Class VA Agnellini Erika Di Bari Sara Del Grosso Silvia Amicucci Giovanni Spalletta Valeria Iannola Palmira Santese Daiana By the “ISTITUTO TECNICO PER IL TURISMO A. ARGOLI” di Tagliacozzo (AQ) Alba Fucens was an ancient Italic town occupying a lofty situation at the foot of the , c. 6.5 km north of Avezzano, Abruzzo, central Italy. Its remains are today in the comune of Massa d'Albe. It was originally a town of the Aequi, though on the frontier of the Marsi, but was occupied by a Roman colony owing to its strategic importance. It lay on a hill just to the north of the Via Valeria, which was probably prolonged beyond Tibur at this very period. In the Second Punic War Alba at first remained faithful, but afterwards refused to send contingents and was punished. After this it became a regular place of detention for important state prisoners, such as Syphax of Numidia, Perseus of Macedonia, Bituitus, king of the Arverni. It was attacked by the allies in the Social War, but remained faithful to Rome; and its strong position rendered it a place of some importance in the civil wars. Its prosperity, in the imperial period, can only be inferred from the number of inscriptions found there. It is chiefly remarkable for its finely preserved fortifications. The external walls, which have a circuit of about 3 km, are constructed of polygonal masonry; the blocks are carefully jointed, and the faces smoothed. With our present knowledge of such constructions their date cannot certainly be determined. They are not preserved to any very considerable height; but the arrangement of the gates is clearly traceable; as a rule they come at the end of a long, straight stretch of wall, and are placed so as to leave the right side of any attacking force exposed. On the north there is, for a length of about 150 m, a triple line of defences of later date, inasmuch as both the city wall proper, and the double wall thrown out in front of it are partly constructed of concrete, and faced with finer polygonal masonry (in which horizontal joints seem to be purposely avoided). L'Aquila contains many vestiges of its late medieval glory and its foundation were planned by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen in approximately 1245. In this city there are many church such as the “Basilica di S.Bernardino”, the church of S. Giusta, S. Silvestro and of S. Maria del Soccorso, but the main church is the” Basilica of S.Maria of Collemaggio”. This is considered the most famous basilica in Abruzzo. It was commenced in 1287 under Peter of Morrone, the future Celestino V, who was coroned pope there in 1294.it is made up of pink and white marble and it contains the remains of the S. Pietro Celestino. In the city there is also a castle that was erected by Don Pedro of Toledo following an uprising of the city against the Spaniards and the architect of this building is Pirro Luigi Escriba o Scriba', the famous architect of Castel Sant'elmo in Naples. The castle of L’Aquila is one of the most outstanding 16th century fortresses in Italy and iside it there are the Paleonthological Section, that containg an Elephas Meridionalis, and a Section of Sacred Art. An other important monument is the fountain with the 99 spouts that is situated next the to City wall and is a masterpiece. The mask rappresented monks feminine heads, horses etc.and in according to the legend, these represents the 99 castles which partecipated in the founding of L'Aquila At the end there is "Piazza Duomo" whereevery day a market is conducted from early morning until 1 p.m. and this is the ancient customs that is born with Charles II of Anjou. The toponym Pescus Constantii indicates the rocky basement where the original village was established. Regarding the word Costanzo that linked its name to a rocky mountain, there are no information that can be considered certain. The visit of the old town centre can start from Chiesa di Gesù e Maria church, and nearby Franciscan Convent, where you arrive from the station walking along the street that skirts the public gardens. Other important place are Palazzo Sabatini, the Collegiate church of Santa Maria del Colle, the church of Santa Maria del Suffragio dei Morti and Palazzo Coccopalmeri Up the street you come to the Piazza Municipio square, one of those Italian squares that surprises the visitors by its marvelous “as a whole” effect. In its centre there is Fontana maggiore the main fountain of the village. The oldest part of the town is the place of the castle and church of Saint Antnio, “Peschio”. From this rock, you sight goes towards plateaus, forests and surrounding mountains. Many handcraft expressions of antique traditions are still alive here, such as filigree goldsmith, bobbin lace, objects made of iron (used at home and made of wrought iron) and wood(thanks to a school of excellent carvers). The local dish is the “Tacconi” pasta with “orapi” (wild spinach). The most accredited hypothesis is that the name Sessanio derives from a corruption of Sextantio, a small Roman settlement. The first certain documentation on the existence of the fortified village of S. Stefano di Sessanio date the late 13th and early 14th centurien such as the large fiefdom of the Barony of Carapelle. The village of Santo Stefano di Sessanio is perhaps the most fascinating of all of man’s achievements in the entire Parco Nazionale del Gran Sasso e dei Monti della Laga and the village is now considered one of the most beautiful in Abruzzo. One of its characteristic is that its streets must be explored only on foot. The typical food of the village are the lentils in fact its most important food is the lentil soup served with small squares of bread fried in olive oil. The placename means, according to the researchers, “cut in the rock” - from the Latin talus (cut) and cotium (rock) - to indicate the fissure that divides the mountain, in which the urban installation has developed. In 1268 Charles the 1st of Angiò king of Sicily, defeats Corradino of Swabia at Tagliacozzo: the battle marks the destiny of Europe for the Angioinis and the end of the Swabians.On the northern slopes of the Simbruini mountains, not away from the border of Lazio, this historical centre arises. The best interesting part is the Piazza Obelisco ,is one of the most harmonic squares of Abruzzo. It is surrounded of elegant buildings, some restructured and others in deterioration. The Talia Theatre, an ex Benedictine convent, used as a theatre in 1686, was renewed in 2002 after various events. It has a sober and elegant façade and three orders of stages in the inside, where more than 200 people can be entertained. The Ducal building, the pearl of the artistic patrimony of Tagliacozzo, goes back to the first half of the 14th century. Finally we can see, in the immediate outskirts, the Sanctuary of Maria Santissima dell’Oriente, that goes back to the 14th century. The gastronomy of the place gets food from the agricultural cultivations of the Palentini Fields and of the plain of Fucino, as well as from the breedings and from the pastures of the surrounding mountains it is therefore substantially mountain with Parthenopean and Romans influences. The most representative food stuff are: home-made egg noodles, corn's flour porridge (polenta), lamb and calf meat, the secular tradition of the workmanship of pork meat with sausages, ham, loin of pork, coppa, liver, salami, “guanciale” and bacon. The production of sweets follows the festivities: at Christmas pizza with walnuts and full “nivoles”; at Carnival pancakes and “zeppoles with honey chestnuts and “nocchietelle”; at Easter pizza and above all biscuits (little horses and doves) manufactured by the nuns of seclusion of the Benedictine monastery. The local dishes are Gnocchetti with ceci, (porridge) polenta with sausages and “spuntature” served in wood dishes (the scifellettes), finally, the lamb with cheese and eggs for the deliciousness of the meat. Castel del Monte is a comune in the Province of L'Aquila in Abruzzo, Italy. Located in the heart of Italy's Gran Sasso, the medieval hill town is set into a steep hillside nestled beneath mountain peaks near the high plain of Campo Imperatore. Castel del Monte sits opposite the ancient mountaintop fortress of Rocca Calascio and faces Monte Sirente in the distance. It is located in the natural park known as the "Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park". In the 4th century BC, Romans conquered the area and established Città delle Tre Corone, the name meaning "fortified town behind three walls". This town was later abandoned because of the Goth Migrations or Barbarian Invasions and replaced by the fortified town of Ricetto in what is now the oldest part of Castel del Monte. Porta San Rocco, the main gate to historic Castel del Monte, until the end of the 19th Century, the town's five gates were shut each night to keep out bandits In 1579, the Piccolominis ceded the village as part of the Baronage of Carapelle to Francesco dei Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. The Medicis, who governed the baronage for over a century-and-a-half, left their imprint on Castel del Monte. In 1743, the baronage passed to Carlo di Borbone, then king of Naples and Sicily (later King Charles III of Spain). Castel del Monte remained under Spanish rule until the unification of Italy in 1861.Castel del Monte's most notable resident in the 20th century was the shepherd, poet, diarist and sculptor, Francesco Giuliani (1888-1969). Women castle are also skilled in the preparation desserts, which are available when you receive visits: Crespeglie, Calciuniglie, Mustaccioglie, Péule, Nocciatterrati, cicerecchiole. According to the most accredited interpretation, the name comes from pectorale, for the breastplate shape of the town. Others claim it derives from petra, because of the rockiness of the area, or else from the name of a village or estate connected with the Roman patrician Pictorius. 1229: the army of Pope Gregory IX conquers the castle of Pettorano, inside which Frederick II’s partisans have barricaded themselves. After this episode the emperor brings the situation back under his own control by naming his son Frederick lord of the fief.. With the arrival of the Angevins, the entire fief is granted to the soldier Amiel d’Angoult, lord of Courbain. 16th-17th cent.: the village enjoys its golden age, the result of the economic recovery, the calming of the local political situation and the introduction of new architectural types during the building expansion. 1706: a strong earthquake seriously damages almost all of the buildings in the village… The panorama is still one of the most beautiful in Abruzzo The town took on its present-day shape in the late Middle Ages, when the circuit of walls was erected with six gates, five of which can still be seen: Porta San Nicola Porta Cencia, Porta San Marco, Porta del Mulino and Porta Santa Margherita. Until the 1950s, polenta (corn meal mush) was the only dish consumed by all those people of Pettorano who passed long periods away from home digging coal with bill-hooks and axes. For these humble colliers, polenta, flavored with just a bit of herring, was their breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Polenta rognosa, always cooked in a copper cauldron and cut into slices with a string. Also typical of the area are mugnoli and cazzarielli, gnocchetti made with flour and water and served with greens.