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costituzione italiana versione inglese
COSTITUZIONE
DELLA
REPUBBLICA ITALIANA
CONSTITUTION OF THE ITALIAN
REPUBLIC
-1-
Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana (articoli 1- 54)
a cura dalla Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri
edito dall’Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato
Si ringraziano la Prefettura e la Provincia di Alessandria per aver messo a
disposizione il testo tradotto in lingua inglese.
Si ringrazia il Dipartimento del cerimoniale di Stato della Presidenza del Consiglio
dei Ministri per la preziosa opera di verifica della presente traduzione.
-2-
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FUNDAMENTAL PRICIPLES
Art. 1
Italy is a Democratic Republic, based on labour. Sovereignty belongs to the people
who exercise it in the forms and limits of the Constitution.
Art. 2
The Republic recognises and guarantees the inviolable human rights, be it as an
individual or in social groups expressing their personality, and it requests the
performance of the unalterable duty to social, economic, and political solidarity.
Art. 3
All citizens have equal social status and are equal before the law, without regard to
their sex, race, language, religion, political opinions, and personal or social conditions.
It is the duty of the Republic to remove all economic and social obstacles that, by
limiting the freedom and equality of citizens, prevent full individual development and
the participation of all workers in the political, economic, and social organization of the
country.
Art. 4
The Republic recognises the right of all citizens to work and promotes conditions to
fulfil this right.
According to capability and choice, every citizen has the duty to undertake an activity
or a function that will contribute to the material and moral progress of society.
Art. 5
The Republic, one and indivisible, recognises and promotes local autonomy; it fully
applies administrative decentralization of State services and adopts principles and
methods of legislation meeting the requirements of autonomy and decentralization.
Art. 6
The Republic
protects
linguistic
minorities
by
means
of
special
laws.
Art. 7
The State and Catholic Church are, each within their own reign, independent and
sovereign.
Their relationship is regulated by the Lateran Pacts. Amendments to these Pacts, which
are accepted by both parties, do not require the procedure of constitutional amendment.
Art. 8
All
religious
confessions
are
equally
free
before
the
law.
Confessions other than Catholicism have the right to organise themselves according to
their own by-laws, provided they do not conflict with the Italian legal system.
Their relationship with the State is regulated by law, based on agreements with their
representatives.
Art. 9
The Republic promotes cultural development and scientific and technical research.
It safeguards natural beauty and the historical and artistic heritage of the nation.
Art. 10
The Italian legal system conforms to the generally recognised rules of international
law.
The legal status of foreigners is regulated by law in conformity with international rules
and
treaties.
Foreigners who are, in their own Country, denied the actual exercise of those
democratic freedoms guaranteed by the Italian Constitution, are entitled to the right of
asylum
in
the
Republic,
under
conditions
provided
by
law.
Foreigners may not be extradited for political offences.
Art. 11
Italy repudiates war as an instrument offending the freedom of other peoples and as a
means for settling international disputes; it agrees to limitations of sovereignty where
they are necessary to allow for a legal system of peace and justice between nations,
provided the principle of reciprocity is guaranteed; it promotes and encourages
international organizations furthering such ends.
Art. 12
The flag of the Republic is the Italian tricolour: green, white, and red, in three vertical
bands of equal sizes.
Part 1
Rights and Duties of Citizens
Title I
Civil Relations
Art. 13
Personal liberty is inviolable. No form of detention, inspection or personal search nor
any other restriction on personal freedom is admitted, except by order of the Judiciary
stating a reason and only in such cases and in such manner as provided by law. As an
exception, under the conditions of necessity and urgency, strictly defined by law, lawenforcement authorities may take provisional measures that must be reported within
forty-eight hours to the Judiciary and, if they are not ratified within the next forty-eight
hours, are considered revoked and remain without effect.
Any acts of physical or moral violence against persons subject to restrictions of
personal liberty are to be punished.
The law establishes the maximum duration of preventive detention.
Art. 14
Personal domicile is inviolable.
No one's domicile may be inspected, searched, or seized save in cases and in the
manner laid down by law conforming to the guarantee of personal liberty.
Verifications and inspections for public health and safety, or for economic and fiscal
purposes are regulated by special laws.
Art. 15
Freedom and secrecy of correspondence and other forms of communication are
inviolable.
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Restrictions thereto may be imposed only by judicial decision stating the reasons and in
accordance with guarantees established by law.
Art. 16
Every citizen has the right to travel and reside freely in any part of the national
territory, except for limitations provided by general laws for reasons of health or
security.
No
restrictions
may
be
imposed
for
political
reasons.
Every citizen is free to leave the territory of the Republic and return to it except for
obligations defined by law.
Art. 17
All citizens have the right to assemble peacefully and unarmed.
No previous notice is required for meetings, including those occurring in places that are
open to the public.
For meetings held in public places previous notice must be given to the authorities,
who may forbid them only on the ground of proven risks to security and public safety.
Art. 18
Citizens have the right to form associations freely, without authorisation, for aims that
are not forbidden to individuals by criminal law.
Secret associations and associations pursuing, even indirectly, political aims by means
of military organisations, are prohibited.
Art. 19
Everyone is entitled to freely profess religious beliefs in any form, individually or
with others, to promote them, and to celebrate rites in public or in private, provided they
are not offensive to public morality.
Art. 20
For associations or institutions, their ecclesiastical character or religious or
confessional aims do not justify special legal limitations or fiscal burdens regarding
their establishment, legal capacity, or any of their activities.
Art. 21
Everyone has the right to freely express thoughts in speech, writing, and by other
communication.
The
press
may
not
be
subject
to
authorisation
or
censorship.
Seizure is permitted only by judicial order stating the reason in the case of offences for
which the press law gives express authorisation or for violation of the obligation to
disclose the identity of those holding responsibility. In cases of absolute urgency, when
immediate judicial intervention is impossible, periodicals may be seized by the judicial
police, who must promptly and in no case later than twenty-four hours report the matter
to the judiciary. If the seizure is not validated by the judiciary within the following
twenty-four hours, the measure is considered revoked and has no effect.
The law may, by general provision, order the disclosure of financial sources of
periodical
publications.
Printed publications, public performances and other exhibits offensive to public
morality are forbidden. Measures of prevention and repression against violations are
provided by law.
Art. 22
Nobody may be deprived of legal capacity, citizenship, or name for political reasons.
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Art. 23
Nobody may be forced to perform personal service or payment without legal
provision.
Art. 24
All persons are entitled to bring cases before a court of law to protect their rights and
legitimate interests.
Defence is an inviolable right at every stage and instance of legal proceedings.
Proper means for action or defence in all courts are guaranteed to the poor by
appropriate measures.
The law defines the conditions and forms for reparation in the case of judicial errors.
Art. 25
No case may be removed from a court, but must be heard as provided by law.
No punishment is allowed except provided by a law already in force when the offence
was committed.
No one may be subject to restrictive measures except in those cases provided for by
law.
Art. 26
A citizen may be extradited only in cases expressly provided for by international
conventions.
In no case extradition may be permitted for political offences.
Art. 27
Criminal responsibility is personal.
The defendant is not considered guilty until definitively sentenced.
Punishment cannot consist in inhuman treatment and must aim at re-educating the
convicted.
Death penalty is prohibited.
Art. 28
State officials and employees of other public bodies are directly responsible under
criminal, civil, and administrative law for acts committed in violation of rights. In such
cases, civil liability extends to the State and public bodies.
Title II
Ethical and Social Relations
Art. 29
The Republic recognises the rights of the family as a natural society founded on
marriage.
Marriage is based on moral and legal equality of the spouses within the limits laid down
by law to guarantee the unity of the family.
Art. 30
Parents have the duty and right to support, educate, and tutor their children, including
those born out of wedlock.
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Should the parents prove incapable, the law provides for the fulfilment of their duties.
The law ensures to children born out of wedlock any legal and social protection
compatible with the rights of members of the legitimate family.
Rules and limits to determine paternity are set by law.
Art. 31
The Republic furthers family formation and the fulfilment of related duties by means
of economic measures and other benefits, with special regard to large families.
The Republic protects maternity, infancy, and youth supporting the institutions needed
for this purpose.
Art. 32
The Republic safeguards health as a fundamental right of the individual and as a
collective interest, and guarantees free medical care to the poor.
Nobody may be forcefully submitted to medical treatment except as regulated by law.
That law may in no case violate the limits imposed by the respect for the human being.
Art. 33
The arts and sciences as well as their teaching are free. The Republic lays down
general rules for education and establishes state schools for all branches and grades.
Public bodies and private persons have the right to establish schools and education
institutes, at no cost to the State.
The law defining rights and obligations of those private schools requesting recognition
has to guarantee full liberty to them and equal treatment with pupils of state schools.
State examinations are prescribed for admission to and graduation from the various
branches and grades of schools and for qualification to exercise a profession.
Institutions of higher learning, universities and academies, have the right to establish
their own by-laws within the limits of State law.
Art. 34
Schools are open to everyone.
Primary education, given for at least eight years, is compulsory and free of tuition.
Capable and deserving pupils, even if lacking financial resources, have the right to
attain the highest levels of education.
The Republic furthers the realization of this right by scholarships, allowances to
families, and other benefits, to be assigned through competitive examinations.
Title III
Economic Relations
Art. 35
The Republic protects
labour in
all
its
forms
and
practices.
It provides for the training and professional enhancement of workers.
It promotes and encourages international agreements and organisations aiming at
asserting and regulating labour rights.
It recognises the freedom to emigrate, except for legal limitations for the common
good, and protects Italian workers abroad.
Art. 36
Workers are entitled to remuneration commensurate with the quantity and quality of
their work, and in any case sufficient to ensure to them and their families a free and
honourable existence.
-9-
The law establishes limits to the length of the working day.
Workers are entitled to a weekly day of rest and to annual paid holidays; they cannot
relinquish this right.
Art. 37
Working women have the same rights and are entitled to equal pay as men for equal
work. Working conditions have to be such to allow women to fulfil their essential
family role and ensure an adequate special protection of mothers and children.
The
law
establishes
the
minimum
age
for
paid
labour.
The Republic establishes special measures protecting juvenile labour and guarantees
equal pay for comparable work.
Art. 38
All citizens unable to work and lacking the resources necessary for their existence are
entitled to welfare support.
Workers are entitled to adequate insurance for their needs in the case of accidents,
illness,
disability,
old
age
and
involuntary
unemployment.
Disabled and handicapped persons are entitled to education and vocational training.
Responsibilities laid down in this article are entrusted to public bodies and institutions
established or supplemented by the State.
Private welfare work is free.
Art. 39
The organisation of trade unions is free.
No obligation can be imposed on trade unions other than registration at local or
central offices, as provided by law.
Trade unions are only registered on condition that their by-laws lead to internal
organisation of democratic character.
Registered trade unions are legal persons. Being represented in proportion to their
registered members, they may jointly enter into collective labour contracts which are
mandatory for all who belong to the categories referred to in the contract.
Art. 40
The right to strike is exercised according to the law.
Art. 41
Private economic enterprise is free.
It may not be carried out against the common good or in a way that may harm public
security, liberty, or human dignity.
The law determines appropriate planning and controls so that public and private
economic activities may be directed and coordinated towards social ends.
Art. 42
Property is public or private. Economic assets belong to the State, to public bodies or
to private persons. Private property is recognised and guaranteed by laws, determining
the manner of acquisition and enjoyment and its limits in order to ensure its social
function and to make it accessible to all.
Private property, in cases determined by law and with compensation, may be
expropriated for reasons of general interest.
The law establishes the rules and limits of legitimate and testamentary succession and
the State’s rights to the heritage.
- 10 -
Art. 43
To the end of the general good, the law may reserve establishment or transfer, by
expropriation with compensation, to the state, public bodies, or workers or consumer
communities, specific enterprises or categories of enterprises of primary common
interest for essential public services or energy sources, or act as monopolies in the
prominent public interest.
Art. 44
For the purpose of ensuring the rational exploitation of land and establishing equitable
social relations, the law imposes obligations on and limitations to private ownership of
land, sets its limits depending on the regions and the various agricultural areas,
encourages and imposes land reclamation, transformation of latifundia and
reorganisation of productive units; it assists small and medium sized farms.
The law makes provisions in favour of mountainous areas.
Art. 45
The Republic recognises the social function of co-operation for mutual benefit free of
private speculation. The law promotes and encourages its implementation with suitable
provisions and ensures its character and purposes through proper controls.
The law protects and promotes the development of handicrafts.
Art. 46
In order to achieve the economic and social betterment of workers and in accordance
with the needs of production, the Republic recognises the right of workers to
collaborate, within the forms and limits defined by law, in the management of
companies.
Art. 47
The Republic encourages and protects saving in all its forms; it regulates, co-ordinates
and controls the provision of credit.
The Republic promotes the access of citizens, through their savings, to the ownership
of housing and directly cultivated land, as well as to direct and indirect investment in
shares of the Country’s large production enterprises.
Title IV
Political Relations
Art. 48
All citizens, male and female, who have attained their majority, are voters.
The vote is personal and equal, free and secret. Its exercise is a civic duty.
The law defines the conditions under which the citizens residing abroad effectively
exercise their electoral right. To this end a constituency of Italians abroad is established
for election of the Houses of Parliament; the number of seats of such constituency is set
forth in a constitutional provision and in accordance with criteria established by law.
The right to vote may not be limited except for civil incapacity or as a consequence of
an irrevocable penal sentence or in cases of moral unworthiness established by law.
Art. 49
All citizens have the right to freely associate in parties in order to contribute by
democratic methods to determine national policy.
Art. 50
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All citizens may address petitions to both Houses demanding legislative measures or
presenting collective needs.
Art. 51
Citizens of one or the other sex are eligible for public offices and for elective positions
under equal conditions, according to the rules established by law. To this end, the
Republic adopts specific measures in order to promote equal chances for men and
women. The law may, regarding their right to be selected for public positions and
elective offices, grant to those Italians who do not belong to the republic the same
opportunities as citizens.
Anyone elected to public office is entitled to the time necessary to perform that function
and to retain previously held job.
Art. 52
The defence of the Fatherland is a sacred duty for every citizen.
Military service is compulsory within the limits and under the terms of the law. The
fulfilment of military duties does not prejudice a citizen’s position as an employee, nor
the
exercise
of
political
rights.
The organisation of the Armed Forces conforms to the democratic spirit of the
Republic.
Art. 53
Everyone has to contribute to public expenditure in proportion to his/her taxpayer
capacity.
The
tax
system
conforms
to
the
principle
of
progression.
Art. 54
All citizens have the duty to be loyal to the Republic and to observe its Constitution
and
laws.
Citizens entrusted with public functions must perform them with discipline and honour,
taking an oath of office where required by law.
(…)
Given in Rome this 27th Day of December 1947
ENRICO DE NICOLA
COUNTERSIGNED
President
of the Constituent Assembly
UMBERTO TERRACINI
President
of the Council of Ministers
ALCIDE DE GASPERI
Visé: Keeper of the Seal
GRASSI
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