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Comenius "Different but equal in Europe

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Comenius "Different but equal in Europe
LITERATURE
ARTS
HISTORY
LAWS AND BUSINESS
Titolo
During his time woman had neither social nor
political power. However, he presented a woman
in his portraits and drawings that was intelligent
and equal to man.
Her external beauty is the expression of her inner
beauty
The vast majority of female portraits were commissioned on marriage. Wedding
portraits tend to be made in pairs.
Women were usually portrayed in profile. They wore jewelry and fine costumes,
with multiple rings on their fingers when their hands were shown. Hair was bound
rather than free-flowing.
They are all visible signs of their newly married state.
Young Leonardo was an
innovator. He placed Ginevra
in an open setting at a time
when women were shown
within the walls of their family
homes. The three–quarter pose
is among the first in Italian
portraiture, for either sex.
Ginevra is beautiful, but austere;
she does not smile and her
look, seems indifferent
probably because she did not
want to get married.
➲
➲
➲
It is considered the first
modern portrait because
it is not static. It shows a
sense of motion.
Leonardo depicts her in a
relatively simple dress,
and not expensive
necklace because she is
not a noblewoman and he
wants to glorify her
simplicity and innocence.
Cecilia was renowned for
her beauty, her
scholarship, and her
poetry.
➲
➲
➲
This painting is a perfect
example of how Leonardo
never followed traditions.
Never before Leonardo in
Italian portraits, a female
sitter looks directly into the
eyes of the viewer.
He abandoned the usual
poses, and depicted her
without jewellery, with her
hair smooth, her hands free of
rings.
➲
➲
Leonardo changed the
vision of the ideal woman.
He showed the women’s
beauty, their wide inner
world, and their wonderful
smiles. He wanted to
express his love for women.
He loved and respected
women.
SABA
DANTE
MONTALE
DONNA
A woman who has no real
characteristics
vs
DONNA REALE
A woman who is a real human
being
VITA NOVA: It expresses a new concept of
woman, an angel, from Greek (άγγελος).
She has the power to make man's soul noble.
She is a link between man and God.
 DIVINE COMEDY: Beatrice guides Dante
through Heaven. She is a symbol of faith.
Virgil, the voice of reason, is not enough to
complete their journey towards God
contemplation
Beatrice and
Dante




Tanto gentile e tanto onesta pare
la donna mia, quand'ella altrui saluta,
ch'ogne lingua devèn, tremando, muta,
e li occhi no l'ardiscon di guardare.
Ella si va, sentendosi laudare,
benignamente d'umiltà vestuta,
e par che sia una cosa venuta
da cielo in terra a miracol mostrare.
Mostrasi sì piacente a chi la mira
che dà per li occhi una dolcezza al core,
che 'ntender no la può chi no la prova;
e par che de la sua labbia si mova
un spirito soave pien d'amore,
che va dicendo a l'anima: Sospira.
"So gentle and virtuous she appears"
So gentle and virtuous she appears,
My lady, when greeting other people
That every tongue tremblingly grows silent,
And eyes do not dare gaze upon her.
She passes by, hearing herself praised,
Graciously clothed with humility,
And she appears to be a creature who has come
From heaven to earth to show forth a miracle.
She shows herself so pleasing to her beholders,
That she gives through the eyes a sweetness to
the heart,
Which no one can understand who does not
feel it;
And it appears that from her lip moves
A tender spirit full of love,
Which says again and again to the soul: "Sigh."
In opposition to the ideal
woman, Saba's
wife
(LINA) is an example of
real woman, who is
compared by her husband
to
different
female
animals.
She is a bridge to God like the woman-angel but in a different
way: she is ideal but is described in her physical nature
A MIA MOGLIE
Tu sei come una giovane,
una bianca pollastra .
Le si arruffano al vento
le piume , il collo china
per bere , e in terra raspa ;
ma, nell'andare , ha il lento
tuo passo di regina ,
ed incede sull'erba
pettoruta e superba .
E' migliore del maschio .
E' come sono tutte
le femmine di tutti
i sereni animali
che avvicinano a Dio.
Così se l' occhio ,se il giudizio
mio
non m ' inganna , fra queste hai
le tue uguali ,
e in nessun ' altra donna .
Quando la sera assonna
le gallinelle ,
metton voci che ricordan quelle,
dolcissime , onde a volte dei tuoi
mali ,
ti quereli , e non sai
che la tua voce ha la soave e
triste
musica dei pollai .
Tu sei come una gravida
giovenca ;
libera ancora e senza
gravezza , anzi festosa ;
che , se la lasci , il collo
volge , ove tinge un rosa
tenero la sua carne.
Se l ' incontri e muggire
l'odi , tanto è quel suono
lamentoso , che l ' erba
strappi , per farle un dono .
E' così che il mio dono
t ' offro quando sei triste .
Tu sei come una lunga
cagna , che sempre tanta
dolcezza ha negli occhi ,
e ferocia nel cuore .
Ai tuoi piedi una santa
sembra , che d ' un fervore
indomabile arda ,
e così ti riguarda
come il suo Dio e Signore .
Quando in casa o per via
segue , a chi solo tenti
avvicinarsi , i denti
candidissimi scopre .
Ed il suo amore soffre
di gelosia.
Tu sei come la pavida
coniglia . Entro l ' angusta
gabbia ritta al vederti
s 'alza ,
e verso te gli orecchi
alti protende e fermi ;
che la crusca e i radicchi
tu le porti , di cui
priva in sé si rannicchia,
cerca gli angoli bui .
Chi potrebbe quel cibo
ritoglierle? Chi il pelo
che si strappa di dosso ,
per aggiungerlo al nido
dove poi partorire?
Chi mai farti soffrire?
Tu sei come la provvida
formica. Di lei, quando
escono dalla campagna ,
parla al bimbo la nonna
che l ' accompagna .
E così nella pecchia
ti ritrovo , ed in tutte
le femmine di tutti
i sereni animali
che avvicinano a Dio;
e in nessun 'altra donna
Tu sei come la rondine
che torna in primavera .
Ma in autunno riparte ;
e tu non hai quest 'arte .
Tu questo hai della rondine :
le movenze leggere ;
questo che a me , che mi sentiva ed
era
vecchio , annunciavi un 'altra
primavera .
You are like a young
white hen.
Her feathers ruffle
in the wind, her neck
curves
down to drink, and
she rummages in the
earth:
but, in walking, she has
your slow, queenly
step,
haughty and proud.
She is better than the
male.
She is like the females
of all the serene
animals
who draw near to God.
Here, if my eye, if my
judgment
doesn’t deceive me,
among these,
you find your equals,
and in no other
woman.
When evening lulls
the little hens to sleep,
they make sounds that
call
to mind those mild,
sweet
voices with which you
argue
with your pains, and
don’t know
that your voice has the
soft, sad
music of the henyard.
You are like a pregnant
You are like the fearful
heifer,
rabbit. Within her narrow
still free, and without
cage, she stands upright
heaviness, merry, in fact;
who, if someone strokes her, turns to look at you, and extends
her long, still ear; she deprives
her neck, where a tender
herself of the husks and
pink tinges her flesh.
roots that you bring her,
If you meet up with her, and hear
and cowers, seeking
her bellow, so mournful
the darkest corners.
is this sound that you tear
Who might take away
at the earth to give her
this food? Who might
a present. In the same way,
take away the fur which
I offer my gift to you
she tears from her back
when you are sad.
to add to the nest where
You are like a tall, thin
she will give birth?
female dog, that always
Who would ever make
has so much sweetness
you suffer?
in her eyes and ferociousness
You are like the swallow
in her heart.
which returns in the spring.
At your feet, she seems
But each autumn will depart—
a saint who burns
you don’t have this art.
with an indomitable fervor
You have this of the swallow:
and in this way looks at you
the light movements;
as her God and Lord.
that which, to me, seemed
When you are at home, or going
down the street, to anyone who tries, and was old, you proclaim
another spring.
uninvited, to approach you,
she uncovers her shining
white teeth. And her love
suffers from jealousy.
You are like the provident
ant. She whom the grandmother
speaks of to the child as they
go out in the countryside.
And thus I find you
in the bumble bee
and in all the females
of all the serene animals
who draw near to God.
And in no other woman.
She is represented as a real woman
because she was for the poet a guide
in his life.
He nicknamed his wife Drusilla
Tanzi “the fly” because of her
shortsightedness, but for him she
could “see better than anyone
because she could see the inner
nature of things. Therefore she is the
one who can see
«the true eye pupils are yours».
Ho sceso, dandoti il braccio, almeno un milione di
scale
e ora che non ci sei è il vuoto ad ogni gradino.
Anche così è stato breve il nostro lungo viaggio.
Il mio dura tuttora, né più mi occorrono
le coincidenze, le prenotazioni,
le trappole, gli scorni di chi crede
che la realtà sia quella che si vede.
Ho sceso milioni di scale dandoti il braccio
non già perché con quattr’occhi forse si vede di
più.
Con te le ho scese perché sapevo che di noi due
le sole vere pupille, sebbene tanto offuscate,
erano le tue
I went down, giving you my arm, at least one million stairs
and now, when you are no more here, it’s the void on every step.
Also in such way our long journey has been short too.
Mine still goes on, and I need no more
coincidences, reservations,
traps, the scorns of those who believe
that the reality is what you see.
I went down millions stairs giving you my arm
not just because with four eyes perhaps you see more.
With you I went down ’cause I knew that between us
the only true pupils, though such obfuscated,
were yours.















“The gift of time”
For you “WOMAN”, prisoner in a dark cage.
Open your eyes and you’ll see light, love and hope
Stand up and you’ll learn to run and even to fly
Speak up and you’ll take on the role of protagonist n your life
Consider the virtues you’ll teach to your children
Be proud of your weakness, and change it to strength
Fight with refined dignity
Hear the sound of silence, and let it be part of your life
Love whoever gives you a smile
Catch the fragrance of life
Imagine the immensity of you being, and make it real
Live your life without an age, and you’ll love the gift of the time
Don’t expect to be loved, or comforted, or helped
YOU can manage on your own!
Women in the Italian
Resistance represented a
fundamental component
of the partisan movement
in the fight against
fascism.
They left their roles as
women and mothers and
fought to regain freedom
and
justice
in
Italy
covering functions of
primary importance.
Their tasks were different.
They:
 founded
an emergency
response team to help the
wounded and the sick
 helped in the collection of
clothing,
food
and
medicines,
 took
care
of
the
identification of corpses
and assistance to the
families of the fallen.
Some women took up arms and set
alongside men. In some cases they were
chosen as team leaders and directed the
entire brigade.


The female partisans
with
weapons
were
watched
mistrustfully.
The best female partisan
was
the
one
who
supported
the
movement "maternally",
who washed, ironed,
sewed.
After the end of the war
fighting female partisans
were also eyed by their
own
gender
rather
suspiciously.

The political scales had
been changed and
renewed, but sexist
attitudes
remained
based on beliefs in
traditional stereotypes.


There was always an
intention to confuse their
combattive
political
participation
with
an
expression of their sexual
availability.
This is one of the main
reasons why many fighting
female partisans have not
received
an
official
appreciation
after
the
liberation.



35.000 (of 232.841
fighting persons) were
fighting as partisans.
4.600 were arrested,
tortured and
sentenced
2.750 were deported
to Germany



623 were shot or killed
whilst fighting.
512 women were
placed in official
functions, as
commissioners and
commanders
16 got a gold medal
after the war ended,
17 a silver medal to
honour them.
Irma Bandiera became a
fighter with the nickname
"Mimmo".
She
was
captured by the fascists as
she was returning home
from Castelmaggiore, where
she
had
transported
weapons and incriminating
documents. For six days the
fascists tortured her but she
did not say a word, did not
reveal the names of her
companions so they carried
her down the hill of St.
Luca and shot her. She
obtained the gold medal for
military valor on August 14,
1944.
Equality between women and men in Europe
By “I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy”
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
Equality between women and men
is one of the European Union’s
founding principles.
It goes back to 1957 when
the principle of “equal pay
for equal work” became part
of the Treaty of Rome.
Much progress has been
made in getting more women
into the workforce.
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
In 1975 Gabrielle Defrenne, an
air hostess of Belgian national
airline was paid less than her
male colleagues who did the
same work.
She complained that this violated
her right to equal job treatment.
The case led to the adoption of
the first European directives on
gender equality.
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
Women employment Outlook
The EU average about job equal
treatment is now close to 60%, up
from 52% in 1998.
80%
75%
70%
60%
60%
52%
50%
40%
The European Commission is aiming
for a rate of 75% by 2020.
30%
20%
10%
0%
1998
2013
2020
European community data
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
Economic independence enables
both women and men to
exercise control over their lives
and to make good choices in
their life.
To reach this goal there has
been progress in the
participation of women on the
labour market during the last
decade.
This increased participation
has contributed to economic
growth in the EU.
European community data
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
Women are about 45 % of the
people employed across the
European Union.
Moreover, women are about 56 %
of the people with a tertiary
education, and represent the
majority amongst tertiary level
graduates.
European community data
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe"
Women in economic decision-making in the UE
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
WOMEN AND MEN ON CORPORATE BOARDS IN THE UE
120
There is a wide gap between the
proportion of men and women at
board level in EU Member States.
100
80
60
women
40
Women enter in the labour market
better equipped than men, but their
level of representation declines in
senior positions.
20
 Men
10,9
10,7
13,6
11,8
13,7
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
WOMEN ON THE BOARDS OF THE LARGEST COMPANIES
100
80
This reveals that, in general,
women have fewer opportunities
than men to advance in their
careers and that women’s skills are
not being used to their full potential.
60
Women
40
20
22
7
11
EL
TR
6
15
6
10
PT
RO
Men
0
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
FR
IT
LT
European community data
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
MEN AND WOMEN PRESIDENTS/CHAIRPERSONS OF LARGE COMPANIES
The indicator of gender
representation on corporate
boards in the EU shows that
the proportion of women
involved in top-level business
decision-making
remains
very low.
Men
Women
2006
96,3%
3,7%
2007
97,1%
2,9%
2008
97,2%
2,8%
2009
97%
3%
2010
96,6%
3,4%
2011
97,3%
2,7%
2012
96,8%
3,2%
European community data
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe"
Gender equality index for the
Italian regions
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
In 2011 a report by the Italian
National Institute of Statistics
(Istat) portrays an Italy where
female unemployment is high,
despite increasing levels of
education.
Italy ranks among the last
countries in terms of
achievement of gender
equality.
It occupies the 21st place in
the European Community
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
In Italy the division of time between
men and women is very
unequal.
Women are largely
underrepresented in socio-economic
and political
institutions, and large gaps are
observed in what concerns
employment and income.
Bank of Italy data
The gender gap is very marked
between the North and South of the
country.
South of Italy has a slower growth
than the rest of Italy.
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
In 2010, the Italian Government
adopted a Legislative Decree
implementing Directive 2006/54/EC
of the European Parliament and of
the Council
It introduces general prohibitions
against discrimination in all sectors,
in particular in the sphere of
employment
In 2010 the Department for Equal
Opportunities passed the first
National Plan Against Gender- Based
Violence and Stalking.
I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
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