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From an Ethics of Rationing to an Ethics of Waste Avoidance

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From an Ethics of Rationing to an Ethics of Waste Avoidance
The
NEW ENGLA ND JOURNAL
of
MEDICINE
Perspective
may 24, 2012
From an Ethics of Rationing to an Ethics of Waste Avoidance
Howard Brody, M.D., Ph.D.
B
ioethics has long approached cost containment
under the heading of “allocation of scarce resources.” Having thus named the nail, bioethics has
whacked away at it with the theoretical hammer of
distributive justice. But in the
United States, ethical debate is
now shifting from rationing to
the avoidance of waste. This little-noticed shift has important
policy implications.
Whereas the “R word” is a
proverbial third rail in politics,
ethicists rush in where politicians fear to tread. The ethics of
rationing begins with two considerations. First, rationing occurs simply because resources
are finite and someone must decide who gets what. Second, rationing is therefore
An audio interview
with Dr. Brody is
inevitable; if we
available at NEJM.org
avoid explicit rationing, we will resort to implicit and
perhaps unfair rationing methods.
The main ethical objection to
rationing is that physicians owe
an absolute duty of fidelity to
each individual patient, regardless of cost. This objection fails,
however, because when resources are exhausted, the patients
who are deprived of care are real
people and not statistics. Physicians collectively owe loyalty to
those patients too. The ethical
argument about rationing then
shifts to the question of the fairest means for allocating scarce
resources — whether through the
use of a quasi-objective measure
such as quality-adjusted life-years
or through a procedural approach
such as increased democratic engagement of the community.1
Ethicists arguing for fair rationing have had to contend with
claims that the cost problem
would be solved if we eliminated
n engl j med 366;21
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waste, fraud, and abuse. They have
replied with statistics suggesting
that waste, defined as the cost of
deliberate fraud, accounts for less
than 10% of health care costs.
Moreover, eliminating all waste
would result in one-time savings;
the primary drivers of cost escalation — technological advances
and the aging of the population
— would proceed unchecked.
The facts that have recently
overtaken this ethical discussion
show that waste in U.S. health
care, defined more broadly as
spending on interventions that
do not benefit patients, actually
amounts to a much larger sum
— at least 30% of the budget —
and that this waste is a major
driver of cost increases.2
A case study for the shift in
ethical focus is the treatment of
advanced, metastatic breast cancer with high-dose chemotherapy
followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. This treatment was initially thought to of-
may 24, 2012
The New England Journal of Medicine
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1949
PERS PE C T IV E
An Ethics of Waste Avoidance
fer perhaps a 10% chance of a
significant extension of life for
patients who would otherwise be
fated to die very soon. Insurers’
refusal to pay the high costs of
this last-chance treatment did
much to torpedo public trust in
managed care during the 1990s.
Data now suggest that the actual chance of meaningful benefit
from this treatment is zero and
that the only effect of the treatment was to make patients’ remaining months of life miserable.
In this case, the ethical debate
over rationing was misplaced.
As in the breast-cancer case,
waste in health care goes far beyond deliberate fraud. We have for
too long ignored how much money is spent in the United States on
diagnostic tests and treatments
that offer no measureable benefit.3 Redirecting even a fraction
of that wasted money could expand coverage for useful therapy
to all Americans, while reducing
the rate of overall cost increases.2
The ethical question therefore
shifts to waste avoidance. Even
though the concept of medical
futility has had a vexed history,
this new ethical question is a
subcategory of the futility debate.4 We used to think that the
issue of futility arose only when
physicians, in keeping with their
professional integrity, refused to
offer useless treatment even when
patients or families demanded it.
We now realize that futile interventions may be administered not
solely because of patients’ demands but also by physicians
acting out of habit or financial
self-interest or on the basis of
flawed evidence. The ethics of
waste avoidance is thus in part a
component of the ethics of professionalism.5
The two principal ethical arguments for waste avoidance are
1950
first, that we should not deprive
any patient of useful medical
services, even if they’re expensive, so long as money is being
wasted on useless interventions,
and second, that useless tests and
treatments cause harm. Treatments that won’t help patients
can cause complications. Diagnostic tests that won’t help patients produce false positive results that in turn lead to more
tests and complications. Primum
non nocere becomes the strongest argument for eliminating nonbeneficial medicine.3
Since elimination of wasteful,
nonbeneficial interventions is
ethically mandated (as has recently been emphasized in the
Choosing Wisely campaign led
by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation), the
question then shifts to implementation. Here, I believe, we
must consider the limitations of
evidence. Data from randomized
clinical trials represent population averages that may apply
poorly to any individual patient.
An ethical system for eliminating waste will include a robust
appeals process. Physicians, as
loyal patient advocates, must invoke the process when (according to their best clinical judgment) a particular patient would
benefit from an intervention
even if the average patient won’t.
Few tests and treatments are futile across the board; most help
a few patients and become
wasteful when applied beyond
that population. But the boundary between wise and wasteful
application will often be fuzzy.
Berwick and Hackbarth note
a relatively minor ethical point,
but a serious policy concern2: a
substantial reduction in health
care spending would seriously
disrupt a $2.5 trillion industry,
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nejm.org
and thus the U.S. economy as a
whole, and would require careful planning and gradual implementation. A stepwise strategy
also makes good ethical sense
in the face of the current limitations of evidence-based medicine.
Given our patient-advocacy duties, it is better first to eliminate
interventions for which we have
the most solid and indisputable
evidence of a lack of benefit. We
can then extend the policy gradually as comparative-effectiveness
research identifies other sources
of waste with reasonable confidence.
In the end, the ethics of rationing and of waste avoidance
are complementary, not competing. Perhaps at present, waste
avoidance could save enough
money to permit both universal
coverage and future cost control.
As medical technology advances,
especially with personalized genomic medicine, we will almost
certainly arrive at the day when
we cannot afford all potentially
beneficial therapies for everyone. The ethical challenge of rationing care will have to be
faced sooner or later, particularly
when we confront inequitable
distribution of health care resources globally.
An ethical mandate to prioritize waste avoidance doesn’t address the political hurdles, of
course. Given that one person’s
health care expense is another
person’s income, we can anticipate pitched battles, accompanied
by demagoguery such as talk of
“death panels.” Medicine’s role in
this campaign will pose a serious
challenge to physician professionalism. Will U.S. physicians rise to
the occasion, committing ourselves to protecting our patients
from harm while ensuring affordable care for the near future?
may 24, 2012
The New England Journal of Medicine
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Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
PE R S PE C T IV E
Disclosure forms provided by the author
are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
From the Institute for the Medical Humanities, University of Texas Medical Branch,
Galveston.
This article (10.1056/NEJMp1203365) was
published on May 2, 2012, at NEJM.org.
An Ethics of Waste Avoidance
1. Fleck LM. Just caring: health care rationing and democratic deliberation. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2006.
2. Berwick DM, Hackbarth AD. Eliminating
waste in US health care. JAMA 2012;307:
1513-6.
3. Welch WG, Schwartz L, Woloshin S. Overdiagnosed: making people sick in the pursuit
of health. Boston: Beacon Press, 2011.
4. Truog RD, Brett AS, Frader J. The problem
with futility. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1560-4.
5. Brody H. Medicine’s ethical responsibility
for health care reform — the Top Five list.
N Engl J Med 2010;362:283-5.
Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Beyond the “R Word”? Medicine’s New Frugality
M. Gregg Bloche, M.D., J.D.
Q
uietly, Washington policymakers have begun to concede the need to weigh health
care’s benefits against its costs
if our country is to avert fiscal
ruin. That costs must be counted
against benefits is common sense
in other domains — and among
health policy professionals. But it’s
anathema in public discussion of
medical care. To silence talk of
tradeoffs, politicians invoke the
“R word” — rationing.
The R word’s power to stop
conversation reflects the popular
belief that cost should be no object at the bedside. This belief has
circumscribed elected officials’
efforts to control medical spending. Both Democrats and Republicans have stuck to variants on
a standard story: cutting services
that yield no value will do enough.
Proposals from both parties have
thus emphasized care coordination, administrative efficiency, and
the elimination of useless interventions.
And much can be done along
these lines. State-of-the-art management methods, research on
comparative effectiveness, and incentives for providers to apply this
know-how can make care cheaper
and better.1 It has become common wisdom that 30% of health
care spending, or $800 billion a
year, is wasted on ineffective mea-
sures. But cutting this 30% (an
estimate from the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice2) is a distant hope.
Useless care, critics note, is easy
to spot after the fact; it’s much
more difficult to recognize at the
moment of clinical decision.3
The Patient-Centered Outcomes
Research Institute created by the
Affordable Care Act (ACA) will
move us forward on this front.
So will initiatives like the American Board of Internal Medicine
Foundation’s new “Choosing Wisely” campaign, which has enlisted
17 medical specialty societies in an
effort to discourage overuse of
tests and treatments. But highquality studies of clinical effectiveness can cost tens of millions
of dollars and take many years;
they’re unlikely to identify much of
the wasted 30% in the near term.
Even if we could eventually
eliminate that waste, we would
merely postpone the reckoning.
Medical costs typically increase by
a few to several percent per year
(after adjustment for inflation).
So shaving, say, 3 percentage
points each year from the 30%
could hold spending steady for a
decade or so. But once we cut the
entire 30%, costs will resume
their rise — unless we start saying no to some beneficial care.
Eliminating only ineffective care
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would shift the cost curve down
but wouldn’t change its slope.
Grudgingly, policymakers have
begun to recognize this reality.
Their actions, though not their
words, move beyond the standard
story. Some controversial ACA provisions discourage the development and use of technologies
that deliver therapeutic benefits.
The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) will have the
power to nudge providers toward
more frugal practice by changing
Medicare payment policies — and
clinicians’ incentives — when
spending exceeds target levels.
Accountable care organizations
may achieve efficiencies and encourage quality, but their financial rewards for thrift will disincline doctors to order some tests
and treatments that yield benefits.
Beyond Medicare, the “luxury
tax” on employment-based health
plans looms as a powerful constraint on the adoption of new
therapies. Initially, the effect will
be minimal: family coverage won’t
trigger the tax unless it’s priced
above $23,000. But the number
of Americans affected will grow
rapidly, since the liability threshold will rise more slowly than
will per capita health spending.
(For decades, medical costs have
risen 2 to several percentage
points faster than the Consumer
may 24, 2012
The New England Journal of Medicine
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Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
1951
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