhile model for Paul's, which contained ten virtues
(the four cardinal virtues inside surrounding the sarcophagus and Fede, Autorita Pontificia,
Sicurezza, Religio, Providentia, and Magnificenza outside),597 does not seem to have served as a
blueprint for the choice of Paul's virtues. Not that catafalques were the only precedent
Scipione and Guidiccioni could have looked at. In determining appropriate virtues for the
pope they could turn to a rich tradition, both literary and pictorial, for the proper virtues of a
ruler.
595
Schraven 2005, 47.
596
Ibid., 50-51.
597
Fagiolo dell'Arco and Carandini, 4-9.
168 From the Virtues of the Emperor to a "Mirror of Popes"
The idea of defining a monarch through his possession of certain internal
characteristics (or virtues) has a long history. It first appeared in Greek thought in the fourth
century B.C. with the writings of Isocrates and Xenophon.598 In the writings of Socrates and
Plato a canon of four virtues began to emerge comprising Bravery, Temperance, Justice and
Wisdom. The genre of virtue literature became more fully developed in the Hellenistic
period.599
The Romans co-opted much Hellenistic political thought and it was really in Imperial
Rome that the cult of virtues reached its apex.600 While over forty virtues appear in
descriptions of the emperor from this period, a canon of Imperial virtues seems to coalesce,
consisting of Virtus, Clementia, Iustitia and Pietas.601 Roman ideas on virtues are preserved in
For a discussion of their role in forming this concept of kingship, see Carlos Noreña, Imperial
Ideals in the Roman West Representation, Circulation, Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)
39-40.
598
See Erwin Goodenough, "The Political Philosophy of Hellenistic Kingship," Yale Classical Studies
1 (1928): 52-102.
599
The virtue of Clementia was invented for Julius Caesar. Pax, Iustitia, Concordia and Providentia all
became part of the cult of Augustus. Martin Charlesworth, "Providentia and Aeternitas," Harvard
Theological Review 29 (1936): 107-132. There is a substantial literature on the subject of virtues of the
Roman Emperor, see Martin Charlesworth, "The Virtues of a Roman Emperor: Propaganda and the
Creation of Belief," Proceedings of the British Academy 23 (1937): 105-133; J. Rufus Fears, "The Cult of
Virtues and Roman Imperial Ideology," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II, 17, 2 (1981): 827948; ; Noreña 2001; H. Mattingley, "The Roman Virtues," Harvard Theological Review 30 (1937): 103117; Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, "The Emperor and his Virtues," Historia 30 (1981): 298-323;
Duncan Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the
Roman Empire (Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill, 1987); Susanna Morton Braund, "The Anger of
Tyrants and Forgiveness of Kings," in Ancient Forgiveness, Classical, Judaic and Christian, Charles
Griswold and David Konstan ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) 77-135.
600
See Charlesworth 1937, who argues that these virtues becomes formalized in the Golden Shield of
Augustus. For a reevaluation of the validity of this canon, see Wallace-Hadrill, 1981. Wallace-Hadrill
points out that these particular four virtues do not appear together as a group either before or after
with any frequency.
601
169 both textual and visual sources. The two texts which had the most lasting influence on the
development of western political philosophy are Cicero's De officiis and Seneca's De
Clementia.602 Cicero's text, much of which is a scathing attack on the tyranny of Caesar and
monarchy in general, singles out Iustitia as a necessary virtue for a leader. But Cicero's ideas
on virtues are not confined to De officiis. They appear throughout his writings and he
constantly returns to four main virtues: Fortitudo, Temperantia, Iustitia and an amalgam of
Prudentia/Sapientia. Seneca, writing a century later within the framework on a new Roman
system of government, declares Magnanimitas and Clementia the most important virtues,
particularly the latter because it demonstrates a ruler's wisdom and justice.603 Another
extensive and influential treatment of the virtues of the emperor comes in Pliny's Panegyric
addressed to the young Trajan.604
Two other formative authors of a slightly later era were Prudentius and Macrobius.
Prudentius' Psychomachia of c. 405 A.D. describes a battle between the seven deadly sins and
seven virtues (Chastity, Temperance, Charity, Diligence, Patience, Kindness and Humility).605
It led to many visual representations, famously Mantegna's Minerva expelling the Vices.606
See Peter Stacy, Roman Monarchy and the Renaissance Prince (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1997) chapter one on Cicero's De officiis and Seneca's De Clementia and the construct of the Roman
prince through virtue.
602
Stacy, 33. For Seneca's resignation to monarchy as a necessary form of government, see Braund
2009, 68-69.
603
Pliny, Letters and Panegyricus I, Books 1-7, ed. and trans. Betty Radice (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1969). Also see Paul Roche, ed., Pliny's Praise, the Panegyricus in the Roman World
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
604
On the Psychomachia see S. Georgia Nugent, Allegory and Poetics: the Structure and Imagery of Prudentius
(New York: Peter Lang, 1985) and Macklin Smith, Prudentius' Psychomachia a Reexamination (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1976).
605
On Mantegna, see Richard Förster, "Studien zu Mantegna und der Bildern in Studierzimmer der
Isabella Gonzaga," Jahrbuch der Preussischen Knstsammlungen 22 (1901) 78. On earlier illustrations of the
Psychomachia see J. S. Norman, Metamorphosis of an Allegory: the Iconography of the Psychomachia in Medieval
606
170 Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius was a Roman doctor at the turn of the fourth to fifth
centuries. His commentary on virtues comes in two main texts: the Saturnalia and Commentarii
in Somnium Scipionis.607
These writings were instrumental in shaping the concept of kingship that dominated
western thought for the next several millennia. While Christian thinkers had few scruples
about co-opting pagan philosophy, classical ideas were also tempered by the writings of the
doctors of the church, in particular St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas. While clearly of
the utmost importance to Renaissance theology, neither deals specifically (or at least not
exclusively) with the appropriate virtues for a ruler. Augustine famously took a dubious view
of pagan virtues, seeing the idea of virtue as incompatible with the non-Christian and
suggesting that any virtue not applied to the worship of God was really a vice.608 For
Augustine virtue was a means to achieve the summum bonum.609 Thomas' views are more
circumspect and much of his virtue writing shows the clear influence of Seneca. His two
Art (New York, 1988) and Marina Warner, Monuments and Maidens (New York: Atheneum, 1985),
149-151.
Macrobius' treatment of virtues derives from Plotinus and Porphyry. On Macrobius' identity, see
Alan Cameron, "The Date and Identity of Macrobius," Journal of Roman Studies 56 (1966): 25-38. For
an interpretation of his philosophy see William Harris Stahl, Macrobius: Commentary on the Dream of
Scipio (New York: Columbia University Press, 1952).
607
See T. H. Irwin, "Splendid Vices? Augustine for and Against Pagan Virtues," Medieval Philosophy
and Theology 8 (1999): 105 -127.
608
Ibid 111-114 and Marcia Colish, Stoicism in Latin Christian Thought Through the Sixth Century
(Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990) 218. For more on the use of virtues in The City of God, see Gerard O'Daly,
Augustine's City of God: a Reader's Guide (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004) 202-203 [19: 10,
12 and 13]. For a discussion of the various interpretations of Augustine current in the sixteenth and
early seventeenth centuries see Arnoud Visser, Reading Augustine in the Reformation: the Flexibility of
Intellectual Authority in Europe, 1500-1620 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
609
171 main expositions on virtues can be found in the second part of the Summa Theologica and in
the Disputed Questions on the Virtues.610
In the Middle Ages and early Renaissance the specula principum or "mirror of princes"
flourished, a genre intended for the edification of the prince by reflecting desirable traits or
virtues for a leader. The writers of these tracts drew on a combination of Christian (the
Vulgate, Augustine and Aquinas) and pagan sources (Seneca, Cicero and Macrobius).611
But while this literature was an amalgam of all these sources, Seneca remained the
predominant one. In fact the very name "speculum" derives from the first lines of De
Clementia in which Seneca addresses the young Nero.612 Seneca's influence was due in large
part to the fact that his view of the prince was seen to align with ideas found both in the
Vulgate and church doctors, namely the importance of the virtues of clementia, mansuetudo and
magnificentia.613 The compatibility of Seneca with Christian thought was prominent up into
the seventeenth century when this view was espoused by Lipsius.614
Both are structured in the "disputed question format." See Thomas Williams, "Introduction" in
Margaret Atkins and Thomas Williams, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Disputed Questions on the Virtues,
Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)1-29.
For Aquinas's indebtedness to Seneca see Stacy, 93-95.
610
611
Rosamund Tuve, Allegorical Imagery (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966) 61.
Braund 2011, 97. "Scribere de clementia, Nero Caesar, institutui, ut quodam modo speculi vice
fungerer et te tibi ostenderem perventutum ad voluptatem maximam omnium."
612
613
See Stacy, 84 and 90-91 and Kantorowicz, The Kings Two Bodies, 1957, 473. n. 56.
Lipsius sees Seneca and Stoicism as reconcilable with Christianity because of his treatment of
virtues. See C. B. Schmitt and Quentin Skinner, Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991) 371. Interestingly Lipsius' 1605 treatise on Seneca was dedicated
to Paul V. The treatise was presented to Paul by Rubens' brother Philip. Wolfram Prinz, "The Four
Philosophers by Rubens and the Pseudo-Seneca in Seventeenth-Century Painting,” Art Bulletin 55
(1973): 410-428, 412; and E. Paratore, "Ovidio e Seneca nella cultura e nell'arte di Rubens," Bulletin
de l'Institute historique Belge de Rome 37 (1967): 533-565, 543 n.
614
172 Medieval treatises leant heavily on patristic and scholastic sources and stressed the
importance of the theological virtues. But with the advent of humanism, the conception of
the ideal prince reembraced many of the virtues that had constituted the ideal Roman
emperor.615 In fact by the dawn of the sixteenth century there was such a profusion of these
texts that Machiavelli had to point out their futility as actual political advice and there is a
lively literature debating the degree to which The Prince can be read as an explicit inversion of
Senecan concepts of virtue based monarchy.616 But Machiavelli in turn spawned a reaction
and the treatises of the sixteenth century promote a new Counter Reformation ideal of the
prince, once again predicated on his inherent virtues.617
This, of course, is the briefest overview of this very complex topic, but it serves to
illustrate that there was no shortage of literature on the subject. By the early seicento anyone
contemplating the ideal virtues of a ruler had many centuries worth of political thought to
lean on, thought espousing the definition of a rule through his inherent virtues as much as
his deeds, or at least of seeing his acts as reflection of intrinsic character traits.
The office of the papacy, of course, makes slightly different demands of its holder
than a secular ruler: the pope's primary duties are spiritual rather than secular and the
position is elected rather than inherited. But the story of the papacy in the early modern
period, Counter Reformation not withstanding, is in significant ways a history of the
Quentin Skinner, Visions of Politics, vol. II Renaissance Virtues (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2002) 124.
615
See Felix Gilbert, "The Humanist Concept of the Prince and the Prince of Machiavelli," Journal of
Modern History XI (1939): 449-483; Allan Gilbert, Machiavelli: the Chief Works and Others (Durham,
N.C., Duke University Press, 1989) Quentin Skinner, Machiavelli (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1981) 45-6 and Stacey 207-311.
616
See Robert Bireley, The Counter Reformation Prince: Anti-Machiavellianism or Catholic Statecraft in Early
Modern Europe (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990).
617
173 adoption of princely precedents and secular power. The distinctions between the pope's
pastoral and temporal duties began to break down towards the end of the sixteenth century
with the advent of a series of popes mindful of Rome's temporal powers, of whom Paul
certainly was one.
Regardless of the reason, most compendiums of papal virtues closely track those of
their secular counterparts. We can analyse papal virtues based on the corpus of "de eligendo
pontefice" orations read to the conclave on the electing of a new pope.618 These orations
frequently outline the virtues that render a cardinal papabile: Justice, Piety, Clemency,
Humility and Wisdom (as well as the eloquence to convince his flock to Peace, Concord and
the moral life).619
Virtue Cycles and the Development of an Iconografica Numismatica
The next question we must face is whether some virtues are automatically lost or
gained in the translation from verbal to visual. In other words, do these virtues lend
themselves to personification and if so how? Many paintings and fresco cycles for secular
patrons have been interpreted as visual mirrors of princes.620 There are far fewer papal
commissions that could be similarly classified. Nonetheless several works have been
interpreted in this way. One of these is Fra Angelico's frescos for the chapel of Nicholas
For a full discussion of the genre see S. I. McManamon, "The Ideal Renaissance Pope: Funeral
Oratory from the Papal Court." Archivium Historiae Pontificiae 14 (1976): 9-71.
618
619
Stinger, 92. He gives the example of Celadoni's oration to elect the successor of Alexander XI.
For example Inemie Gerards-Nelissen, "Otto van Veen's Emblemata Horatiana," Simiolus 5
(1971): 20-63; Mab von Lohuizen-Mulder, Raphael's Images of Justice, Humanity, Friendship: A Mirror of
Princes for Scipione Borghese and Princes (Wassenaer: Mirananda, 1973).
620
174 V.621 Another is the Galleria Delle Carte Geografiche in the Vatican, commissioned by
Gregory XIII.622 Another is Innocent VIII's now destroyed chapel in the Vatican Belvedere
for which Mantegna painted a cycle of virtues comprising Faith, Hope, Charity, Discretion,
Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude.623 While not exactly a cycle, virtues also appear
in the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican.624
Virtue cycles were also popular with papal families and cardinal nephews.
Alessandro Perretti commissioned a series of virtue frescos which decorated the sala grande
of the Palazzo alle Terme of the Villa Montalto.625 Cardinal Alessandro Farnese
commissioned Vasari's so-called "sala dei cento giorni" in Palazzo della Cancelleria, the
program of which was designed by Paolo Giovio and includes the virtues of Justitia, Merito,
Industria, Eloquentia, Caritas, Concordia and Benignitas alongside histories of Pope Paul III
Nicola Courtright, The Papacy and the Art of Reform in Sixteenth-Century Rome: Gregory XIII's Tower of
the Winds in the Vatican (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003); Kevin Salatino, "The
Frescoes of Fra Angelico for the Chapel of Nicholas V: Art and Ideology in Renaissance Rome,"
PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1992.
621
Pauline Moffit Watts, "A Mirror for the Pope: Mapping the "Corpus Christi" in the Galleria delle
Carte Geografiche," I Tatti Studies: Essays in the Renaissance 10 (2005): 173-192.
622
This chapel is described in several eighteenth century texts. Giovanni Pietro Chattard, Nuova
descrizione del Vaticano (Rome 1762-67) vol. III, 142-3. Chattard lists the virtues as Faith, Hope,
Charity, Discretion, Prudence Justice, Temperance and Fortitude. Agostino Taja, Descrizione del
Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano (Rome, 1750) 403: "Intorno a ciascun tondo sono due virtue in sembiante
femminile, ma di una grazia, e di una leggiadria da non potersi esprimere."
623
Philip Fehl, "Raphael as Historian. Poetry and Historical Accuracy in the Sala Costantino," Artibus
et Historiae 9 (1993): 9-76.
624
Patrizia Tosini, "Due affreschi riscoperti dal palazzo alle Terme di Villa Montalto e una nuova
ricostruzione del salone Sistino," in Nuovi Studi. Rivista d'arte antica e moderna 18 (2012): 185-193; Maria
Luisa Madonna, Roma di Sisto V: le arti e la cultura (Rome: De Luca, 1993); Mario Bevilacqua, "Della
decorazione della sala grande del Palazzo alle Terme della Villa Montalto," in Sisto V: Roma e il Lazio,
Marcello Fagiolo and Maria Luisa Madonna ed. (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato,
1992).
625
175 exhibiting these various merits.626 Virtues appear again in Pietro della Cortona's ceiling in the
Palazzo Barberini, The Triumph of Divine Providence.627
But there is an enormous inherent difference of purpose between painted fresco
programs intended for the private contemplation of a pope or prince and funerary art which
is by definition propagandistic and intended for both the contemporary and future public.
Thus the best analogies for the visual explication of papal virtues can be found in other
inherently public works: funerary monuments, medals and arches and official ceremonies.
Indeed personified virtues were common in the pageants and arches erected for triumphal
entries.628 The arches for papal possessi took a similar form.629 One of the triumphal arches
erected for Paul's possesso contained six virtues: prudenza, fortezza, abondanza, giustitia, pace, and
religione.630
We have already noted that the only papal catafalque before Paul's, that of Sixtus V,
incorporated virtues. Turning to the permanent tombs of Paul's sixteenth and early
seventeenth-century predecessors we find that some, although by no means all, incorporate
virtues. In fact, the use of virtues on papal tombs does not become ubiquitous until the mid-
Helge Gamroth, Farnese: Pomp, Power and Politics in Renaissance Italy (Rome: L'erme di Bretschneider,
2007) 88.
626
John Beldon Scott, Images of Nepotism: the Painted Ceilings of Palazzo Barberini (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1991).
628 On triumphs see Stinger, 240-243 and Robert Payne, The Roman Triumph (London: Robert Hale,
1962) 211-224.
627
Paolo Prodi, The Papal Prince: One Body and Two Souls: The Papal Monarchy in Early Modern Italy
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988) 46. See also Hans Martin von Erffa, "Die
Ehrenpforten für den Possess der Päpste im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert," Festschrift für Harald Keller, ed.
Hans Martin von. Erffa (Darmstadt, 1963) 335-370.
629
Known through an engraving reproduced and discussed in Simonetta Tozzi, Incisioni barocche di feste
e avvenimenti Giorni d'allegrezza (Rome: Gangemi, 2001) 29-30.
630
176 seventeenth century.631 Nonetheless, there are examples to be found. Paul III's tomb
originally contained four virtues: Justice, Prudence, Abundance, and Peace.632 An early design
for Paul IV's tomb in S. Maria sopra Minerva shows Justice and Fortitude.633 Leo XI's tomb
in St. Peter’s, executed by Algardi, contains two figures sometimes identified as Wisdom and
Abundance.634 This sample demonstrates that there was no set canon of princely virtues that
was adhered to.
If other sepulchral monuments or papal ephemera may have served as inspiration for
the choice of virtues, the designers of Paul's catafalque would not have had to rely on these
cinque- and seicento precedents in determining how to depict individual virtues. There was
another readily available source of virtue imagery close at hand. Personified or deified virtues
appeared frequently on the reverses of coins in Imperial Rome.635 These coins provided the
amateur antiquarians of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with easy (and cheap) access
to the classical world as Rome was literally flooded with ancient coins and medals.636
Panofsky writes that the use of virtues on tombs "assumed the proportions of an international
rage from the sixteenth century." Panofsky, 1992.
631
Interestingly, when Bernini reworked this tomb to form a pair with his new tomb for Urban VIII
he removed Abundance and Peace. Lavin 2005, 132.
632
J. A. Gere. and P. Pouncey, Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British
Museum, Artists Working in Rome, two vol. (London, 1983) #94. This drawing bears no relation to the
actual executed tomb. Gere and Pouncey attribute it to Giovanni Antonio Dosio.
633
Wisdom is shown as the same Minerva type found in the Catafalque. See Senie "The Tomb of Leo
XI by Alessandro Algardi," Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 90-95 and Jennifer Montague, Alessandro Algardi
(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985) vol. II, 434-436.
634
Charlesworth argued that these can be seen as an arm of official propaganda, Charlesworth 1937.
Wallace-Hadrill disputes the validity of this view before the second century A.D. Wallace-Hadrill,
307-314.
635
On numismatics in the Renaissance see John Cunnally, Images of the Illustrious: The Numismatic
Presence in the Renaissance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999); Alan Stahl and Gretchen
Oberfranc ed., The Rebirth of Antiquity: Numismatics, Archaeology and Classical Studies (Princeton:
Princeton University Library, 2009). For a concise overview of sixteenth-century publications on
636
177 Starting in the sixteenth century scholars and amateurs alike began the serious task of
investigating and cataloguing these coins, resulting in a the proliferation of numismatic
treatises and guides throughout Europe. Andrea Fulvio's Illustrium Imagines appeared in
1517.637 By the middle of the sixteenth century there was a virtual explosion of texts on
numismatics. 1548 saw the publication of Enea Vico's Le imagini con tutti i riversi de gli
imperatori, followed a decade later by his Discorsi di M. Enea Vico Parmigiano, sopra le medaglie de
gli antichi divisi in due libre.638 Gabriele Simeoni's Illustratione de gli epitaffi et medaglie antiche
appeared in 1558.639 The Discorso di M. Sebastiano Erizzo sopra le medaglie de gli antichi appeared
first in 1585, and in a much expanded second edition already in 1592. 640
Many of these antiquarians were prominent figures in early seicento Rome and
certainly members of the same circle as both Guidiccioni and Scipione Borghese, and some
of the most learned and important works on numismatics came out of this circle. Antonio
Agustin's dialogue was translated into Italian in 1592 as Dialoghi di Don Antonio Agostini
Arcivescovo di Tarracono intorno alle medaglie inscritioni et altre antichita.641 Fulvio Orsini's
numismatics, see Frances Haskell, History and its Images: Art and the Interpretation of the Past (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1993)13-26.
637
Andrea Fulvio, Illustrium Imagines (Rome: Mazzochi, 1517).
Enea Vico le imagini con tutti i riversi de gli imperatori (Venice, 1548) and Ibid., Discorsi di M. Enea Vico
Parmigiano, sopra le medaglie de gli antichi divisi in due libre (Venice: Gabriele Giolito, 1558).
638
639
Gabriele Simeoni, Illustratione de gli epitaffi et medaglie antiche (Lyon: Giovan de Tournes, 1558).
Sebastiano Erizzo, Discorso di M. Sebastiano Erizzo sopra le medaglie de gli antichi (Venice: Giovanni
Varisco, 1585) and much expanded second edition (1592).
640
Antonio Agustin, Dialoghi di Don Antonio Agostini Arcivescovo di Tarracono intorno alle medaglie inscritioni
et altre antichita tradotta di lingua spagnuola in italiana da dionigi ottaviano sada & dal medesimo accresciuti con
diversi annotationi, & illustri con 36 disegni di molte medaglie e d'altre figure (Rome, 1592).
641
178 monumental Familiae Romanae Quae Reperiuntur in Antiquis Numismatibus was published in
Rome in 1577.642
But these books had a range far beyond the narrow numismatic circles in which they
originated. They formed the basis of what were to become the iconographic handbooks of
the period. These iconographical handbooks proliferated in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, culminating in Cesare Ripa's tremendously influential Iconografia, first published in
1593 and expanded in 1603.643 Ripa drew heavily on the earlier efforts of Vincenzo Cartari's
Immagini delli Dei de' gli Antichi of 1547 and 1556, 644 Andrea Alciato's Emblemata of 1542 and
1546 and Guillaume Du Choul's Discorso della religione of 1571.645 Since the authors of these
publications were in many cases friends, they drew heavily on each other’s work, resulting in
a common culture of symbols and values.646
All of this demonstrates that in the early Seicento there was a surfeit of sources for
the depiction of a ruler's virtue. But allied to this wealth of prototypes verbal and visual was
a distinct lack of specificity. So broad was the canon of princely virtues that a classical or
patristic source could be found to defend the construction of almost any imaginable virtue as
appropriate to a prince. The virtues chosen to define Paul, then, are the result of active
Fulvio Orsini, Familiae Romanae Quae Reperiuntur in Antiquis Numismatibus ab Urbe Condita ad Tempora
Divi Augusti ex Bibliotheca Fulvi Ursini (Rome, 1577).
642
Cesare Ripa, Iconologia overo descrittione di diverse imagini cavate dall'Antichità e di propria inventione Cesare
Ripa (Rome, 1603).
643
644
Vincenzo Cartari, Immagini delli Dei de' gli Antichi (Venice, 1547).
645
Guillaume Du Choul, Discorso della religione (Lyon, 1571).
Many of these same descriptions are presented in Ripa and Cartari, sometimes, but not always,
quoting their sources both ancient and contemporary. For a complete discussion of Ripa's
numismatic sources, see Chiara Stefani, "Imagini cavate dall'antichità. L'utilizzo delle fonti
numismatiche nell' Iconologia de Cesare Ripa," Xenia Antiqua 9 (2000): 59-78. For a broader overview
of this topic see Jean Seznec, The Survival of the Pagan Gods (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1953).
646
179 choice not adherence to a canon. Therefore they, and their meanings, bear careful
consideration.
Paul's Virtues: The Four Daughters of God
As we saw in chapter five, the architectural design of the catafalque required the
prioritizing of four virtues to sit on the two sarcophagi which were placed in front of the
two lateral entrances. But this architectural exigency does not mean that those four
sculptures had to be the Four Daughters. The four cardinal or theological virtues, after all,
would have been a more standard choice. The question we are faced with, then, is why
Scipione and Guidiccioni chose this particular allegory to form the core of Paul’s catafalque.
To understand this decision we must delve into the standard exegesis of Psalm 84 in the
Vulgate.647 Verse 12 reads:
Misericordia et veritas obviaverunt sibi:
iustitia et pax osculatae sunt.
Veritas de terra orta est:
et iustitia de caelo prospexit.648
For a fuller history of the development of this genre, see Hope Travers, The Four Daughters of God a
Study of the Versions of this Allegory with Especial Reference to those in Latin, French and English (Philadelphia:
J.C. Winston, 1907); S. C. Chew, The Virtues Reconciled. An Iconographic Study (Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1947) and E. J. Mäder, Der Streit der Töchter Gottes' Zur Geschichte eines allegorischen Motives
(Berne and Frankfurt, 1971).
647
Benedixisti Domine terram tuam: avertisti captivitatem Iacob.
Remisisti iniquitatem plebis tuae: operuisti omnia peccata eorum.
Mitigasti omnem iram tuam: avertisti ab ira indignationis tuae.
Converte nos Deus saluturis noster: et averte iram tuam a nobis.
Nunquid in aeternum irasceris nobis: aut extendes iram tuam a generatione in generationem?
Deus tu conversus vivificabis nos: et plebs tua laetabitur in te.
Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam tuam: et salutare tuum da nobis.
Audiam quid loquatur in me Dominus Deus: quoniam loquetur pacem in plebem suam.
Et super sanctos suos: et in eos, qui convertuntur ad cor.
Veruntamen prope timentes eum salutare ipsius: ut inhabitet gloria in terra nostra.
Misericordia et veritas obviaverunt sibi: iustitia et pax osculatae sunt.
Veritas de terra orta est: et iustitia de caelo prospexit.
Etenim Dominus dabit benignitatem: et terra nostra dabit fructum suum.
Iustitia ante eum ambulabit: et ponet in via gressus suos.
648
180 [Mercy, and Truth have met each other:
Justice, and Peace have kissed.
Truth is risen out of the earth: and
Justice hath looked down from heaven.]
The earliest explication of the passage comes in Hugh of St. Victor's Annotation of the Psalms
(c. 1120). The central focus of Hugh's version is the struggle between Truth and Mercy over
the soul of man.649 Hugo's analysis is influenced by a midrash about two camps of angels
contesting the creation of Adam and encompasses both verses eleven and twelve, focusing
on the virtues' strife rather than their reconciliation.650 In this reading God descends to earth
with Truth where he is met by Mercy, who begs for forgiveness. Truth and Mercy dispute
the fate of man's soul before God, who then sends Truth to earth and keeps Mercy in
[O Lord thou hast blessed thy land: thou hast turned away the captivity of Jacob.
Thou hast forgiven the iniquity of thy people: thou hast covered all their sins.
Thou hast mitigated all thy wrath: thou hast turned away from the wrath of thine indignation.
Convert us o God our saviour: and avert thy wrath from us.
Wilt thou be wroth with us for ever: or wilt thou extend thy wrath from generation to generation?
O God thou being turned shalt quicken us: and thy people shall rejoice in thee.
Show us O Lord thy mercy: and give us thy salvation.
I will hear what our Lord God will speak in me: because he will speak peace unto his people.
And upon his saints: and upon them, that are converted to the heart.
But yet his salvation is nigh to them that fear him: that glory may inhabit in our land.
Mercy, and truth have met each other: Justice, and Peace have kissed.
Truth is risen out of the earth: and Justice hath looked down from heaven.
For our Lord truly will give benignity: and our land shall give her fruit.
Justice shall walk before him: and shall set his steps in the way.]
Although Chew posits that the theme predates the psalm, and is an expression of the struggle in
God's own mind between Justice and Mercy and that the central theme is redemption and
atonement. Chew, 36-37. Also see Tavers, 12.
649
650
Ibid., 13-14.
181 Heaven. Truth causes man to repent and returns to Heaven with their confessions,
whereupon Justice is sent to earth. Justice summons Peace and both return to Heaven.651
More influential was the gloss of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, which occurs in a sermon
on the Annunciation (c.1140).652 His interpretation differs from Hugo's, focusing more on
the redemption attained by the reconciliation of the sisters than the strife between them.
Bernard's version also is more Christological, substituting Christ's sacrifice for man's own
repentance and confession as the solution to the dispute.653 Bernard argues that man
originally possessed the four virtues but lost them through his sins. After this, a dispute
arose in Heaven about whether to punish or forgive man. The sisters ask God's council and
an angel suggests sending a man to earth. As they can find no man without sin, Peace
explains that they must send Christ.654 Because of the decision to send Christ to earth, the
story becomes a prelude to the Annunciation. This became the basis for most later versions,
almost all of which retain the emphasis on reconciliation.655
The pseudo-Bonaventura's Meditationes Vitae Christi (c.1300) discusses the allegory in
the first several chapters that deal with the need for the Redemption.656 This version is
Ibid., 15. See also H. Freeman and Maurice Simon, trans. and ed., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis,
(London: Soncino Press, 1939) and Jacob Neusner, Confronting Creation, How Judaism Reads Genesis: An
Anthology of Genesis Rabbah (Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1991).
651
St. Bernard, "In Festo Annunciationis Beatae Virginis. ps 84: 10, 11" in J.P. Migne, Patrologia
Latina CLXXXIII (Paris: Garnier, 1854): 387-90. For an English translation, see Four Homilies in Praise
of the Blessed Virgin, trans. Marie-Bernard Said (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1993).
652
Tavers, 15. Tavers suggests that this change was suggested by the fact that Psalm 84 is part of the
Christmas liturgy.
653
654
Ibid., 16.
655
Ibid., 18.
Sancti Bonaventura Opera (London, 1668) VI, 335-336. For more on the Meditationes see Isa Ragusa
and Rosalie Green, Meditations on the Life of Christ: an Illustrated Manuscript of the Fourteenth Century, Paris,
656
182 explicitly derived from Bernard and differs mainly in that the setting begins with an angelic
chorus debating the fate of man, to which the sisters join their voices.657 This version was
clearly widely disseminated as over 200 manuscript versions remain, including seventeen
illustrated ones. It also was enormously influential spawning for many versions and
translations.658
It is hard to overstate how popular this theme was. It occurs not only in sermons
and theological tracts, but was a frequent subject in courtly literature.659 The intent of the
combination of these four virtues would have been obvious to anyone in the middle ages.
And its popularity continued unabated into the seventeenth century, meaning that it would
have been equally intelligable to viewers of the catafalque.660
But the reasons for its choice extend further than its popularity. First, the Marian
slant, clear in all of the versions derived from Bernard, resonates with Paul's particular
devotion to the Virgin. Bernard's gloss which views the episode as prefiguring the
Bibliothèque nationale Ms. ital. 115 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977); Sarah McNamer, "The
Origins of the Meditationes Vitae Christi,” Speculum 84 (2009): 905-955.
657
Tavers, 42.
Ragusa and Green, 50-51. For instance Nicholas Love's The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ
See Michael Sargent, Nicholas Love, The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ a Full Critical Edition Based
on Cambridge University Library Additional MSS 6578 and 6686 with Introduction Notes and Glossary
(University of Exeter Press, 2005). Tavers gives an extensive list of translations and editions. Tavers,
43-44.
658
For an exhaustive study of the appearance of and iconographical treatment of the virtues in
English literature, see Chew.
659
Chew, 47 n. In England it appears in Milton's notes for his earliest treatments of the fall of man
and in a masque. Shakespeare also uses the device in the trial scene of The Merchant of Venice with
Portia representing Justice and Shylock representing Mercy [Act 4, scene 1].
660
183 Annunciation clearly inspired artists and the two scenes are often adjacent in early
manuscript illuminations and fresco cycles.661
Second, there is a liturgical connection between the psalm and death. This
connection also derives from Bernard of Clairvaux's sermon on the Annunciation in which
the truce between Mercy and Truth comes about by man dying a good death and death, in
turn, becoming the portal to heaven.662 Psalm 84 was used in both the liturgy for the birth of
Christ and All Soul's Day.663 Despite this connection, earlier examples of this theme in
funerary art are difficult to discover. While Hans Kaufmann observes that the four sisters
commonly guarded reliquaries, catafalques and tombs, he gives examples only of
reliquaries.664
Isa Ragusa, "The Dispute of the Virtues Miniature in the 'Meditations on the life of Christ," studi
di storia dell'arte in onore di Maria Luisa Gatti Perer, ed. Marco Rossi and Alessandro Rovetta (Milan: Vita
e Pensiero, 1999) 47-52. Ragusa examines the treatment of the Four Daughters in the illustrations of
the manuscript 'Meditations on the Life of Christ" [Paris, bib. nat. ital 115]. For another visual
example of this relation, see H. M. Thomas, "La missione di Gabriele nell' affresco di Giotto alla
Cappella di Scrovegni a Padova," Bolletino del museo civico di padova LXXVI (1987): 99-111.
661
St. Bernard, 389. See also Tavers, 16. This passage is also quoted by Lavin 2005, 179 n. 12. "Porro
Judex inclinans se, digito scribebat in terra. Erant autem verba Scripturae, quae Pax ipsa legit in
auribus omnium (ea siquidem propius assidebat): Haec dicit, Perii, si Adam non moriatur; et haec
dicit: Perii, nisi misericordiam consequatur. Fiat mors bona, et habet utraque quod petit. Obstupuere
omnes in verbo sapientiae et forma compositionis pariter atque judicii: siquidem manifestum fuit
nullam eis querimoniae occasionem relinqui; siquidem fieri posset quod utraque petebat, ut et
moreretur, et misericordiam consequeretur. Sed id quomodo fiet, inquiunt? Mors crudelissima, et
amarissima est, mors terribilis, et ipso horrenda auditu. Bona fieri quanam ratione poterit? At ille:
Mors, inquit, peccatorum pessima, sed pretiosa fieri potest mors sanctorum. Annon pretiosa erit, si
fuerit janua vitae, porta gloriae? Pretiosa, inquiunt. Sed quomodo fiet istud? Fieri, ait, potest, si ex
charitate moriatur quis, utique qui nihil debeat morti. Neque enim detinere poterit mors innoxium,
sed forabitur, ut scriptum est, maxilla Leviathan (Job XL, 19), et destruetur paries medius,
solveturque chaos magnum, quod inter mortem vitamque firmatum est. Nimirum charitas fortis ut
mors, imo et fortior morte, si fortis illius intraverit atrium, alligabit eum, et diripiet utique vasa ejus,
sed et ipso transitu suo ponet profundum maris viam, ut transeant liberati."
662
663
Lavin 2005, 179
664
Kauffmann, 199.
184 In general, little work has been done on the visual representation of the Four
Daughters, and even less on its iconography and derivation. Nonetheless, it certainly seems
to have been prevalent throughout Europe in the seicento.665 The theme seems to have had a
particularly strong visual resonance for many popes. Justice and Peace appear on a c. 1506
coin of Julius II.666 They also appear, along with Abundance, on a coin for Innocent VIII by
Niccolo Fiorentino.667 A more veiled allusion comes in a coin struck for Urban VIII in 1624,
which depicts a blindfolded Justice holding scales and sword with the inscription "pax in
virtute tua."668 "Iustitia et Pax" was a motto of Alexander VII and appears on the facade of S.
Maria della Pace.669 The inaugural medal for Alexander VII of 1655 depicts Justice and Peace
embracing with the inscription "iustitia et pax osculates sunt," a direct quote from the
psalm.670 Papal interest in the theme can probably be put down to the fact that Justice and
Lanfranco depicted Justice and Peace kissing in a fresco in the Palazzo Costaguti, dating to 1620.
Giovanni-Pietro Bernini, Giovanni Lanfranco (Parma, 1985) 61 and Maria Grazia Bernardini, ed.,
Lanfranco a Roma. I cicli ad affresco (Milan: Electa, 2002) 67. The pair also appear on a coin issued by
Doge Antonio Grimani along with a quotation from psalm 84. Pollard, 151. See also D. S. Chambers,
'Merit and Money: The Procurators of St Mark and their Commissioni, 1443-1605," Journal of the
Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 60 (1997): 23-88, 25 n. 8. This subject also appears in Rubens'
Whitehall ceiling. See Gregory Martin, The Ceiling Decoration of the Banqueting Hall (London: Harvey
Millar, 2006); Oliver Millar, Rubens: the Whitehall Ceiling (London: Oxford University Press, 1958);
John Charlton, The Banqueting House, Whitehall (London: Mansell,1983).
665
666
Temple, 113. The inscription reads "osculate sunt."
Graham Pollard, "Text and Image: Themes on Reverses of Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century
Medals," Perspectives on the Renaissance Medal: Portrait Medals of the Renaissance, ed. Stephen Scher
(London: Routledge, 1999) 149-165, 151.
667
Described in Moroni, 69. Despite the incorporation of Peace and Justice, the text is actually a
reference to psalm 122.
668
Martin Delbeke interprets it as proclaiming "the Christian version of the Golden Age." See
Cordula van Wythe, "Reformulating the Cult of our Lady of Scherpenheuvel: Marie de Medici and
the Regina Pacis Statue in Cologne (1635-1645)42-75, 61. Citing an unpublished article by Delbeke,
"Marian Propaganda in Seventeenth-Century Europe."
669
185 Charity were both seen as virtues of the state and as representative of the plenitudo potestatis.671
They also were the two main benefits of Divine Wisdom.672
The importance of the conceit to the overall program is hinted at by its inclusion in
the poetry. Two epigrams address Justice and Peace.673 Another two take as their subject
Mercy and Truth.674 And while none of these particularly furthers our understanding of the
William McCready, "Papal Plenitudo Potestatis and the Source of Temporal Authority in Late
Medieval Papal Heirocratic Theory," Speculum 48 (1973): 654-674.
671
672
An idea derived from the opening of the Book of Wisdom, "Diligite iustitiam qui iudicatis."
Guidiccioni 1623, 28. DE PAVLO QVINTO PONT. MAX.
Iustitia, & Pax osculatæ sunt.
EPIGRAMMA
Ivstitiæ soboles Pax est: cum Principe natam
Agnouit PAVLO mater, & exsilijt.
Hospitium illa sacro sub pectore dulce renarrat;
Et placidi cordis quam sit amœna quies.
Oscula libauit Genitrix æquiβima natæ,
Sitq. ,& ait, hoc nobis pignore pacta domus.
Here Peace is described as the daughter of Justice rather than sister. This conceit is unusual and
derives from Pindar's eighth Pythian ode: "Kindly Peace daughter of Justice, you who make cities
great. " Pindar, Olympian Odes, Pythian Odes, ed. and trans. William Race (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1997).
The second epigram is less explicit. Guidiccioni 1623, 28
DE PAVLI SVMMO PRINCIPATV
Burghesij stemmatis omina.
EPIGRAMMA.
A Spice Iustitiæ tractantem tela volucrem,
Et pacis vigilem cerne Draconis opem.
Burghesio in regno geminæ virtutis honores
Stemmatis agnosces prædocuiβe iubar.
Terrarum imperio natus: cunabula PAVLVS
Pacem inter nactus, Iustitiamque fuit
673
Guidiccioni 1623, 27.
DE PAVLO QVINTO PONT. MAX.
Misericordia, Veritas obuiauerunt sibi.
EPIGRAMMA
Caelitùs in terras aurato fluxerat imbre,
Quæ referat Virtus candida, cordis opes.
Vna eademque via cælum lacrymosa petebat,
Quæ miserari alios anxia cura solet.
Mox vbi Burghesij pectus videre Parentis:
Vna isthæc aiunt, meta duobus erit
674
186 catafalque, their presence is, nonetheless, important, for it suggests that the authors of the
poetry were made aware of this theme before the ceremony.
There were also formal benefits to a grouping arranged around the Four Daughters:
namely that the story is predicated both on the division of virtues into two pairs and on their
interaction with each other. As noted, this pairing suited the architectural conditions. It also
allows for an interaction of the virtues, showcasing Bernini's talents in creating life-like
sculptures, what in his portraits was termed the "speaking likeness." This talent would not
have been lost on either Guidiccioni or Scipione. Indeed, Guidiccioni was instrumental in
disseminating this interpretation of Bernini's sculptures.675 In a letter to Bernini he describes
two of his portrait busts (of Scipione Borghese and Urban VIII) as actually living and
speaking: Bernini “does miracles making marbles talk.”676 This conceit is repeated ad
nauseum throughout Guidiccioni’s writings on Bernini.677 Describing a statue of Urban VIII,
DE PAVLI QVINTI PONT MAX
Veritatis, & Misericordiæ nouum fœdus.
EPIGRAMMA.
Obuia de Cælo tibi lux, PAVLE, arbitra veri
Venit, & è nostris tristior aura malis.
Vtraque cordato dominari in pectore longùm
Certauit, meritis ambitiosa tuis.
Utraque sed tandem concordi pacerevincta est:
Quippe capax omnis cor tibi laudis erat.
By elegizing Bernini’s portraits in this way, Guidiccioni inserts himself into a distinguished
tradition of poets writing about art, starting with Petrarch’s sonnets on Simone Martini’s portrait of
Laura, which fails to come alive, and encompassing works by Bembo, Aretino and Castiglione in
which the artwork seems to life. See for example Mary Rogers, “Sonnets on Female Portraits from
Renaissance North Italy,” Word and Image 3 (1976): 291-306.
675
Letter of June 4, 1633, quoted in D’Onofrio 1967, 381 (Cod. Barb. Lat. 2958, cc. 202-207)
“Vostra Signoria e suggetto et creatura che fa miracoli facendo parlare i marmi.” This idea may derive
from the famous incident involving the bust of Cardinal Montoya, which is so lifelike that Maffeo
Barberini observes “mi pare che mons. Montoya rassomiglia al suo ritratto.” Ibid., 386 n. 17.
676
The Breve Racconto includes one epigram on a statue of Paul (which of course may or may not be
by Guidiccioni). Guidiccioni 1623, Odes 34.
DE PAVLI QVINTI PONT. MAX.
Marmorea effigie in sepulcro.
677
187 he writes “the visitor is alive, the stone stiff. By controlling art, on this side and that, the
stone gains life, the visitor grows stiff,”678 and “the living marble plays the blessed part of our
Prince,”679 or “nature made a man, the image of honor, and Art reproduces his living image
here. One is the work of God, the other of the Artist.”680
How, then, do these sisters interact? First, their relation is indicated by their poses
for the postures of each pair mirror each other. Justice and Peace sit perched on the front of
their seats. They face away from each other. Each crosses her rear leg over the front. Each
raises her right hand while her left lies in her lap. The pairing extends to their attributes:
Justice' sword and peace's caduceus echo each other, each pointing upwards and towards the
apse of the church. In fact they seem to be pointing at the thirteenth century apse mosaic of
the Coronation of the Virgin, perhaps illustrating the ultimate result of their union.681
Mercy and Truth's poses are also mirror images of each other. Both perch towards
the front of the seat with both legs dangling unsupported. Each bends the leg which is
further back up at a somewhat unnatural angle. Mercy supports a child with her right hand
while Truth holds a book. Mercy holds her breast with her left hand while Truth crooks her
empty arm in a similar gesture. While Justice and Peace appeared to interact with the church,
Mercy and Truth both look directly in front of them. In other words, they look into the
EPIGRAMMA.
Precantis ore supplices iunxit manus
Vt ora PAVLI marmor insculptum tulit.
Quid anime facias? sola si tanti viri
Docere imago saxa pietatem potest?
678
“Brevius dictum” in J. K. Newman and F. S. Newman 1992, 175.
679
“Ad Ioannem laurentium berninium” in Ibid., 173.
680
“Eiusdem Eximii Principis eximium Simulacrum” in Ibid., 173.
On the early Christian mosaics in S. Maria Maggiore, see Beat Brenk, die Frühchristlichen Mosaiken in
S. Maria Maggiore zu Rom (Wisebaden: Steiner, 1975).
681
188 Pauline Chapel. In addition, the two pairs are physiognomically similar, suggesting their
status as sisters.
We will now turn our attention to the depiction of each individual virtue and look
not only at how they relate the this overarching scheme, but also at how other meanings are
created concomitantly.
Iustitia
Iustitia (figure 20) is a fitting virtue for a jurist pope. 682 The importance of justice to
Paul's papacy was not lost on the panegyrists and, as we have seen, Astraea was frequently
present in the guise of justice in Borghese encomia, used to represent the coming of a new
Golden Age.683 But the invocation of justice was not specific to Paul's pontificate; it is also
one of the virtues most frequently used to symbolize the State throughout the early modern
period. Justice was key in the representation of Venice and Siena, both in political thought
and visual imagery.684
From the start of his reign, Paul made legal reform and justice a priority. Pastor, vol. 25, 79.
Starting in 1608, he sought to reform and reorganize the entire judiciary, a reform formalized in a
bull of March 1, 1612. Ibid., 82. He strictly implemented laws and penalties and ended the
immunities of ambassadors and cardinals Throughout his pontificate, Paul was eager to strengthen
ecclesiastical power.
682
Depictions of Astraea are fairly common in the art of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth
centuries. Examples include Salvator Rosa's Astraea leaves the Earth in Vienna, Vasari's Astraea in the
Capodimonte, commissioned by Alessandro Farnese (see Robertson 1992, 55-57 and Liana de
Girolami Cheney, "Giorgio Vasari's Astraea: A Symbol of Justice," Visual Resources 19, 283-305 and
Ruben's portrayal of Marie de Medici as Astraea in The Felicity of the Regency from the Marie de' Medici
Cycle (see Mattias Winner, "The orb as the Symbol of State in the Pictorial Cycle by Rubens
Depicting the Life of Maria de' Medici," in Iconography, Propoganda and legitimation, Allan Elenius ed.
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 63-105, 84-86.
683
Justice was particularly closely associated with Venice. The equation of Venice with justice was
central to the conception of the Venetian state and appears in a letter of Petrarch of 1364. The visual
equation of Venetia and Iustitia starts as early as the fourteenth century and reaches its culmination
in Paolo Veronese's ceiling for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio. See David Rosand, "Venetia Figurata:
The Iconography of a Myth," Interpretazioni Veneziane Studi di storia dell'arte in onore di Michelangelo
684
189 As such, it has a resonance far older than Paul's reign, and one which he was not the
first pope to co-opt. Justice had been an important theme in the poetic iconography of
Sixtus V, in which it is seen as a precondition for the flourishing of peace and abundance.685
In fact, one some level, the very legitimacy of the papacy was predicated on Divine Justice,
or the idea that the pope was the conduit of God's justice, passed to him through Peter.686
This lineage was of particular importance in defending the papacy during the CounterReformation and is alluded to in the scriptural inscription associated with Bernini's figure:
"de coelo auditum fecit iudicium, terra tremuit, et quievit," which clearly describes not only
justice descending from heaven, but the pope's participation in its descent.687 Another subtle
reference to the divine source of the pope's justice comes in the presence of the Borghese
Muraro, ed. David Rosand (Venice: Arsenale, 1984) 177-196, 178-179 and Ibid, Painting in Sixteenth
Century Venice: Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) 94. Justice
also plays a large role in Ambrogio Lorenzetti's conception of the state of Siena in the Palazzo
Publica, appearing twice in two separate guises. On the role of Justice in Lorenzetti's frescoes see
Chiara Frugoni, "The Book of Wisdom in Lorenzetti's Fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena,"
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 43 (1980): 239-241; Joseph Polzer, "Ambrogio
Lorenzetti's "War and Peace" Murals Revisited: Contributions to the Meaning of the Good
Government Allegory," Artibus et Historiae 23 (2002): 63-105; Quentin Skinner,"Ambrogio
Lorenzetti's Good Government Frescoes: Two Old Questions, Two New Answers," Journal of the
Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62 (1999):1-28.
Irene Polverini Fosi, "Justice and its Image: Political Propaganda and Judicial Reality in the
Pontificate of Sixtus V," Sixteenth Century Journal IV (1993): 75-95, 86. Fosi examines Sixtus' record
and concludes that the encomiastic descriptions far outpaced reality.
685
This part of the pope's spiritual inheritance may have been more important after his claims to
temporal patrimony were weakened after the donation of Constantine was proved to have been a
forgery by Lorenzo Valla in 1440.
686
This is a modification of Psalm 75, verse 9 with fecit replacing fecisti. "Thou hast caused judgment
to be heard from heaven; the earth trembled and was still." Given the reference to the earth
trembling in reaction to justice, it is also interesting to note an anecdote recorded by Tetius about
Andrea Sacchi's ceiling fresco of Divine Justice in the Palazzo Barberini. Tetius, 32. He writes that
the combination of the Divine Justice revealed in the painting, poetry and person of the pope was
such that it caused the walls to shake! This episode is also discussed by Panofsky 1948, 192.
687
190 eagle, which also references the words of Psalm 84, "iustitia de caelo prospexit."688 Further
evidence that the source of justice is divine can be found in Iustitia’s attendants: Religio,
Maiestas, and Puritas. The spiritual overtones of this particular combination of ancillary
virtues are very clear.
If, then, we assume that this figure specifically represents Divine Justice, how is this
conveyed through her visual representation?689 What iconographic choices steer the viewer
towards this reading? Iustitia sits on the edge of her seat with legs crossed, leaning forward.
Her left hand grips the base of a long sword, extending over her left shoulder. Her right
hand holds out a group of palm fronds. As noted, an eagle sits at her feet.
The sword and frond were not merely default symbols of justice. In designing this
figure Bernini had a rich iconographic tradition on which to draw, for Justice is one of the
most commonly illustrated virtues in the Renaissance.690 Some idea of the many types of
Justice current a century earlier can be gleaned from De iusticia pingenda, a 1515 book written
by Mantegna's friend Battista Fiera. It is cast as a dialogue set in Rome of 1488-9 between
Mantegna and Momus (a sort of reincarnation of the Greek demi-god of mockery, satire and
Matthias Winner has pointed out that the distribution of Borghese heraldic devices is arranged to
reinforce the reference to Psalm 84. The earthly animal (the dragon) is assigned to Veritas, described
in the Psalm as rising out of the earth. The celestial animal (the eagle) flanks Iustitia, who is described
as looking down from Heaven. Winner, 299-300.
688
On the different forms of Justice see Izhak Englard, Corrective and Distributive Justice (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2009) and Judith Resnick and Dennis Curtis, Representing Justice: Invention,
Controversy and Rights in City States and Democratic Courtrooms (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011).
689
She appears in Lorenzetti's frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico, and in the Vatican Sala di Costantino
(with an ostrich and scale). On Lorenzetti see sources cited in n. 664, on the Sala di Costantino see
Frederick Harrt, Giulio Romano (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958) I, 42-51 and Howard
Quednau,"The Sala di Costantino," Raphael in the Apartments of Julius II and LeoX, ed. Carlo Pietrangeli
and John Shearman (New York: Abbeville, 1996) 167-201.
690
191 poets) in which the painter purports to be so mystified by the many options available to him
that he has to consult philosophers.691
So why does Bernini's Justice carry a sword? The source is not ancient, for both
sword and balance are uncommon in ancient coins.692 But the figuring of Justice with sword
(but not scales) is common in portrayals of corrective or divine justice as opposed to
redistributive justice. As such, it is also common in literary portrayals of the Four
Daughters.693
The presence of the sword also alludes to other Christian prototypes. The sword was
a symbol of the pope's namesake, St. Paul, as well as a common emblem of female
martyrs.694 The female personification of Justice with her sword in the Renaissance explicitly
and implicitly referenced Saints Catherine and Margaret as well as Judith. The palm frond, a
typical emblem of martyrdom, not justice, further underscores the hagiographical reference,
as does the beatific expression of Bernini's Justice, typical of representations of martyrs.
James Wordrop, De iusticia pingenda, On the Painting of Justice, A dialogue between Mantegna and Momus
by B. Fiera the Latin text of 1515 reprinted with a Translation, and Introduction and Notes (London: Lion and
Unicorn Press, 1957). On this exchange also see Resnick, Representing Justice, 446, n. 21 and 22 and
Randolph Starn and Loren Partridge, Arts of Power: Three Halls of State in Italy 1300-1600 (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1992)132-133. Mantegna had painted a Justice for the now destroyed
chapel of Innocent VIII in the Vatican Belvedere, see n. 613 above.
691
Agustin, for one, states that he has never seen a coin representing either. Agustin, 45. "B: Non si
trovua ella mai con la spada & con le bilancie? A: Io non l'ho veduta in alcuna medaglia."
692
Chew, 97. Chew suggests that this is due to the fact that "she is primarily the advocate of stern
correction and retribution rather than of equitable distribution."
693
Marina Warner suggests that the sword becomes "an emblem, not a literal weapon; it compresses
the argument that the Psychomachia topos deploys at length, that evil is being destroyed. The sword
belongs in the hands of saints from the Christian calendar who are dragon-slayers." It "recalls their
death, and their victory over evil." The intentional evocation of Psalm 84 by the placement of a
"celestial" eagle becomes more potent when we recall the frequent presence of dragons in depictions
of Justice because of the virtues association with female dragon slaying saints (through the
connection of the sword). Warner, 159.
694
192 Pax
Pax (figure 21) is a less commonly encountered virtue (or rightly personification or
benefit). But this is not the first time it appears in a Borghese project. Peace also is an
important element of the iconography of another monument on the Esquiline: the column
in front of S. Maria Maggiore erected and rededicated to the Virgin by Paul V. The column's
association with Peace derives from the fact that it was believed in the seventeenth century
to have come from Vespasian's Temple of Peace.695 The inscriptions on the base added by
Paul as well as much of the poetry written to commemorate its erection explicitly contrasts
the false peace of the ancients with the new true peace of Christ and of Mary as the mother
of peace.696 The column is dedicated to "the most blessed Virgin from whose flesh is born
the true prince of peace" according to an inscription on its base by Baldessare Ansidei.697 A
second inscription by Antonio Querenghi states that it was consecrated to "the most holy
Virgin, from whom true Peace comes."698
This imagery is particularly interesting in light of the virtues annexed to Pax; for all
have distinctly pagan overtones. The three "virtues" associated with Pax are Providenzia,
Tranquillitas, and Annona.699 All were frequently linked to Peace in Imperial Roman imagery.
Tranquillity and Abundance are both seen as products of peacetime. Providentia is derived
Ostrow gives an extremely thorough overview of the evolution of sixteen and seventeenth-century
historians' beliefs about the history of the building, focusing specifically on the views of historians
and antiquarians in Paul V's circle. Ostrow 2010, 362-3.
695
696
Ibid., 363-364.
Ibid., translation and discussion 364 and transcription 375, n. 68. "...beatissimae virgini ex cuius
visceribus princeps verae pacis genit[us] est donumdedit..."
697
Ibid., translation and discussion 364 and transcription 375 n. 69. "et sanctissimae pax unde vera
est consecravit virgini."
698
None of these represent virtues per se, but rather the result of virtues. All of these personifications
with peace derives from Imperial Roman Imagery.
699
193 from an ancient prototype meant to represent the power and wisdom of a leader, another
precondition of stable and peaceful rule.700 By making these pagan versions of Peace
subservient to Peace herself, Bernini allegorizes the triumph of Christian over pagan Peace.
Bernini's Peace sits with her legs crossed. Her right arm extends from her open
drapery to support a caduceus. The gesture reveals her right breast, which is somewhat
obscured by the shadow of her raised arm. She rests her left arm on her lap and her legs are
crossed, feet dangling in the air. A dragon sits at her feet, its face obscured by her billowing
garments. In other words, the main emblem of Peace is the caduceus.
The tradition associating the caduceus with Peace derives from the story of
Mercury's caduceus, used to separate two snakes locked in deadly combat, thus creating
peace.701 In this context the reference to Mercury would have had a further connotation
because of his association with death and rebirth as guide to the underworld. But there is
also an historical source for the equation between the caduceus and peace. Thucydides in the
History of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) refers to the kerykeron as the symbol of peace
carried by the Corinthians in their meeting with the Athenians.702 This practice of using the
caduceus as a sort of white flag was adopted by the Romans and Livy writes that in 168 BC
For the relation between Providentia and Aeternita see Charlesworth 1936. Charlesworth argues that
Providentia (i.e. the forethought of the ruler) is a precondition for the continuance of the Roman
Empire. On the creation of the virtue of Providentia see Fishwick 1987, 182. The combination of
Tranquillitas and Providentia is also not unheard of and they appear together in the coinage of
Diocletian. Charlesworth 1936, 120.
700
Tullio Lombardi depicts Peace Establishing her Reign on a bronze plaque in the National Gallery as a
girl, left breast exposed, leaning down with a stick to break up to serpents, thus creating the
caduceus. Rubens originally depicted Peace holding a caduceus in a sketch in Vienna for the
Whitehall ceiling, but this was painted out. The Peaceful Reign of King James I, Gemäldegalerie der
Akademie der bildende Kunst, Vienna. See Peter Sutton and Marjorie Wieseman, Drawn by the Brush
Oil Sketches of Peter Paul Rubens (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004) 224-5 and Julius Held, Oil
Sketches of Peter Paul Rubens (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980) 193-4.
701
Walter Friedlander, The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine (Santa
Barbara: Praeger, 1992), 127.
702
194 the conquered Macedonians carried a caduceus to meet the conquering Roman general.703
The caduceator eventually became an official position: an envoy who negotiated peace
treaties and was granted immunity by his caduceus. This meaning would be relevant both to
the treaty negotiated by God in the Parliament in Heaven and to the pope's role as
peacemaker in foreign exploits, a function stressed by Guidiccioni in his funeral oration. The
caduceus, then, is meant to symbolize the peace brought about by Paul's governance of
Rome. This reading is strengthened by the inscription: "delectatus est in multitudine pacis."
which is a modification of Psalm 36, verse 11: "delectabuntur in multitudine paci."704
The use of the caduceus as an attribute was not pervasive, but is preset in most of
the iconology manuals. Ripa, for instance, lists no less that fifteen possible depictions of
Peace, at least seven of which are explicitly derived from Roman coinage.705 However, only
two of these list the caduceus as an attribute. The first is described as taken from a medal of
Vespasian: “a woman who holds in one hand an olive branch and in the other a caduceus,
and one sees another with a bunch of ears of grain, and with a cornucopia and with her
forehead crowned with olive leaves.”706 The second derives from a medal of Claudius: “a
woman, who lowers the caduceus towards the ground where a snake with fierce writhing,
showing the diversity of colours, the venom which he holds, and with the other hand she
703
Ibid., 128.
Interestingly, when we reintroduce the first half of the verse: "Mansueti autem hereditabunt
terram," (and the meek shall inherit the earth), we see another underlining of the division of virtues
set out in the Four Daughters and underscored by the selection of Borghese emblems, for it consigns
peace to the earthly sphere.
704
705
Ripa, 375-378.
Ibid., 377. Donna, che da una mano tiene un ramo d’olivo dall’altra il Caduceo, & un’altra si vede
con un mazzo di spighe di grano, & col cornucopia, & con la fronte coronata d’olivo. This same coin
is described in Guillaume De Choul, 14. See also a discussion of De Choul as Ripa's source in
Stefani, 63.
706
195 covers her eyes with a veil in order not to see the snake with these letters.”707 Agustin also
noted that the caduceus occurs in coinage as a symbol of Peace. His explanation of its
meaning is that the "caduceus, which some call diving rod is a symbol of happiness," because
"nothing is happy without peace."708 Personified peace in any form occurs only rarely before
the seventeenth century.709 In the later seventeenth and eighteenth century she appears
alongside other virtues in a number of allegories of good government, but many of these
return to the attribute of the olive branch.710 Despite the ancient precedent, the use of the
caduceus as a symbol of peace only is prevalent in the later seventeenth century711
Interestingly, some of the attributes "missing" from Bernini’s Peace (the olive
branch, sceptre, cornucopia) appear in the supporting virtues.712 Perhaps Bernini is using
them as surrogates for some of Peace’s attributes, instead of having to include them in a
single sculpture. This allows him to focus on a single aspect in Pax.
Ripa, 378. Una donna, che abbassa il Caduceo verso la terra dove è un serpe con fieri
stravolgimenti, mostrando la diversità de colori, il veleno che tiene, & con l’altra mano si scuopere
gl’occhi con un velo per non veder il serpe, con queste lettere.
707
Agustin, 42. "il Caduceo, che alcuni chiamano Virgula divina, è simbolo della Felicità, come
diremo, quando parleremo d'essa & non si truovo cosa felice senza Pace."
708
Although she does appear in Venice, see Wolfgang Wolters, Der Bilderscmuck der Dogenpalastes:
Untersuchungen zue Selbstdarstellung der Republik Venedig im 16. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1983).
709
For example Rubens' Minerva Protects Pax from Mars of 1629 in the National Gallery depicts Peace
as Ceres and Artemesia and Orazio Gentilleschi's Allegory of Peace and the Arts under the English Crown of
1638-9, commissioned by Henrietta Maria (daughter of Marie de' Medici) for the ceiling of Queen's
House Greenwich (now Marlborough house). See Keith Christiansen and Judith Mann, Orazio and
Artemesia Gentilleschi (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001) 228-229.
710
See Friedlander, 128. On the development of the caduceus motif, see also Waldemar Deonna,
"Emblèms médicaux des temps modernes. Du bâton serpentaire d'Asklépios au caducée d'Hermes,"
Revue internationale de la Croix-Rouge 15 (1933): 310-339. Friedlander suggets that its first use was in a
medal commemorating the Peace of Munster in 1648. Friedlander also suggests that in the sixteenth
century the caduceus indicated the wisdom of its bearer, Hermes Trismegistus. Ibid., 83-84.
711
712
Noreña, 128-9.
196 Misericordia
Charity was a very popular and important virtue in the late sixteenth century. The
Protestant disputes over the efficacy of good works led the Catholic church to double down
on the importance of charity and it was championed by Charles Borromeo among others.713
Bernini's Misericordia has the inscription "secundum altitudinem coeli a terra corroboravit
misericordiam suam." This is Psalm 102, verse 11, left unaltered: "for as the heaven is high
above the earth, so great is his mercy." Underscoring God's mercy is a clear reference to the
question of good works. For Mercy had been decried by the stoics as an unworthy virtue, in
fact the opposition of Justice. It was Petrarch who reclaimed this virtue's place in the
pantheon of princely virtues by pointing out that it was the exercise of mercy that made a
prince similar to God.714 The assumption that the "he" here refers to the pope merely
reinforces this point, for it suggests that Paul has succeeded in emulating God by adopting
his merciful rule. Furthermore, Misericordia's companions (Clementia, Eleemosina, and
Mansuetudo) were all seen as particularly Christian virtues.715
Perhaps for doctrinal reasons as much as personal inclination, charity was incredibly
important to Paul. He limited his personal expenditures in order to be able to give away
Alain Tapié (ed.), L'allegorie dans la peinture. la représantation de la charité au XVII siècle (Caen: Musée
des Beaux-Arts, 1986) 45. See also Mâle, 173.
713
Petrarch, Familiari, ed. Vittorio Rossi (Florence: Sansoni, 1968) vol. 3, 14. "affigatque animo regem
misericordia simillimum Deo fieri." Discussed and quoted by Stacey, 139.
714
Stacy, 84. Mansuetudo and Clementia are both discussed at length by Aquinas for whom they are
both annexed to Temperance. [Question 157 of the Treatise on Temperance and Fortitude] See also
Stacy, 93-95 for Aquinas' reliance on Seneca. Mansuetudo's scriptural importance led to its becoming
an important element of the medieval conception of the ideal prince and even bishop. See Stacy, 93
and C. Stephen Jaeger, The Origins of Courtliness: Civilizing Trends and the Formation of Courtly
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985)149-150. This doubling up of charitable virtues
may have been common feature in Four Daughters. Chew notes that in literary works Mercy was
almost always accompanied by one of her many interchangeable charitable sisters. Chew, 109.
715
197 more, restricting his visits to Frascati (and even contemplating their complete
elimination).716 Paul's expenditures on charity were recorded by the majordomo Giovan
Battista Costaguti as 82,710 scudi a year, and Pastor suggests that an actual number was
120,000. According to Costaguti, over the course of Paul's pontificate 1,300,000 scudi were
given in alms.717 The pope was also personally involved in obtaining flour for the poor at the
best price.718 Mercy can also be connected to building. According to Pastor, citing Costaguti,
Paul regarded his building projects and their job creation as the highest form of
almsgiving.719
Misericordia (figure 22) exposes one breast, holding it with her left hand. Her right
hand supports a single putto who stands behind her and holds an ewer up to his lips. Her
drapery is diaphanous, clearly revealing the indentation of her navel. This imagery does not
align with that found in Ripa, but is certainly similar to many depictions of Charity.720 But
716
Pastor vol. 25, 50. Referencing avviso of September 24, 1605.
717
Ibid., 50.
718
Ibid., 50. Referencing avviso of December 29, 1607.
719
Ibid., 99.
In essence, Bernini has morphed Misericordia into Caritas. On the evolution of Caritas imagery in
the Renaissance see Edgar Wind, "Charity: the Case History of a Pattern," Journal of the Warburg and
Courtauld Institutes 1 (1936-38): 322-330, R. Freyhan, "The Evolution of the Caritas Figure in the
Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 11 (1948): 68-86.
Ripa, 328-9.
Donna di carnagione bianca, haverà gl’occhi grassi, & il naso alquanto aquilino, con una ghirland
d’oliva in capo, stando con le braccia aperte, ma tenga con la destra mano un ramo di cedro con il
frutto, & à canto vi sarà l’ucello pola, overa cornacchia.
Misericordia è un affetto de l’animo compassionevole verso l’altrui male, come dice S.
Giovnni Damasceno lib.2.cap 24.
La Carnagione bianca ‘occhi grassi, & il naso aquilino secondo detto di Aristotele al capo
sesto de fisonomia, significano inclinatione à la Misericordia.
La ghirlanda d’olivo che tiene in capo, è il vero simbolo de la Misericordia nelle sacre lettere,
à le quali si deve l’obligo della cognition vera di questa santa virtù, & il ramo di cedro significa il
medesimo, come fa fede Piero Valerino, ove tratta del Cedro.
720
198 there is one major difference. While most representations include multiple children, here
there is a single child. This form is not unheard of -- it appears in a sculpture by Andrea
Orcagna for the tabernacle of Or San Michele and in a border detail of the fourteenthcentury Allegory of Mercy in the confraternity of the Misericordia in Florence.721 It is also
typical of Bernini's later depictions of Charity: those in the tombs of Urban VIII and
Alexander VII and in the de Silva Chapel.722
But the single child may have a further import here. For Mercy does not actually feed
the child, but rather collects milk in a ewer. Thus the child becomes a stand-in for all people,
or specifically all of Rome, and thus represents the pope's nourishing of his flock. In this
respect she may relate to images of Roman Charity, usually depicted as a young woman
suckling an old man. This imagery derives from the story of Pero and Cimon from Valerius
Maximus.723
Lo stare con le braccia aperte, dinota che la Misericordia è à guisa di Giesù Christo Redentor
nostro, ch’è la vea Misericordia, con pontezza c’aspetta sempre con le braccia aperte, per abbracciar
tutti, e sovvenir à le miserie nostre, & Dante nel lib. 3. del Purgatorio spora di ciò così dice:
Horribil furon li peccati miei
Ma la bontà infinita hà sì gran braccie
Che prende ciò che si rivolge à lei.
Gli si dipinge à canto l’ucello pola, perciòche appresso gl’Egittij significava misericordia, come si può
vedere in Oro Apolline.
William Levin, The Allegory of Mercy at the Misericordia in Florence (Lanham, MD: University Press of
America, 2004) 52-58. Levin also considers the theological antecedents to pictorial representations of
charity nursing and the relation to the Song of Songs, the Virgin nourishing Christ and the concept of
amor proximi. Ibid., 52-54.
721
On Urban's tomb see Lavin 2005, 131-137, on Alexander's see Ibid., 178. Commenting on the
rarity of the single child in that work, Irving Laving concludes that "the emblematic nature of the
allegory of charity as a prelapsarian virtue is evident from the fact that, contrary to all tradition, here
she has only one offspring. Also see Michael Koortbojian, "Disegni for the Tomb of Alexander VII,"
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 54 (1991): 268-273, 271-2 and Rudolf Preimesberger,
"Bernini a San Agnese in Agone." in Colloquio del Sodalizio 3 (1973) 54f. On the de Silva Chapel see
Kauffmann, 208-210. Lavin 2005, 178.
722
Valerius Maximus, Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri novem. See Valerius Maximus, Memorable
Doings and Sayings, vols. 1 and 2, D. R. Shackelton Bailey ed. and trans. (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 2000).
723
199 Another example of the charity of the state being depicted with one child comes
from ancient coins: the personified Alimenta, a figure with one child who appears both on a
sestertius of Trajan and the Anaglyupha Traiana in the Forum. The coin appears in the second
edition of Sebastiano Erizo, where it is understood to refer to the charity of the state in
feeding the children of Italy.724 This emphasis on nourishing the people is not surprising for
the charity of the pope is analogous to the charity of the state. Paul's role as pontiff was to
take care of the Roman people.
Veritas
Veritas is the most unusual of the virtues.725 In his discussion of the similar figure of
Truth on Alexander VII's tomb Irving Lavin contrasts the function of that figure with
Bernini's earlier rendition here on the catafalque. He argues that while the catafalque shows
Truth as just a daughter of God, the later iteration of the theme shows "the promise of
redemption that will emerge over the course of time."726 The ancillary virtues in Paul's
catafalque suggest that such a reading is incomplete: that in fact the same ideas are already
intended here that were more fully flushed out by a more mature artist over fifty years later.
The three Virtues associated with Truth are Sapienza, Magnaminita, and Magnificentia. The
specific guises in which these virtues appear all attest to Paul's patronage and its endurance.
Erizzo 1568, 338. See also Mason Hammond, "A Statue of Trajan Represented on the 'Anaglypha
Traiani'," Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 21 (1953): 125-83, and ibid., The Antonine Monarchy
(Rome, 1959) 36, 54-5 and 326.
724
725
In fact, Lavin calls the presence of Truth in a papal tomb "without precedent." Lavin, 2005, 177.
Lavin 2005, 178. Alexander VII's Truth shows a "promissory aspect" which "concerns time alone
as a cognitive, quasi-eschatological ideal, whose triumph the psalm declares as the promise of
redemption that will emerge over the course of time.
726
200 This legacy will reveal the truth of his greatness. In other words, these virtues represent the
popular seventeenth-century conceit of "Truth unveiled by Time."
Veritas (figure 23) is the only fully nude virtue. She looks downwards, across her right
shoulder and gestures with her right hand. She holds open a large volume with her left hand.
A sun diadem sits on her forehead. This is very traditional iconography. For instance, Ripa
describes truth as holding a book and a sun.727 Ripa devotes several pages to alternate views
of Verità and Bernini's representation here contains all of the key elements: nudity, the open
book and the sun.728 In fact Bernini’s Veritas seems very closely related to Ripa’s illustration.
and differs only in that the sun appears as a diadem, rather than a held object.
Truth bears the inscription "viam veritas elegit." This is a modification of Psalm 118,
verse 30, "viam veritatis elegi," with the person and tense altered to apply to the pope to say
"he followed the way of truth." The way of truth is the teaching of God and thus Truth
Ripa, 499-502. "The sun, the source of all light, is also a symbol of truth, which is the friend of
light; light chases away the shadows, as truth does in the mind. One arrives at truth by the study of
science, of facts, hence Truth holds a book."
727
Ibid., 499-502.
VERITÀ
Una belissima donna ignuda, tiene nella destra mano alto il Sole, il quale rimira, & con l'altra un libro
aperto, con un ramo di palma, &sotto al destro piede, il globo del mondo.
Verità è un'habito dell'animo disposto à non torcere la lingua dal dritto, & proprio essere
delle cose, di che egli parla, & scrive, affermando solo quello che è, & negando quello, che non è
senza mutar pensiero.
Ignuda si rappresenta, per dinotare, che la simplicità gli è naturale; onde Euripide in Phænissis, dice
esser semplice il parlare della verità, ne li fà bisogno di vane interpretationi, percioche ella per se sola
è opportuna. Il medesimo dice Eschilo, & Seneca nell'epistola quinta, che la verità è semplice
oratione, però si fà nuda, come habbiamo detto, & non deve havere adornamento alcuno.
Tiene il sole, per significare, che la verità è amica della luce, anzi ella è luce chiarissima, che dimostra
quel che è.
Si può anco dire che riguarda ilsole cioè Dio, senza la cui luce non è verità alcuna; anzi egli è l'istessa
verità; dicendo Christo N. S. Io sono Via, Verità, & Vita.
Il libro aperto, accenna, che ne i libri si suona la verità delle cose, & per ciò è lo studio delle scienze.
728
201 becomes a stand in for God himself. This, of course, derives from Christ's words to Thomas
recorded in John 6: 14 "Ego sum via, veritas, vita."729
Dependent Virtues
If the four virtues were chosen because of their adherence to the Four Daughters,
Guidiccioni and Scipione had considerably more latitude in choosing the attendant virtues. It
is in these virtues, then, that we should expect to find both accurate representations of Paul
and flights of Borghese propaganda. Because of the rigid framework this should mean that
some of the groupings make more sense than others and that virtues which were
indispensable to the conception of Paul are awkwardly forced into positions they do not
belong. After all, not every princely virtue naturally associates itself with Peace, Truth, Mercy
or Justice. It appears that some of the virtues were chosen by association with Imperial
precedents and others actually as a response to various elements of Paul's biography.
Religio
Religio (figure 24) wears a papal tiara and is clothed in a sumptuous cloak of a floral
damask-like fabric attached with a jewelled clasp with a putto's head. She holds a censor
between her hands. She wears shoes, whereas the other virtues are bare foot or sandaled.
This is a somewhat unusual representation and seems designed to underline the pope's
importance to the Church: the figure is really an allegory of the papacy.730
It is perhaps significant that Christ often appears in the Middle Ages holding a book open to
precisely this passage. See M. Didron and E. Millingston, Christian Iconography or the History of Christian
Art in the Middle Ages (London: Bohn, 1851) 289.
729
730
Ripa, 429-432.
202 In an earlier chapter we argued that Paul and his encomiasts viewed the restoration
of Rome and in particular early Christian churches as tantamount to the rebirth of the newly
purified church.We also argued that architectural references to early Christian buildings in
the catafalque indicate this legacy. This meaning is also suggested by the inscription
associated with Religio, which reads "dilexit decorem domus domini, et locum habitationis
gloriae illus." This is a modification of psalm 25, verse 8, "Domine, dilexi decorem domus
tuae, et locum habitationis gloriae tuae" ("I have loved, o Lord, the beauty of your house;
and the place where thy glory dwelleth"). It is surely no accident that Paul's religiosity is
equated with his building projects. In fact, the inscription implies that he was religious
because of his building.
Maiestas
Maiestas (figure 25) wears a cloak of a similar material to Religion with elaborate
draperies, tall sandals, and a three pointed imperial crown. Her hair is short and tousled and
her expression stern, almost masculine. Her left hand grips her drapery while her right holds
a sceptre, pointing downwards. The direction of her gaze follows this gesture. The eagle at
her feet holds up lightning bolts in its left talon.
The crown and eagle relate directly to Ripa’s description of Maestà Regia.731 These
attributes both derive from a coin of Antoninus Pius. Ripa’s passage also explains the
Ibid., 305. Una donna coronata, & sedente mostri nell’aspetto gravità, nella destra mano tiene lo
scettro, & lo stare à sedere, significa la maestà Regia, & per l’aquila gl’Egitij Sacerdoit, dinotavano l
potenza Regia, perciòche Giove à questa sola diede il Regno con la signoria sopra tutti gl’ucelli,
essendo frà tutti di fortezza, & di Gagliardezza prestantissima, la quale essendo veramente stata
dotata dalla natura de’ costumi Regali imita à fatto in tutte le cose la Regia Maestà.
731
203 presence of the lightning bolt in the eagle’s talons. He writes that the eagle is a symbol of
Majesty because “Jove gave to this one alone the kingdom with the domain of all the birds,”
thus Zeus’s lightning stands in for this transfer of power from Zeus to the eagle. Since the
eagle is a Borghese symbol, this could be read as an allegory of God's transfer of power to
the pope.
The relation of Majesty to either Paul or Justice is somewhat obscure, a circumstance
not really elucidated by any of the texts. The ode on Maiestà speaks of the "streets and
gloriously restored buildings."732 This associates Maiestà with Magnificentia and the ideas of
Magnificentia being appropriate only in princes.733 The inscription reads "Thronus eius sicut
sol" which is taken without change from Psalm 88, verse 38: "His throne as the sun." The
choice of this Psalm is interesting. The verse before reads his "seed shall endure forever,"
which may be read as a reference to the continuation of the Borghese dynasty.734 More
importantly, Psalm 88 ties the throne to justice. Verse 15 describes justice and judgment as
the preparation for the throne and incorporates mercy and truth.735
Puritas
Puritas (figure 26) wears a simple ankle length tunic, in contrast to the ornate garb
worn by most of the other sculptures. She clasps her right hand to her breast and holds up
732
733
Guidiccioni 1623, a 3. "Seu faustus Vrbis perlegeret suæ Vias, renatis ædibus inclytas."
See pages 102-103 above.
734
"semen eius in æternam manebit."
735
"iustitia et iudicuium præperatio sedis tuæ Misercordia et veritas præcedent faciem tuam."
204 fire in her left hand with a vessel beneath, dangling off of a ring attached to her middle
finger. A rooster stands at her side peeking out around the right edge of her dress.
Ripa describes both Purità and Purità et Sincerità d’animo.736 His descriptions bear little
resemblance to Bernini’s figure, although the latter does include one key symbol: the rooster.
Ripa’s equation of the rooster with purity is based on classical authors.737
The rooster is not the only element of this figure which derives from Antiquity. The
fire she holds represents the sacred fire guarded by the vestal virgins.738 The equation of
purity with the vestal virgins is a logical one because of their vow of chastity. A second
reason for this particular allegory is that it reinforces the connection between Justice and
Purità. Over time, the vestal virgins played an increasingly important role in the running of
Ripa, 421.
Purità
Giovanetta, vestita di bianco, con una Colomba in mano.
Giovanetto si dipinge la purità, perche, stà ne’ cori teneri, dove non hà ancora fatte le radici l malitia;
& il vestimento bianco, e tal dispositione di mente convenevole, come la bianchezza più d’alcun’altro
colore partecipe deela luce, della quale nessun’accidente sensibile, è piu puro, & perfetto, mostrandosi
ancora in questo modo la purità essere più di tutte le altre virtù alla divinità somigliante.
La colomba bianca, ci dimostra la simplicità, & l purità della vita, & col colore, ch’essa con ogni
delicatezza mantiene, & col costume naturale, che è di godere con singolar purità il suo compagno,
senz’altro desiderare, ò volere, per fine de naturali desiderij d’Amore.
Donna vestita di bianco, per la ragione detta in altri luoghi, & che tengi con bella grata un Gallo.
Il Gallo, come riferisce Pierio Valeriano lib. 24 appresso gli Antichi, significava la purità, &
sincerità dell’animo, onde Pitagora commandò à suoi Scolari, che dovessero nutrire il Gallo; cioè la
purità, & sincerità de gli animi loro; & Socrate appresso Platone quando era per morire, lasciò nel suo
testamento un Gallo ad Esculapio; volendo in quel modo mostrare il saggio Filosofo, che rendeva
alla divina bontà curatrice di tutti i mali, l’anima sua pura, & sincera come era prima. Onde Giulio
Camillo nel fin della canzona in morte Delfin di Francia cosi disse
Ma à te Esculapio adorno
Ei sacrò pria l’augel nuncio del giorno.
736
“The rooster, as Pierio Valeriano relates, according to the Ancients , signifies purity and sincerity
of the soul. So that Pythagoras commanded his scholars that they must nourish the rooster, that is
the purity and sincerity of their souls. And Socrates, according to Plato, when he was about to die left
in his will a rooster to Asclepius, wishing in that way, to show that learned philosopher that he
restored to the divine goodness creator of all ills, his soul pure and simple as it was in the beginning.”
737
On this duty see Inga Kroppenberg, "Law, Religion and Constitution of the Vestal Virgins," Law
and Literature 22 (2010): 418-439, 425.
738
205 the Roman state. In fact, they were seen as a personification of the state.739 The vestal virgins
were closely associated with Augustus as Pontifex Maximus and with many of the female
members of his family.740 They also were sometimes responsible for guarding the wills of
emperor.741 All of these associations were not lost after the fall of the Empire and vestals
continue to appear in ruler iconography, even into the Counter Reformation, when they
served as a symbol of the purity and majesty of the ruler.742
Purity's relation to Justice is further underlined by the choice of inscription,
"ambulavit in lege domini." This is a corruption of the second half of Psalm 118, verse 1:
"Beati immaculati in via, qui ambulant in lege domini," or "blessed are the undefiled in the
way, who walk in the law of the lord."743
Annona
Annona (figure 27) gathers up her dress with her left arm while her right hand offers
sheaves of wheat to the viewer. An overflowing cornucopia rests at her feet, full of grapes
and other fruits. Her dress covers her right shoulder and arm but reveals her left breast. She
is crowned with a wreath of wheat. Bernini's Annona is an active figure with very different
physiognomy form many of the other virtues. She appear almost masculine and intensely
active.
739
Ibid., 424.
740
Charlesworth 1937, 124.
741
Kroppenberg, 421.
For a discussion of the application of vestal imagery to French monarchs in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries see Guillaume Faroult, "Les fortunes de la vertu: origines et évolution de
l'iconographie des vestales jusq'au XVIII siècle," Revue de l'art 152 (2006): 9-26.
742
743
This is the same psalm used for Truth.
206 In Roman antiquity, the attributes of Annona, Abundantia, and the goddess Ceres
seem to have become somewhat interchangeable.744 Cinque- and seicento theorists, including
Ripa, are no more careful in drawing a distinction between them. Although Ripa does not
give a specific description of Annona, he does include several different, but closely related,
descriptions of Abbondanza in the 1603 edition, one of which he specifically traces to an
Antonine Annona coin.745 As we have already noted, abundance, and particularly the
overflowing cornucopia, is frequently used as "a symbol of the abundance of peace,"746
precisely because only times of peace produce such bounty for Rome’s citizens.
744
Noreña, 116.
Ripa, 378. “Donna gratiosa, che havendo d’una bella ghirlanda di vaghi fiori cinta la fronte, & il
vestimento di color verde, ricamato d’oro, con la destra mano enga il corno della dovitia pieno di
molti, & diversi frutti, vue, olive, & altri; & col sinistro braccio stringa in fascio di spighe di grano, di
miglio, panico, legumi, & somiglianti, dal quale si vederanno molte di dette spighe uscite cadere, &
sparse anco per la terra.
Bella, & gratiosa si debbe dipingere l’Abondanza, si come cosa buona, & desiderata da
ciascheduno, qunto brutta, & abominevle è contraria.
Hà la ghirlanda de’ fiori, percioche sono i fiori de i fruti che fanno l’abondanza messaggieri,
& auttori; posono anco significare l’allegrezza, & la delitie di quella vera compagna.
Il color verde, & i fregi dell’oro del suo vestimento, soo colori proprij, eesendo che il bel
verdeggiar della campagna mostri fertile produttione; & l’ingiallire, la maturatione delle biade, & de i
frutti, che fanno l’abondanza.
Il corno della dovitia per la favola della Capra Amaltea, raccontata da Hermogene nel lib.
della Frigia, si come riferisce Natale Comite nel 7. libro delle sue Meteologie al cap.2. di cheloo, &
per quello che Ovidio scrive del detto Acheloo sotto figura di Toro, nel lib. 9. delle Trasformationi, è
manifesto segno dell’abondanza, dicendo cosi:
Naiades hoc pomis, & floris odore repletu, Sacrarut, divesq. meo bona copia cornus est.
Et perche l’Abondanza si dice Copia, per mostrarla la rappresenatmo che con il braccio
sinistro habbia come il dstro la sua carica, & d’avantaggio, essendo che parete di quelle spighe si
spargono per terra.
...
Abbondanza.
Donna in piedi, vestita d’oro, con le braccia aperte, tenendo l’un’& l’altra mano sopra alcuni cestoni
di spighe di grano, i quali stanno dalle bande di detta figura, & è cavata dalla medaglia di Antonino
Pio, con lettere che dicono: ANNONA AVG. COS.IIII. &S.C.
...
Abbondanza
Donna con la ghirlanda di spighe nella destra mano un mazzo di canape, con le foglie, & nella sinistra
il corno della dovitia, & un ramo di ginestra, sopra del quale saranno molte boccette de seta.
745
746
Ripa, 378.
207 Annona was a goddess created by Imperial Rome to signify the grain supply
provided to Rome by the emperor. Her image appears frequently on coinage of Nero,
Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Septimus Severus. 747
Annona was also the designation for the papal office responsible for overseeing the
city of Rome’s grain supply from the fifteenth century onwards.748 As we have seen this was
a particular concern of Paul's and the inscription is an explicit reference to Paul's actions to
control the grain supply.749 It comes from Psalm 143, verse 13 "promptuaria eorum plena,
eructantia ex hoc illud" ("their storehouse full flowing out of this into that") and is modified
to "promptuaria eius plena erctantia ex hoc illud“ (“his storehouse"). This refers to the
granary that Paul had built for the poor in 1607 and then enlarged in 1609.750
Tranquillitas
Tranquillitas (figure 28) holds the neck of a viola da gamba adorned with a lion's head
in her left hand and clasps her right hand to her breast. Her left foot is placed slightly
forward and elevated on a flat rock. She looks up to her right. Her dress exposes her right
shoulder but this is covered by a cloak.
Ibid., 122. Noreña notes that Annona coins were particular popular with Antoninus Pius, as were
coinage of public building projects.
747
For a very thorough study of this subject, see Volker Reinhardt, Überleben in der frühneuzeitlichen
Stadt: Annona und Getreideversorgung in Rom 1563-1797 (Tübingen, 1991).
748
749
Pastor, vol. 25, 87-90. See discussion above in chapter four.
750
Ibid., 50-51.
208 Tranquillitas is a very uncommon virtue. She does appear in in Imperial coinage and
usually represents a calm state of domestic politics.751 She is very closely related to peace, and
is represented by a sceptre.752 She appears on coins of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius with
attributes similar to Annona’s grain and a rudder. Ripa describes her as a woman holding a
kingfisher.753
While the viola da gamba does not appear in Roman descriptions of tranquillitas,
music does feature in the Roman iconography of concordia, which along with tranquillitas was
considered a corollary of pax. During the republic the most common definition of concordia
751
Noreña, 131.
752
Ibid., 132.
Ripa, 491-492. Donna con allegro volto, tenga con ambe le mani un’Alcione, uccello il quale stia
dentro al suo nido, & un’altro ne voli intorno alla testa di essa.
Gli Alcioni, fanno in nido alla ripa del mare con mirabile artificio di officiole, & spine de
pesci assai piccioli,& in tal modo intessato, & fortificato, che è sicuro ancora di colpi di spada; hà
forma simile alla Zicca, & non hà se non un picciolo pertugio per il quale à fatica entra, & esce
l’Alcione istesso, il quale fù presso à gl’antichi Egittij indicio di tranquillità, perche esso per naturale
istinto, conosce i tempi, & si pone à far il nido quando vede, che sia per continuare molti giorni
tranquilli, & quieti; però tirando di quì la metafora, dimandavano i Romani giorni alcionij, quei pochi
dì, che non era lecito andare in giuditio, &attendere alle liti nel Forno.
Tranquillità
Donna bella d’aspetto, la quale stando appoggiata ad una Nave, con l destra mano tenga un
cornucopia, & con la sinistra le faldi de panni; per terra vi sarà un’ anchora arruginita, & in cima
ll’albero della nave, si vedrà una fiamma di fuocco.
Si appoggia alle nave, per dimostrare la fermezza, & tranquillità, che consiste nella quiete
dell’onde, che non la sollevando, fanno, che sicuramente detta donna s’appoggi.
Il cornucopia, dimostra, che la tranquillità del cielo, & del mare, producano l’abondanza,
l’una con l’arte delle mercantie, l’altra con la natra delle influenze.
L’anchora è istromento da mantenere la nave salda, quando impetuosamente è molestata
dalle tempeste, gittandosi in mare, & però sarà segno di tranquillità, vedendosi applicata ad altro uso,
che à quello di mare.
La fiamma del fuoco sopra all nave, dimostra quella, che i naviganti dimandano luce di S.
Ermo, dalla quale quando apparisce sopra l’albero della nave, essi prendotto certo presaggio di vicina
tranquillità.
Tranquillità nella Medaglia d'Antonino Pio
Donna, che tiene con la man destra un Timone, & con la sinistra due spighe di grano, mostrando per
esse spighe l’abondanza del grano, che si può havere per mare, in tempo tranquillo & quieto.
753
209 was “the union between political rivals that produced ‘harmony’ in the state,”754 a metaphor
that can be traced to Cicero: “quae harmonia a musicis dicitur in cantu, ea est in civitate
concordiae.”755
In the Renaissance tranquillitas was more often applied to inner peace than worldly
matters. Thus Leon Battista Alberti published a dialogue "Della Tranquillità dell'anima" in
which he guides man to a life of inner peace.756 The concept of tranquillitas enjoyed a
resurgence in the early seventeenth century, having been popularized by Erasmus.757
The inscription reads "pes eius stetit in directo," or “his foot has stood in the direct
way,” which derives from Psalm 25, verse 12 "pes meus stetis in directo" ("my foot has
stood in the direct way"). This is the second appearance of this psalm, which also was
invoked for Religio. It suggests that Paul stood resolute in the course of justice, producing
harmony or tranquillity in the state.
Providentia
Providentia came late to the firmament of imperial virtues. Providentia was first used as
an attribute of the emperor under Augustus and she became firmly established as an
Augustan virtue along with Pax, Iustitia and Concordia. She quickly became an earthly rather
than heavenly virtue, associated with the emperor's foresight in regards to the welfare of the
754
Noreña, 132.
Cicero, de re publica/ de legibus I, ed. and trans. C. W. Keyes (Harvard: Harvard Univeristy Press,
1943) de re publica 2: 69.
755
His work is largely predicated on Seneca. See Matthias Schöndube, Leon Battista Alberti "Della
tranquillità dell'animo" Eine Interpretation auf dem Hintergrund der antiken Quellen (Berlin: De Gruyter,
2011).
756
Inemie Gerards-Nelissen, "Federigo Zuccaro and the Lament of Painting," Simiolus 13 (1983): 4353, 51 n. 35.
757
210 people, ensuring a stable succession and warding off conspiracies.758 Tiberius established an
altar to Providentia Augusta, a virtue defined as the forethought of the emperor to ensure
success by adoption.759
Bernini's Providentia (figure 29) holds a large volume in her left arm and an armillary
sphere in her right hand. She steps forward and looks up to her right. This specific depiction
of Providentia holding a globe derives from a Roman coin type, the providentia deorum, in which
a woman wearing a matron's dress holds a globe. It was intended to signify the power and
wisdom of the emperor, in particular with regards to ensuring a stable succession.760 The
focus on succession is also conjoined with another meaning latent in these coins: Roman
emperors frequently used providentia coins to prove their legitimacy, especially after they had
usurped power.761 This type was certainly known in the Seicento. Agustin illustrates many
examples of providentia coins with a globe at the figure's feet or being passes between two
emperors, but concludes that the figure herself sometimes holds the globe.762 Ripa describes
758
Charlesworth 1936, 110.
Mario Torelli, Typology and Structure of Roman Historical Reliefs (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Press, 1992) 65.
759
Noreña, 97-99. He gives a concise overview of the Providentia type. From its earliest appearance
under Tiberias through Vespasian these coins show a closed altar precinct and read "Providentia."
Under Titus, there is a new type where the emperor is handed a globe by his predecessor. After
Nerva, coins always depict the female virtue of Providentia carrying a scepter and pointing at a globe.
He states that this shift represents a pivot from a view of Providentia as responsible for dynastic
succession to the more general forethought of the emperor.
760
Christopher Howgego, Ancient History From Coins (London: Routledge, 1995) 82. In these
instances, Providence’s globe is passed from one emperor to his successor.
761
Agustin, 56-57. "Alcuni assegnano al Providenza il caduceo, altri il cornucopia (sic) quello significa
felicita/ e questa abbondanza, altri appoggiano ad una colonna per piu/ fermezza, altri le danno il
mondo in mano,& non sotto a/ piedi, per dimostrare il governo, & eccovi dell'altre medaglie, dove la
vedrete ancora in altri modi figurata."
762
211 five different types of providentia, several taken from Imperial coinage, and mentioning the
globe.763
That this specific aspect of Providence was important is suggested by the fact that
none of the other attributes mentioned by either Ripa (an anchor, cornucopia, and keys) or
Agustin (the caduceus) appears. The question of succession would have been relevant for
Paul, as his election was something of a surprise. And ideas of continuity and succession
would refer not only to Paul’s succession to the throne of St. Peter, but also to Scipione’s
Ripa, 415. Providenza.
Donna con due teste à somiglianza di Iano, una testa sarà ghirlandata li spighe di grano, & l'altra di
vite con il frutto, in una mano terrà due chiavi, & nell'altra un Timone, non potende essere
alcun'huomo provido senza la cognitione del tempo passato, & del futuro.
A ragione si dipinge questa figura con le due faccie, le quali dicemmo esser convenienti alla
providenza descritta di sopra.
Le chiavi mostrano, che non basta il provedere le cose, ma bisogna ancora operare per essere
perfettone gli atti virtuosi, & le chiavi notano ancora tutte le cose, che sono istromenti delle attioni
appartenenti alla terra, & che ci aprono li laberinti fabricati sopra alla difficultà del vivere humano.
Il Timone,ci mostra ancora nel Mare adoprarsi providenza in molte occasioni, per acquistarne
ricchezze, & fama, & ben spesso ancora solo per salvar la vita; Et la providenza regge il Timone di
noi stessi, & dà speranza al viver nostro, il quale quasi nave in alto Mare, è sollevato, & scosso da
tutte le bande da venti della fortuna.
PROVIDENZA
Nella Medaglia di Probo
Si vede per la providenza nella Medaglia di Probo, una Donna stolata, che nella destra mano tiene un
Scettro, & nella sinistra un Cornucopia, con un globo a'piedi, & si mostra la providenza
particolarmenti à Magistrati.
PROVIDENZA
Nella Medaglia di Massimino.
Donna, che nella destra tiene un mazzo di spighe di grano, & nella sinistra un'hasta, che con diverse
cose mostra il medesimo, che si è detto l'altra.
Providentia
Et nella Medaglia di Tito, si vede una Donna con un timone, & con un globo, come in una di
Floriano col globo, & con un'hasta.
Providenza
Una Donna, che alza ambe le braccia verso il cielo, & se rivolge qua si conle mani giunte verso una
stella, con lettere, Providentia Deorum; la quale è di Elio Pertinace, come racconta l'Erizzo.
Fra gl'huomini plebei; la providenza, perche immediatemente da Dio, il quale è datore di tutti i beni,
& conoscitore di tutte le cose, secondo il detto dell'Apostolo, Omnis sufficientia nostra ex Deo est; & non
ci provedendo esso delle cose necessarie, poco, ò nulla vale la providenza nostra, che è come la
volontà de teneri fanciullini trasportata dal desiderio di caminare, che presto cade; se la forza della
nutrice non se sostenta.
Providenza.
Si vede nella Medaglia di Balbino, una Donna, che con la sinistra mano tiene il Corno di divitia, &
nella destra una clava, col Mondo a' piedi, con lettere, che dicono Providentia Deorum, S.C.
763
212 succession as paterfamilias. The Borghese were not the only seventeenth-century papal family
to adopt Providentia to explain their power. Providence was also an important part of the
mythology surrounding Urban VIII's election and reign.764
But the poetry suggests that Providentia was also meant to refer to Paul's forethought
in providing for the people; both the ode and epigram associated with Providentia link this
virtue back to Annona. The ode discusses Ceres, Triptolemus and mentions the grain fields,
Roman crops and storehouses. The epigram refers to the storehouse of Romulus.765
In Bracciolini's book on Urban's election Providentia plays a key role in the pope's election. This
theme appears again on Pietro da Cortona's ceiling for the Barberini Palace depicting Divine
Providence. See Beldon Scott.
764
Guidiccioni 1623, odes 10.
GENTIS HVMANAE CVSTODIS
PROVIDENTIA
Ode VIII.
Cede vetusti nobilis æui
Fabula, radijs victa nouellis.
Quid Triptolemi garrula currus,
Quid legiseræ carpenta Deæ
Relegis totum sparsà per orbem:
Ut melioris semina vitæ
In frugisero sererent nymbo?
Quippe iugales tanta dracones
Insinuabant munera terris:
Vt Burghesij stemmata regni
Prodigiali fronte notarent.
Namque vbi socio iuncta Draconi
Regina uuium Vaticani
Sacram imperij tenuit meritis
Grandibus arcem: quanta per urbem,
Quanta per omnes didita gentes
Segetumeluuies, copia rerum!
Non hyemali largior astro
Exundantum currit aquarum
Impetus, vda se mole ferens.
765
Renuente graues aëre nymbos:
Quanta feracis gloria messis
Romana premens horrea; mundi
Tunc esse nouam dedit altricem,
Regina vetus quæ fuit orbis.
Hominum sed enim vita Parenti
213 Finally, despite all of these Imperial overtones, there is another fundamentally
Christian interpretation. Providence was viewed as an important virtue for any CounterReformation prince to possess and was defined as adherence to God's plan.766 Paul's
participation in this plan is attested to by Providentia's inscription: "deduxit eos in viam rectam
ut irent in civitatem habitationis" or "and he led them into the right way, that they might go
to a city of habitation."767
Sapientia
The idea of Divine Wisdom, the wisdom that was with God in the beginning, derives
from a verse in the apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus (24:9): "He created me from the
Ingrata suo iam destituit
Illius artus, cuius amatis
Artibus almæ lucisin oris
Viuida toties alimenta tulit.
Implacatæ tristia mortis
Iura vetabant scilicet, almos
Sublime caput censere dies:
Quando repostum non violanda
Lege monebat: satis humani
Iam spectatum luce theatri
Linquere egentes luminis oras
fas esse, Deo Iudice, Paulum:
Vt qui meritis astra petebat,
Mente teneret viuidus astra.
DE EADEM RE
Epigramma
Horrea Romuleæ non deficientia genti
Burghesij virtus Principis alma dedit.
Has ædes hominum vitæ præstruxit; & inde
Publica ab interitu sæpe redempta salus
Quid vatum Elisios memorant mihi carmina campos?
Vitæ immortalis patria, Roma patet.
See Bireley 236. Lipsius argued in De Costantia 1.4.3 that the role of the prince was to understand
and implement the divine plan. Justus Lipsius, Politica: Six Books of Politics or Political Instruction, ed. and
trans., Jan Waszink (Assen: Koninklijke, 2004) 85.
766
767
Psalm 106, verse 7.
214 beginning before the world, and I shall never fail." This and other so-called Wisdom texts
led medieval mystics to associate Sapientia with the bride of God and eventually with the
Virgin Mary whom she was seen as prefiguring. As early as the tenth century passages from
the Wisdom texts were read at Marian feasts. The feast of the Assumption was introduced in
the seventh century and the epistle for the mass was taken from Ecclesiasticus 24. In the
tenth century regular Saturday masses to the Virgin incorporated the same text.768 Bernard of
Clairvaux expanded on the relationship between Mary and the Book of Wisdom.769 Divine
Wisdom, thus, is the source not only of the Marian liturgy but also, because of Wisdom's
status with God in the beginning, of the doctrine of Immaculate Conception.770
Other traditions grew out of the Mary/Sapientia equation, prime among them the
relation of Mary with the throne of Solomon, the sedes sapientiae, for which there is a rich
See Barbara Newman, Sisters of Wisdom: St. Hildegard's Theology of the Feminine (Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1989) 160 and Etienne Catta, "Sedes Sapientiae," Maria, a Journal of Marian Studies
6 (2006): 693-694.
768
St. Bernard of Clairvaux, "sermo in Nativitate Beatis Mariae Virginis," in Migne, Patrilogia Latina
(Paris: Garnier, 1854) vol. 144, 735-740. The equation also appears in the subtitle of "Ad laudem
gloriosae V. Matris" in Ibid., 182, ""miranda et profundissima dispensatrix sapientiae." Also quoted by
William Heckscher, "Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk," Art Bulletin 29 (1947): 155-182, 180, n. 135.
769
On the derivation of the idea of the Immaculata from Ecclesiasticus 24 see Helen Ettlinger, "The
Iconography of the Columns in Titian's Pesaro Altarpiece," Art Bulletin 61 (1979): 59-67, 59-62.
Also see Alice Wood, "Creation and Redemption in the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception,"
Maria, a Journal of Marian Studies 2 (2002). The immaculate conception was not official church
doctrine until Pius IX's bull ineffabilis Deus of 1854 but the feast of her conception was celebrated as
early as he seventh century. This feast was legitimized by Sixtus IV in 1476. August 30, 1617 Paul
issued a bull reiterating that of Sixtus which attempted to walk the line between the two positions,
making it illegal to teach the inaccuracy of the immaculate conception, but not actually making it
dogma, citing the seriousness of the issue and length of time it had been at issue. The doctrine was
opposed by St. Bernard Clairvaux, Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure, but supported by the
Franciscans. On the political ramifications (i.e. the efforts of Spain to have it declared doctrine) see
Luc Duerloo, Dynasty and Piety: Archduke Albert (1598-1621) and Habsburg Political Culture in the Age of
Religious Wars (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2012) 466. Cigoli's dome of the Paulina is sometimes seen as a
representation of the Immacolata. Ostrow 1996, 210-240, Ibid., 1996b and Eileen Reeves, Painting the
Heavens: Art and Science in the Age of Galileo (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997) 138-148. See
further discussion of possible Immaculism in this catafalque in n. 488 above.
770
215 tradition in medieval art. 771 Wisdom also came to be seen as nourisher of the seven liberal
arts, based on a passage in Proverbs: "Wisdom has built her house, she has hewn out seven
pillars."772 The pillars were equated with the seven liberal arts. The Marian associations of
Divine Wisdom would have been compelling given Paul's devotion to the Virgin, which is
something of a leitmotif throughout the Breve Racconto.
But this is not precisely the representation of Wisdom that was chosen. In fact,
Bernini's Sapientia conforms clearly to a specific Minerva type. Sapientia (figure 30) is dressed
as a soldier, wearing armour and a plumed helmet. She supports a shield figured with
Medusa's head (a reference to Athena's aegis sometimes said to have been made from
Medusa's flayed skin) in her left hand and points upward with her right.
The equation of Wisdom and Minerva was largely an invention of sixteenth-century
humanists, who, following Ovid, viewed Minerva as leader of the muses in place of
Apollo.773 A common equation of the liberal arts and muses suggested a comparison with the
tradition already discussed that saw Mary as the nourisher of the seven liberal arts. Because
of this connection the Wisdom/Minerva type was often used to represent patronage, which
is clearly the purpose here. She becomes a sign not only of Truth, but a reminder of his role
This comparison seems to have been first made by St. Peter Damian. Peter Damian, "Sermo 45
in Nativitate S. Mariae," Sancti Petri Damiani Sermones, Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis vol.
57, ed. Giovannni Lucchese (Turnhout: Brepols, 1983) 243. See also Newman 160-161. On its
appearance in art, see Ilene Forsyth, The Throne of Wisdom, Wood Sculptures of the Madonna in Romanesque
France (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972).
771
772
Proverbs 9:1.
773
Warner, 177-209.
216 as a patron of the arts. Wisdom has been interpreted as playing a similar role in Algardi's
tomb of Leo XI.774
Of course another obvious relation between Minerva and Wisdom comes from the
fact Minerva, as daughter of Zeus, echoes Wisdom as daughter of God. In Ecclesiasticus
(24:3) Wisdom describes herself thus: " I came out of the mouth of the most high and
covered the earth as a cloud."
Returning to our assumption that these virtues were selected to indicate the triumph
of Paul's reputation over time through his patronage, we find support in the scriptural
passage chosen.775 The inscription, "cogitavit dies antiquos et annos aeternos in mente
habuit," then, would be a reference both to Paul's restoring of ancient times and the idea of
future generations' recognition of these deeds. The ode on Wisdom also references his
patronage and suggests that Paul's building on the Esquiline will reflect on the future
reputation of the Borghese family.776
The Minerva/Wisdom was relatively rare in the sixteenth and early seventeenth
centuries. 777 Ripa gives five different version of Sapienza, only one of which is the Minerva
type.778 But there is some question about the degree to which the Minerva/Sapientia and
On Leo XI's repeated use of this motif see Senie, 91-93. On the larger theme, see Pigler, vol. II,
48.
774
This is an adaption of Psalm 76: 6: "cogatavi dies antiquos et annos aeternos in mente habui," or
"he thought of the days of old and had the eternal years in mind."
775
Guidiccioni 1623, Odes 11.
The last four lines of ode IX, DEI PERSONAM GERENTIS SAPIENTIA, read:
"Aggesta Exquilijs templa, superbius
PAVLO nacta decus Principe & auspice;
Dum stabunt, paris æui
Stabit Burghesium iubar."
777 Pigler, Barockthemen (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1956) vol. II, 497. Although it does appear in
Sansovino's Logetta where Minerva is represented as a personification of the Wisdom of the State.
776
778
Ripa, 442. Sapienza
217 Divine Wisdom were completely separate types. In the 1618 edition, Ripa explicitly contrasts
Divine Wisdom to Sapientia Profana, exemplified by the Minerva type.779 Cartari, on the other
hand, discusses the relation of the two types.780 In fact, Sapientia points heavenward with her
hand, indicating the source of her Wisdom, and suggesting that we read the figure as a
hybrid of Minerva and Divine Wisdom.
Magnanimitas
Magnanimitas (figure 31) is a woman holding an olive branch in her left hand with a
lion skin draped over her left arm, which she reaches for with her right hand. She stands on
a dagger, spear, helmet and tiara. These symbols are very unusual. Only the lion is mentioned
in Ripa's lengthy description of Magnanimità.781 Their rarity is further problematized by the
E commune opinione che gli Antichi nell'imagine di Minerva con l'oliva appresso, volessero
rappresentare la Sapienza, secondo il modo, che era conosciuta da essi, & però sinserro, che fosse
nata dalla testa di Giove,come cosa conosciuta per molto più perfetta, non sapendo errare in csa
alcuna, di quel che comporta la potenza dell'huomo, & fingevano che havesse tre teste, per
consigliare altrui, intender per sè, & operare virtuosamente; il che più chiaro si comprende per
l'armatura, & per l'hasta, con le quali si resiste agevolment alla forza esteriore d'altrui, essendo
l'houmo fortificato in sè stesso, & si giova à chi è debole, & impotente,come si è detto in altro
proposito.
Lo scudo conla testa di Medusa, dimostra che il sapiente deve troncare tutti gli habiti cattivi da sè
stesso, & dimostrarli, insegnando à gl'ignoranti, accioche li fuggano, 7 che si emendino.
L'oliva dimostra, che dalla sapienza nasce la pace interiore, & esteriore, & però ancora interpretano
molti, che il ramo finto necessario da Virgilio all'andata di Enea à i campi Elisij, non sia altro che la
sapienza, la qual conduce, & riduce l'huomo à felice termine in tutte le difficoltà.
Alcuni la figuravano col cribro, overo crivello, per dimostrare, che è effetto di sapienza saper
distinguere, & seperar il grano, dal gioglio, & la buona, dalla cattiva semenza ne'costumi, &
nell'attione dell'huomo.
779
Ibid., 456.
780
Cartari, 310-11. See also Rosand 2001, 214, n. 134.
781
Ripa, 300-301.
218 fact that they do not appear in the elevation where they have been replaced by an animal,
possibly another lion. Magnanimitas does not occur frequently in art, with a prominent
exception being Lorenzetti's Allegory of Good Government where she is one of two virtues (the
other being Pax) added to the standard four cardinal virtues surrounding the personification
Donna bella, con fronte quadrata, & naso rotondo, vestita di oro con la corona imperiale in capo,
sedendo sopra un leone, nella man destra terrà un scettro, &nella sinistra un cornucopia, dal quale
versi monnete d’oro. La Magnanimità è quella virtù, che consiste in una nobile moderatione d’affetti,
& si trova solo in quelli che conoscedosi degni d’esser honorati da gl’huomini giuditiosi, e stimando i
giuditij del volgo contrarij alla verità spesse volte, ne per prospera troppo fortuna s’inalza, ne per
contraria si lasciano sottomettere in alcuaa parte, ma ogni loro mutatione con egual’animo
sostegnono, & aborriscono far brutta per non violar la legge dell’honestà.
Si rappresenta questa donna bella, con fronte quadrata, e naso rotondo à somiglianza del
leone, secondo il detto d’Aristotele de fisin.al cap. 9.
Vestita d’oro, perche questa e la materia atta per mandar à effetto molti nobili pensieri d’un
animo liberale, & magnanimo.
Porta in capo la corona, in mano lo scettro, perche l’uno dimostra nobiltà di pensieri, l’altro
potenza d’esseguirli, per notar che senza queste due cose è impossibile essercitare magnanimità,
essendo ogni habito essetto di molte attioni particolari: si dimostra la magnanimità esser vera
dominatrice della passioni vili, e larga dispensatrice della facoltà per altri benefitio, e non per vanità,
& popolare applauso. Al leone da’Poeti sono assomigliati li mahnanimi, perche non teme di
quest’animale le forze de gl’animli grandi, non degna esso i piccioli, & impatiente, de benefitij altrui
largo rimuneratore, & non mai si nasconce da’cacciatori, se egli s’avede d’esser scoperto, ch’altrimenti
si ritira, quasi non volendo correr pericolo senza necessità. Questa figura versa le monete senza
guardarle, perche la Magnanimità nel dare altrui si deve offerare senza pensare ad alcuna forte di
remuneratione, e di quì nacque quel detto. Dà le cose tue con occhi ferrati, e con occhi aperti ricevi
l’altrui. Il Doni dipinge questa virtù poco diversamente, dicendo doversi fare donna bella, & coronata
all”imperiale, riccamente vestita con lo scettro in mano, d’intorno con palazzi nobili, & leggie di belle
prospettiva, sedendo sopra un leone con doi fanciulli à piedi abbracciati insieme, uno di queste sparge
molte medaglie di oro, & d’argento, l’altro tiene le giuste bilancie, e la dritta spada della giustitia in
mano. Le loggie, e le fabriche di grande spese molto più convengono alla magnificenza ch’altra virtu
heroica, la quale s’esercita in spese grandi, & opre di molto danaro, che alla Magnanimità moderatrice
de gli affetti, & in questo non so se per avventura habbia errato il Doni, se non si dice che senza la
magnanimità la Magnificenza non nascerebbe.
Il leone, oltre quello c’habbiamo detto, si scrive che combattendo non guarda mai il il
nemico per non lo spaventare, & acciò che piu animoso venga all’affronto nel scontrarsi poi con
lento passo, o con salto allegro si rinselva, con fermo proposito di non far cosa indecente alla sua
nobiltà.
I due fanciulli mostrano che con giusta misura si devon abbracciar tutte le difficoltà per
amor dell’ honesto, per la patria, per l’honore, per li parenti, e per l’amici magnanimentespendendo il
denaro in tutte l’imprese honorate.
Magnanimità
Donna che per elmo portarà una testa di leone, sopra alla qual vi fieno doi piccioli corni di dovitia,
con veli, & adornamenti d’oro, sarà vestita in habito di guerriera, & la veste sarà di color torchino, &
ne piedi havera stivaletti d’oro.
219 of the state.782 It should be noted that one of the most common modes of depicting
magnanimity was through the Continence of Scipio, so perhaps this relation to Scipione's
namesake dictated its inclusion.783
Magnanimity's inscription reads "confortatum est cor eius, et sustinuit dominum."
This derives from psalm 26, verse 14; "confortetur cor tuum, et sustine Dominum" ("Let thy
heart take courage and wait thou for the Lord").
Magnificentia
Magnificentia (figure 32) wears a crown and holds a partially unfurled scroll in her right
hand.784 The inscription reads "magnificentiam gloriae sanctitatis eius loquentor, et mirabili
eius narrabunt." This is Psalm 144, verse 5: "Magnificentiam gloriae sanctitatis tuae
loquentur, et mirabilia tua narrabunt" ("They shall speak of the magnificence of the glory of
thy holiness; and shall tell thy wondrous works"). These wondrous works refer specifically to
the Pauline building projects. Perhaps the scroll contained a list of these buildings. Ripa
specifies such projects as the provenance of Magnificenza: “the effect of magnificence is the
building of temples, palaces and other marvellous things, and which they regard or useful to
782
See note 684 above.
The story of Scipio Africanus returning a beautiful bride along with her ransom to her betrothed
after the capture of New Carthage in Spain is recorded in Livy, Ad urbe condita XXVI, 50. See Livy:
History of Rome books 26-27, Fran Gardner Moore, ed. and trans. (Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1943). For the history of this story's illustration, see Mauro Civai and Marilena Caciorgna,
Continenza di Scipione: il tema della magnanimatas nell'arte italiana exhibition catalogue Palazzo Pubblico,
Siena (Siena: Protagon, 2008).
783
It should be noted that there are slight discrepencies between her appearance in the elevation and
individual engraving. The scroll is in her left hand and a different, unidentifiable object is in her right.
Her crown remains the same and her dress is similar but slightly shortened. Her legs are positioned
differently; they seem evenly placed on the ground whereas in the engraving she is clearly stepping
forward.
784
220 the public, or the honour of the same emperor and many more to religion.”785 We have
already investigated the importance of these ideas in the Borghese encomia and in this
catafalque. As noted above, the prime position accorded this virtue (to the right of the main
entrance) clearly indicates the importance of these ideas to the entire project.
If this were not enogh, the idea is reiterated in the funeral poetry. The ode on
Magnificentia is a veritable catalogue of Paul's buildings: tombs, temples, roads, fountains, the
Vatican, the Pauline Chapel at Santa Maria Maggiore (particularly the Salus Populi Romana),
the Quirinal Palace.786
785
Ripa, 302.
Guidiccioni 1623, Odes 4.
GLORIOSISSIMI PRINCIPIS
MAGNIFICENTIA.
Ode II.
Vbi nunc beatus ille terrarum Parens,
Romæq. præsidium & decus;
Burghesius ille pacis augustæ sator,
Fautorq. virtutem potens?
Iacebit ergo sede contentus breui;
Per quem patentioribus
Instructa Roma est ædibus, templis, vijs?
Quibus patet vestigijs
Burghesia mens, ingentium semper ferax
Rerum saluti publicæ.
Miraris, hospes, alteram Romæ additam
Romam superbè assurgere
Miraris altæ porticus molem arduam,
Quæ Vaticani Principis
Delubra fronte decorat augustissima?
Miraris ab Iani iugo
Exuberantes pœne tot fluuijs aquas,
Quot ora fons Burghesius
Ad liberales Principis laudes sui
Deprædicandas exerit?
786
Miraris Exquilinæ ad aram Virginis
Non iam sacellum conditum:
Sed templa templis splendidè superaddita,
Montesq. adauctos montibus?
Exaggeratos anne mirraris lares
Saxo Quirinali super:
221 Clementia
Clemency arose as a specifically Julian virtue; Clemency as both word and concept
only become prevalent under Caesar’s rule and in the writings of Cicero. In 44 B.C. the
senate decreed the building of a temple to Clementia Caeseris in the forum featuring the
personifications of Caesar and Clemency to be portrayed clasping hands.787 After this the
deified Clementia became a popular Roman goddess.
Initially Clementia seems to be undistinguishable from Mansuetudo and Misericordia.788
But as Clemency becomes codified as a virtue in literature its meaning becomes more
precise. Cicero dwells extensively on the importance of clemency to Caesar in both Pro
Marcello and Pro Ligoria.789 The concept of Clemency gradually evolves under Caesar and
Et quæ per urbem latiùs miracula
Spectantium obtutus tenent?
Auctore PAVLO talis illustrat decor
Hanc Orbis Vrbem Regiam.
Illo iubente marmorum cessit rigor,
Saxisq. honor fulsit nouus;
Et Roma se mirata maiorem, illius
Nomen sibi inscripsit libens.
At nunc honorat grata, quem verè gemit
Laudum suarum antistitem.
Caduca spes mortalium, fallax amor,
Breuis voluptas cordium.
Semper dolebis Roma, qui perijt semel;
Si grata promeritis eris.
Richardson, 88. The temple does not remain but is discussed by Plutarch in Caesar 57:3. Plutarch,
Lives VII, Demosthenes and Cicero, Alexander and Caesar, ed. and trans. Bernadotte Perrin (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1919). David Konstan, “Clemency as a Virtue,” Classical Philology 100
(2005): 337-346. While many twentieth-century historians have considered Caesar’s clemency as false
or condescending, Konstan describes Roman attitudes towards and interpretation of clemency as a
virtue. Ibid., 341.
787
788
Ibid., 341.
Cicero, "Pro Marcello"8-9: 17-20 and "Pro Ligoria" 6-8: 10, 13-16 both in Orations, trans. and ed.
N. H. Watts (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1931).
789
222 becomes increasingly associated with Empire and the Emperor's status.790 After this,
Clementia becomes the main denominator for Imperial leniency.791 For Seneca, Clementia,
defined as the exercise of this leniency, comes to replace Iustitia as a symbol of absolute
authority of the ruler.792
Bernini's Clementia (figure 33) wears a long hooded cloak. The fabric of her tunic has
the same floral tracery of a tulip and acorn like design as Magnificentia. Her right hand
supports a tall stave and her extended left hand opens to reveal bolts of thunder. A lion lies
under her feet.
Roman depictions of Clementia typically illustrate a woman with a branch and a
sceptre, leaning against a tree.793 The earliest representations show her holding a staff and
olive branch, then a staff and patera, then and olive branch. She eventually becomes hard to
distinguish from Pax.794 Agustin describes a coin of Hadrian which shows Pax Augusta
holding a paten.795
The lion is a traditional symbol of clemency and is listed as such by Ripa. 796 The
association between lions and clemency derives from Pliny's Natural History and is echoed in
790
Susanna Braund, ed. Seneca: De Clementia (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) 2011, 89-90.
Konstan, 342. As evidence Konstan points to the fact that it is one of the four virtues awarded to
Augustus in the Clupeus Virtutem of 27 (Res Gestae 34) and is so prevalent that Augustine has to try to
explain Cicero's use of Misericordia as a substitute in Contra Adimantum 1.11.
791
792
Braund 2009, 42 and 95-96.
793
Possibly this is the source of Mansuetudo's posture.
Cornelius Vermeule, The Goddess Roma in the Art of the Roman Empire (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1959) 25-26.
794
Agustin, 47. " in altre d'Adriano, nella quale è scritto CLEMENTIA AUG stà in piedi appoggiata
a un bastone e hà nella man destra una patena, ò razza come potrete vedere in queste medaglie."
795
796
Ripa, 68-70.
223 medieval bestiaries.797 There is also a tradition in bestiaries that associates the lion with
repentance, based on the first of the lion's traits listed in the Physiologos: that it covers its
tracks with its tail.798
Donna sedendo sopra un leone, nella sinistra mano tiene un’asta, e nella destra una saetta, la quale
mostri di non lanciarla: ma di gittarla via, così è scolpita in un medaglia di Severo Imperatore con
queste lettere INDULGENTA AVG. INCAR.
Il leone è simbolo della clemenza, perche come raccontano i Naturali se egli per forza
supera, & gitta à terra un’huomo, se non sia ferito da lui, non lo lacera nè l’offende se non con
leggierissima scossa.
La saetta nel modo che dicemmo è segno di Clemenza, non operandosi in persi in
pregiuditio di quelli che sono degni di castigo; onde sopra di ciò Seneca el libro de Clemenza così
dice: Clementia est lenitas Superioris adverfus unferiorem in constituendis poenis.
Clemenza
Donna che calchi un monte d’armi, & con la destra mano porga un ramo d’olivo,
apoggindosi con il braccio sinistro ad un tronco del medesimo albero, dal quale pendano i fasci
consolari.
La Clemenza non è altro, che un’ astinenza da correggere i rei col debito castigo, & essendo
un temperamento della servitù, viene à comporre una perfetta maniera di Giustitia, & à quelli che
governano, è molto necessaria.
Appoggiasi al tronco dell’olivio, per mostrare, che non è altro la Clemenza, che inclinatione
dell’animo alla misericordia.
Porge il ramo della medema pianta per dar segno di pace, e l’armi gitate per terra co’fasci
consolari sospesi, nota il non volere contra i colpevoli essercitar la forza, secondo che si potrebbe,
per rigor di giustitia, però si dice, che propriamente è Clemenza l’Indulgenza di Dio à nostri peccati
però il Vida Poeta religioso in cambio di Mercurio, finge che Giove della Clemenza si serva
nell’ambasciaria nel lib. 5. della Christiade. E Seneca in Ottavia ben’esprime quanto s’è detto di sopra
della Clemenza, così dicendo:
Pulchrum est eminere inter illustres piros
Haec summa pirtus, petitur hac Coelum pia
Conjuire Patriae, parcere afflictis, fere
Sic illae Patriae primus Augustus parens
Cedae abstinere, tempus, atq;irae dare
Complexus astra est, colimur et templis Deus.
Orbi quietem, Saeculo pacem suo.
Clemenza.
Donna che con la sinistra mano tenga un proceso, & con la destra lo cassi con una penna, &
sotto à piedi vi saranno alcuni libri.
Pliny, Natural History vol. 3, Books 8-11, ed. H. Rackham (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1940) VIII.48 and VIII.56. For a discussion of Pliny's treatment of clemency in animals see also
Melissa Dowling, Clemency and Cruelty in the Roman World (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
2009) 329, n. 51. On the use of the lion as a sign of clemency is medieval bestiaries, see Michelle
Bolduc, "Silence's Beasts," in The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life and Literature, ed.
Debra Hassig, (London: Routledge, 1988) 185-211, 189.
797
This derives from the second century Physiologos, the prototype for Medieval bestiaries. See Arnaud
Zucker, ed. and trans., Physiologos: Le bestiare des bestiares (Grenoble: Jerôme Millon, 1994) and Max
Wellman, Der Physiologos, Eine Religionsgeschicht-naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung (Leipzig: Dieteric'sche
Verlags, 1930). For a discussion of this iconography also see Rudolf Wittkower, “Chance, Time and
Virtue,” Journal of the Warburg Institute 1 (1938): 312-321, 315, n. 7 and Filippo Picinelli, Il Mondo
Simbolico (Milan: Francesco Vigone, 1680) 279.
798
224 As with many other virtues there is also a Christological element. By the Middle Ages
"Clementia Caesaris" had also come to be seen as the forerunner to Christ's forgiveness.799
The inscription alludes to God's forgiveness, reading "deprecabilis super servos suos," an
alteration of an appeal to God for Mercy in Psalm 89. This use suggests that Paul has heard
the call and answered it.800
However the main purpose Clemency's presence in the catafalque must remain the
comparison of Paul to Caesar. This is certainly a common topos in the encomia by
Guidiccioni and other poets in the Borghese sphere, where it is often extended to include
Scipione as a new Augustus.801
Eleemosina
Eleemosina (figure 34) wears a long tunic which covers one shoulder and arm while
revealing her right shoulder and breast. Its diaphanous material clings to her stomach,
revealing her navel and thighs. She pours liquid from a ewer in her right hand to a larger one
in her left. Ripa describes her as a veiled woman, giving alms in secret with a lighted garland
around her head.802 Eleemosina' s ewer refers to Paul's creation of the Aqua Paola, restoring
Ethelbert Stauffer, "Clementia Caesaris," Schrift und Bekentniss Zeugnisse lutherischer Theologie, ed.
Volkmar Hentrich and Theodor Knolle (Hamburg: Furche, 1950) 174-184.
799
A modification of Psalm 89: 13, "deprecabilis esto super servos tuos" ("and be entreated in favour
of the servants").
800
See for example Guidiccioni 1637, 250. "Panegirico sopra il già Sig. Cardinal Borghese, Con le lodi
di Papa Paolo V. All' Eminentiss. Sig. Card. SPADA."
801
Ripa, 120.
Donna di bello aspetto, con habito lungo, & grave, con la faccia coperta d’un velo, perche quello, che
fa elemosina, deve veder à chi la fa, e quello che la riceve non deve spiar da chi venga, ò donde.
Habbia ambe le mani nascoste sotto alla veste, porgendo così danari à due fanciulli, che
stiano aspettando dalle bande. Haverà in capo una lucerna accesa circondata da una ghirlanda di oliva
con le sue foglie, & frutti.
802
225 the old Roman aqueduct and bring water to the quarter of Trastevere, as well as all of the
fountains he built all over Rome.803
In the sixteenth century Eleemosina had a number of connotations, encompassing
good works, giving alms, prayer and even confession.804 It even extended to the “spiritual
eleemosina” of prayer as an aid to attaining salvation thus placing it firmly in the middle of the
theological debates of the Counter Reformation. 805 The 1616 statutes of the Roman
archconfraternity of Natività Agonizzanti even defines eleemosina as a key element of postTridentine reform.806 This definition would both explain the inclusion of Eleemosina and
differentiate it from Misericordia. But this is clearly not the only meaning intended. The
Elemosina è opera caritativa, con le qule l’huomo soccorre al povero in alloggiarlo, cibarlo,
vestirlo, visitarlo, redimerlo, & sepelirlo.
Le mani fra i panni nascose significano quel che dice S. Matteo cap. 6. Nesciat sinistra tua quid
faciat dextera, & quell’altro precetto, che dice: Ut sit Eleemosina tua in abscondito, & pater tuus, qui videt in
abscondito reddat tibi.
La lucerna accesa dimostra, che come da un lume s’accende l’altro, senza diminutione di
luce, così nell’esercitio dell’elemosina Iddio non pate, che alcuno resti con le sue facoltà diminuite,
anzi che gli promette, e donna realmente centuplicato guadagno.
L’oliva per corona del capo, dimostr quella misericordia, che muove l’huomo à far
elemosina, quando vede, che un povero n’habbia bisogno. però disse David nel Salmo 51. Oliva
fructifera est in domo Domini. Et Hesichio Gieroso limitano, interpretando ne levetico: Superfusum oleum,
dice significare Elemosina.
803
Pastor, vol. 25, 435. D'Onofrio 1957, 141-148.
Christopher Black, Italian Confraternities in the Sixteenth Century, (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1989) 12.
804
These debates incited a controversy about Michelangelo’s Last Judgment which was recorded by
Gilio da Fabriano who claims to have defended Michelangelo from critics by stating that the fresco
shows a “diversity of ways by which man can be saved; the rosary denotes that prayer are a means for
salvation, other than faith, for without prayers and other good works i t is impossible to be saved.”
Gilio da Farbriano, Due Dialoghi (Camerino, 1564)101. See also Black, Italian Confraternities, 13.
805
Ibid, 13. Eleemosina, defined specifically as praying for souls in purgatory, became increasingly
important for seventeenth-century confraternities.
806
226 inscription with its reference to the needy and the poor, "intellexit super egenum et
pauperem," clearly references a more tangible form of almsgiving.807
Mansuetudo
Mansuetudo (figure 35) wears a long hooded cloak. Her left arm supports her head
and rests on a tall tree stump which is mostly enveloped in her cloak. Her ankles are crossed
and a lamb rests under her cloak between her feet and the stump. Her right arm rests on
what appears to be a yoke. None of this appears in Ripa's unillustrated description of
Mansuetudine.808
This is a corruption of Psalm 40: 2. "intelligit super egenum et pauperem" or he "understandeth
concerning the needy and the poor.
807
Ripa, 304.
Donna coronata d’olivo, con un Elefante accanto, sopra del quale posi la man destr.
La mansuetudine secondo Aristotele nell’Etica lib. 4. è una mediocrità determinata con vera
raggione circa la passione dell’ira suggirla principalmente, & in seguirla ancora in quelle cose, con
quelle persone come, & quando, & dove conviene per amore del buono, & bello, e pacifico vivere,
L’elefante nelle lettere degl’antichi Egittij, perche hà per natura di non combattere con le
fiere meno possenti di esso, nè con le più forti se non è grandemente provocato, da grande inditio i
mansuetudine, & ancora perche caminando in mezo d’un’armento di pecore, che le vengono
incomtro si tira da banda accioche imprudentemente no le venissero offese, & porta tanta
osservanza, & à così deboli animali, che per la presenza loro, quando è addirato torna piacevole, &
trattabile, oltre à ciò riferisce Plutarcho, che fe qualche Peregrino caminando per diserti, habbia
perduta la strada, & s’incontri nell’Elefante, non solamente non è offeso, ma è ridotto alla via
smarrita.
L’olivio è segno di pace, & di mansuetudine, e però i Sacerdoti de gl’Antichi ne’ primi tempi
volevano, che tutti i simulachri de’ Dei loro fussero fabricati col legno dell’oliva interpretando che à
Dio conviene esser largo donatore delle gratie sue à mortali, volgendosi con benignità, &
mansuetudine à perdonar loro i commessi peccati, & dargli abondanza de tutti i beni, à questo bel
Hierooglifico parve, che i Dei acconsentissero secondo che riferisce Herodato quando furno pregati
da gli Spedauricensi à torre la sterilità del paese loro, alche fù risposto, che la gratia sarebbe seguita,
quando havessero fabricato i simulachri di Damia, & di Aurelia, di legno d’oliva, & parve che da indi
in poi fin’à certo tempo presso à Milisij ardesse senza opra di fuoco materiale un tronco de detto
legno.
Si dice oltre di questo, che l’olio hà tanta forza contro il furore, che ancora spaso nel mare
quando è turbato fà cesare la tempesta, e lo fà tornar quieto, e tranquillo.
808
227 Unlike many of her companions, Mansuetudo was a specifically Christian as opposed
to classical virtue.809 The inscription reads "docuit mites vias suas." This is Psalm 24, verse 9:
"docebit mites vias suas" ("he will teach the meek his ways"). The presence of the lamb
reinforced the meaning, for the lamb is, of course, a symbol of Christ, the agnus dei.810
Taken together, these sculptures deliberately construct multiple interlocking
narratives. They emphasize Paul's virtues and strengths as pope and his official role as leader
and protector of the Roman people. The use of the Four Daughters imagery suggests Paul's
role in the salvation of man. But simultaneously the iconography, and in particular classical
references to the individual virtues, also strengthens the Borghese claims to Romanitas. It also
underscores Paul's extensive renovation of the city of Rome and the role those projects
played in enhancing his family, and particularly his nephew's, status.
See René Antoine Gauthier, Magnanimité: l'idéal de la grandeur dans la philosophie païenne et dans la
théologie chrétienne (Paris: Vrin, 1951).
809
The association derives from John 1:29. "Ecce agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi." Of
course these words also form part both of the regular liturgy and of the requiem mass where the
words "dona eis requiem sempiternem" are added at the end. For the development and use of the
iconography of Christ as lamb, see Didron, 318-337.
810
228 Conclusion
Over the course of this dissertation we have set out arguments for interpreting Paul
V's catafalque in multiple ways. The formal quotations of early Christian martyria indicate
the resurgence of the newly purified Catholic Church, while echoes of Imperial mausolea
equate Paul with Augustus and his reign with a new Golden Age. This duality extend to the
sculptural program, where the virtues chosen to represent the pope show him both as a
heroic Christian leader and ideal Roman emperor. What are we to make of this abundance of
signs? Were all of these meanings really meant to coexist?
It certainly seems likely that different aspects of the iconography were intended to be
read by different segments of the population. There is one official sacred program: the
organization of the virtues around the Four Daughters of God. The presentation of these
virtues shows Paul specifically as pope possessed of all the virtues necessary for the proper
functioning of the Christian state, thus leading to the salvation of mankind and, not
incidentally, himself.
Simultaneously there is an undercurrent of propaganda throughout the entire
monument. Paul's massive building campaigns (and by association those of Scipione) are
lauded as a display of magnificence worthy of a Christian prince and as symbolizing the
rebirth of both the purified early church and of the Golden Age of ancient Rome. Finally on
top of all of this are the subtler references to antique rulers, monuments and texts which
underscore the carefully crafted Borghese narrative of Romanitas and ancient lineage.
While much of this meaning is imparted through sculptural and architectural form,
words play an equally important role in informing meaning, something that would have held
229 equally true for a witness of the obsequies as a reader of the funeral book. For (most) of the
virtues are glossed by both biblical and poetic texts. In fact, the iconography of the
catafalque aligns with the messaging not only of the poems included in the funeral book, but
with the entire corpus of encomiastic literature produced at the Borghese court.
As we have seen the sixteen virtues are arranged around the framework of the
Parliament in Heaven and this exegetical conceit provides a patristic justification for a
unusual grouping of virtues: Peace, Justice, Mercy, and Truth. This group, in turn, allows for
the incorporation of virtues that could rightly be seen as princely or even Imperial rather
than papal. But by forcing these Imperial virtues into a Christian framework, Guidiccioni
echoes the absorption of pagan Rome into the Roman church. For while the early Church
was initially hostile to the pagan cult of virtues, they gradually coopted the personified
virtues to become elements of and intermediaries between God and the world. Thus the
practice of virtues became the path to God and godliness.811
All of these layers of meaning reinforce the image of the Borghese presented in
numerous encomia throughout Paul's reign. Thus the visual and verbal evidence of Paul's
catafalque is instrumental in reinforcing the work done by many scholars studying the
patronage and status of the Borghese family in the early Seicento.
Furthermore, investigating the many facets, both historical and formal, of one single
monument allows us to begin to see the mechanisms by which patronage functioned. By
studying how one of the foremost patrons of the early Seicento used ritual and spectacle to
mould history's record of his family, we see how status and meaning were carefully crafted
H. Mattingley, "The Roman Virtues," Harvard Theological Review 30 (1937): 103-117, 114-117. See
also Panofsky, "Icones," 1948, 166 for the trajectory through which personifications travel by way of
Lactantius, St. Gregory and Lomazzo to end up as figurable, the equivalent in the hierarchy of beings
of angels.
811
230 out of architectural form, sculpture and poetry. But more than this, this investigation of how
the Borghese presented Paul at this important juncture in their development has
ramifications for how we interpret their other commissions.
In focusing on the catafalque's place in Borghese patronage and mythology, we have
not devoted as much attention to other areas of seicento scholarship that can be
supplemented by the information provided in the Breve Racconto. Establishing the catafalque's
appearance adds to the corpus of knowledge about seicento ephemera and the evolution of
the catafalque form, while also supplying much needed data for asessing the obscure careers
of Sergio Venturi and Gian Battista Soria. But most importantly, it provides a wealth of
information about the young Bernini, his style, his working practice and his relationship with
Scipione Borghese.
Thus far we have not had occasion to investigate this aspect of the catafalque. But
the ideas that have been the focus of this dissertation and the insight the catafalque provides
into the Borghese mythology and into Bernini's early work for them adds substantialy to our
knowledge of the young artist, his style and his relationship with his first important patron.
This knowledge, in turn, engenders a number of new lines of inquiry.
Let us just take one example: Bernini's Pluto and Persephone, commissioned by
Scipione Borghese at exactly the same point as the catafalque.812 As we have seen, the
catafalque stresses the importance of protecting of the grain supply to the stability of Paul's
reign. This concern of his is exemplified in the statue of the personified Annona. Annona and
the goddess Ceres are, of course, intimately related,813 prompting the question of whether
The payment records range from June 1621- September 23, 1622 when it was delivered. Faldi 314.
Also see D'Onofrio, Roma Vista da Roma, 277- 282.
812
On the relation between the two goddesses, particularly in the early Empire see Spaeth, The Roman
Goddess Ceres, 24-26.
813
231 the abduction of Ceres' daughter is meant to relate to the end of Paul's papacy. 814 There is
not shortage of scholarship on this work, and some authors have even noted in passing the
relation to Paul's death and mourning.815 But no one has drawn this precise parallel.
In this conceit, the sculpture would represent the winter that Rome suffered under
the Ludovisi papacy, and the hope of rejuvenation by a future generation of Borghese.
This would perhaps help explain the mystery of Scipione's gift of the sculpture to his
erstwhile enemy Ludovico Ludovisi. It would be a poisonous gift; an inside joke comparing
Gregory to Pluto. In this interpretation the distich written by Maffeo Barberini engraved on
the sculpture's plinth also take on a double meaning, "Quisquis humi pronus flores legis,
inspice, saevi/ me Ditis ad domum rapi."816 The abduction would refer not only to
Proserpina's abduction to the underworld, but also the sculpture's move to the Ludovisi.
These connections could, of course, be made without the evidence of the catafalque.
Ceres herself was often associated with death, being seen as a liminal goddess associated
with all transitions.817 This theme is clearly present in Scipione Borghese's mind, for he
It is perhaps relevant that the earliest payment documents for the group mention both a "Plutone
che rapisce Proserpina" and a memorial bust of Paul. Winner, 194 and Faldi 1953, 143.
814
See for example Matthias Winner, "Bernini the Sculptor and the Classical Heritage in His Early
years: Praxiteles', Bernini's, and Lanfranco's Pluto and Proserpina," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte
22 (1986): 193-207, 194 n. 8. Winner suggests that the Proserpina may have been intended for a
subterranean room in the Palazzo Borghese "under the hanging garden of the Ripetta wing." He
suggests that this would have been intended to echo the ancient Tarentum with an altar of Pluto and
Persephone which was located near by. Winner suggests that the subject was chosen because of the
proximity of the Tarentum, and mourning for Paul. He also notes that the vegetation is laurel. He
connects this with Cerberus, as a sign of nature, and of regeneration of the Borghese family tree.
Ibid., 196. Hibbard publishes a 1618 map of Rome which includes a statue of Ceres in the Palazzo.
Hibbard, Palazzo Borghese, 74 pl. 63.
815
"oh you who stoop to pick the flowers of the earth, behold how I am abducted to the dwelling of
wild Dis." Translation from Winner, 194.
816
817
See Spaeth, 26-27.
232 returns to it in the ceiling Lanfranco paints for the Villa Borghese.818 But the clear
importance of Annona to Paul's reign in the catafalque renders such an interpretation much
more plausible.
But this is not the only work in Bernini's oeuvre whose meaning can be suplemented
by knowledge of his work on Paul's catafalue. The influence of the catafalque on Bernini's
development as an artist and iconographer did not stop with his Borghese sculptures or even
with the death of Scipione Borghese. In chapter six we grappled with the possibility that the
young Bernini may have acted as architect, trying to untangle whether echoes of the
catafalque's architecture in Bernini's more mature projects could be taken as evidence of his
agency in the catafalque's design, or whether they merely reflected its influence upon a still
young and impressionable, if preternaturally accomplished, artist. As noted in that
discussion, it is difficult to accurately assess the style of sculptures seen only at third hand,
rendering a formal analysis of the catafalque's place in the trajectory of Bernini's stylistic
development a somewhat futile exercise. But it surely is significant that Bernini returns to the
subject matter of Paul's catafalque repeatedly. The combination of the Four Daughters (or at
least some of them) appears time and again throughout his entire career. In fact, these are
practically the only virtues found in Bernini sepulchral monuments. Bernini explicitly
references the Four Daughters in two later funerary projects: once in an early rejected plan
for the tomb of Alexander VII and again in his memorial for the Silva family.819 Rudolf
Lanfranco, we must remember was involved if not in the production of the catafalque itself, at
least in the creation of the funeral book.
818
Michael Koortbojian, "Disegni for the Tomb of Alexander VII," Journal of the Warburg and
Courtauld Institutes 54 (1991): 268-273, 271-2. For more on the de Silva tomb, see Kauffmann 208210.
819
233 Preimesberger has suggested that the overall theme of Innocent X's tomb is also derived
from the Four Daughters.820
Alexander VII’s tomb clearly derives from Psalm 84, but Modesty is substituted for
Peace. In his investigation of the evolving stages of this tomb, Michael Koortbojian posits
that Bernini was the impetus behind using the Four Daughters conceit and that Modesty was
substituted for Peace at the pope's request, pointing to a note in Alexander's diary reading
"Cav. Bernino = modestia et veritas obviaverunt, s'incontrino, iustitia et pax si abbraccino, e
la pace volti più in qua e la morte in cambio del libbro habbia la falce," and and a drawing
which shows a hybrid Modestia/Pax 821 This clear corruption of the psalm shows not only
that it was the starting point for the design, but that it was a common enough conceit that
the viewer could be expected to notice the change and its lineage.
Koortbojian suggests that when Alexander altered Bernini's original proposal to use
the Four Daughters, Bernini then uses the imagery for the de Silva Tomb.822 The de Silva
Memorial is the only work which takes the grouping unaltered. The de Silva Chapel in S.
Isidoro was dedicated in 1663.823 The left wall of the chapel contains a plaque depicting
Roderigo and Beatrix Lopez de Silva flanked by Mercy and Truth.824 The right wall shows
Francesco and Giovanna Niccolò de Silva flanked by Justice and Peace.
Koortbojian, 272 and Preimesberger, "Bernini a San Agnese in Agone," Colloquio del Sodalizio iii
(1973) 54 n. Preimesberger argues that and that the images of Justice in Gaulli's pendentives should
be read as a reference to the Four Daughter's conceit.
820
Koortbojian, 270-272. He also suggests that it was Bernini who chose the Four Daughters as the
subject of the Alexander VII's coin.
821
822
Ibid.
823
Wittkower attributes the sculpture to Giulio Cartari and Paolo Bernini. Wittkower, 267.
The original appearance of Mercy and Truth are hard to discern due to black metal dresses added
at a later date, but a better idea can be gleaned by the preliminary sketches for the figures. See
824
234 While these are the only monuments explicitly derived from the Four Daughters,
oblique references abound. An unexecuted tomb for the Tomb of Doge Giovanni Cornaro
contained two of the four sisters. A preparatory drawing shows a two story structure with
Mercy and Justice seated on the stepped cornice flanking a sarcophagus.825 The tomb of
Urban VIII also builds on this pattern, with two of the sisters (Charity and Justice) flanking
the sarcophagus.
While not a tomb, Bernini's later unfinished sculpture Truth Unveiled by Time should
be included in this group. In 1647 he began working on this group, not as a commission but
for his "studio e gusto."1 Truth, also nude, sits resting her left foot on a globe. The book is
gone and the sun as migrated from her diadem to her right hand. According to Chantelou,
Bernini intended Time to have been supported by columns, obelisks and mausolea, which he
overturned and destroyed.1
Bernini tackled the theme a third time in a mirror (now lost but known through
preparatory drawings) for Queen Christina in which the figure of Father Time pulls drapery
back from the face of the mirror to reveal the image of the viewer who stands in for Truth.
Whatever Bernini’s personal attachment to the Four Daughters theme may have
been, it is not the only aspect of the catafalque’s sculpture he returns to. In addition to the
continued exploration of the Four Daughters iconography Bernini also frequently falls back
on the arrangement of virtues sitting on or leaning on a sarcophagus. Of course, as noted in
chapter five, there is certainly a venerable tradition of reclining allegories on sarcophagi
dating back to Michelangelo's Medici Chapel, but Bernini's figures from the catafalque
Heinrich Brauer and Rudolf Wittkower, die Zeichnungen des Gianlorenzo Bernini (Berlin, 1931) vol. I,
139-141 for preliminary sketches.
Wittkower suggests that this is a reworking without space constraints of the Pilmentel tomb.
Wittkower, 267 and Blunt 1967.
825
235 onwards are somewhat unusual in that they either sit forward on the edges of their seats
rather than reclining or even stand.
The earliest example is the memorial plaque to Carlo Barberini in S. Maria in
Aracoeli. This simple memorial, a relief wall plaque, shows two figures sitting on either side
of a sarcophagus shaped cartouche with the dedication. The two figures are almost always
identified as Ecclesia Militans and Ecclesia Triumphans.826 A similar use of virtues sitting on a
sarcophagus can be found in a early stage of the design for the tomb of Countess Matilda of
Tuscany. A preparatory sketch shows a much more elaborate sarcophagus than that in the
finished tomb with volutes resembling those in the catafalque. The putti in the finished tomb
are here replaced with female virtues.827 And finally, in the tomb of Urban VIII the figures
stand beside the sarcophagus, leaning on it for support.
The Nachleben of this type in Bernini's later work demonstrates how the thorough
investigation of his early patronage can inform our reading of the mature artist. Paul's
catafalque, then, is an invaluable source for supplementing our knowledge of all of the
people involved in its genesis and construction. It confirms theories about the Borghese's
self-representation, provides new data points for interpreting the work of Venturi and Soria
and helps flesh out lacunae in Bernini's early career.
Also, the meaning of the figures may contain a reference to Justice and Peace In his work on the
plaque, Irving Lavin writes that the best description of the two figures can be found in Giulio Cenci's
oration, "defender of the public well-being and maker of Christian peace." Lavin 1983, 8.
826
In the Museè des Beaux-Arts Brussels published by Wittkower. The one on the right holds scales
and is clearly identifiable as Justice. The only visible attribute of the virtue on the left is a cross.
Wittkower identifies her as Faith. Wittkower 254.
827
236 Bibliography
Primary Sources
Adami, Andrea. Osservazioni per ben regolare il coro dei cantori della Cappella Pontificia. Rome: de
Rossi, 1711.
Agustin, Antonio. Dialoghi di Don Antonio Agostini Arcivescovo di Tarracono intorno alle medaglie
inscritioni et altre antichita tradotta di lingua spagnuola in italiana da Dionigi Ottaviano Sada &
dal medesimo accresciuti con diversi annotationi, & illustri con 36 disegni di molte medaglie e
d'altre figure. Rome: de Rossi, 1592.
Adimari, Alessandro. In morte dell'illustriss. et eccellentiss. sig. don Carlo Barberino, general di Santa
Chiesa, canzone d'Alessandro Adimari. Rome: Zannetti, 1630.
Alaleone, Paolo. "Diary." Päpstliches Zeremoniell in der frühen Neuzeit: das Diarium des
Zeremonienmeisters Paolo Alaleone de Branca während des Pontifikats Gregors XV. (16211623). Ed. Günther Wassilowsky and Hubert Wolf. Münster: Rhema, 2007.
Alberti, Leon Battista. De re aedificatoria. Florence: Lorenzo Torrentino, 1485.
---. Leon Battista Alberti on the Art of Building in Ten Books. Trans. Joseph Rykwert and Robert
Tavernor. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.
Albertini, Francesco. Opusculum de mirabilibus novae et veteris Urbis Romae. Rome: Jacobum
Mazochium, 1510.
Allatti, Leonis. Apes urbanae. Rome: L. Grignanus, 1633.
Baglione, Giovanni. Le Vite de' Pittori scultori et architetti dal Pontificato di Gregorio XIII del 1572
in fino a' tempi di Papa Urbano Ottavo nel 1642. Ed. Jacob Hess and Herwarth Röttgen.
Città Del Vaticano: Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1995.
---. Le Nove chiese di Roma. Ed. L. Barroero. Rome: Archivio Guido Izzi, 1990.
Baldinucci, Filippo. Vita di Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Ed. Sergio Samek Ludovisi. Milan, 1948.
---. The Life of Bernini. Trans. Catherine Engass. University Park: Penn State Press, 2006.
Bellori, Giovanni Pietro. Nota delli Musei, librerie, gallerie & ornamenti di statue e pitture ne' palazzi,
nelle case e ne' giardini di Roma. Ed. Emma Zocca. Rome: istituto nazionale di
archaeologia e storia dell'arte, 1976.
237 ---. Giovanni Pietro Bellori. The Lives of the Modern Painters, Sculptors and Architects a New
Translation and Critical Edition. Ed. Alice Sedgwick Wohl, Hellmut Wohl and Tomasso
Montanari. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Bentivoglio, Guido. Lettere con note grammaticali e analitiche di G. Biagioli. Ed. Guido Biagioli.
Livorno: Masi, 1831.
---. La nunziatura di Francia del cardinale Guido Bentivoglio, lettere a Scipione Borghese. Florence:
Felice Le Monier, 1863-70.
Bernini, Domenico. Vita del Cavalier Gio. Lorenzo Bernini. Perugia: Ediart, 1999.
---. The Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Trans. and ed. Franco Mormando. University Park: Penn
State Press, 2011.
Biondo, Flavio. Roma instaurata. Venice, 1542.
---.Roma trionfante. Venice, 1544.
Boccalini, Traiano. Ragguali di Parnasso. Bari, G. Rua, 1912.
Borromeo, Carlo. Instructionum Fabricae et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticae libri duo. Monumenta Studia
Instrumenta Liturgica 8. Ed. and trans. Stefano Della Torre and Massimo Marinelli.
Vatican City: Libereria Editrice Vaticana, 2000.
Bosio, Antonio. Roma subterranea novissima. Rome, 1659.
Botero, Giovanni. Dell' ufficio del cardinale. Rome, 1599.
---. Della ragione di stato. Venice, 1598.
Bzovio, Abrahamo. "Paolo V." Le Vite de Pontefici di Bartolomeo Platina Cremonese, Dal Salvator
Nostro Fino a Clemente XI. Venice: Bortoli, 1703. 699-721.
Calvo, Marco Fabio. Antiquae urbis Romae cum regionibus simulachrum. Rome, 1527.
Carafa, Decio. Correspondance du nonce Decio Carafa, archeveque de Damas (1606-1607) publieé de
Lucienne van Meerbeck. Brussells: Institut historique belge de Rome, 1979.
Cartari, Vincenzo. Immagini delli Dei de' gli Antichi. Venice: Francesco Marcolini, 1556.
Catani, Baldo. La pompa funerale Fatta dall'Illustrissimo & Reverendissimo Signor Cardinale Montalto
nella traportatione dell'ossa di Papa Sisto il Quinto. Rome: Stamperia Vaticana, 1591.
Celio, Gaspare. Memorie delli nomi degli artefici. Naples, 1638. And reprint. Ed. E. Zocca. Milan,
1967.
Chattard, Giovanni Pietro. Nuova descrizione del Vaticano. Rome: Eredi Barbiellini, 1762-67.
238 Ciaconius, Alphonsus. Vitae et res gestae pontificum romanorum. Rome: 1677.
Cicero. de re publica/ de legibus I, Ed. and trans. C. W. Keyes. Cambridge: Harvard Univeristy
Press, 1943.
--. Orations. Trans. and ed. N. H. Watts. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1931.
Cintio, Giulio. In funere illustrissimi et excellentissimi principis Caroli Barberini, generalis S.R. E. dvcis.
Oratio habita in aede B. Virg in Capitolio a Julio Cincio. Rome, 1630.
Compendio della vita, e miracoli di S. Francesca Romana. Venice, 1658.
Costaguti, Giovanno Battista. Architettura della basilica di S. Pietro in Vaticano. Rome: Camera
Apostolica, 1684.
Da Farbriano, Gilio. Due Dialoghi. Camerino, 1564.
Damian, Peter. "Sermo 45 in Nativitate S. Mariae," Sancti Petri Damiani Sermones, Corpus
Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis vol. 57. Ed. Giovannni Lucchese. Turnhout:
Brepols, 1983.
De Angelis, Paolo. Basilicae S. Mariae Maioris de Urbe a Liberio Papa I usque ad Paulum V. Pont.
Max. Rome: Bartolomeo Zanetti, 1621.
Du Choul, Guillaume. Discorso della religione antica de romani. Lyon: Gugl. Rovillio, 1571.
Della Valle, Francesco. Rime. Classici della letteratura calabrese. Soveria Mannelli,
Rubbettino, 2003.
Della Valle, Pietro. Della musica dell’età nostra che non è punto inferiore, anzi è migliore di quella dell’età
passata. Rome, 1640. And reprint in Doni, G. B. Trattati di musica. Ed. A. F. Gori.
Florence, 1763.
Descritione della Pompa funerale fatta nell esequie del Ser.mo Sig. Cosimo Gran Duca de Medici gran duca
di Toscana. Florence, 1574.
Descrizione Dell' Esequie di Papa Leone XI celebrate nel Duomo di Firenze da Signori. Operai d'ordine
del Serenissimo Gran Duca. Florence, 1605.
Donati, Alessandro. Roma vetus ac recens. Rome: Manelphi Manelphi, 1595.
Erizzo, Sebastiano. Discorso di M. Sebastiano Erizzo sopra le medaglie de gli antichi. Venice:
Giovanni Varisco, 1585. And much expanded second edition. Venice, 1592.
Erythraeus, Janus Nicius. Pinacotheca Imaginum Illustrium. Rome: Iodocum Kalcovium, 1645.
Fedini, Domenico. La vita di S. Bibiana vergine e martire romana. Rome, 1627.
239 Fulvio, Andrea. Illustrium Imagines. Rome: Mazzochi, 1517.
Galesini, Pietro. Translatio Corporis Pii Papae Quinti Beatae Memoriae quam sollemni sanctoque
pietatis officio. S.D.N. Sixtus V Pont. Max. celebravit VI. Idus Ianuarii anno
MDLXXXVIII. Rome, 1588.
Gigli, Giacinto. Giacinto Gigli Diario di Roma. Ed. Manlio Barberito. Rome: Colombo, 1994.
Giorgi, Urbano. Scelta di poesia nell'incendio del Vesuvio fatta dal signor Urbano Giorgi Segretario dell'
Ecc.mo D. Conti di Conversano All' Emenentiss. e Reverendiss. Prencipe il Signor cardinal
Antonio Barberini. Rome: Tamburelli, 1632.
Giraldi, Lilio. de sepulchris et vario liendi ritu, libellus. Basel: Mich. Isting, 1539.
Guichard, Claude. Funérailles & diverses manières d'ensevelir des Romains, Grecs & autres nations,
tant anciennes que modernes. Lyon, Jean de Tournes, 1581.
Guidiccioni, Lelio. Breve Racconto della trasportatione del corpo di Papa Paolo V della Basilica di S.
Pietro a' quella di S. Maria Maggiore, Con Oratione recita nelle sue Esequie, & alcuni versi posti
nell'Apparato. Rome: Bartolomeo Zannetti, 1623.
---. Rime di Lelio Guidiccioni. Rome: Manelso Manelsi, 1637.
---. Delibatio Mellis Barberini. Rome: Vitali Mascardi, 1639.
Kirchmann, Johann. de funeribus romanorum libri quatuor. Lugd. Batv: Apud Hackios, 1672.
Laurus, Jacobus. Antiquae Urbis Splendor. Rome, 1612.
Lipsius, Justus. Politica: Six Books of Politics or Political Instruction. Ed. and trans. Jan Waszink.
Assen: Konenklijke, 2004.
Livy. History of Rome books 26-27. Ed. and trans. Fran Gardner Moore. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1943.
Mancini, Giulio. Considerazioni sull Pittura. Ed. Adriana Marucchi. Rome: Accademia
nazionale dei Lincei, 1956.
Massani, Giovanni Antonio. Le arti di Bologna. Rome, 1646.
Margotti, Lanfranco. Lettere del Sig. Card. Lanfranco Margotti, scritte per lo più ne’tempi di Papa
PAOLO V. a nome del Sig. Cardinal Borghese. Raccolte, e publicate da Pietro da Magistris de
Calderola. Rome, 1633.
Ménestrier, Claude François. Des decorations funèbres, ou il est amplement traité des Tentures des
Lumieres, des Mausolées, Catafalques, Inscriptions et autres Ornemens funebres. Avec tout ce qui
s'est fait de plus considerable depuis plus d'un siecle, pour les Papes, Empereurs, Rois, Reines,
240 Cardinaux, Princes, Prelat, Sçavans et Personnes Illustres en Naissance, Vertu et Dignité. Paris,
1682.
Mirabilia romae e codicibus Vaticanis emendata. Ed. Gustavus Parthey. Rome: Berolini, 1869.
Mola, Giovanni Battista. Breve racconto delle miglior Opere di Architettura, Scultura et Pitture fatte in
Roma et alcune fuor di Roma. Ed. Karl Noehles. Berlin: Hessling, 1966.
Nani, Floriano. Il funerale fatto dal Senato di Bologna all Illustriss. et Ecc.mo Sig.r.D. Carlo Barberino
Generale di S. Chiesa. Bologna, 1630.
Nardini, Famiano. Roma antica di Famiano Nardini. Rome: Stamperia de Romanis, 1661.
Oratio in funere Illustriss. et Excellentiss. D. Caroli Barberini...Ferrara 1630.
Orsini, Fulvio. Familiae Romanae Quae Reperiuntur in Antiquis Numismatibus ab Urbe Condita ad
Tempora Divi Augusti ex Bibliotheca Fulvi Ursini. Rome, 1577.
Ovid, Metamorphoses I-VIII. Trans. Frank Miller. Ed. G. P. Goold. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1984.
---. Fasti, Ed. G. P. Goold. Trans. James Frazer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Panvinio, Onofrio. de ritu sepeliendi mortuos apud veteres Christianos. Cologne, 1568.
Pascoli, Lione. Vite di pittore, scultori ed architetti moderni. Ed. Valentino Martinelli and
Alessandro Marabottini. Perugia, 1992.
Passeri, Vite de' pittori, scultori ed architetti che hanno lavorato in Roma, I (1730) and II (1736)
facsimile edition. Rome: Istituto d'Archeologia e Storia dell'Arte, 1933.
Penia, Francesco. Relatione summaria della vita, santità, miracoli e atti della canonizatione di Santa
Francesca Romana o de Pontiani. Cavata fedelmente dalli Processi autentici di questa causa, Da
Monsig. Francesco Penia Auditor di Rota. Rome, 1608.
Petrarch, Familiari. Ed. Vittorio Rossi. Florence: Sansoni, 1968.
Pflaumern, Johann Heinrich von. Mercurius Italicus. Lugdani, 1649.
Picenelli, Filippo. Il Mondo Simbolico. Milan: Francesco Vigone, 1680.
Pindar, Olympian Odes, Pythian Odes. Ed. and trans. William Race. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1997.
Platina, Bartolomeo. Le Vite de Pontefici di Bartolomeo Platina Cremonese, Dal Salvator Nostro Fino
a Clemente XI. Venice: Bortoli, 1703.
241 Pliny, Letters and Panegyricus I, Books 1-7. Ed. and trans. Betty Radice. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1969.
---. Natural History vol. 3, Books 8-11. Ed. H. Rackham. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1940.
Plutarch. "Camillus" Plutarch's Lives. Ed. and trans. Bernadotte Perrin. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1914.
---. Lives VII, Demosthenes and Cicero, Alexander and Caesar. Ed. and trans. Bernadotte Perrin.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1919.
Porcacchi, Tomasso. Funerali antichi di diversi popoli et nationi. Venice: Galignani, 1574.
Ripa, Cesare. Iconologia overo descrittione di diverse imagini cavate dall'Antichità e di propria inventione
Cesrae Ripa. Rome: Lepido Facij, 1603.
Sarpi, Paolo. Istoria dell'Interdetto, Scrittori d'Italia vol. 181. Laterza, 1940.
Simeoni, Gabriele. Illustratione de gli epitaffi et medaglie antiche. Lyon: Giovan de Tournes, 1558.
Soria, Giovanni Battista. Scielta di varii tempietti antichi. Rome, 1624.
St. Bernard. "In Festo Annunciationis Beatae Virginis. ps 84: 10, 11." Patrologia Latina. Ed.
J.P. Migne. Paris: Garnier, 1844-55. CLXXXIII, 387-90. Also English translation.
Four Homilies in Praise of the Blessed Virgin. Trans. Marie-Bernard Said. Kalamazoo:
Cistercian Publications, 1993.
---. Ad laudem gloriosae V. Matris." Patrilogia Latina. Ed. Migne. Paris: Garnier, 1844-55.
CLXXXIII, 182.
St. Bonaventure. Sancti Bonaventura Opera. London, 1668.
Taja, Agostino. Descrizione del Pallazzo Apostolico Vaticano. Rome, 1750.
Tetius, Hieronymus. Ædes Barberinæ ad Qvirinalem a comite Hieronymo Tetio Pervsino descriptæ.
Rome, 1642.
Totti, Pompilio. Ritratto di Roma Moderna. Rome: Mascardi, 1638.
---. Ristretto delle grandezze di Roma, raccolta da Pompilio Totti. Rome: Mascardi, 1637.
Ugonio, Pompeo. Historia delle Stationi di Roma. Rome, 1588.
Vacca, Flaminio. Memorie di varie antichita' trovata in diversi luoghi della citta' di roma scritte da
Flaminio Vacca Nell'Anno 1594. Rome, 1820.
242 Valerius Maximus. Memorable Doings and Sayings. vols. 1 and 2. Ed. and trans. D. R.
Shackelton Bailey Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Valesio, Giovanni Luigi. Apparato funebre dell'anniversario à Gregorio XV. Celebrato in Bologna a
XXIV. de Luglio M.DC.XXIV. Bologna, 1624.
Vasari, Giorgio. Le Vite de' più eccelenti pittori, scultori edarchitettori scritte da Giorgio Vasari pittore
Aretino. Ed. Gaetano Milanesi. Florence: Sansoni, 1906.
Vico, Enea. Gli 'immagini con tutti i riversi trovati e le vite de gli imperatori. Venice, 1548.
---. Discorsi di M. Enea Vico Parmigiano, sopra le medaglie de gli antichi divisi in due libre. Venice:
Gabriele Giolito, 1558.
Virgil. Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid 1-6. Trans. H. R. Fairclough, revised G. P. Goold. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1999.
Secondary Sources:
Ackerman, James. The Architecture of Michelangelo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.
Ademollo, Alessandro. Giacinto Gigli e i suoi diarii del secolo XVII. Florence: Gazzetta d'Italia,
1877.
Alexander, John. From Renaissance to Counter-Reformation: The Architectural Patronage of Carlo
Borromeo during the Reign of Pius IV. Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Fonti e Studi 7. Rome:
Bulzoni, 2008.
Antinori, Aloisio. Scipione Borghese e l'architettura. Rome: Archivio Guido Izzi, 1995.
---. La magnificenza e l'utile: Progetto urbano e monarchia papale nella Roma del seicento. Rome:
Gangemi, 2008.
Atkins, Margaret and Thomas Williams, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Disputed Questions on the Virtues.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Aurnhammer, Achim, and Friedrich Däuble. "Die Exequien für Kaiser Karl V. in Augsburg,
Brüssel und Bologna." Studien zur Thematik des Todes im 16. Jahrhundert. Ed. Peter
Blum. Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 1983. 141-190.
Bartolini Salimbeni, L. "Giovanni Battista Soria e il Cardinal Borghese: restauri a Roma
1618-1633." Saggi in onore di Guglielmo de Angelis d'Ossat. Ed. Sandro Benedetti. Rome:
Multigrafica, 1987. 399-406.
Baschet, Armand. “Négociation d’oeuvres de tapisserie de Flandre et de France par le Nonce
Guido Bentivoglio pour le Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1610-21)." Gazzette des Beaux
Arts XI (1861): 406-15 and XII (1862): 32-45.
243 Bauer, George. "Gianlorenzo Bernini: the Development of Architectural Iconography." PhD
Dissertation, Princeton University, 1974.
---."Bernini and the Baldachino: On Becoming an Architect in the Seventeenth Century."
Architectura 26 (1997): 144-165.
Baumgarten, Frederic. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2003.
Beer, Marina. "I sogni di Scipione: visione, allegoria, letteratura nel casino dell'Aurora di
palazzo Rospiglioso-Pallavicini a Roma." Percorsi tra parole e immagini (1400-1600). Ed.
Angela Guidotti and Massimiliano Rossi. Lucca: Maria Pacini Fazzi, 2000. 179-201.
Bezcjy, Istvan and Cary Nederman, ed. Princely Virtues in the Middle Ages, 1200-1500.
Turnhout: Brepols, 2007.
Beldon Scott, John. "S. Ivo alla Sapienza and Borromini's Symbolic Language." The Journal of
the Society of Architectural Historians 41 (1982): 294-317.
---. Images of Nepotism: the Painted Ceilings of Palazzo Barberini. Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1991.
Berendsen, Olga. "A Note on Bernini's Sculptures for the Catafalque of Pope Paul V."
Marsyas (1959): 67-69.
---. “The Italian Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Catafalques.” PhD Dissertation, New
York University, 1961.
---. "Taddeo Zuccari's Paintings for Charles V's Obsequies in Rome." The Burlington Magazine
112 (1970): 809-810.
---. "I primi catafalchi del Bernini e il progetto del Baldachino." Immagini del barocco. Bernini e la
cultura del seicento. Ed. Maurizio Fagiolo and G. Spagnese. Florence: Istituto della
enciclopedia italiana, 1982. 133-143.
Bernasconi, Marzio. Il cuore irrequieto dei papi. Bern: Peter Lang, 2004.
Bernini in Vaticano. Exh. cat. Ed. A. Gramiccia. Rome, 1981.
Bernini, Giovanni-Pietro. Giovanni Lanfranco. Parma: Grafica Artigianna, 1985.
Bevilacqua, Mario. "Della decorazione della sala grande del Palazzo alle Terme della Villa
Montalto." Sisto V: Roma e il Lazio. Ed. Marcello Fagiolo and Maria Luisa Madonna.
Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1992.
Bilancia, Fernando. "Le esequie di Carlo Barberini nella chiesa di Santa Maria in Aracoeli."
Studi sul Barocco Romano scritti in onore di Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco. Milan: Skira, 2004.
95-119.
244 Bireley, Robert. The Counter Reformation Prince: Anti- Machiavellianism or Catholic Statecraft in
Early Modern Europe. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
Black, Christopher. Italian Confraternities in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1989.
Blunt, Anthony. "Two Drawings for Sepulchral Monuments by Bernini.” Essays in the History
of Art Presented to Rudolf Wittkower. Ed. Douglas Fraser and Howard Hibbard.
London: Phaidon, 1967. 230-233.
---.Borromini. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
---."Roman Baroque Architecture: the Other Side of the Medal." Art History 3 (1980): 61-80.
Bolduc, Michelle. "Silence's Beasts." The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life and
Literature. Ed. Debra Hassig. London: Routledge, 1988. 185-209.
Bolland, Andrea. "Desiderio and Diletto: Vision, Touch, and the Poetics of Bernini's Apollo and
Daphne." Art Bulletin 82 (2000): 309-330.
Bouwsma, William. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty Renaissance Values in the Age of the
Counter Reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.
Bräcker, Antje. "Das Begräbniszeremoniell für die Päpste Paul V. (1550–1621) und
Gregor XV. (1554–1623) – Zwei Wahrnehmungen." Praemium Virtutis II Grabmäler
und Begräbniszeremoniell in der italienischen Renaissance. Ed. Joachim Poeschke, Britta
Kusch-Arnhold and Thomas Weigel. Münster: Rhema, 2005.
Braund, Susanna Morton. "The Anger of Tyrants and Foregiveness of Kings." Ancient
Forgiveness, Classical, Judaic and Christian. Ed. Charles Griswold and David Konstan.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 77-135.
---. Seneca: De Clementia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Brauer, Heinrich and Rudolf Wittkower. Die Zeichnungen des Gianlorenzo Bernini. Berlin: Keller,
1931.
Bredekamp, Horst and Volker Reinhardt. Totenkult und Wille zur Macht. Die unruhigen
Ruhestätten der Päpste in St. Peter. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2004.
Brenk, Beat. Die Frühchristlichen Mosaiken in S. Maria Maggiore zu Rom. Wisebaden: Steiner,
1975.
Brinckmann, A. E. Barock-Bozzetti: Italienische Bildhauer, Italian Sculptors. Frankfurt: Anstalt,
1924.
245 Brown, Peter. The Cult of Saints. Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1982.
Bruhns, Leo. "Das Motiv der ewigen Anbetung in der Römischen Grabplastik des 16. 17.
und 18. Jahrhunderts." Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte IV (1940): 255-426.
Burgess, Theodore. Epideictic Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902.
Burke, John. Musicians of S. Maria Maggiore 1600-1700 A Social and Economic Study. Supplement
to Note d'archivio per la storia musicale nouva 2 (1984).
Burroughs, Charles. "Opacity and Transparence Networks and Enclaves in the Rome of
Sixtus V." RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 41 (2002): 56-71.
Cacciavillane, Ivone. Paolo Sarpi: la guerra delle scritture del 1606 e la nascita della nuova Europa.
Venice: Corboe Fiore, 2005.
Caetani, Leone. "Vita e Diario di Paolo Alaleone de Branca 1582-1638." Archivio della Società
Romana di storia patria 16 (1893): 1-39.
Cancellieri, Francesco. Storia de' solenni possessi de' somme pontefici. Rome: Luigi Lazzarini, 1802.
Catelani, Angelo. Memorie della vita e delle opere di Claudio Merulo. Milan: Bollettino bibliografico
musicale, 1931.
Cavazzini, Patrizia. "New Documents for Cardinal Alessandro Peretti Montalto's Frescoes at
Bagnaia." Burlington Magazine 135 (1993): 316-327.
Chambers, D. S. "Merit and Money: The Procurators of St. Mark and their Commissioni,
1443-1605." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 60 (1997): 23-88.
Charlton, John. The Banqueting House, Whitehall. London: Mansell, 1983.
Cheney, Liana de Girolami. "Giorgio Vasari's Astraea: A Symbol of Justice." Visual Resources
19 (2003): 283-305.
Charlesworth, Martin. "Providentia and Aeternitas." Harvard Theological Review 29 (1936):
107-132.
---. "The Virtues of a Roman Emperor: Propoganda and the Creation of Belief." Proceedings of
the British Academy 23 (1937): 105-133.
Chatter, James. "Music and Patronage in Rome: the Case of Cardinal Montalto." Studi
musicali 16 (1987): 179-227.
Chew, Samuel. The Virtues Reconciled. An Iconographic Study. Toronto: University of Toronto,
1947.
246 Christiansan, Keith and Judith Mann. Orazio and Artemesia Gentilleschi. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2001.
Civai, Mauro and Marilena Caciorgna. Continenza di Scipione: il tema della magnanimatas nell'arte
italiana, exh. cat. Siena: Protagon, 2008.
Colish, Marcia. Stoicism in Latin Christian Thought Through the Sixth Century. Leiden: E. J. Brill,
1990.
Coliva, Anna. "Casa Borghese. La Commitenza Artistica del Cardinal Scipione." Bernini
Scultore: La Nascita del barocco in Casa Borghese. Ed. Ana Coliva and Sebastian Schütze.
Rome: De Luca, 1998. 389-423.
Colvin, Howard. Architecture and the Afterlife. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Connors, Joseph. "Bernini's S. Andrea al Quirinale: Payments and Planning." Journal of the
Society of Architectural Historians 41 (1982): 15-37.
---. "Borromini's S. Ivo alla Sapienza: the Spiral." Burlington Magazine 138 (1996): 668-682.
Cordingley, R. A. and I. A. Richmond, "The Mausoleum of Augustus," Papers of the British
School at Rome 10 (1927): 22-35.
Corradini, Sandro. "La collezione del Cardinale Angelo Giori." Antologia di Belle Arti I (1977):
83-94.
---. “Volontà testamentaria del Lucchese Lelio Guidiccioni.” Studi sul Barocco Romano in onore
di Maurizio Fagioli dell’Arco. Ed. Bernardini. Milan: Skira, 2003.
Costa, Gustavo. La leggenda dei secoli d'oro nella letteratura italiana. Bari: Laterza, 1972.
Courtright, Nicola. The Papacy and the Art of Reform in Sixteenth-Century Rome: Gregory XIII's
Tower of the Winds in the Vatican. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Cropper, Elizabeth. The Ideal of Painting, Pietro Testa’s Dusseldorf Notebook. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1984.
---. The Domenichino Affair: Novelty, Imitation and Theft in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 2005.
Cunnally, John. Images of the Illustrious: The Numismatic Presence in the Renaissance. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1999.
Curran, Brian, Anthony Grafton and Angelo Decembrio. “A Fifteenth-Century Site Report
on the Vatican Obelisk.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 58 (1995): 23448.
247 Davis, Howard McParlin. "Bees on the Tomb of Urban VIII," Source VIII/IX (Summer/Fall
1989): 40-48.
De Magistris, Carlo. Carlo Emmanuele I e la contesa fra la Reppublica Veneta e Paolo V (16051607): documenti. Venice: Spese della Società, 1906.
De Tolnay, Charles. "Studi sulla cappella Medicea." L'arte V (1934): 5-44 and 281-307.
---. Michelangelo. The Tomb of Julius II. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954.
Dell'Antonio, Andrew. Listening as Spiritual Practice in Early Modern Italy. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 2011.
Della Torre, Stefano. "Un gruppo di disegni di Sergio Venturi." Il Disegni di Architettura 0
(1989): 28-29.
Deonna, Waldemar. "Emblèms médicaux des temps modernes. Du bâton serpentaire
d'Asklépios au caducée d'Hermes." Revue internationale de la Croix-Rouge 15 (1933): 310339.
Didron, M. and E. Millingston. Christian Iconography or the History of Christian Art in the Middle
Ages. London: Bohn, 1851.
Diez, Renato. Il trionfo della parola: Studio sulle relazioni di feste nella Roma barocca. Rome: Bulzoni,
1994.
D'Onofro, Cesare. Le Fontane di Roma. Rome: Staderini, 1957.
---. "Un dialogo-recita di Gian Lorenzo Bernini e Lelio Guidiccioni." Palatino 10 (1966): 127134.
---. Roma vista da Roma. Rome: Liber, 1967.
---. Gli Obelischi di Roma. storia urbanistica di una città dall'età antica al XX secolo. Rome: Romana
società editrice, 1992.
Dowling, Melissa. Clemency and Cruelty in the Roman World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Press, 2009.
Duerloo, Luc. Dynasty and Piety: Archduke Albert (1598-1621) and Habsburg Political Culture in the
Age of Religious Wars. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2012.
Duncan-Jones, R. P. "The Purpose and Organization of the Alimenta." Papers of the British
School at Rome 32 (1964): 123-46.
Ehrlich, Tracy. Landscape and Identity in Early Modern Rome Villa Culture at Frascati in the Borghese
Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
248 Enggass, Robert. "New Attributions in St. Peter's: the Spandrel Figures in the Nave." Art
Bulletin 60 (1978): 96-108.
Englard, Izhak. Corrective and Distributive Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Erffa, Hans Martin von. "Die Ehrenpforten für den Possess der Päpste im 17. und 18.
Jahrhundert." Festschrift für Harald Keller. Ed. Hans Martin von. Erffa. Darmstadt,
1963. 335-370.
Esch, Arnold. "Santa Francesca Romana e il suo ambiente sociale a Roma." Una santa tutta
Romana. Saggi e richerche nel VI centenario della nascita di Francesca Bussa dei Ponziani (13841984). Ed. Giorgio Picasso. Siena: Monte Olivetto Maggiore, 1984. 33-56.
Ettlinger, Helen. "The Iconography of the Columns in Titian's Pesaro Altarpiece." Art
Bulletin 61 (1979): 59-67.
Ettlinger, L. D. "Pollaiuolo's Tomb of Pope Sixtus V." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld
Institutes 16 (1953): 239-274.
Faber, Martin. Scipione Borghese als Kardinalprotektor: studien zur römischen Mikropolitik in der frühen
Neuzeit. Mainz: von Zabern, 2005.
Fagiolo, Marcello, ed. La Festa a Roma dal Rinascimento al 1870. Turin: Allemandi, 1997.
---. “La basilica Vaticana come tempio-mausoleo “Inter duas metas”: le idee e i progetti di
Alberti, Filarete, Bramante, Peruzzi, Sangallo, Michelangelo.” Storia dell’Architettura
XXII (1986).
---. Il Gran Teatro dell Barocco. Rome: Bulzoni, 2002.
Fagiolo dell'Arco, Maurizio and Marcello Fagiolo, ed. Bernini una introduzione al gran teatro del
Barocco. Rome: Bulzoni, 1966.
Fagiolo dell'Arco, Maurizio, and Silvio Carandini, ed. L'effimero Barocco: Strutture della festa nella
Roma del'600. 2 vols. Rome: Bulzoni, 1970.
Fagiolo dell'Arco, Maurizio. Bibliografica della festa barocca a Roma. Rome: Pettini, 1994.
---. Corpus delle feste a Roma. Rome: De Luca, 1997.
Fairbairn, Lynda. Italian Renaissance Drawings in the Collection of Sir John Soane’s Museum. London:
Azimuth, 1998.
Faldi, Italo. "Note sulle sculture borghesiane del Bernini." Bollettino d'arte 38 (1953): 140-146.
---. "Nuove note sul Bernini." Bollettino d'arte 38 (1953): 310-316.
249 Faroult, Guillaume. "Les fortunes de la vertu: origines et évolution de l'iconographie des
vestales jusq'au XVIII siècle." Revue de l'art 152 (2006): 9-26.
Fears, J. Rufus. "The Cult of Virtues and Roman Imperial Idealogy." Aufstieg und Niedergang
der römischen Welt II.17.2 (1981): 827-948.
Fehl, Philip. "Bernini's Triumph of Truth Over England." Art Bulletin 48 (1966): 404-5.
---. "Hermeticism and Art Emblem and Allegory in the work of Bernini.” Artibus et Historiae
7 (1986): 153-189.
---. "L'umilità christiana e il monumento sontuoso: la tomba di Urbano VIII del Bernini."
Gian Lorenzo Bernini e le arti visivi. Ed. Marcello Fagiolo dell'Arco. Rome: Istituto della
Enciclopedia Italiana, 1987. 185-207.
---. "Raphael as Historian. Poetry and Historical Accuracy in the Sala Costantino." Artibus et
Historiae 9 (1993): 9-76.
---. Monuments and the Art of Mourning: the Tombs of Popes and Princes in St. Peter's. Rome: Unione
Internazionale degli Istituti di Archaeologia Storia e Stora dell'Arte in Roma, 2007.
Ferrari, Orreste. “Poeti e scultori nella Roma seicentesca: i difficili rapporti tra due culture.”
Storia dell’Arte 90 (1997): 151-161.
Ferrary, Jean-Louis. Onofrio Panvinio et les antiquités romains. Rome: ecole francaise de Rome,
1996.
Finch, Margaret. "The Cantharus and Pigna at Old St. Peter's." Gesta 30 (1991): 16-26.
---. Petrine Landmarks in Rome and two Predella Panles by Jacopo di Cione." Artibus et
Historiae 12 (1991): 67-82.
Fishwick, Duncan. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western
Provinces of the Roman Empire. Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill, 1987.
Fosi, Irene Polverini. "Justice and its Image: Political Propoganda and Judicial Reality in the
Pontificate of Sixtus V." Sixteenth Century Journal IV (1993): 75-95.
---.Papal Justice. Subjects and Courts in the Papal States, 1500-1750. Trans. Thomas Cohen.
Washington: Catholic University Press, 2011.
Fox, Stephen Paul. "Annibale Durante." Dizionario Biografico degli italiani vol. 42 (1993) 104105.
Francia, Ennio. Storia della costruzione del nuovo San Pietro da Michelangelo a Bernini. Vatican City:
De Luca, 1989.
Fraschetti, Stanislao. Il Bernini. Rome: Hoepli, 1900.
250 Frazer, Alfred. "A Numismatic Source for Michelangelo's First Design of the Tomb of Julius
II." Art Bulletin 57 (1975): 53-57.
Freyhan, R. "The Evolution of the Caritas Figure in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
Centuries." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 11 (1948): 68-86.
Friedlander, Walter. The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine.
Santa Barbara: Praeger, 1992,
Frommel, Christoph. "Cappella Iulia: die Grabkapella Papst Julius II in Neu-St. Peter."
Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte XL (1977): 26-62.
Frugoni, Chiara. "The Book of Wisdom in Lorenzetti's Fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico at
Siena." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 43 (1980): 239-241.
Fumaroli, Marc. “Cicero Pontifex Romanus: la tradition rhétorique du collège romain et les
principes inspirateurs du mécénat des Barberini.” Mélanges de l’école francaise de Rome,
Moyen Âge-Temps Moderne 90 (1978): 797-835.
Gamrath, Helge. Roma sancta renovata: studi sull'urbanistica di Roma nella seconda meta del secolo
XVI con particolare riferimento al pontificato di Sisto V (1585-1590). Rome: L'erme di
Brettschneider, 1987.
---. Farnese: Pomp, Power and Politics in Renaissance Italy. Rome: L'erme di Bretschneider, 2007.
Garnsey, Peter. "Trajan's Alimenta: Some Problems." Historia Zeitschrift für Altegeschichte 17
(1968): 367-381.
---. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Response to Rise and Crisis. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Garrard, Mary. "The Liberal Arts and Michelangelo's First Project for the Tomb of Julius
II." Viator 15 (1984): 335-404.
Gattico, Gianbattista. Act Selecta Caeremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae: Ex Variis Mss.
Codicibus et Diariis Saeculi XV. XVI. XVII. Rome: Jo. Laurentii Barbierrini, 1753.
Gauthier, René Antoine. Magnanimité: l'idéal de la grandeur dans la philosophie païenne et dans la
théologie chrétienne. Paris: Vrin, 1951.
Gerards-Nelissen, Inemie. "Otto van Veen's Emblemata Horatiana." Simiolus 5 (1971): 20-63.
---."Federigo Zuccaro and the Lament of Painting." Simiolus 13 (1983): 43-53.
Gere, J. A. and P. Pouncey. Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British
Museum, Artists Working in Rome. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1983.
251 Getto, Giovanni. Paolo Sarpi. Florence: Olschki, 1967.
Giametti, A. Bartlett. The Earthly Paradise and the Renaissance Epic. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1966.
Giedion, Sigfried. "Sixtus V and the Planning of Baroque Rome." Space, Time and Architecture:
the Growth of a New Tradition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967. 75-106.
Giesey, Ralph. The Royal Funeral Ceremony in Renaissance France. Geneva: Droz, 1960.
Gilbert, Allan. Machiavelli: the Chief Works and Others. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.
Gilbert, Felix. "The Humanist Concept of the Prince and the Prince of Machiavelli." Journal
of Modern History XI (1939): 449-483.
Goldberg, Victoria. "Leo X, Clement VII and the Immortality of the Soul." Simiolus 8 (19751976): 16-25.
Goodenough, Erwin. "The Political Philosophy of Hellenistic Kingship." Yale Classical Studies
1 (1928): 52-102.
Grabar, Andre. Martyrium recherches sur le culte des reliques et l'art chretien antique. Paris: College de
France, 1946.
Gramberg, Werner. "Guglielmo della Porta's Grabmal für Paul III. Farnese in S. Pietro in
Vaticana." Römische Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 21 (1984): 253-365.
Green, Louis. "Galvano Fiamma, Azzone Visconti, and the Revival of the Classical Theory
of Magnificence." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 53 (1990): 98-113.
Guerrieri Borsoi, Maria Barbara and Francecso Petruccci. "Sergio Venturi." Il Santuario della
Madonna di Galloro in Ariccia. Rome: Gangemi, 2011. 99-105.
Haan, Estelle. “Voice and Verse: Leonora Baroni, Milton and Italian Accademici.“ From
Academia to Amicitia Milton’s Latin Writings and the Italian Academies Transactions of the
American Philosophical Societies 88 (1998): 100-117.
Hammond, Frederick. Music and Spectacle in Baroque Rome. Barberini Patronage under Urban VIII.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
---. The Ruined Bridge: Studies in Barberini Patronage of Music and Spectacle 1631-1679. Sterling
Heights, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 2010.
Hammond, Mason. "A Statue of Trajan Represented on the 'Anaglypha Traiani'." Memoirs of
the American Academy in Rome 21 (1953): 125-83.
---. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome: American Academy in Rome, 1959.
252 Harrt, Frederick. Giulio Romano. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958.
Haskell, Francis. Patrons and Painters. New Haven and New York: Yale University Press,
1966.
---. History and its Images: Art and the Interpretation of the Past. New Haven: Yale University Press,
1993.
Headley, John and John Tomaro, ed. San Carlo Borromeo: Catholic Reform Ecclesiastical Politics in
the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century. Washington: Folger, 1988.
Hecksher, W. S. "Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk." Art Bulletin 29 (1947): 155-182.
Heilmann, Christoph. "Aqua Paola and the Urban Planning of Paul V Borghese." The
Burlington Magazine 112 (1970): 656-663.
Held, Julius. Oil Sketches of Peter Paul Rubens. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Herklotz, Ingo. Cassiano dal Pozzo und die Archäologie des 17 Jahrhunderts. Munich: Hirmer, 1999.
---. "Excavations, Collectors and Scholars in Seventeenth-century Rome." Archives and
Excavations: Archaeological Monographs of the British School at Rome 14. Ed. I. Bignamini.
London, 2004. 55-88.
Hibbard, Howard. “The Date of Lanfranco’s Fresco in the Villa Borghese and other
chronological problems.” Miscellanea Bibliothecae Herziana. Munich: Anton Shroll,
1961. 355-365.
---. The Architecture of the Palazzo Borghese. Rome: The American Academy in Rome, 1962.
---. "Scipione Borghese's Garden Palace on the Quirinal." Journal of the Society of Architectural
Historians 23 (1964): 163-92.
---. Carlo Maderno and Roman Architecture 1580-1630. University Park: Pennsylvania State
University Press, 1971.
Hill, John. Roman Monody, Cantata and Opera from the Circles of Cardinal Montalto. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1987.
Hill, Michael. "Cardinal Scipione Borghese's Patronage of Ecclesiastical Architecture 160533." PhD Disertation. University of Sydney, 1998.
---. "The Patronage of a Disenfranchised Nephew. Scipione Borghese and the Restauration
of San Crisogono in Rome. 1618-1628." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
60 (2001): 432-449.
253 ---. "Reform and Display in Cardinal Borghese's Restoration of S. Sebastiano fuori le mura
1607-1614." Fabrications: the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Australia and
New Zealand (2005): 15-42.
Hochman, Michel. “les annotations marginales de Federico Zuccaro a un exemplaire des
Vies de Vasari.” Revue de l’art 80 (1988): 64-71.
Hoogewerff, G. J. "Giovanni Vasanzio fra gli architectti romani del tempo di Paolo V."
Palladio 6 (1942): 49-56.
---. "Architetti in Roma durante il pontificato di Paolo V Borghese." Archivio della R.
Deputazione Romana di Storia Patria 66 (1943): 135-47.
Howgego, C. J. Ancient History From Coins. London: Routledge, 1995.
Irwin, T. H. "Splendid Vices? Augustine for and Against Pagan Virtues." Medieval Philosophy
and Theology 8 (1999): 105 -127.
Jacks, Philip. The Antiquarian and the Myth of Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1993.
Jenkins, Fraser. "Cosimo de Medici's Patronage of Architecture and the Theory of
Magnificence." The Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1970): 162-170.
Kalveram, Katrin. Die Antikensammlung des Kardinals Scipione Borghese. Worms: Wernersche,
1995.
Kantorowicz, Ernst. The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1997.
Kauffman, Hans. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. Die figürlichen Kompositionen. Berlin: Mann, 1970.
Kermode, Frank. The Classic: Literary Images of Permanance and Change. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1983.
Kessler, Hans-Ulrich. "Bernini e la Scultura Antica: Un nuovo aspetto sulla sua Formazione
artistica giovanile." Bernini dai Borghese al Barberini la Cultura a Roma Intorno agli Anni
Venti." Ed. Olivier Bonfait and Anna Coliva. Rome: De Luca, 1999. 130-133
Kirwin, Chandler. "Bernini's Baldachino Reconsidered." Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte
19 (1981): 141-171.
---. Powers Matchless: the Pontificate of Urban VIII, the Baldachin, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. New
York: Peter Lang, 1997.
Konstan, David. “Clemency as a Virtue.” Classical Philology 100 (2005): 337-346.
254 Koortbojian, Michael. "Disegni for the Tomb of Alexander VII." Journal of the Warburg and
Courtauld Institutes 54 (1991): 268-273.
Krauthammer, Richard. Studies in Early Christian, Mediaeval and Renaissance Art. New York:
NYU Press, 1969.
Krems, Eva-Bettina. "Die prontezza des Kardinalnepoten und Guercino's Aurora und Fama.
Das Casino Ludovisi in Rom." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 65 (2002): 180-220.
Kroppenberg, Inga. "Law, Religion and Constitution of the Vestal Virgins." Law and
Literature 22 (2010): 418-439.
Kuntz, Margaret. "Maderno's Building Procedures at New St. Peter's why the Facade First?"
Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 68 (2005): 41-60.
Kurtzman, Jeffrey. The Monteverdi Vespers of 1610: Music, Context, Performance. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1999.
Labanca, Baldessare. Il Papato sua origine, sue lotte e vicende, sub avvenire: studio storico-scientifico.
Turin: Fratelli Bocca, 1905.
Langan, John. "Augustine on the Unity and the Interconnection of the Virtues." Harvard
Theological Review 72 (1979): 81-95.
Lauxtermann, Marc. "What is an Epideictic Epigram?" Mnemosyne 51 (1988): 525-537.
---. "Janus Lascaris and the Greek Anthology." The Neo-Latin Epigram: A Learned and Witty
Genre. Ed. Susanna de Beer, Karl Enenkel and David Rijser. Leuven: Leuven
University Press, 2009. 41- 62.
Lavin, Irving. Bernini and the Crossing of St. Peter's. New York: College Art Association, 1968.
---. "Five New Youthful Sculptures by Gianlorenzo Bernini and a Revised Chronology of his
Early Works." Art Bulletin 50 (1968): 223-248.
---. "Bernini's Memorial Plaque for Carlo Barberini." Journal of the Society of Architectural
Historians 42 (1983): 6-10.
----"Bernini's Baldachin: Considering a Reconsideration," Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte
XXI (1984): 405- 414.
---. "Bernini's Bust of Cardinal Montalto." Burlington Magazine 127 (1985): 32 and 34-38.
---. "Bernini Giovane." Bernini dai Borghese al Barberini la Cultura a Roma Intorno agli Anni Venti.
Ed. Olivier Bonfait and Anna Coliva. Rome: De Luca, 1999. 135-148.
255 ---. "Bernini at St. Peter's Singularis in Singulis, in omnibus unicus" St. Peters in the Vatican.
Ed. William Tronzo. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
111 - 244.
---. Bernini at St. Peter's. The Pilgrimage. London: Pindar, 2012.
Lavin, Marilyn Aronberg. Seventeenth-Century Barberini Documents and Inventories of Art. New
York: NYU Press, 1975.
Lee, Rensselaer. Ut pictura poesis: the Humanistic Theory of Painting. New York: Norton, 1967.
Levin, Harry. The Myth of the Golden Age in the Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1969.
Levin, William. The Allegory of Mercy at the Misericordia in Florence. Lanham, MD: University
Press of America, 2004.
Lingo, Estelle. Francois Duquesnoy and the Greek Ideal. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2007.
Lionnet, Jean. "The Borghese Family and Music During the First Half of the Seventeenth
Century." Music and Letters 74 (1993): 519-529.
---. "'La Salve' de Sainte Marie Majeure: la musique de la Chapelle Borghese au la siezième
siècle." Studi musicali XII (1983): 97-119.
Lloyd, Karen. "Bernini and the Vacant See. An Unknown Episode Following the Death of
Pope Urban VIII (1623-44)." The Burlington Magazine 150 (2008): 821-824.
Loskoutoff, Yvan. Un art de la Réforme catholique. La symbolique du pape Sixte-quint et des PerettiMontalto (1566-1655). Paris: Honore Champion, 2011.
Lugano, Placido. "Francesca Romana." Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani vol. 49 (1997) 594599.
Mäder, E. J. Der Steit der Töchter Gottes'. Zur Geschichte eines allegorischen Motives. Berne and
Frankfurt, 1971.
Madonna, Maria Luisa. Roma di Sisto V: le arti e la cultura. Rome: De Luca, 1993.
Mähl, Sibylle. Quadriga Virtutum: die Kardinaltugendenen in der Geistegeschichte der Karolinger Zeit.
Vienna: Bohlau, 1969.
Maier, Annalies. Codices Burghesiani Bibliotheca Vaticana. Città del Vaticano, 1952.
Mâle, Émile. Religious Art From the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Cemtury. New York: Pantheon,
1949.
256 Mandel, Corinne. "Golden Age and the Good Works of Sixtus V: Classical and Christian
Typology in the Art of a Counter Reformation Pope." Storia dell'Arte 62 (1988): 2952.
Mandl, Johann. Die Kirche des hl. Chrysogonus in Rom. eine Kunstgeschichtliche Studie. Graz, 1933.
---."Jan van Santen in Artena und Cecchignola." Mededelingen von het Nederlandisch Instituut Rom
VIII (1938) 127-136.
Mann, Judith. "The Annunciation Chapel in the Quirinal Palace, Rome: Paul V, Guido Reni
and the Virgin Mary." Art Bulletin 75 (1993): 113-134.
Mannuci, Francesco Luigi, ed. La Vita e le opere di Agostino Mascardi con appendici di lettere e altri
scritti inediti e un saggio bibliografico. Atti della Società ligure di Storia patria. vol. XLII.
Genoa: Società ligure di storia patria, 1908.
Marder, Tod. "Sixtus V and the Quirinal." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 37
(1978): 283-294.
---. "The Evolution of Bernini's Designs for the Facade of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale: 16581676." Architectura 20 (1990): 108-132.
---. "Paul V's New Palace Entrance." Bernini's Scala Regia. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1997.
---. Bernini and the Art of Architecture. New York: Abbeville, 1998.
---."Bernini's Neptune and Triton Fountain for the Villa Montalto." Bernini dai Borghese ai
Barberini la cultura a Roma intorno agli anni venti. Ed. Olivier Bonfait and Anna Coliva.
Rome: De Luca, 1999. 118-127.
---. "Bernini enfant prodige del ritratto." Bernini Pittore. Ed. Tomasso Montanari. Cinisello
Balsamo: Silvana Editoriale, 2007. 211-221.
Martimort, Aimé Georges. Les ordines les ordinaires e les cérémoniaux. Turnhout: Brepois, 1991.
Martin, Gregory. The Ceiling Decoration of the Banqueting Hall. London: Harvey Millar, 2006.
Mattingley, H. "The Roman Virtues." Harvard Theological Review 30 (1937): 103-117.
Maylender, Michele. Storia delle accademie d'Italia. Bologna: Cappelli, 1926-30.
Mazzocco, A. "Some Philological Aspects of Biondo Flavio's Roma Triumphans." Humanistica
Lovaniensai 28. Ed. Gilbert Tournoy. Louvain: University of Leuven Press, 1979. 127.
---. "Flavio Biondo and the Antiquarian Tradition." Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Bononiensis. Ed.
R. J. Schocck. New York, 1985. 124-136.
257 McCready, William. "Papal Plenitudo Potestatis and the Source of Temporal Authority in
Late Medieval Papal Heirocratic Theory." Speculum 48 (1973): 654-674.
McManamon, S. I. "The Ideal Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court."
Archivium Historiae Pontificiae 14 (1976): 9-71.
---. Funeral Oratory and the Culture of Humanism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 1989.
McNamer, Sarah. "The Origins of the Meditationes Vitae Christi." Speculum 84 (2009): 905955.
McPhee, Sarah. “Bernini’s Books.” The Burlington Magazine 142 (2000): 442-448.
---. Bernini and the Bell Towers: Architecture and Politics at the Vatican. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2002.
Millar, Oliver. Rubens: the Whitehall Ceiling. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
Miller, Peter. Peiresc's Europe: Learning and Virtue in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2000.
Millon, Henry and Vittorio Lampugnani, ed. The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: The
Representation of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1994.
Millon, Henry and Craig Hugh Smyth. "Michelangelo and St. Peter's: Observations on the
Interior of the Apses, a Model of the Apse Vault, and Related Drawings." Römisches
Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 16 (1976): 137-206
---. Michelangelo Architect: the Facade of San Lorenzo and the Drum and Dome of St. Peter's. Milan:
Olivetii, 1988.
---. "Pirro Ligorio, Michelangelo and St. Peter's." Pirro Ligorio, Artist and Antiquarian. Ed.
Robert Gaston. Milan: Silvana, 1988. 216-286.
Mitchell, Nathan. The Mystery of the Rosary: Marian Devotion and the Reinvention of Classicism. New
York: NYU Press, 2009.
Montagu, Jennifer. "Two Small Bronzes from the Studio of Bernini." The Burlington Magazine
109 (1967): 557-571.
---. Roman Baroque Sculpture: the Industry of Art. New Haven: Yale Press, 1989.
---. Alessandro Algardi. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.
Montor, Artaud de. Histoire des souverains pontifes. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1852.
258 Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario erudizione-storico-ecclasiastico. Rome: Tipografia Emiliana, 1840.
Mullett, Michael. The Catholic Reformation. London: Routledge, 1999.
Muratori, Ludovico Antonio. Rerum italicarum scriptores 24. Città di Castello: S. Lapi, 1900.
Mussini, Massimo. Correggio tradotto Fortuna di Antonio Allegri nella stampa di riproduzioni fra
Cinquecento e Ottocento. Exh. cat. Milan: Motta, 1995.
Neusner, Jacob. Confronting Creation, How Judaism Reads Genesis: An Anthology of Genesis Rabbah.
Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.
Newman, Barbara. Sisters of Wisdom: St. Hildegard's Theology of the Feminine. Berkley: University
of California Press, 1989.
Newman, J.K. and F. S. Newman. Lelio Guidiccioni Latin Poems Rome 1633 and 1639.
Hildesheim: Weidmann, 1992.
Newman, J.K. "Empire of the Sun: Lelio Guidiccioni and Pope Urban VIII." International
Journal of the Classical Tradition I (1994): 62-70.
Noach, Arnold. "The Tomb of Paul III and a Point of Vasari.” Burlington Magazine 98 (1956):
376 and 378-9.
Noack, Friederich. "Kunstpflege und Kunstbesitz der Famile Borghese." Repertorium für
Kunstwissenschaft 50 (1929): 191- 231.
Noreña, Carlos. Imperial Ideals in the Roman West. Representation, Circulation, Power. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Norman, J. S. Metamorphosis of an Allegory: the Iconography of the Psychomachia in Medieval Art.
New York: Peter Lang, 1988.
Norton, Richard. Bernini and other Studies in the History of Art. London: McMillan, 1914.
Novaes, Gaetano. Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici. Rome: Bourlie, 1822.
Nugent, S. Georgia. Allegory and Poetics: the Structure and Imagery of Prudentius. New York: Peter
Lang, 1985.
Nussdorfer, Laurie. "The Vacant See: Ritual and Protest in Early Modern Europe." The
Sixteenth Century Journal 18 (1987): 173-189.
---. Civic Politics in the Rome of Urban VIII. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.
---. "Print and Pageantry in Baroque Rome." The Sixteenth Century Journal 29 (1998): 439-464.
259 O'Daly, Gerard. Augustine's City of God: a Reader's Guide. New York: Oxford University Press,
2004.
O'Malley, J. W. Praise and Blame in Renaisance Rome: Rhetoric, Doctrine and Reform in the Sacred
Orators of the Papal Court c. 1450-1521. Durham: Duke University Press, 1979.
Onians, John. Bearers of Meaning the Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the
Renaissance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Orbaan, Johannes Albertus Franciscus. Sixtine Rome. London: Constable, 1910.
---."Der Abbruch Alt-Sankt-Peters 1605-1615." Jahrbuch der königlich Preussischen
Kunstsammlungen 39 (1919): 1-139.
---. Documenti sul barocco in Roma. Rome: Società romana di storia patria, 1920.
Osborne, J. L. "Peter's Grain Heap: A Medieval View of the 'Meta Romuli'." Echos du monde
classique: Clasical Views XXX (1986): 111-118.
Ostrow, Stephen. "Paul V, the Column of the Virgin and the New Pax Romana." Journal of
the Society of Architectural Historians 69 (2010): 352-377.
---. Art and Spirituality in Counter-Reformation Rome: the Sistine and Pauline Chapels in S. Maria
Maggiore. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
---. "Cigoli's Immacolata and Galileo's Moon: Astronomy and the Virgin in Early Seicento
Rome." Art Bulletin 78 (1996): 218-235.
Ousterhout, Robert. "Rebuilding the Temple" Constantine Monomachus and the Holy
Sepulchre." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 48 (1989): 66-78.
Panofsky, Erwin. "The First Two Projects for Michelangelo's Tomb of Julius II." Art Bulletin
19 (1937): 561-579.
---. Studies in Iconology Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance. 2nd ed. New York:
Harper, 1962.
---. Tomb Sculpture Its Changing Aspects From Ancient Egypt to Bernini. New York: Abrams, 1992.
---. "Mors Vitae Testimonium: The Positive Aspect of Death in Renaissance and Baroque
Iconography," Studien zur toskanischen Kunst Festschrift fur Ludwig Heinrich Heydenreich
zum 23 Marz 1963. Munich: Prestel, 1964.
---. "Icones simbolicae," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 11 (1948): 163-192.
Paratore, E. "Ovidio e Seneca nella cultura e nell'arte di Rubens." Bulletin de l'Institute historique
Belge de Rome 37 (1967): 533-565.
260 Paravicini-Baglioni, Agostino. The Pope's Body. Trans. David S. Peterson. Chicago: University
of Chicago, 1994.
Parsons, Edward. "At the Funeral of Michelangelo." Renaissance News 4 (1951): 17-19.
Parthey, Gustavus, ed. Mirabilia romae e codicibus Vaticanis emendata. Berolini: Effert and
Lindtner, 1869.
Pastor, Ludwig von. The History of the Popes. Trans. Ernest Graf et al. London: Routledge,
1924-53.
Paul, Carole. "Mariano Rossi's Camillus Fresco in the Borghese Gallery." The Art Bulletin 74
(1992): 297-326.
Payne, Robert. The Roman Triumph. London: Robert Hale, 1962.
Peacock, John. "Inigo Jones' Catafalque for James I." Architectural History 46 (2003):1-5 and
134-135.
Peebles, B.M. "La "Meta Romuli" e una lettera di Michele Ferno." Atti della Pontificia
Accademia Romana di Archeologia Rendiconti XII (1936): 21-36.
Pellizzari, Piero. “I significati di Amor Sacro e Profano.” Tiziano e Venezia: convegno
internazionali di studi Venezia 1976. Vicenza: Pozza, 1980. 179-185.
Perlove, Shelley. Bernini and the Idealization of Death. University Park: Pennsylvania State
University Press, 1990.
Petruccelli della Gattina, Ferdinando. Histoire diplomatique des conclaves. Paris: Lacroix
Verboeckhoven, 1865.
Pierce, S. Rowland. "The Mausoleum of Hadrian and the Pons Aelius." Journal of Roman
Studies 15 (1925): 75-103.
Pigler, A. Baroockthemesn eine Auswahl von Verzeichnessen zur Ikonographiedes 17. und 18.
Jahrhunderts. 3 vols. Budapest: Akademie Kiado, 1974.
Pollak, Oskar. Die Kunsttätigkeit unter Urban VIII. Vienna: Filser, 1931.
Pollard, Graham. "Text and Image: Themes on Reverses of Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century
Medals." Perspectives on the Renaissance Medal: Portrait Medals of the Renaissance. Ed.
Stephen Scher London: Routledge, 1999. 149-165.
Polzer, Joseph. "Ambrogio Lorenzetti's "War and Peace" Murals Revisted: Contributions to
the Meaning of the Good Government Allegory. Artibus et Historiae 23 (2002): 63105.
261 Popelka, Liselotte. Castrum doloris oder Trauiger Schauerplatz Untersuchungen zu Entstehung und
Wesen ephemer Architektur. Vienna: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005.
Posner, Donald. Annibale Carracci. London: Phaidon, 1971.
Preimesberger, Rudolf. "Bernini a Sant' Agnese in Agone." Colloquio del Sodalizio 3 (1973).
---."Pontifex Romanus per Aeneam Praesignatus: Die Galleria Pamhilij und ihre Fresken."
Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 16 (1976): 221-287.
---. "David." Bernini Scultore: La Nascita del barocco in Casa Borghese. Ed. Ana Coliva and
Sebastian Schütze. Rome: De Luca, 1998. 204-219.
---. Paragons and Paragone. Los Angeles: Getty, 2011.
Prinz, Wolfram. "The Four Philosophers by Rubens and the Pseudo-Seneca in SeventeenthCentury Painting." Art Bulletin 55 (1973): 410-428.
Prodi, Paolo. The Papal Prince: One Body and Two Souls: The Papal Monarchy in Early Modern Italy.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Quednau, Howard. "The Sala di Costantino." Raphael in the Apartments of Julius II and Leo X.
Ed. Carlo Pietrangeli and John Shearman. New York: Abbeville, 1996. 167-201.
Ragusa, Isa. "The Dispute of the Virtues Miniature in the 'Meditations on the Life of Christ."
Studi di storia dell'arte in onore di Maria Luisa Gatti Perer. Ed. Marco Rossi and
Alessandro Rovetta. Milan: Vita e Pensiero, 1999. 47-52.
--- and Rosalie Green. Meditations on the Life of Christ: an Illustrated Manuscript of the Fourteenth
Century, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale Ms. ital. 115. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1977.
Ranke, Leopold von. The History of the Popes. Trans. E. Fowler. New York: Colonial Press,
1901.
Rasmussen, Niels. "Iconography and Liturgy at the Canonization of Carlo Borromeo." San
Carlo Borromeo: Catholic Reform Ecclesiastical Politics in the Second Half of the Sixteenth
Century. Ed. John Headley and John Tomaro. Washington: Folger, 1988. 264-276.
Reeves, Eileen. Painting the Heavens: Art and Science in the Age of Galileo. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1997.
Reinhard, Wolfgang. Papstfinanz und Nepotismus unter Paul V. (1605-1621): Studien und Quellen
zur Struktur und zur quantitativen Aspekten der päpstlichen Herrschaftssystems. Stuttgart:
Hiersemann, 1974.
---. "Ämterlaufbahn und Familienstatus: Der Aufstieg des hauses Borghese 1537-1621."
Quellen und Forschungen aus Italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 54 (1974): 328-427.
262 ---. Freunde und Kreaturen: "Verflechtung" als Konzept zur Erforschung historischer Fuhrungsgruppen
Romische Oligarchie um 1600. Augsburg: Vogel, 1979.
---. "Papal Power and Family Strategy in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." Princes,
Patronage and the Nobility: the Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, 1450-1650. Ed.
Ronald Asche and Adolf Birke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
---. Paul V Borghese (1605-1621) Mikropolitische Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 2009.
Reinhardt, Volker. Kardinal Scipione Borghese 1605-1631 Vermögen, Finanzen und sozialer Aufstieg
eines Papstnepoten. Tübingen, Niemeyer: 1984.
---. Überleben in der frühneuzeitlichen Stadt: Annona und Getreideversorgung in Rom 1563-1797.
Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1991.
---. "Geschichte, Memoria, und Nepotismus im päpstlichen Rom - Vorüberlegungen zur
Gedächtniskultur der ewigen Stadt in der frühen Neuzeit." In Tod und Verklärung:
Grabmalkultur in der Frühen Neuzeit. Ed. Arne Karstens and Philip Zitzlsperger.
Cologne: Böhlau, 2004. 7-14.
Resnick, Judith and Dennis Curtis. Representing Justice: Invention, Controversy and Rights in City
States and Democratic Courtrooms. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.
Rietbergen, Peter. "Giacinto Gigli, Chronicler, or Power in the Streets of Rome." Power and
Religion in Baroque Rome: Barberini Cultural Policies. Brill, 2005. 19-60.
Ringbeck, Brigitta. Giovanni Battista Soria, Architekt Scipione Borgheses. Münster: Lit, 1989.
Rinne, Katherine Wentworth. The Waters of Rome: Acquaducts, Fountains, and the Birth of the
Baroque City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.
Robertson, Claire. "Il gran cardinale" Alessandro Farnese: Patron of the Arts. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 1992.
Robothan, D. M. "Flavio Biondo's Roma instaurata." Medievalia et Humanistica 1 (1970): 203216.
Roche, Paul, ed. Pliny's Praise, the Panegyricus in the Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2011.
Rogers, Mary. “Sonnets on Female Portraits from Renaissance North Italy.” Word and Image
3 (1976): 291-306.
Rosa, Mario. "The World's Theatre': the Court of Rome and Politics in the first Half of the
Seventeenth Century." Court and Politics in Papal Rome 1492-1700. Ed. Gianvittorio
Signorotto and Maria Visceglia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 7898.
263 Rosand, David. "Venetia Figurata: The Iconography of a Myth," Interpretazioni Veneziane Studi
di storia dell'arte in onore di Michelangelo Muraro, ed. David Rosand (Venice: Arsenale,
1984) 177-196.
---. Painting in Sixteenth Century Venice: Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1997.
Rowland, Ingrid. "Render onto Caesar the Things Which are Caesar's: Humanism and the
Arts in the Patronage of Agostino Chigi." Renaissance Quarterly 39 (1986): 673-730.
Ruffini, Marco. Le imprese del drago: Politica, emblematica, e scienze naturali alla corte di Gregorio XIII.
Rome: Bulzoni, 2005.
Russell, D. A. and N. G. Wilson. Menander Rhetor. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981.
Russell, Daniel. "The Genres of Epigram and Emblem." The Cambridge History of Literary
Criticism. vol. 3: the Renaissance. Ed. Glyn Norton. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1999.
Russell, Susan. "Pirro Ligorio, Cassiano Dal Pozzo and the Republic of Letters." Papers of the
British School at Rome 75 (2007): 239-274.
Russo, Piera. "L'Accademia degli Umoristi. Fondazione, strutture e leggi: il primo decennio
d'attività." Esperienze letterarie 4 (1979): 47-57.
Saalman, Howard. "Michelangelo: S. Maria del Fiore and St. Peter's." Art Bulletin 57 (1975):
374-409.
Sargent, Michael. Nicholas Love, The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ a Full Critical Edition
Based on Cambridge University Library Additional MSS 6578 and 6686 with Introduction
Notes and Glossary, Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2005.
Scanlon, Suzanne. "Doorways to the Demonic and Divine: Visions of Santa Francesca
Romana and the Frescoes of Tor' de Specchi." PhD Dissertation. Brown University,
2010.
Schiffmann, René. Roma felix: Aspekte der Städtebauliche Gestaltung Roms unter Papst Sixtus V.
Bern: Peter Lang, 1985.
Schimmelpfennig, Bernhard. Die Zeremonienbücher der Römischen Kurie im Mittelalter. Tübingen:
Max Niemeyer, 1973.
Schleier, Eric. "Lanfranco's "Notte" for the Marchese Sannesi and Some Early Drawings."
The Burlington Magazine 104 (1962): 246-257.
---. "Domenichino, Lanfranco, Albani and Cardinal Montalto's Alexander Cycle." Art Bulletin
50 (1968): 188-193.
264 ---. Giovanni Lanfranco un pittore barocco tra Parma, Roma, Napoli. Milan: Electa, 2001.
Schlosser, Julius. "Geschichte der Porträtbildnerai in Wachs." Jahruch der Kunsthistorischen
Sammlungen der allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses (Vienna) XXIX (1910).
Schöndube, Matthias. Leon Battista Alberti "Della tranquillità dell'animo" Eine Interpretation auf
dem Hintergrund der antiken Quellen. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011.
Schmitt, B. and Quentin Skinner. Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Schraven, Minou. “Il lutto pretenzioso dei cardinali nipoti e la felice dei lori zii papi. Tre
catafalchi papali 1591-1624.” Storia dell’Arte 98 (2000): 5-24.
---. "Giovanni Battista Borghese's Funeral 'Apparato' of 1610 in S. Maria Maggiore." The
Burlington Magazine 143 (2001): 23-28.
---. "The Rhetoric of Virtue: The Vogue for Catafalques in Late Sixteenth-Century Rome."
Praemium Virtutis II Grabmäler und Begräbniszeremoniell in der italienischen Hoch- und
Spätrenaissance. Ed. Joachim Poeschke, Britta-Kusch-Arnhold, and Thomas Weigel.
Münster: Rhema, 2005. 41- 63.
---. "The Development and Distribution of the Funeral Book in Sixteenth-Century Italy."
News and Politics in Early Modern Europe. Ed. Martin Gosman and Joop Koopmans.
Louvain: Peeters, 2005. 47-61.
---. Festive Funerals in Early Modern Italy. The Art and Culture of Conspicuous Commemoration.
Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.
Schwager, Klaus. "Die architektonishe Erneuerung von S. Maria Maggiore unter Paul V."
Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 20 (1983): 241-31.
Senie, Harriet. "The Tomb of Leo XI by Alessandro Algardi." Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 90-95.
Sheard, Wendy. "Tullio Lombardo in Rome? The Arch of Constantine, the Vendramin
Tomb, and the Reinvention of Monumental Classicizing Relief." Artibus et Historiae
18 (1997): 161-179.
Shearman, John. "The Chigi Chapel in S. Maria del Popolo." Journal of the Warburg and
Courtauld Institutes 24 (1961): 129-160.
Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Pagan Gods. The Mythological Tradition and Its Place in Renaissance
Humanism and Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953.
S' Jacob, Henriette. Idealism and Realism a Study of Sepulchral Symbolism. Leyden: Brill, 1954.
Skinner, Quentin. Machiavelli. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.
265 ---. "Ambrogio Lorenzetti's Good Government Frescoes: Two Old Questions, Two New
Answers." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62 (1999): 1-28.
---.Visions of Politics, vol. II Renaissance Virtues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2002.
Smith, Macklin. Prudentius' Psychomachia a Reexamination. Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1976.
Spear, Richard. The Divine Guido. Religion, Sex, Money and Art in the World of Guido Reni. New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Spezzaferro, Luigi. “le collezioni di “alcuni gentilhuomini particolari” e il mercato appunti su
Lelio Guidiccioni e Francesco Angeloni” Poussin et Rome. Actes du colloque de l’Academie
de France a Rome. 16-18 novembre 1994. Paris: Reunion de musées nationaux, 1996. 241255.
Stacy, Peter. Roman Monarchy and the Renaissance Prince. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2007.
Stahl, Alan and Gretchen Oberfranc, ed. The Rebirth of Antiquity: Numismatics, Archaeology and
Classical Studies. Princeton: Princeton University Library, 2009.
Stahl, William Harris. Macrobius: Commentary on the Dream of Scipio. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1952.
Stauffer, Ethelbert. "Clementia Caeseris." Schrift und Bekentniss Zeugnisse lutherischer Theologie.
Ed. Volkmar Hentrich and Theodor Knolle. Hamburg: Furche, 1950. 174-184.
Stefani, Chiara. "Imagini cavate dall'antichità. L'utilizzo delle fonti numismatiche nell'Iconologia
de Cesare Ripa." Xenia Antiqua 9 (2000): 59-78.
Steffani, Luigi de, ed. La nunziatura di Francia del cardinale Guido Bentivoglio. Lettere a Scipione
Borghese. Florence, 1853.
Starn, Randolph and Loren Partridge. Arts of Power: Three Halls of State in Italy 1300-1600.
Berkley: University of California Press, 1992.
Stinger, Charles. The Renaissance in Rome. Bloomington: University of Indiana, 1998.
Stratton, Suzanne. The Immaculate Concepetion in Spanish Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1994
Strunk, Oliver. “Virgil in Music.” Music Quarterly 16 (1930): 482-497.
Sumerscale, Anne. Malvasia's Life of the Carracci: Commentary and Translation. University Park,
PA: Penn State University Press, 2000.
266 Sutherland Harris, Ann. "New Drawings by Bernini for 'St. Longinus' and other
Contemporary Works." Master Drawings 6 (1968): 383-391.
---. "Domenichino's Caccia di Diana: Art and Politics in Seicento Rome," Shop Talk: Studies in
Honor of Seymour Slive, Presented on his Seventy-fifth birthday. Ed. Cynthia Schneider and
William Robinson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1995. 92-96.
Sutton, Peter and Marjorie Wieseman. Drawn by the Brush Oil Sketches of Peter Paul Rubens. New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
Tagliabue, Mauro. "Francesca Romana nella storiagrafia. Fonti, studi, biografie."Una santa
tutta Romana. Saggi e richerche nel VI centenario della nascita di Francesca Bussa dei Ponziani
(1384-1984). Ed. Giorgio Picasso. Siena: Monte Olivetto Maggiore, 1984. 199-263.
Tapié, Alain, ed. L'allegorie dans la peinture. la représantation de la charité au XVII siècle. Caen:
Musée des beaux arts, 1986.
Tafuri, Manfredo. Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Cities, Architects. New Haven: Yale, 2006.
Tassoni, Alessandro. "Relazione sopra il Conclave in cui fu eletto Papa Gregorio XV
(1621)." Annali e scritti storici e politici. Ed. Alessandro Tassoni and Pietro Puliatti
Modena: Panini, 1990.
Temple, Nicholas. Disclosing Horizons Architecture, Perspective and Redemptive Space. London:
Routledge, 2006.
---. Renovatio Urbis: Architecture, Urbanism and Ceremony in the Rome of Julius II. London:
Routledge, 2011.
Thelen, Heinrich. Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Hochaltars von St. Peter in Rom. Berlin: Mann,
1967.
Thoenes, Christof. "Pianta centrale e pianta longitudinale nel nuova San Pietro." L'Eglise dans
l'architecture de la Renaissance. Ed. Jean Guillaume. Paris: Picard, 1995.
---. "Renaissance St. Peter's." St. Peter's in the Vatican. Ed., William Tronzo. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2008. 64-90.
---. La fabrica di S. Pietro. Milan: Polfilo, 2000.
Thomas, H. M. "La missione di Gabriele nell' affresco di Giotto alla Cappella di Scrovegni a
Padova." Bolletino del museo civico di padova LXXVI (1987): 99-111.
Tolnay, Charles de. "Studi sulla cappella medicea." L'arte V (1934): 5-44 and 281-307.
---. The Tomb of Julius II. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954.
267 Torelli, Mario. Typology and Structure of Roman Hstorical Reliefs. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press, 1992.
Tosatti, Quinto. "L'evoluzione del Monumento Sepolcrale nel' Età Barocca, il Monumento a
Piramide." Bolletino d'Arte VII (1913): 173-187.
Tosini, Patrizia. "Due affreschi riscoperti dal palazzo alle Terme di Villa Montalto e una
nuova ricostruzione del salone Sistino." Nuovi Studi. Rivista d'arte antica e moderna 18
(2012): 185-193.
Toynbee, J. M. C. Death and Burial in the Roman World. Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1971.
Tozzi, Simonetta. Incisioni barocche di feste e avvenimenti giorni d'allegrezza. Rome: Gangemi, 2001
Travers, Hope. The Four Daughters of God a Study of the Versions of this Allegory with Especial
Reference to those in Latin, French and English. Philadelphia: J. C. Winston, 1907.
Trollope, Thomas Adolphus. Paul the Pope and Paul the Friar: The Story of an Interdict. London:
Smith, Elder & Co., 1870.
Tronzo, William. St. Peter's in the Vatican. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Tuve, Rosamund. Allegorical Imagery. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.
Underwood, Paul. “Notes on Bernini’s Towers for St. Peter’s in Rome.” Art Bulletin 21
(1939): 283-287.
Vaiani, Elena. "Nicolas-Fabri de Peiresc, Claude Menestrier e Cassiano dal Pozzo: qualche
esempio della fortuna delle piccole antichità tra Roma e Parigi." Peiresc en Italie Actes
du colloque international Naples le 23 e 24 Juin 2006. Ed. Marc Fumaroli. Paris: Alain
Baudry et Cie, 2009. 157-185.
Van Wythe, Cordula. "Reformulating the Cult of our Lady of Scherpenheuvel: Marie de
Medici and the Regina Pacis Statue in Cologne (1635-1645)" Seventeenth Century 2
(2007): 42-75.
Vermeule, Cornelius. The Goddess Roma in the Art of the Roman Empire. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1959.
Versnel, H. S. Triumphus. An Enquiry into the Origin, Development and Meaning of the Roman
Triumph. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970.
Veyne, Paul. Les "Alimenta" de Trajan. Paris: centre national de la recherche scientifiques,
1965.
Visceglia, Maria. "Factions in the Sacred College in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries." Court and Politics in Papal Rome 1492-1700. Ed. Gianvittorio Signorotto
and Maria Visceglia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 99-132.
268 Visser, Arnoud. Reading Augustine in the Reformation: the Flexibility of Intellectual Authority in
Europe, 1500-1620. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Voelker, Evelyn Carole. Carlo Borromeo's Instructionum Fabricae et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticaei 1577:
A Translation with Commentary and Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
1970.
Von Fleming, Victoria. 'ozio con dignita'? die Villenbibliothek von Kardinal Scipione
Borghese." Romische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte 85
(199): 182-224.
---. Arma Amoris: Sprachbild und Bildsprache der Liebe: Kardinal Scipione Borghese und die
Gemäldezyklen Francesco Albanis. Mainz: von Zabern, 1996.
Von Lohuizen-Mulder, Mab. Raphael's Images of Justice, Humanity, Friendship: A Mirror of Princes
for Scipione Borghese and Princes. Wassenaer: Mirananda, 1973.
Waddy, Patricia. Seventeenth Century Roman Palaces. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.
Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. "The Emperor and his Virtues." Historia 30 (1981): 298-323.
Warburg, Aby. I Costumi Teatrali per gli Intermezzi del 1589. Florence: Galletti, 1895.
Warner, Marina. Monuments and Maidens. New York: Atheneum, 1985.
Wasserman, Jack. "The Quirinal Palace in Rome." Art Bulletin 45 (1963): 205-244.
Watts, Pauline Moffit. "A Mirror for the Pope: Mapping the "Corpus Christi" in the Galleria
Delle Carte Geografiche." I Tatti Studies: Essays in the Renaissance 10 (2005): 173-192.
Wazbinski, Zygmunt. “Il cavaliere d'Arpino ed il mito accademico: il problema
dell'autoidentificazione con l'ideale.” Künstler über sich in seinem Werk: Internationales
Symposium der Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rom, 1989. Weinheim: VCH, 1992. 317-363.
Weil, Mark. "The Devotion of Forty Hours and Roman Baroque Illusions." Journal of the
Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 37 (1974): 218-248.
Wellman, Max. Der Physiologos, Eine Religionsgeschicht-naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung. Leipzig:
Dieterich'sche Verlags, 1930.
Wenham, John. Monteverdi Vespers (1610). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Wilkinson, Catherine. "The Iconography of Bernini's Tomb of Urban VIII." L'Arte IV
(1971): 54-68.
Willis, Robert. The Architectural History of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. London: J.
W. Parker, 1849.
269 Wind, Edgar. "Charity: the Case History of a Pattern." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld
Institutes 1 (1936-38): 322-330.
Winner, Matthias. "Veritas." Bernini Scultore: la Nascita del Barrocco in Casa Borghese. Ed. Anna
Coliva and Sebastian Schütze. Rome: De Luca,1998. 290-309.
---. "The Orb as the Symbol of State in the Pictorial Cycle by Rubens Depicting the Life of
Maria de' Medici." In Iconography, Propoganda and Legitimation. Ed. Allan Elenius.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 63-105.
---. "Ratto di Proserpina." Bernini Scultore: La Nascita del barocco in Casa Borghese. Ed. Anna
Coliva and Sebastian Schütze. Rome: De Luca, 1998. 180-203.
---. "Bernini the Sculptor and the Classical Heritage in His Early Years: Praxiteles', Bernini's,
and Lanfranco's Pluto and Proserpina." Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 22 (1986):
19-207.
Wittkower, Rudolf. “Chance, Time and Virtue.” Journal of the Warburg Institute 1 (1938): 312321.
---. "Michelangelo's Dome of St. Peter." Idea and Image. Studies in the Italian Peninsula. London:
Thames and Hudson, 1978. 73-89.
---. Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
---. Bernini: the Sculptor of the Roman Baroque. 4th ed. London: Phaidon, 1997.
--- and Margot Wittkower. The Divine Michelangelo: The Florentine Academy's Homage on his Death
in 1564. London: Phaidon, 1964.
Wolf, Gerhard. "REGINA COELI, FACIES LUNAE, 'ET IN TERRA PAX': Aspekte der
Ausstatung der Capella Paolina in S. Maria Maggiore." Römisches Jahrbuch für
Kunstgeschichte 27-28 (1991-92): 314-317.
Wolters, Wolfgang. Der Bilderscmuck der Dogenpalastes: Untersuchungen zue Selbstdarstellung der
Republik Venedig im 16. Jahrhundert. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1983.
Wood, Alice. "Creation and Redemption in the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception."
Maria, a Journal of Marian Studies 2 (2002).
Wood, Carolyn. "The Indian Summer of Bolognese Painting: Gregory XV (1621-1623) and
Ludovisi Art Patronage in Rome." PhD Dissertation, University of North Carolina,
1988.
---.“The Ludovisi Collection of Paintings in 1632.” The Burlington Magazine 134 (1992): 515523.
270 Woodward, Jennifer. The Theatre of Death: the Ritual Management of Royal Funerals in Renaissance
England: 1570-1635. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1997.
Wooton, David. Paolo Sarpi between Renaissance and Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1983.
Wordrop, James. De iusticia pingenda, On the Painting of Justice, A dialogue between Mantegna and
Momus by B. Fiera the Latin text of 1515 reprinted with a Translation, and Introduction and
Notes. London: Lion and Unicorn Press, 1957.
Worsdale, Marc. "Bernini Inventore." Bernini in Vaticano Braccio di Carlo Magno maggio-luglio
1981. Rome: De Luca, 1981. 231-279.
Wright, Alison. The Pollaiuolo Brothers: the Arts of Florence and Rome. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2005.
Yates, Frances. Astraea: the Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century. London: Routledge, 1975.
Zaho, Margaret. Imago Triumphalis: the Function and Significance of Triumphal Imagery for Italian
Renaissance Rulers. New York: Peter Lang, 2004.
Zangheri, Luigi. "Alcune precisazioni su gli apparati effimeri di Bernini." Barocco romano e
Barocco italiano: Il teatro, l'effimero, l'allegoria. Ed. Marcello Fagiolo and Maria Luisa
Madonna. Rome; Gangemi, 1985. 109-116.
Zekagh, Abdelouahab. "La chiesa di S. Sebastiano fuori le mura in Roma e i restauri del
cardinale Borghese." Palladio 6 (1990): 77-96.
Zirpolo, Lilian. Ava Papa, Ave Papibile: the Sacchetti Family, their Art Patronage and Political
Aspirations. Toronto: Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2005.
Zollikofer, Kaspar. Berninis Grabmal für Alexander VII: Fiktion und Repräsentation. Worms:
Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1994.
Zucker Arnaud, ed. and trans. Physiologos: Le bestiare des bestiares. Grenoble: Jerôme Millon,
1994.
Figures
271 Figure 1: Theodor Kruger, Elevation of the Catafalque of Paul V, from the Breve Racconto
272 273 Figure 2: Natale Bonifacio da Sebenico, Elevation and Groundplan of the Catafalque of
Sixtus V. © Trustees of the British Museum.
Figure 3: Proposed Reconstruction of the Groundplan for the catafalque of Paul V
274 Figure 4: Detail of Figure 1, showing the side of the Catafalque of Paul V
275 Figure 5: Guglielmo della Porta, Tomb of Paul III, St. Peter's
276 Figure 6: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Tomb of Urban VIII, St. Peter's
277 Figure 7: Gianlorenzo Bernini, Tomb of Alexander VII, St. Peter's
278 Figure 8: Alessandro Algardi, Tomb of Leo XI, St. Peter's
279 Figure 9: Pauline Chapel, S. Maria Maggiore
280 281 Figure 10: Theodor Kruger, Column Capitals for the Catafalque of Paul V, from the Breve
Racconto
282 Figure 11: Valerian Regnard, Catafalque of Philip III in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli. Avery
Library, Drawings and Archives Department.
283 Figure 12: Attributed to Alessandro Algardi, Drawing for the Catafalque of Ludovico
Facchinetti. © Trustees of the British Museum.
284 Figure 13: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Preparatory Drawing of the Catafalque for the Duke of
Beaufort. © Trustees of the British Museum.
Figure 14: Dome of the Pantheon
285 Figure 15: Dome of S. Ivo
286 Figure 16: Detail of Figure 1, showing the dome
287 288 Figure 17: "Consecratio" coin of Septimus Severus. © Trustees of the British Museum.
Figure 18: Workshop of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Elevation of the Catafalque of Carlo
Barberini. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2013.
289 Figure 19: Francesco Borromini, Groundplan for the Catafalque of Carlo Barberini.
Albertina, Vienna.
290 291 Figure 20: Iustitia, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
Figure 21: Pax, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
292 293 Figure 22: Misericordia, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto.
294 Figure 23: Veritas, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
295 Figure 24: Religio, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
296 Figure 25: Maiestas, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
297 Figure 26: Puritas, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
298 Figure 27: Annona, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
299 Figure 28: Tranquillitas, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto.
Figure 29: Providentia, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto.
300 301 Figure 30: Sapientia, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
302 Figure 31: Magnanimitas, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto.
303 Figure 32: Magnificenza, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto.
304 Figure 33: Clementia, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve Racconto.
305 Figure 34: Eleemosina, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto.
306 Figure 35: Mansuetudo, engraving by Theodor Kruger after Lanfranco, from the Breve
Racconto
Fly UP