...

Per cominciare

by user

on
Category: Documents
7

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Per cominciare
1
Per cominciare
S C OP I
In this chapter you
will learn:
• to greet someone,
to find out his/her
name and where
the person is from,
and to say good-bye
• to express likes
and dislikes
• words and
expressions you
need to get started
studying Italian
• to pronounce the
letters and sounds
of the alphabet
• seasons and
months of the year
• the numbers
0–9,999
• to express the date
• to identify people
and things
• to interpret
common gestures
Primavera, particolare (ca. 1485), Sandro Botticelli
DVD
ask86243_CH01.indd 1
Online Learning Center
www.mhhe.com/avanti2
www.mhcentro.com
Online Workbook / Lab Manual
11/6/08 8:51:07 PM
Strategie di comunicazione
Ciao / Buon giorno / Buona sera
Greeting someone
A. Buon giorno! Watch and listen as these Italians say hello. As you
listen, indicate which greeting each person says.
a. buon giorno
b. buona sera
c. ciao
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
2
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 2
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:12 PM
IN ITALIA
• Italians always greet each other: when they meet on the street, when they
enter a store or a room, when they first wake up in the morning, when they
return home in the afternoon. They usually touch when they meet, kissing
each other on both cheeks or shaking hands.
• When do Italians switch from buon giorno (good morning, good day) to
buona sera (good evening)? It depends on where they live! In northern
Italy, people tend to use buona sera in the late afternoon; in central Italy
and in the South, they might begin using it as early as noon.
You can use ciao only with family and people you would call
by their first name, while buon giorno and buona sera are used
most frequently with strangers and people that you know less well,
such as your instructor, colleagues, and shopkeepers. This is the
distinction that Italians make between informal and formal you
(tu/Lei). You will learn more about this topic later in the chapter.
B. Buon giorno o ciao? Decide whether the following people
would say ciao, buon giorno, or either, by supplying the appropriate
greeting. Compare your answers with your partner’s.
1. a child to her mother
, mamma!
2. a mother to her child
, amore (love)!
3. a student to his (female) professor
, professoressa!
4. a client to his lawyer
, avvocato!
5. a news reporter to a woman
on the street
, signora!
6. a patient to his doctor
, dottore!
7. a doctor to her patient, Mr. Feltri
, signor Feltri!
8. you to your roommate
,
!
9. your classmate to you
,
!
10. you to your instructor
,
!
IN ITALIA
Italians call people by their professional titles—for example professoressa,
dottore, ingegnere (engineer), avvocato (lawyer)—much more frequently
than Americans do. They use signore (shortened to signor before a man’s
last name) to mean sir and Mr. and they regularly use signora (ma’am) when
addressing women. Signorina (Miss) is a formal way to address unmarried
women; its use is discouraged in contemporary Italian.
—Buona sera, ingegnere!
—Buon giorno, signora!
Strategie di comunicazione
ask86243_CH01.indd 3
3
11/6/08 8:51:17 PM
Come ti chiami? / Come si chiama?
Finding out someone’s name
A. Come si chiama? Watch and listen as the Italians you just met
tell you their names. Number the names in the order in which they appear
from 1 to 5.
Cristina
Giacinto Vicinanza
Adriano Casellani
Iolanda Mazzetti
Stefania Cacopardo
Tu or Lei? The simple rule for informal and formal you is that you
use the informal tu for family, friends, children, and animals. The
formal Lei is used for older people who are strangers or whom you
may know well but are not family, and people you address with
titles. The actual rules are really much more complicated. In
general, young people use the informal with other young people,
and, overall, Italians today are much less formal than they were
just a few generations ago. Although Italians do not expect nonItalians to know all of the rules for using tu and Lei, they will
appreciate your efforts to use both, even if imperfectly.
Solo musica. Go to the
Avanti! iMix on the Avanti!
Online Learning Center in
Coursewide Content (www.
mhhe.com/avanti2) where you
can purchase Ciao sono io by
Sandro Bit. As you listen to the
song, see how many Italian
names you can identify.
• To ask someone’s name, say:
(tu, informal)
(Lei, formal)
Come ti chiami?
or
Come si chiama?
• If you want to introduce yourself first and then ask the other
person’s name, say: Sono or Mi chiamo (your name).
Ciao! Sono Paolo.
Ciao! Mi chiamo Paolo.
Buon giorno. Sono Paolo Rossi.
Buon giorno. Mi chiamo
Paolo Rossi.
• To ask And you? say:
E tu?
or
E Lei?
—Come ti chiami?
—Come si chiama?
—Susanna. E tu?
—Susanna Martinelli.
—Marisa.
E Lei?
—Ciao!
—Marisa Scapecci.
—Piacere!
—Piacere!
• To say nice to meet you, you say piacere or, if you’re using tu,
you can just say ciao.
4
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 4
Per cominciare
11/23/08 12:12:32 PM
B. Come ti chiami? o Come si chiama? To ask the following
people their names, decide if you would ask Come ti chiami? or Come si
chiama? (Attenzione! Use Come ti chiami? only if you can also use
ciao.) When you’ve finished, compare your answers with your partner’s.
1. someone your age you meet at a party
2. a child who seems lost
3. the administrative assistant who calls with a message for
your roommate
4. the man working at the travel agency
5. a new student who just joined the class
Prego is a versatile
word in Italian. It can
mean you’re welcome;
come in; please sit
down; make yourself
comfortable; after you /
you first; may I help
you?; go ahead; help
yourself; by all means.
C. Ciao a tutti (everyone)! Walk around the room and greet your
classmates and instructor and ask their names. Make sure you use the
appropriate greetings and expressions.
Di dove sei? / Di dov’è?
Finding out where someone is from
A. Di dov’è? Watch and listen as the following people tell you their
names and then where they are from. Look at the map and indicate where
each person is from.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Francesca
Stefano
Elena
Giorgio
Paolo
TRENTINOALTO
ADIGE
VALLE
D’AOSTA
Milano
Torino
PIEMONTE
ITALIA
FRIULIVENEZIA
GIULIA
VENETO
Brescia
Settentrionale
Centrale
LOMBARD
IA
Meridionale
Venezia
Insulare
EMILIA-ROMAGNA
Bologna
L I G U R I A
Ravenna
Firenze
Mar
Ligure
M
TOSCANA
A
e
E
ar
CH
Perugia
M
R
Siena
UMBRIA
A
d
ABRUZZO
co
IO
ti
Z
a
A
ri
L
Roma
MOLISE
P U
C A M PA N I A
M
SARDEGNA
Napoli
ar
Mare
di
Sardegna
BAS
Ti
ILIC
rr
L
I
A
Lecce
e
n
Cagliari
G
AT
A
SICILIA
Mar
Mediterraneo
CA
LAB
RIA
o
Messina
Catanzaro
Mar
Ionio
Strategie di comunicazione
ask86243_CH01.indd 5
5
11/6/08 8:51:22 PM
• To ask where someone is from, say:
(tu, inform.)
(Lei, form.)
Di dove sei?
or
Di dov’è?
• To ask where someone currently lives, say:
Dove abiti?
or
Dove abita?
Sono di Milano, ma abito a Roma.
B. E tu, di dove sei?
Parte prima. Walk around the room. Greet several classmates and your
instructor and find out where they are from. Take notes! (If you can’t
remember their names, you’ll have to ask again.)
Parte seconda. Report to the class. Greet everyone, say your name, and
say where you and at least two other students are from.
Esempio:
Buon giorno. Sono Rita. Sono di Chicago.
Jenny è di New York. David è di Santa Fe.
Ciao / Arrivederci
Saying good-bye
A. Ciao!
Watch and listen as the Italians in the video say good-bye.
The same informal/formal rule for saying hello applies to saying
good-bye: you can use arrivederci (or buon giorno / buona sera /
buona notte) with everyone, but ciao only with people you address
informally. ArrivederLa is a very formal way to say good-bye.
Buona notte (Good night) is used only when it’s time for bed.
B. Arrivederci! Decide whether the following people would say
arrivederci or ciao or either, and supply the appropriate expression.
Check your answers with your partner’s.
1. a child to his father
2. a husband to his wife
3. a student to her (male) professor
4. a woman to Giuseppe,
the fruit seller
5. you to your female friend
6. your instructor to you
7. you to your instructor
, papà!
, tesoro (honey;
literally, treasure)!
, professore!
, signor Giuseppe!
, cara (dear, sweetie)!
,
!
,
!
C. Buon giorno!
With a partner, create the longest conversation you
can in Italian using only the expressions you’ve learned so far. Then create
the shortest. Be prepared to demonstrate to the class.
6
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 6
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:23 PM
Ti piace… ? / Le piace… ?
Expressing likes and dislikes
To ask, Do you like (a person, place, or thing)?, say:
Ti piace… ? (inform.)
or
Le piace… ? (form.)
Ti piace l’Italia?
Le piace la musica?
You will learn more about this expression later in this chapter.
Il cinema americano.
Parte prima. Watch and listen as these Italians answer the question,
Ti/Le piace il cinema americano? (Do you like American movies?)
Check whether their answer is sì or no.
sì
no
sì
1. Giacinta
5. Chiara
2. Annalisa
6. Stefano
3. Alessia
7. Annarita
4. Laura
8. Francesca
no
Parte seconda. Watch and listen a second time. This time, if they mention
their favorite actors, write the names you recognize.
Lessico
A come amore,
B come buon giorno
Alphabet and pronunciation
A
aereo
B (bi)
bicicletta
C (ci)
cane
D (di)
dizionario
E
esame
F (effe)
festa
G (gi)
gatto
Lessico
ask86243_CH01.indd 7
7
11/6/08 8:51:23 PM
H (acca)
hamburger
I
inverno
L (elle)
libro
M (emme)
macchina
N (enne)
numero
O
orologio
P (pi)
penna
30
Q (cu)
quaderno
R (erre)
residenza
S (esse)
studente
T (ti)
televisione
U
università
V (vu)
voto
Z (zeta)
zaino
Le lettere straniere (foreign)
J (i lunga) jeep
K (cappa) ketchup
W (doppia vu) western
X (ics) fax
Y (ipsilon) yogurt
✔STUDY TIP
The English equivalents of the
active vocabulary words for each
chapter appear in the Vocabolario
at the end of the chapter. The
Glossario at the back of the book
contains all the vocabulary words
from all chapters in alphabetical
order. When learning new words
that are not cognates, try not to
make connections directly to the
English word. Instead, connect the
word’s meaning to an image or to
a context. Learning Italian-English
word pairs will force you to think in
English, rather than in Italian.
1. In Italian, double consonants are pronounced longer than single
consonants. Sometimes it makes a difference in the meaning of the
word. For example, pala means shovel, but palla means ball. Repeat
the following pairs of words after your instructor.
capelli (hair)
cappelli (hats)
nonno (grandfather)
nono (ninth)
ditta (company)
dita (fingers)
2. There is no verb to spell in Italian! It’s not because spelling isn’t
important; it’s because words are spelled the way they are pronounced.
In most cases, one letter represents one sound. However, there are some
special combinations of consonants and vowels to learn. Repeat these
combinations of letters and words after your instructor.
gn: lasagne
gli: famiglia
gi: giraffa
ci: cioccolato
sci: sci
ge: gelato
ce: cellulare
sce: sceriffo
ghi: ghiaccio
chi: chitarra
schi: maschile
ghe: spaghetti
che: perché
sche: scheletro
Although there is n
no actual verb to spell in Italian, you can say:
Come si scrive? (How is it written?) If you ask an Italian this
question, he/she is likely to sound it out by syllable rather than
“spell” it, e.g., Come si scrive «Musumeci»? mu-su-me-ci!
8
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 8
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:24 PM
✔STUDY TIP
Cognates (parole simili)
s
are words that have similar spellings and
meanings in Italian and English. For example, the English cognate
of antropologia is anthropology. Can you figure out the English
equivalents of these Italian subjects (materie)?
biologia
ingegneria
religione
chimica
italiano
scienze della comunicazione
economia letteratura inglese scienze politiche
filosofia
matematica
sociologia
fisica
psicologia
studi internazionali
Attenzione! Not all words that look similar have exactly the same
meaning in Italian and in English. A classe is a group of students
(such as a graduating class or the freshmen class), a corso is a
course, and a lezione is a lesson or an individual class period.
A. Parole italiane. Even if this is the first time you’ve studied
Italian, you probably already know lots of Italian words. Make a list of the
words you know. Then meet and greet a new partner. Take turns sharing
the words in your lists but don’t repeat a word your partner has said. Be
sure to use the expressions that you’ve learned: Non ho capito. Puoi
ripetere? Cosa vuol dire? Come si scrive? When you’ve finished,
remember to say good-bye using the appropriate expression.
B. C o ch? Listen as your instructor pronounces the following words.
Developing a large vocabulary is
certainly an essential part of learning
a language, but you shouldn’t be
fooled into thinking that learning a
second language is simply a matter
of learning new words for things you
already know. Instead, even words
that you think you know may have
very different connotations in the
second language. For example, you
may recognize the word la piazza. If
you look it up in a bilingual
dictionary, you will find the English
town square, which may conjure up
Times Square in New York or a small
square on Main Street, USA. It
certainly won’t have the same
meaning that it does in Italy. (See
the Retro feature on the Italian
piazza, page 12.) One of the most
fascinating aspects of learning a
second language is learning different
ways of thinking about how we live,
the space we inhabit, what we value,
and how we relate to people. In the
process, we learn as much about
ourselves as we do about others.
Complete each word with c or ch.
1. cal
io
2. Pinoc
io
3.
iesa
4. bic
iere
5. ba
6. can
io
ello
C. G o gh? Listen as your instructor pronounces the following words.
Complete each word with g or gh.
1.
elato
2. spa
etti
3. fun
i
4.
iornale
5.
6.
ianda
iallo
D. Sc o sch? Listen as your instructor pronounces the following
words. Complete each word with sc or sch.
1. ma
2. pe
io
e
3.
4.
iare
iarpa
5. pe
6. ma
e
era
E. Le città italiane. Complete the spelling of the names of these
Italian cities as your instructor says them. Then locate the cities on the
map on page 5.
1. Bolo
a
2. Vene
ia
3. Le
e
4. Peru
ia
5. Bre
ia
6. Me
ina
7. Firen
e
8. Catan
aro
9. Ca
iari
Lessico
ask86243_CH01.indd 9
9
11/6/08 8:51:24 PM
F. «Punto it».
F
IN ITALIA
Here are some common
Italian abbreviations.
Can you recognize them
when you hear them? Ask
your instructor to pronounce
them. Can you figure out
what they mean?
www
TV
RAI
TG
SMS
DVD
CD
PC
UFO
P
Parte
prima. Meet and greet a new partner. Each of you selects one oval
tthat contains a set of popular websites. Take turns saying each address to
your partner who will write them down. Be prepared to spell the address if
y
your partner is having difficulty. Check your spelling when you are finished.
y
Attenzione! www in website addresses is said vvv and dot is said punto.
A
www.teleguida.it
www.radioitalia.it
www.gazzetta.it
www.meteo.it
www.garzantilinguistica.it
www.repubblica.it
P
Parte
seconda. Match each site to the content that you will find there.
U each site only once.
Use
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
le previsioni del tempo (weather forecast)
il dizionario
le notizie del giorno (news)
i programmi TV
la musica
le foto e i video di calcio, Formula 1 e altri sport
I mesi e le stagioni
Months and seasons
Match the names of the months to the appropriate season.
marzo
settembre
agosto
dicembre
maggio
1. la primavera
2. l’estate
giugno
febbraio
novembre
aprile
luglio
ottobre
gennaio
•
䉴 Answers to this activity are
in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
3. l’autunno
10
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 10
4. l’inverno
Per cominciare
11/23/08 12:12:38 PM
A. Ascolta. Listen as your instructor says the months of the year in
Italian. Write the first letter of the appropriate season for each month:
P=primavera, E=estate, A=autunno, I=inverno.
B. I mesi. Work with a partner to unscramble the letters. Then, take
turns spelling the words aloud while the other writes them.
1. goninae
2. zorma
3. breettems
4. ligulo
5. obretto
6. gamigo
7. ognugi
8. baofrebi
9. emnovbre
10. redicebm
11. palrie
12. stagoo
C. «A» come aprile. You and your partner take turns saying a
letter of the alphabet. If there is a month that begins with that letter, name
it. Continue until all the months have been named.
I numeri da 0 a 9.999
Numbers from 0 to 9,999
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
zero
uno
due
tre
quattro
cinque
sei
sette
otto
nove
dieci
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
undici
dodici
tredici
quattordici
quindici
sedici
diciassette
diciotto
diciannove
venti
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
ventuno
ventidue
ventitré
ventiquattro
venticinque
ventisei
ventisette
ventotto
ventinove
trenta
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
1.000
2.000
quaranta
cinquanta
sessanta
settanta
ottanta
novanta
cento
duecento
trecento
quattrocento
mille
duemila
Expressing dates
a. To express the date in Italian, you use il day month, for
example, il 4 luglio (il quattro luglio). The first of the month is
written il 1 month, but is said il primo month.
—Quanti ne abbiamo oggi?
What is today’s date?
Il primo o il due?
The first or the second?
—Oggi è il primo settembre.
Today is the first.
Domani è il due.
Tomorrow is the second.
b. In Italy, dates are always abbreviated with the day first, then
the month, and finally the year. So, il 4 luglio is 4/7 and 7/4 is
il 7 aprile!
c. In Italian, the year is always said in its entirety: 1861 milleottocentosessantuno (unlike English 18-61). Mille means one thousand;
it has an irregular plural: mila. So, the year 2009 is duemilanove.
Lessico
ask86243_CH01.indd 11
11
11/6/08 8:51:27 PM
RETRO
IN ITALIA
La piazza is vital to life in
Italy. The space itself is
essential as a principal point
of reference and meeting
place. Historically the site of
preaching and other public
oratory, processions, and
public executions, la piazza
today hosts major festivals,
concerts, and protests. In
nice weather, it functions as
a popular gathering place
for residents and tourists
alike, bustling with activity
both day and night.
Did you notice that in Italy un punto (period) is used instead of una virgola
(comma) in numbers above 999?
The origin of the Italian
piazza is linked directly
to the Roman forum,
which was situated at
the intersection of major
east-west and north-south
streets. The square formed
by the cross streets served
as the geographic and
symbolic center of the city.
As new cities arose in the
Middle Ages, the central
piazza housed both the
main church and the
town hall, accommodating
religious and civil authority.
By the end of the
Renaissance, la piazza was
considered a necessity in the
urban landscape. Le piazze
that formed in front of
churches and palaces remain
some of the most famous
monumental sites in Italy
today: Piazza Navona,
Piazza del Campidoglio,
and Piazza San Pietro in
Roma; Piazza della
Signoria in Firenze; and
Piazza San Marco in
Venezia are only a few of
the most widely known.
12
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 12
(U.S.A.—dollari) $1,325
(Italia—euro) €1.325
Also note that commas are used instead of decimal points!
(U.S.) 92.5% ⴝ (Italia) 92,5%
CLICCA QUI You can find the latest exchange rates for euros at the
Avanti! website, Clicca qui (www.mhhe.com/avanti2).
A. L
A
La data.
d t
Th
The ffollowing
ll i
d
dates are iin IItalian;
li
practice
i saying
i
them.
h
1. 4/11
2. 1/1
3. 15/8
4. 31/10
5. 25/12
6. 2/3
7. 3/2
B. L’anno di nascita (birth). With a partner, take turns saying the
B
y
years
listed in column A. Can you match the birth years to the famous
I
Italians
listed in column B?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
A
1265
1952
1883
1564
1451
1452
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
B
Roberto Benigni
Dante Alighieri
Benito Mussolini
Leonardo da Vinci
Cristoforo Colombo
Galileo Galilei
IN ITALIA
When Italians say or write a street address they say the street (via, viale, corso
or piazza) first and the number second.
—Dov’è la biblioteca?
—In via Vivaldi,12.
—Dov’è un punto Internet (Internet access point) qui vicino (near here)?
—In piazza Garibaldi, 6.
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:27 PM
C. Un biglietto da visita. Choose one of the following identities.
Your partner will close his/her book while you introduce yourself, providing all of the information on your business card. Your partner will write
what you say. When you’ve finished, he/she will check the information with
the actual card. Then switch roles. Here are some useful terms:
@ ⴝ chiocciola (at)
. ⴝ punto
- ⴝ trattino / lineetta (hyphen)
_ ⴝ lineetta bassa (underscore)
Buon giorno. Sono Giovanni Tosta. Abito in via...
Il mio numero di telefono è... e il mio indirizzo e-mail è...
Esempio:
Strutture
1.1
Maschile o femminile?
Gender
bambino
bambina
What is the difference between these two nouns in Italian? What do the
final -o and -a tell you about the nouns? Now look at the following nouns.
ITALIA
Firenze
TOSCANA
TOSCANA
fiore (maschile)
regione (femminile)
What is the difficulty with nouns that end in -e?
•
䉴 Answers to this activity are
in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
Strutture
ask86243_CH01.indd 13
13
11/6/08 8:51:32 PM
•
䉴 For other common patterns
and exceptions to the gender of
nouns, see Per saperne di più
at the back of your book.
1. Unlike English, all Italian nouns have gender: they are either masculine
or feminine. This is true for nouns referring to people as well as for those
referring to objects. For example, porto ( port) is masculine but porta
(door) is feminine.
2. Most nouns that end in -o are masculine and most nouns that end in -a
are feminine. Nouns ending in -e are either masculine or feminine. In this
case, you can’t tell the gender just by looking at the nouns, so you’ll need
to memorize their gender.
3. Here are some things to remember about the gender of nouns.
a. Nouns that end in -ione, like televisione and informazione, are
usually feminine.
b. Nouns that end in a consonant, like hamburger and bar, are usually
masculine.
Il genere.
Parte prima. Place the words below into the appropriate category in the
chart according to the final vowel.
aereo
bicicletta
cane
dizionario
esame
festa
gatto
•
䉴 Answers to this activity are
in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
-o (m.)
inverno
libro
macchina
numero
orologio
penna
quaderno
residenza
studente
televisione
università
voto
zaino
-a ( f.)
-e (m. o f.)
aereo
Parte seconda. Find out the gender of the nouns that end in -e by
looking them up in the glossary at the back of the book.
14
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 14
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:34 PM
1.2
Un cappuccino, per favore
Indefinite articles
Un, un’, una, and uno are forms of the indefinite article (articolo
indeterminativo). They mean both one and a/an. Notice how the forms of
uno change according to the gender (masculine or feminine) and the first
letter of the noun that follows.
MASCHILE
un animale
un corso
uno studente
un inverno
un libro
uno zaino
FEMMINILE
un’estate
una lezione
una studentessa
un’amica
una persona
una zebra
Now, insert the following indefinite articles in the charts below:
una, un’, uno, un.
MASCHILE
before s ⴙ consonant or z
before all other consonants
and all vowels
FEMMINILE
•
before all consonants
䉴 Answers to these activities
are in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
before a vowel
A. L’articolo e il genere. Here are some nouns that you probably
recognize. Decide which are feminine and which are masculine. How
can you tell?
un animale
un CD
un film
un tè
una fotografia
una stagione
un hotel
un cinema
un’opera
un ospedale
uno zero
un mese
un limone
un elefante
un ristorante
un errore un’informazione
una stazione
Strutture
ask86243_CH01.indd 15
15
11/23/08 12:12:48 PM
IN ITALIA
Bars are commonplace in Italy and very popular, but they aren’t what you might
expect. At il bar in Italy, you’ll find young people, old people, singles, couples,
families, business people, students, children, and, sometimes, even a customer
with a dog. People come for a quick coffee, a soft drink, maybe una pasta
(pastry), una brioche (type of sweet roll), un panino (sandwich), a glass of
wine, or un drink. If there are tables, you might see men playing cards, people
reading the paper, or others just watching people go by. Un pub, instead, is
open only in the evenings and comes from the British tradition; un discopub
offers dancing, too. A bar in the American sense is called . . . un American bar!
An easy way to ask for something at a bar is to name it and then say please.
—Un caffè, per favore.
—Un bicchiere (glass) d’acqua, per piacere.
B. Al bar. You and your classmates go to un bar after class. How would
you ask for the following drinks? Supply the appropriate indefinite article.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
tè, per favore.
birra, per favore.
coca-cola, per piacere.
cappuccino, per favore.
succo d’arancia (orange juice), per piacere.
bicchiere di latte (milk), per favore.
bottiglia (bottle) d’acqua, per favore.
cognac, per favore.
C. Memoria. Work in teams. Your instructor will display a group of
objects in the front of the room. You will have a short amount of time to
study them, after which your instructor will cover them. Write the names
of all the objects you remember. Don’t forget to include the appropriate
articles. The team with the most items wins.
1.3
Due cappuccini, per favore
Number
In English, the plural is usually formed by adding -s to the end of a
singular noun. Notice how, in Italian, the final vowel of a noun changes to
make the plural.
SINGOLARE
•
PLURALE
䉴 For other common patterns
MASCHILE
and exceptions, see Per saperne
di più at the back of your book.
ragazzo (boy)
MASCHILE/FEMMINILE
esame (m.)
classe (f.)
ragazzi
esami
classi
FEMMINILE
studentessa
studentesse
16
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 16
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:34 PM
Using the examples in the preceding chart as a guide, complete the
paragraph with the appropriate vowels. The first one is done for you.
Feminine nouns that end in -a in the singular, end in
in the
plural. Masculine nouns that end in -o in the singular, end in
in
the plural. Masculine and feminine nouns that end in
in the
singular, end in
in the plural.
•
䉴 Answers to this activity are
in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
Note: Nouns ending in a consonant, like hamburger, proper nouns like
Fanta or San Pellegrino, and words ending in an accented vowel, such as
università, do not change in the plural.
A. Il numero. Decide whether the following nouns are singular or
plural. Attenzione! You may need to consult the glossary at the back
of your book.
1. notte
2. bar
3. spaghetti
4. tè
5. pizza
6. biciclette
B. Forma il plurale. Here are some singular nouns. Make
them plural.
1. casa
2. cappuccino
3. amore
4. film
5. nazione
6. città
C. Forma il singolare. Here are some plural nouns. Make them
singular. (Attenzione! What problem do you encounter with plural nouns
ending in -i?)
1. ragazze
2. cani
3. tè
4. ballerine
5. computer
6. porti
D. Al bar. A friend is going to join you at the bar, so you’ll need to
order two of everything. Your partner (the server) will repeat what you’ve
ordered to make sure that he/she understood correctly.
Esempio:
S1: Due caffè, per favore.
S2: Due caffè?
S1: Sì, grazie.
1. Due t
, per favore.
2. Due birr
, per favore.
3. Due cappuccin
4. Due bicchier
5. Due bottigli
, per favore.
di latte, per favore.
d’acqua minerale, per favore.
Strutture
ask86243_CH01.indd 17
17
11/23/08 12:12:51 PM
E. Tutti al bar. Work in small groups. Imagine that you are in an
Italian bar. Using the menu below, find out what your friends would like to
have by asking each one Cosa prendi? (What will you have?). Then order
for the group.
Cosa prendi?
Un cappuccino.
E tu?
Un cappuccino e una pasta, grazie.
(al barista [bartender]): Tre cappuccini e due paste, per
favore. Quant’è? (How much is it?)
BARISTA: €4,75 (Quattro euro e settantacinque centesimi.)
Esempio:
S1:
S2:
S1:
S3:
S1:
The euro is the com
common currency of the European Union. One euro
is divided into 100 centesimi. In Italian, the noun euro is invariable:
—Due caffè e una pasta. Quant’è?
—Tre euro e sessanta centesimi.
18
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 18
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:37 PM
1.4
L’università è fantastica!
Definite articles
Each of the following nouns is preceded by the Italian equivalent of the.
Notice how the form of the definite article changes according to the
gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) of
the noun.
SINGOLARE
PLURALE
MASCHILE
il libro
l’esame
lo studente, lo zaino
i libri
gli esami
gli studenti, gli zaini
FEMMINILE
la penna
l’informazione
le penne
le informazioni
✔STUDY TIP
The definite article is used much
more in Italian than English. It
indicates the gender of nouns
except when they begin with
a vowel. Try to learn nouns,
particularly those ending in -e,
with their definite articles.
Using the above examples as a guide, complete the paragraphs with the
appropriate definite articles. The first one is done for you.
The masculine singular definite article has three forms: you use l’
before nouns that begin with a vowel,
before nouns that begin
with s + consonant or z, and
before all other consonants. The
feminine singular definite article has two forms:
before a vowel
and
before all consonants.
There are fewer plural definite articles. The masculine plural
definite article has two forms:
before nouns that begin with a
vowel, s + consonant, or z and
before all other consonants.
There is only one feminine plural definite article:
.
•
䉴 Answers to this activity are
in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
A. Maschile o femminile, singolare o plurale? Decide if
the following nouns are singular or plural, masculine or feminine and
check the appropriate boxes. Attenzione! Notice how important it is to
pay attention to the definite article as well as the final vowel.
singolare o plurale?
maschile o femminile?
1. le bevande
2. il cane
3. l’ombrello
4. i bar
5. l’arancia
6. gli animali
Strutture
ask86243_CH01.indd 19
19
11/23/08 12:12:52 PM
B. Scrivi il plurale. Give the plural form of these singular nouns
and their definite articles.
1. il professore
2. l’antenna
3. lo scaffale (bookcase)
4. l’oroscopo
5. la regione
6. la penna
C. Scrivi il singolare. Give the singular form of these plural nouns
and their definite articles.
1. gli zaini
2. le città
3. le fotografie
4. i panini
5. le notti
6. i computer
D. Un quiz. Work with a partner. Each of you makes a secret list of
seven singular or plural nouns with their definite articles chosen randomly
from this chapter. Take turns saying each noun to your partner, who will
give the corresponding singular or plural form.
1.5
Mi piace l’italiano!
The verb piacere
The people below are talking about what they like. Can you figure out
when to use piace and when to use piacciono?
Mi piace
I'Italia!
Mi piacciono
Ie scarpe!
•
䉴 Answers to this activity are
in Appendix 2 at the back of
your book.
1. If the person or thing that you like is singular, you use mi piace. If the
person or thing that you like is plural, you use mi piacciono.
2. If you don’t like something, place non before mi piace or mi piacciono.
Non mi piace il cioccolato.
Non mi piacciono gli esami!
3. To ask someone you address with tu if he/she likes something, use ti
piace and ti piacciono. For the formal, use Le piace and Le piacciono.
—Ti piace la musica? (Le piace la musica?)
—Sì, mi piace molto.
—Ti piacciono i corsi? (Le piacciono i corsi?)
—No, non mi piacciono.
20
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 20
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:39 PM
A. Piace o piacciono?
Parte prima. Decide whether piace or piacciono is used with each of
these nouns.
la pizza
l’università
le lasagne
gli sport
l’italiano
i tortellini
gli esami
il caffè
l’Italia le feste
il gelato
gli hamburger
Parte seconda. Find out if your partner likes the above items.
Esempio:
S1: Ti piace (Le piace) l’università?
S2: Sì, mi piace moltissimo (very much)! (No, non mi piace.)
B. Ti piace l’italiano?
Parte prima. Here is a list of academic subjects. Put a ✓ by all the courses
that you like.
la biologia
la chimica
l’economia
la filosofia
la fisica
l’ingegneria
l’italiano
la letteratura inglese
la matematica
la psicologia
la religione
le scienze
della comunicazione
le scienze politiche
la sociologia
la storia
gli studi internazionali
Parte seconda. Now, your partner will interview you to find out which
courses you like and don’t like.
Esempio:
S1: Ti piacciono le scienze politiche?
S2: Sì, mi piacciono. (No, non mi piacciono.)
C. I cibi (foods) e le bevande.
Parte prima. As a class, make a list of six foods or drinks from this
chapter and write them in the first column of your chart.
i cibi / le bevande
le donne (women)
sì
no
gli uomini (men)
sì
no
lo yogurt
il cappuccino
Strutture
ask86243_CH01.indd 21
21
11/6/08 8:51:39 PM
Parte seconda. Go around the room and interview three women and three
men to find out which foods they like.
Esempio:
S1: Ti piacciono i tortellini?
S2: No, non mi piacciono. (Sì, mi piacciono.)
Parte terza. As a class, find out if a particular food/drink is more popular
with the men or the women.
IN ITALIA
In 1998 researchers conducted a study on hedonism (a doctrine that espouses
pleasure as the chief good in life) in eight European countries. Men and
women were asked to rate items in order from most pleasurable (1) to least
pleasurable (10). Here were the results from Italy.
I PIACERI1 PREFERITI
Uomini
Donne
1°
il sesso
la TV e i video
2°
la musica
la musica
3°
lo sport
lo shopping
4°
lo shopping
il sesso
5°
i latticini2
lo sport
6°
la TV e i video
il caffè o il tè
7°
il caffè o il tè
i dolci3
8°
cenare fuori4
i latticini
9°
le sigarette
la cioccolata
10°
1
i dolci
pleasures
2
cenare fuori
dairy products
3
sweets
4
dining out
Did you notice that the ordinal numbers (first, second, third . . . ) in
the chart, i piaceri preferiti, are abbreviated with a superscript “o”?
1st ⴝ 1°
2nd ⴝ 2°
3rd ⴝ 3°
4th ⴝ 4°
That’s because in Italian, they are abbreviations of primo,
secondo, terzo, quarto, quinto, sesto, settimo, ottavo, nono,
decimo. In this case they are describing il posto ( place).
You will learn more about adjective agreement in Capitolo 2,
Strutture 2.1.
22
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 22
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:40 PM
Cultura
Ascoltiamo!
I gesti italiani: How to speak Italian
without saying a word
I… Gestures
A. Osserva ed ascolta. Do you know the old joke, “Want to
keep an Italian quiet? Tie his/her hands together.”? Italians are famous
for their use of gestures as they speak. Watch and listen as the instructor
demonstrates and explains, in Italian, several gestures that Italians use
to communicate their thoughts and needs. During the presentation, pay
attention to her facial expressions and intonation, as well as what she
says, to understand the meaning of the gestures.
B. Completa. Now the instructor will show you 10 gestures, one at a
time. Below you will see a list of 14 possible meanings. Choose the one that
matches each gesture you see and write its letter in the corresponding
blank. Attenzione! There are more meanings than there are gestures.
Gesto:
Significato:
1.
5.
9.
2.
6.
10.
3.
7.
4.
8.
a. I’m furious!
h. money
b. So thin!
i.
Let’s eat!
c. Yum!
j.
What do you want?
d. You’re nuts!
k. I’ve got an idea!
e. Got a cigarette?
l.
f. I’m sleepy.
m. I have no clue.
g. Please help me.
n. Quiet!
C. Tocca a te! (Your turn!)
Call me!
Which gestures are the same in
your culture?
Cultura
ask86243_CH01.indd 23
23
11/6/08 8:51:43 PM
Leggiamo!
Italiani famosi
Parole per leggere
insieme together
la scoperta discovery
senza without
lo sviluppo development
•
䉴 Parole per leggere
contains words from the
reading selection that are used
frequently in Italian. They are
presented to help build your
receptive vocabulary.
A. Prima di leggere. You already know several Italian words. How
A
many
m
famous Italians do you know? With a partner write the names of at
least
l
three Italians.
B. Al testo!
B
Parte prima. Il Premio Nobel is awarded in six categories. Find them in
P
tthe reading.
fisica
letteratura
chimica
medicina
Un secolo di Nobel:
i laureati italiani
pace
economia
Guglielmo Marconi
1909
CLICCA QUI You
can find out more
about all the Italian Nobel
Prize winners at the Avanti!
website, Clicca qui (www.
mhhe.com/avanti2). Find the
answers to the following
questions: How many Italians
have won the Nobel Prize? In
which categories? How many
men? How many women? In
which category have Italians
won the most?
(1874–1937)
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co.
Ltd., London, Great Britain
insieme a
Carl Ferdinand Braun
“in riconoscimento del loro
contributo allo sviluppo del
telegrafo senza fili”
Vai alla pagina del Nobel
(1850–1918)
Germany, Strasburg University
1934
Luigi Pirandello
(1867–1936)
“per il suo coraggioso
rinnovamento dell’arte scenica
e drammatica”
Vai alla pagina del Nobel
Rita Levi-Montalcini
1986
1997
(1909– )
Istituto di Biologia Cellulare - C.N.R.,
Roma, Italia
“per le loro scoperte sui fattori
insieme a
della crescita”
Vai alla pagina del Nobel
Stanley Cohen
(1922–)
U.S.A., Vanderbilt University School
of Medicine, Nashville
Dario Fo
(1926– )
“per avere emulato i giullari del
Medio Evo, flagellando l’autorità
e sostenendo la dignità
degli oppressi”
Vai alla pagina del Nobel
Parte seconda. Now complete the following sentences about these Italian
winners. When you’ve finished, take turns reading them to your partner to
check your answers.
24
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 24
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:43 PM
1. Nel
la fisica.
Guglielmo Marconi ha vinto (won) il Premio Nobel per
2. Nel 1934
ha vinto il Premio Nobel per la letteratura.
3. Nel 1986
ha vinto il Premio Nobel per
4. Nel
.
ha vinto il Premio Nobel per
.
Parte terza. Can you match these other winners with their
award categories?
1. Grazia Deledda (1926)
a. l’economia
2. Enrico Fermi (1938)
b. la fisica
3. Franco Modigliani (1985)
c. la letteratura
C. Discutiamo! How many winners of il Premio Nobel appeared
in your lists of famous Italians? What are the Italians in your lists
famous for?
Scriviamo!
Mi piacciono i puzzle!
Many Italians are fond of word games and they look forward to the
latest issue of La settimana enigmistica (Puzzle Week) and Domenica quiz
(Sunday Quiz), among the many publications that appear weekly on
newsstands throughout Italy. Here are two of the most popular types of
puzzles for you to try: un rebus, a word and picture puzzle, and un
cruciverba (crossword puzzle).
A. Un rebus; due rebus. Use the clues below to solve the puzzles.
Una materia. (7) (Hint: The answer is one word with seven letters.)
(Write the name of the sport, one letter per space.)
E N Z A
Un mezzo di trasporto (means of transportation). (5)
no
no
no
(Hint: Write how many no’s there are, one letter per space.)
N O
Cultura
ask86243_CH01.indd 25
25
12/19/08 5:15:01 PM
B. Un cruciverba.
Use the clues below to complete the following
crossword puzzle.
1
4
2
3
6
5
7
8
10
12
9
11
13
15
14
16
17
18
19
Orizzontali
CLICCA QUI If
you enjoy puzzles,
you can find links to a variety
of types of enigmistica at
the Avanti! website, Clicca
qui (www.mhhe.com/
avanti2).
Verticali
1. H2O
2. aloha in italiano
7. «.»
3. dodici mesi
10. 10
4. marzo,
11. un orologio, due
5.
13. giugno, luglio, agosto
6. 16
15. Garfield, Morris e il cheshire,
per esempio
8. Di
16. English in italiano
18. Un tè, per
19. Come ti
!
?
, maggio
cane, due cani
sei?
9. A, B, C…
12. tu (informale) (formale)
14. 30
17. 2 2
26
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 26
Per cominciare
11/6/08 8:51:45 PM
Parliamo!
Bla, bla, bla!
As a class, create the longest conversation you can. To begin, two students
come to the front of the room. At random points in the conversation, your
instructor will tap one of the speakers, who will be replaced by another
student who will continue the conversation at the exact point where it left
off. Try to make the conversation last until everyone has had a chance to
participate. Include as many of the expressions you learned in this chapter
as possible.
Come ti chiami?
Come si chiama?
Di dove sei?
Di dov’è? Dove abita?
Ciao!
Arrivederci!
Buon giorno!
Ti piace…?
Dove abiti?
Buona sera!
Mi piace…
Le piace…?
Non mi piace…
Guardiamo!
Film
Mimì metallurgico ferito nell’onore
(Commedia. Italia. 1971. Lina Wertmüller, Regista [Director]. 121 min.)
A. Anteprima. (Preview.) With a partner, review the gestures you
learned in the Ascoltiamo! section.
B. Ciak, si gira! (Action, rolling!) As you watch the scene, see
how many gestures you can identify. Ask your instructor the meaning of
any that you don’t understand.
C. È fatto! (It’s a wrap!) With a partner, create a “dialogue” using
only gestures. Perform it for the class.
Riassunto: (Synopsis): Mimì
(Giancarlo Giannini), who has
lost his job because of his
leftist politics, leaves his
wife and child in Sicily to find
work in a factory in Torino.
Once there, he meets Fiore
(Mariangela Melato), a
beautiful Northerner who
shares his politics and his bed.
Mimì’s life in the North is
complicated, but it becomes
even more so when he returns
to Sicily to discover that, in his
absence, his wife has had an
affair of her own. Mimì then
devises a plan to defend
his honor.
Scena: (DVD Chapter 4,
32:45): Mimì and Fiore “talk”
to each other across a busy
street, using only gestures.
Cultura
ask86243_CH01.indd 27
27
11/23/08 12:13:02 PM
IN AMERICA
As you’ve seen in this chapter, English has borrowed many words from
Italian, especially in the areas of music, art, and cuisine. One word that
has become almost international in its use is ciao. If you look it up in an
American English dictionary, here’s what you’ll find:
ciao [chä’ô] interj. Italian. (used as a word of greeting or parting): hello;
good-bye; so long; see you later.
But you might not know that the Italian word comes from the Venetian
dialect, s-ciàvo, an expression that means (I am) your servant (or your slave).
Vocabolario
Domande ed espressioni
arrivederci
buon giorno
buona sera
buona notte
ciao
Come si scrive?
Come ti chiami? /
Come si chiama?
Mi chiamo / Sono…
Di dove sei? / Di dov’è?
Sono di…
Dove abiti? / Dove abita?
Abito a…
grazie
Il mio numero di
telefono è…
(Non) ti piace /
piacciono… ?
(Non) Le piace /
piacciono… ?
per favore / per piacere
Piacere!
prego
Quant’è?
Quanti ne abbiamo oggi?
good-bye
good morning, good day
good evening
good night
hi; bye
How is it written?
What’s your name
(inform./form.)?
My name is . . .
Where are you from
(inform./form.)?
I’m from . . .
Where do you live?
(inform./form.)
I live in (name of city)
thank you.
My phone number is . . .
Do (don’t) you (inform.)
like . . . ?
Do (don’t) you ( form.)
like . . . ?
please
Pleased to meet you!
you’re welcome; come in;
etc. (See page 5.)
How much is it?
What is today’s date?
Sostantivi (il bar)
l’acqua
il bicchiere
la birra
la bottiglia
il caffè
il cappuccino
il panino
28
Capitolo 1
ask86243_CH01.indd 28
water
glass
beer
bottle
coffee
cappuccino
sandwich
la pasta
il succo d’arancia
il tè
pastry
orange juice
tea
Sostantivi (l’università)
l’aereo
l’amico/l’amica (m./f.)
l’anno
l’antropologia
la bicicletta
la biologia
il cane
la casa
il CD
la chimica
il cinema
la città
la classe
il computer
il corso
il dizionario
l’economia
l’errore (m.)
l’esame (m.)
la festa
il film
la filosofia
la fisica
la fotografia
il gatto
il gelato
l’hamburger (m.)
l’informazione ( f.)
l’ingegneria
l’italiano
la letteratura inglese
la lezione
airplane
friend
year
anthropology
bicycle
biology
dog
house, home
CD-ROM
chemistry
cinema, movie theater
city
group (of students),
classroom
computer
course
dictionary
economy, economics
error, mistake
exam
party; holiday
film, movie
philosophy
physics
photograph
cat
ice cream
hamburger
information
engineering
Italian
English literature
lesson, individual class
period
Per cominciare
11/11/08 4:19:22 PM
il libro
la lingua
la macchina
la matematica
la materia (di studio)
il numero
l’orologio
la penna
la porta
il professore / la
professoressa (m./f.)
la psicologia
il quaderno
la religione
la residenza
il ristorante
le scienze della
comunicazione
le scienze politiche
la sociologia
lo sport
la storia
lo studente / la
studentessa (m./f.)
gli studi internazionali
la televisione
l’università
il voto
lo zaino
book
language
car
mathematics
subject matter
number, issue
clock, watch
pen
door
professor
psychology
notebook
religion
residence
restaurant
communications
(subject matter)
political science
sociology
sport
history
student
international studies
television
university
grade
backpack
I mesi
gennaio
febbraio
marzo
aprile
maggio
giugno
luglio
agosto
settembre
ottobre
novembre
dicembre
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Le stagioni
la primavera
l’estate ( f.)
l’autunno
l’inverno
spring
summer
autumn
winter
I numeri da 0 a 9.999
(See page 11.)
Altri sostantivi
il cellulare
il centesimo
l’euro (pl. gli euro)
il fiore
la piazza
il ragazzo
la regione
la via
cell phone
cent (lit. hundredth of
one euro)
euro
flower
town square
boy
region
street
I numeri ordinali da 1 a 10
primo
secondo
terzo
quarto
quinto
sesto
settimo
ottavo
nono
decimo
first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
Vocabolario
ask86243_CH01.indd 29
29
11/11/08 4:19:24 PM
Fly UP