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GPU Cost Estimation for Load Balancing in Parallel Ray Tracing

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GPU Cost Estimation for Load Balancing in Parallel Ray Tracing
Doing a Ph.D. Abroad
Biagio Cosenza, Ph.D.
Illustrations by Antonio Di Matteo
Disclaimer
• Ph.D. studentships work differently according
to
– Scientific field
– Country
– University
– Research group
– Professor
• This presentation is just an personal view of
what a Ph.D. Studentship is
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Summary
• Doing a Ph.D.
– Why
– What is a Ph.D.
• Doing a Ph.D. Abroad
– US, UK, Germany, Austria
– Staying abroad during the Ph.D.
• What to do next?
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Doing a Ph.D.
• Doctor of Philosophy
• Highest academic degree awarded by
universities in most fields of study
• Equivalent titles
– Dottorato di Ricerca, Doktor, Doctorat, Tohtori,…
– Some countries make distinctions between Ph.D.
and Doctoral studies
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
The Value of a Ph.D.
• XXX vignetta?
• Un idea:
• "Having a PhD in Italy vs Having a PhD abroad"
/oppure "The value of a Ph.D."
parte sulle diversita culturali e sul come e' vista al
ricerca fuori
vignetta divisa in due
left (sfondo una citta tedesca): "So, you are doing
a Ph.D, cool!"
right (sfondo una citta Italiana): "What are you
doing? What does exactly Ph.D. mean? So, are
you becoming a doctor helping people?
Why to get a Ph.D.?
•
•
•
•
•
An original contribution to knowledge
Do something that most people couldn’t do
Do something that’s never been done before
Be called doctor when you finish
You don’t have to search for a real job for a
while
– OK, this is not a good motivation 
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Why DO NOT get a Ph.D.?
• Not wanting a Ph.D.
– Happens when we choose to do it as ‘backup solution’
• Get a job before finishing
• Underestimating what is required
• Overestimating what is required
– Relativity theory wasn’t Einstein's thesis
• Having a supervisor which
– Has no idea about your research
– Loses contact with you
• Not having a thesis
Estelle M. Phillips' and Derek S. Pugh's, How to get a Ph.D.
Unwritten Rules of Ph.D. Research
•
•
•
•
•
Attending courses
Prepare lecture/tutorships
Presentations
Conferences
Reports
– Annual/monthly/weekly reports
…and do research
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Understanding the Academic System
• Roles
– Research assistant, Postdoc, Lecturer, Professor
• Publications
– Books, Journals, Referred papers, Reports
– Impact factor
• Paperwork
• Funding
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Important Tips
• Time Management
– Do not procrastinate
•
•
•
•
Read
Write
Do review, get reviewed
Present/expose your work
– To a critic public
• Work WITH your supervisor
– Do not hide yourself
– Do not ignore his advices, bypass his decisions, …
• Networking
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Doing a Ph.D. in the United States
• Admission
• Requirements:
– Master of Science/Master of Arts
– Bachelor, for Master “en route” programs
• Apply to open positions, usually via online form
– GRE and TOEFL score
• Each University has its minimal score
– Interview
– Sometime also Skype interview
• Students usually apply to 2-6 institutions
Doing a Ph.D. in the United States
• VISA
• Ph.D. Candidacy and final Ph.D. thesis
• Duration: usually from 3 to 5 years
– 10 years limitation in some Universities
Doing a Ph.D. in the UK
• Few differences with US
• Funding
– In UK mostly P.I. oriented
• Time to completion
– In UK, most PhD positions are offered as studentships
that are funded from a time limited, specific grant
and for a well defined project
• Courses
– In UK a PhD doesn’t typically involve coursework or
exams, but solely researching and submitting a PhD
thesis.
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Doing a Ph.D. in Germany/Austria
• Strong difference with American University system
• Required: Master’s degree, Diploma, Magister,
Staatsexamen
– For some studies on which thesis should be written in
German: TestDAF or DSH
• Tenured professor and Privatdozent are aloud to make
call for Ph.D. students
– They are called Doktorvater/DoktorMutter
• Open a positions may be
– Very specific, if funded by projects
• E.g. FWF Einzelprojekt (Austria), DFG Sachbeihilfe (Germany)
• Topics is well defined from the beginning
– More generic, if funded differently
Doing a Ph.D. in Germany/Austria
• Individual Ph.D. vs structured Ph.D. (Germany)
– Only structured in Austria
• Contract may include teaching
• Duration: 3 to 5 years (by law no more than 6)
– In Computer Science, for big research group usually 5
years
– Some groups have specific policies
• E.g. 4 top conference papers, or cumulative Impact factor >
5.0
• Final dissertation
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
Going abroad during the Ph.D.
Going abroad during the Ph.D.
• Co-PhD
– Co-PhD program that allows students to earn a PhD degree
jointly with two different departments/Universities
• Visiting program
– Country specific
• In Germany
– DAAD Scholarship, BMBF Mobility Funding, …
• In Austria see OeAD database http://www.grants.at/
– Field specific
• E.g. for High Performance Computing
– HPC-Europa, DEISA-Prace, HiPEAC Network, …
• May be your Supervisor doesn’t like the idea…
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
What to do next?
What to do next?
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
What to do next?
ISISLab, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno (Italy), April 22nd, 2013
What to do next?
1st degree
4 yrs Exp
(No Masters)
Aerospace/Defense
$48,076
$62,500
$70,000
$87,500
Consulting/Prof.
Services
$59,535
$72,129
$65,121
$77,415
Energy
$42,032
$64,351
$65,074
$70,761
Financial
Services/Banking
$56,837
$66,231
$62,937
$73,002
FMCG
$39,767
$66,528
$45,286
$52,710
$35,417
$64,447
$60,716
$70,466
Media/Entertainment
$43,250
$53,637
$46,927
$63,745
Pharma./Healthcare
$41,942
$68,182
$71,287
$72,346
Public Sector/Nonprofit
$37,569
$66,478
$60,478
$73,188
Retail
$39,767
$56,326
$53,541
$72,388
Telecoms/High Tech.
$48,647
$57,500
$72,500
$75,000
Transportation
$37,592
$50,805
$50,967
$53,933
Manufact./Automotive
Masters
QS International Recruiter Survey 2007
PhD
Doing a Ph.D. Abroad
Useful links
• The Guardian, Higher Education
http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/higher-education
• National Postdoc Association
http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/
• Time management
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~pausch/Randy/Randy/TimeMa
nagementTalk.ppt
• Biagio Cosenza’s home page
http://www.dps.uibk.ac.at/~cosenza/
• Antonio di Matteo’s blog
http://andimabe.blogspot.com/
Thanks!
Questions?
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