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The Inclusion and Learning Opportunity Project

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The Inclusion and Learning Opportunity Project
The Inclusion and Learning
Opportunity Project (ILOP)
A brief review and
a research project*
Maurizio Gentile
Iprase del Trentino
*Based on a proceedings presented at the 16° International Scientific Meeting
Of VCFSEF, 3-5 July 2009 Rome - http://www.vcfsef.org/
VCFSEF - International Scientific Meeting, 3-5 July 2009 Rome
The Inclusion and Learning Opportunity Project
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Summary
1. Overview: integration versus inclusion
2. ILOP: research methods and teaching
components
3. Educating students with SEN:
achievements and critical points of the
Italian approach
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The Inclusion and Learning Opportunity Project
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Overview
Integration versus Inclusion
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Inclusive education
We propose to explain inclusive education
as «a process of transformation of
education systems and cultures which
allows all students to participate fully and
equitably in the process of learning in
regular schools» (D’Alessio, 2008, p. 9)
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Integration versus Inclusion
Integrative practices
1. Integration of children with special needs in the
mainstream school
Inclusion practices
1. Living and learning together (all children at the mainstream
school)
The two notions are very often used interchangeably:
2. Inclusive system for everybody
a CLARIFICATION becomes necessary
2. Differentiating system depending on the type of disability
3. Two-group-theory (disabled – not disabled; with or
without special needs)
3. Theory of heterogeneous group (different minorities and
majorities)
4. Reception of disabled children
4. Changing of the schooling idea
5. Theoretical
approach
centered onStatement
the individual
Since the
Salamanca
6.
5. Consideration
all levels
(emotional, social,has
educational)
(UNESCO,
1994) the ofterm
“INCLUSION”
taken
more and more space in the vocabulary of6.the
international discussion about children
Resources for labeled children
Resources for the entire school
with special educational needs
7. Special support to disabled children
7. Common and individual learning
8. One individualized curriculum for one child with SEN
8. One individualized curriculum for every child
9. Individual projects forInclusion
disabled children
contains
9. Engagement
reflection
and planning of all participants
a very RADICAL
IDEAintoOF
DIVERSITY
Using the term inclusion implies changes 10.
in the
educational system, leaving the idea
10. Special teacher supporting children with special needs
Special teacher supporting teachers, classes and schools
of homogeneity as an illusion behind.
11. Special education influencing mainstream school
methods
11. Changing all educational practices (mainstream and special
practices)
12. Controlled by experts (Hinz, 2002)
12. Teamwork (Hinz, 2002)
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ILOP
Research methods and teaching
components of a classroom
environment intentionally oriented to
inclusion
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Structure of research
Place
Autonomous Province of Trento
(North-East Italy)
Period
March 2009 – June 2011
Number of enrolled schools
3
Number of enrolled classroom
19 (Primary = 10 Middle = 9)
Number of enrolled students
354
Number of enrolled teacher
• 19 regular teachers
• 4 special teachers
Staff
•
•
VCFSEF - International Scientific Meeting, 3-5 July 2009 Rome
2 psychologists (researchers)
3 teachers (consultants)
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Research methods
Year
Unit of analysis
2009 Learning activities
Data collection
Focus of evaluation
Check-list based on
15 categories
• Teachers’ behaviour
• Classroom
management skills
• Check-list based
on 15 categories
• Learning activities
2010
• Quasi• Students
experimental
designs
VCFSEF - International Scientific Meeting, 3-5 July 2009 Rome
• Learning outcomes
• Perceived
classroom climate
• (Other indicators to
be shared with
teachers)
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Supporting the teachers
1
Workshop
(6 hours per
meeting)
2
Assisted
instructional
design (4 hours
per meeting)
3
Classroom
Implementation +
Observations
of learning activity
4
Debriefing:
discussions based
on evidence and
improvements
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Teaching strategies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Cooperative learning as
primary strategy to organize
the cognitive tasks and social
relationship among pupils
Teach-ware based on verbal
problem-solving activity
Interactive white board
Teacher’s skills of classroom
management
Scaffolding, direct teaching of
learning strategies
Visual images as primary
stimulus for conceptualization
and access to knowledge
(Gentile, 2008; 2009)
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Teach ware based on verbal problemsolving and interactive white board
Writing
Telling
Analysing
Studying
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Teach-ware based on verbal problemsolving and interactive white board
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Direct teaching of learning strategies
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Well-strutctured material
1
4
2
3
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Cooperative learning and
classroom management skills
Autonomous work
Writer
Monitored work
Reader
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Organisation of classroom
environment
Special
teacher
Thematic
corner
Smart
Tables
Board
Teacher’s
desk
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Reasonable expectation of positive
effects regard to students with …
1.
2.
3.
4.
Learning disabilities (writing, reading, math)
Emotional and behavioral disorders
Under-achievements students
Middle retarded with mental handicap (2
years less than the chronological age)
5. Student at-risk
6. Sensorial impairments (e.g. deafness)
7. Foreign students with social disadvantages
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Educating students
with SEN
Achievements and critical points
of the Italian approach
Adapted from: Ianes, D. (2005). The Italian model for inclusion of children with special
needs: some issues. Available on: http://www.darioianes.it/slide/Prague.pdf.
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Law on integrazione scolastica
(Legge 517 del 1997)
• In 1977, Italy passed an anti-discriminatory
legislation known as integrazione scolastica
(Ianes & Demo, 2008)
• All students are admitted into regular schools
for all academic levels (primary, middle and
secondary) regardless of socioeconomic
background, physical and intellectual
impairments, or of any other selective
criterion designed to segregate and exclude
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Two major guide lines
1
Knowledge and assessment of
pupils with special needs through
functional diagnosis
Public healthcare service primarily
responsible of this diagnostic task
2
Educational strategies for inclusion
School service primarily responsible
of this line
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1
Functional Diagnosis
Critical points
Different perspective forwarded by
health professionals and school
professionals
School expecting diagnoses which
would miraculously enlighten teachers
in their daily practice
Many teachers use diagnosis as an
excuse to avoid engaging and
spending effort
Difficulty of making an adequate
assessment
Staff shortages
Improvements
International Classification of
Functioning, Disability and Health
(2002)
– Describes the whole functioning of
pupils with SEN (cognition and learning,
social interaction, autonomy, sensory,
movement, communication)
– Makes diagnosis more useful to school
educational processes
– Implies a comprehensive bio-psychosocial conceptualization of health and
functioning
Family are not involved in the
evaluation process
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2 School strategies for inclusion
Critical points
Five guide lines
1. Reduced resources allocated
to school for special
educational needs
1. Link between individualization
and the class curriculum
2. Special educational teacher
as the most important
resource for inclusion, but
often ineffective
2. Peer involvement
– Lack of appropriate
training
– Unfit management by
school and local authorities
– Difficulties in cooperation
with curriculum-teacher
3. Introducing specific strategies
into the regular learning
activities (special strategies
become normal)
4. Direct teaching of cognitive
and metacognitive learning
strategies
5. ICT
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References
Borgnolo, G. et al. (2009). ICF e Convenzione ONU sui diritti delle persone con disabilità. Trento:
Erickson.
D’Alessio, S. (2008). A critical analysis of the policy of integrazione scolastica from an inclusive
education perspective. An ethnographic study of disability, discourse and policy making in two
lower secondary schools in Italy. Ph.D. Thesis Dissertation. London: University of London.
Gentile, M. (2008). Nuove tecnologie e apprendimento cooperativo. Scuola e Formazione, 11(1-2),
pp. 21-25. Available from:
http://www.iprase.tn.it/attivit%C3%A0/studio_e_ricerca/red5_08/index.asp.
Gentile, M. (2009). Ambienti di apprendimento inclusivi e tecnologie digitali. Available
from:http://www.iprase.tn.it/attivit%C3%A0/studio_e_ricerca/red5_08/index.asp.
Ianes, D. (2005). The Italian model for inclusion of children with special needs: some issues.
Available from: http://www.darioianes.it/slide/Prague.pdf.
Ianes, D. e Demo, H. (2008). L’integrazione scolastica dal 1997 al 2007: i primi risultati di una
ricerca attraverso lo sguardo delle persone con disabilità e delle loro famiglie. Difficoltà di
Apprendimento, 14(2), pp.176-196.
Hinz, A. (2002). Von der Integration zur Inklusion - terminologisches Spiel oder konzeptionelle
Weiterentwicklung? Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik, 53(9), 354-361.
Pigliapoco, E. e Sciapeconi, I (2007-2008). Lavagna interattiva e apprendimento cooperativo.
L’educatore, 6, pp. 35-36.
Schneider, C. (2009). Equal is not Enough. Current Issues in Inclusive Education in the Eyes of
Children, International Journal of Education, 1(1), pp. 1-14. Available from:
http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/ije/article/viewFile/101/47.
Sitta, E. (2008). Rinnovare la didattica con le LIM. Scuola e Didattica, 54 (6), pp. 73-76
UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education.
Available from: http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF.
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Acknowledgements
•
Arduino Salatin
Director of IPRASE, Trento (Italy)
•
Simona D’Alessio
European Agency for Development
in Special Needs Education,
Brussels (Belgium)
•
Eva Pigliapoco e Ivan
Sciapeconi
Primary School “La Cittadella”,
Modena (Italy)
•
Enrico Sitta
Middle School “G. Marconi”,
Modena (Italy)
•
Francesco Pisanu
Iprase, Trento (Italy)
VCFSEF - International Scientific Meeting, 3-5 July 2009 Rome
•
Maurizio Gentile
Senior researcher
Iprase, Trento – Italy
[email protected]
The Inclusion and Learning Opportunity Project
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